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Sample records for frozen beef burger

  1. Consumer's evaluation of the effects of gamma irradiation and natural antioxidants on general acceptance of frozen beef burger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, R. A.; Lima, A.; Andrade-Wartha, E. R.; Oliveira e Silva, A. M.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of addition of rosemary and oregano extracts on the sensory quality of irradiated beef burger was investigated. Batches of beef burgers were prepared with 400 ppm of rosemary or oregano extract and a group prepared with 200 ppm of synthetic butyl-hydroxytoluene (BHT)/butyl-hydroxy-anisol (BHA) was used as a control. Half of each formulation was irradiated at the maximum dose allowed for frozen meat (7 kGy). Samples were kept under frozen conditions (-20 °C) during the whole storage period, including during irradiation. Two analyses were performed after 20 and 90 days to verify the influence of the addition of the different types of antioxidants and the effect of irradiation and storage time on the acceptance of the product. Thirty-three and thirty-four untrained panelists were invited to participate in the first and second test, respectively. A structured hedonic scale ranging from 1 to 9 points was used in both analyses. BHT/BHA formulation obtained the highest score (6.73) and regarding the natural antioxidants, oregano received better acceptance (6.36). Irradiated samples formulated with oregano received a lower score, 6.03 in the first test and 5.06 in the second one, compared to the non-irradiated sample (6.36 and 5.79). In the second test (90 days), the sample formulated with BHT/BHA and which was irradiated received a higher score (6.59) when compared to the non-irradiated one (5.85). In both tests, the irradiated samples formulated with rosemary extract obtained a better score compared to the non-irradiated one, the scores being 5.00-3.82 and 5.00-3.76 in the first and second test, respectively. Our results allowed us to conclude that the natural antioxidants, rosemary and oregano extracts, present a good alternative for replacing synthetic additives in food industries, and that the irradiation process, in some cases, may help to enhance the sensory quality of food.

  2. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. PMID:25282702

  3. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  4. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp. PMID:25190862

  5. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  6. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  7. The effect of partial-fat substitutions with encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Smyth, Thomas J; Botinestean, Cristina; Lefranc, Célio; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fat substitution (≤ 15%) with commercial encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage [modified atmosphere packs (80% O2:20% CO2); constantly illuminated retail display at 4 °C; for 15 days] were studied using design of experiment (DOE). Burger formulations comprised beef shin (59.5%), salt (0.5%), vitamin E (0.015%) combined with varying levels of beef-fat/fish oils depending on the treatment. Increasing amounts of encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils in burgers increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P < 0.001). Storage decreased (P < 0.001) a* values, which was in agreement with oxymyoglobin data. Vitamin E inclusion in burgers resulted in higher (P < 0.01) oxymyoglobin values. TBARS values increased (P < 0.001) over storage as expected. Fat substitution with unencapsulated oils increased cook loss (P < 0.001) and decreased hardness (P < 0.05) compared to other treatments. Optimisation predicted a burger formulation with 7.8% substitution in beef-fat with encapsulated fish oil. Panellists scored the optimised burger formulation (P < 0.05) lower than controls for overall acceptability. PMID:25965966

  8. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. PMID:26775152

  9. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies. PMID:26562792

  10. Temperature of frozen storage affects the nature and consequences of protein oxidation in beef patties.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2014-03-01

    The effect of three frozen storage temperatures (-8, -18 and -80 °C) on protein oxidation in beef patties was studied through the analysis of novel oxidation markers. Additionally, the connection between lipid and protein oxidation and the impact of the latter on particular quality traits (water holding capacity, color and texture) of subsequently processed beef patties (cooking/cold-stored) were investigated. Protein oxidation was measured as the loss of tryptophan fluorescence and formation of diverse lysine oxidation products (α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, α-aminoadipic acid and Schiff bases). Lipid oxidation was assessed by levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hexanal. A significant effect of storage temperature on protein oxidation was detected. Frozen storage increased the susceptibility of meat proteins to undergo further oxidation during processing. Timely interactions were found between lipid and protein oxidation. Plausible mechanisms by which oxidative damage to proteins may have an impact in particular quality traits are thoroughly discussed. PMID:24334047

  11. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    PubMed

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability. PMID:26990186

  12. Effects of soy hull pectin and insoluble fiber on physicochemical and oxidative characteristics of fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Miller, Danika K; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pectin and insoluble fiber isolated from soy hulls on water-holding capacity (WHC), texture, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. Beef patties were formulated with no dietary fiber (control), 1% soy hull pectin, insoluble fiber, or their mixture (1:1), respectively. The addition of soy hull pectin significantly decreased display weight loss and increased cook yield of both fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. In addition, no significant difference in hardness between fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties was observed for all dietary fiber treatments. However, incorporation of insoluble soy hull fiber decreased color and lipid oxidation stabilities of both fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. Our results indicate that the incorporation of soy hull pectin could be an effective non-meat ingredient to minimize water loss and hardness defects of frozen beef patties. PMID:26946478

  13. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef. PMID:26761797

  14. Quality Characteristics of Beef by Different Cooking Methods for Frozen Home Meal Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In-Guk; Yoo, Seon-Mi; Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    Blanching beef for use in home meal replacements (HMR) is an important process that determines the final quality of the beef after the cooking process. Thermal pretreatment also minimizes the change in quality during the main cooking process or storage. In this study, beef samples were washed and sliced, then treated by immersion in boiling water (1-10 min), steaming (1-10 min), or pan-frying in oil (30-240 s). The color after each thermal treatment showed higher L* and b* values and lower a* values compared with the raw beef, except for the pan-frying thermal treatment. The total color difference (∆E) and pH value were significantly increased by panfrying (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the shear force of the beef samples, except for the sample pan-fried for 210 s. The nutritional content of beef was measured as the moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents, which were 69.96, 16.64, 3.49, and 1.13%, respectively, in raw beef. After thermal treatment, the crude protein and fat contents were increased, whereas the moisture and ash contents decreased. The mineral content, including Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca was highest after pan-frying. The heat treatment decreased microorganisms in all the samples. The total bacteria count in raw beef was 4.5-4.7 Log CFU/g, whereas the bacteria count decreased to 2.2-2.8 Log CFU/g after blanching. Thermophilic bacteria, coliform, mold, and yeast not detected in any thermally treated sample. PMID:26761864

  15. Quality Characteristics of Beef by Different Cooking Methods for Frozen Home Meal Replacements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Hwang, In-Guk; Yoo, Seon-Mi; Min, Sang-Gi; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Blanching beef for use in home meal replacements (HMR) is an important process that determines the final quality of the beef after the cooking process. Thermal pretreatment also minimizes the change in quality during the main cooking process or storage. In this study, beef samples were washed and sliced, then treated by immersion in boiling water (1-10 min), steaming (1-10 min), or pan-frying in oil (30-240 s). The color after each thermal treatment showed higher L* and b* values and lower a* values compared with the raw beef, except for the pan-frying thermal treatment. The total color difference (∆E) and pH value were significantly increased by panfrying (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the shear force of the beef samples, except for the sample pan-fried for 210 s. The nutritional content of beef was measured as the moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents, which were 69.96, 16.64, 3.49, and 1.13%, respectively, in raw beef. After thermal treatment, the crude protein and fat contents were increased, whereas the moisture and ash contents decreased. The mineral content, including Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca was highest after pan-frying. The heat treatment decreased microorganisms in all the samples. The total bacteria count in raw beef was 4.5-4.7 Log CFU/g, whereas the bacteria count decreased to 2.2-2.8 Log CFU/g after blanching. Thermophilic bacteria, coliform, mold, and yeast not detected in any thermally treated sample. PMID:26761864

  16. Tenderness improvement in fresh or frozen-thawed beef steaks treated with hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of freezing time postmortem on the effectiveness of the hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) technology to tenderize beef. In Exp. 1, the effect of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) using two different shaped explosive charges (rectangula...

  17. 19 Beef cattle pregnancy rates following insemination with aged frozen angus semen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination has proven to be a valuable asset to the cattle industry. It is assumed that once good quality semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen it should remain viable indefinitely; however, semen viability has not been systematically evaluated after being stored for several decades. In th...

  18. Detection of adulteration in fresh and frozen beefburger products by beef offal using mid-infrared ATR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Downey, Gerard; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2014-02-01

    A series of authentic and offal-adulterated beefburger samples was produced. Authentic product (36 samples) comprised either only lean meat and fat (higher quality beefburgers) or lean meat, fat, rusk and water (lower quality product). Beef offal adulterants comprised heart, liver, kidney and lung. Adulterated formulations (46 samples) were produced using a D-optimal experimental design. Fresh and frozen-then-thawed samples were modelled, separately and in combination, by a classification (partial least squares discriminant analysis) and class-modelling (soft independent modelling of class analogy) approach. With the former, 100% correct classification accuracies were obtained separately for fresh and frozen-then-thawed material. Separate class-models for fresh and frozen-then-thawed samples exhibited high sensitivities (0.94 to 1.0) but lower specificities (0.33-0.80 for fresh samples and 0.41-0.87 for frozen-then-thawed samples). When fresh and frozen-then-thawed samples were modelled together, sensitivity remained 1.0 but specificity ranged from 0.29 to 0.91. Results indicate a role for this technique in monitoring beefburger compliance to label. PMID:24262491

  19. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration. PMID:27337677

  20. Effect of frozen storage, different thawing methods and cooking processes on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercially shaped beef patties.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-03-01

    The effect of common handling practices (i.e., freezing, thawing and cooking) of beef patties on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7, was evaluated. Inoculated ground beef was stored at -22 °C for 5 and 75 days. After thawing at 4 °C/16 h, 20 °C/12 h, in microwave/22-24 min, or without prior thawing, beef patties (90 g) were shaped and cooked in oven-broiler or in pan-grill to internal temperatures of 60 °C or 71 °C. Cooking in oven-broiler was more effective compared to pan-grill, especially when cooked to 71 °C. Defrosting methods did not affect significantly (P ≥ 0.05) the survival of the pathogens during subsequent cooking. Frozen storage for 75 days enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7, as the pathogen survived 3.1 logCFU/g when cooked in oven-broiler at 71 °C. Results may supplement the existing guidelines for the appropriate practices, associated with freezing, thawing and cooking of patties in households or catering services. PMID:25462379

  1. Incidence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in frozen beef patties produced over an 8-hour shiftt.

    PubMed

    Pruett, W Payton; Biela, Timothy; Lattuada, Charles P; Mrozinski, Peter M; Barbour, W Mark; Flowers, Russell S; Osborne, William; Reagan, James O; Theno, David; Cook, Victor; McNamara, Ann Marie; Rose, Bonnie

    2002-09-01

    A ground beef patty processor detected Escherichia coli O157:H7 in five production lots during routine testing with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. This finding stimulated research to determine the incidence and potential entry points of the pathogen during processing. One of these lots (53,960 kg) was divided into 71 pallets (760 kg each) of food service ground beef patties. Ten cartons (19 kg each) were removed from each pallet, for a total of 710 cartons. Four patties were taken from each carton and subdivided to provide comparable samples for E. coli O157:H7 analyses by three different laboratories. Two laboratories employed different immunoassay tests, and one used PCR to screen samples. One sample set was analyzed for aerobic plate, coliform, and E coli Biotype I counts to determine if any relationship existed between these microbial groups and the incidence of E. coli O157:H7. For 73 samples, presumptive positive results for E. coli O157:H7 were obtained by one or more methods. For 48 of these 73 samples, positive results for the pathogen were culture confirmed. The largest number (29) of culture-confirmed positive E. coli O157:H7 results were detected by PCR. Most positive results were obtained during a short segment of processing. All culture-confirmed E. coli O157:H7 strains were further characterized by two genetic subtyping techniques, resulting in two to four different patterns, depending on the subtyping procedure employed. For any sample tested, the aerobic plate count was < 3.0 log CFU/g, and coliform and E. coli Biotype I counts were < or = 1.00 log CFU/g. The results of this study suggest that most positive samples were associated with a contaminated batch of raw material introduced just before the 1725- to 1844-h processing segment. These results also indicate that more aggressive sampling plans and genetic screening technologies such as PCR may be used to better detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef products. PMID

  2. Shiga-toxin producing 0157:H7 and non-0157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within refrigerated, frozen, or frozen then thawed ground beef patties cooked on commercial open-flame gas or clam-shell electric grills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the possible effect of both fat and grill type on the fate of serotype O157:H7 strains of Escherichia coli (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing strains of E. coli (STEC) in cooked ground beef patties. Both high fat and low fat ground beef (percent lean:fat = ca. 70:30 and 93:7, ...

  3. Assessment of mutagenic activity in thermally processed, frozen, electron-irradiated, and gamma-irradiated beef using the ames salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay. Final report, June 1978-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Guthertz, L.S.; Fruin, J.T.

    1981-06-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the mutagenic activity of beef that had been thermally processed, frozen, electron-irradiated, and gamma-irradiated. The Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay, with several modifications, was used. Considerable difficulties in performing the test and interpreting the results were encountered. Experiments conducted showed that on some occasions up to 80% of the apparent revertants were not true revertants. The meats contained water-soluble growth factors, particularly histidine, which apparently supported greater than normal growth and macrocolony formation. Subsequently, the level of histidine in the media was reduced by an amount equal to that contributed by the meats. Also, extracts of the meat were substituted for whole meats as test material for evaluation. Particulate matter from the whole meats made automated colony counting impossible and complicated manual counting. Data collected failed to demonstrate that any of the meats or processing techniques produced mutagens. It was concluded that the test had limited applicability to whole food items and that the use of thermally, frozen, electron-irradiated, and gamma-irradiated processing does not induce mutagenic potential in beef.

  4. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and...

  5. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and...

  6. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and...

  7. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in pork burger patties.

    PubMed

    Gurman, P M; Ross, T; Holds, G L; Jarrett, R G; Kiermeier, A

    2016-02-16

    Predictive models, to estimate the reduction in Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration in beef burgers, have been developed to inform risk management decisions; no analogous model exists for Salmonella spp. in pork burgers. In this study, "Extra Lean" and "Regular" fat pork minces were inoculated with Salmonella spp. (Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:-, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Typhimurium) and formed into pork burger patties. Patties were cooked on an electric skillet (to imitate home cooking) to one of seven internal temperatures (46, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64 °C) and Salmonella enumerated. A generalised linear logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive model for the Salmonella concentration based on the internal endpoint temperature. It was estimated that in pork mince with a fat content of 6.1%, Salmonella survival will be decreased by -0.2407log10 CFU/g for a 1 °C increase in internal endpoint temperature, with a 5-log10 reduction in Salmonella concentration estimated to occur when the geometric centre temperature reaches 63 °C. The fat content influenced the rate of Salmonella inactivation (P=0.043), with Salmonella survival increasing as fat content increased, though this effect became negligible as the temperature approached 62 °C. Fat content increased the time required for patties to achieve a specified internal temperature (P=0.0106 and 0.0309 for linear and quadratic terms respectively), indicating that reduced fat pork mince may reduce the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pork burgers. Salmonella serovar did not significantly affect the model intercepts (P=0.86) or slopes (P=0.10) of the fitted logistic curve. This predictive model can be applied to estimate the reduction in Salmonella in pork burgers after cooking to a specific endpoint temperature and hence to assess food safety risk. PMID:26686598

  8. Multidimensional Potential Burgers Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boritchev, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    We consider the multidimensional generalised stochastic Burgers equation in the space-periodic setting: partial {u}/partial t+(nabla f({u}) \\cdot nabla) {u}-ν Δ {u}= nabla η, quad t ≥ 0, {x} in{T}^d=({R}/ {Z})^d, under the assumption that u is a gradient. Here f is strongly convex and satisfies a growth condition, ν is small and positive, while η is a random forcing term, smooth in space and white in time. For solutions u of this equation, we study Sobolev norms of u averaged in time and in ensemble: each of these norms behaves as a given negative power of ν. These results yield sharp upper and lower bounds for natural analogues of quantities characterising the hydrodynamical turbulence, namely the averages of the increments and of the energy spectrum. These quantities behave as a power of the norm of the relevant parameter, which is respectively the separation ℓ in the physical space and the wavenumber k in the Fourier space. Our bounds do not depend on the initial condition and hold uniformly in {ν}. We generalise the results obtained for the one-dimensional case in [10], confirming the physical predictions in [4, 30]. Note that the form of the estimates does not depend on the dimension: the powers of {ν, |{{k}}|, ℓ} are the same in the one- and the multi-dimensional setting.

  9. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... given that term in 9 CFR 319.15(a), i.e., chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and... “hamburger” in 9 CFR 319.15(b). ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  10. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... given that term in 9 CFR 319.15(a), i.e., chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and... “hamburger” in 9 CFR 319.15(b). ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  11. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... given that term in 9 CFR 319.15(a), i.e., chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and... “hamburger” in 9 CFR 319.15(b). ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  12. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... given that term in 9 CFR 319.15(a), i.e., chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and... “hamburger” in 9 CFR 319.15(b). ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  13. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... given that term in 9 CFR 319.15(a), i.e., chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and... “hamburger” in 9 CFR 319.15(b). ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  14. Texture of Frozen Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  15. Frozen Frozen CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    2 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar residual cap of Mars. Much of the south polar residual cap exhibits terrain that resembles stacks of sliced Swiss cheese, but this portion of the cap lacks the typical, circular depressions that characterize much of the region. Carbon dioxide on Mars freezes at a temperature of around 148 Kelvins, which is -125oC or about -193oF.

    Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  16. Burgers turbulence and passive random advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyrev, Stanislav Anatolievich

    1999-10-01

    The thesis is devoted to development of new methods in the theory of strong turbulence. These methods are illustrated with the so-called Burgers' model of turbulence, i.e., the Navier-Stokes equation without pressure, supplemented by a Gaussian, short-time correlated external force. The main goal of the theory is to describe the statistics of the velocity field. Since the Navier-Stokes equation is nonlinear, the problem is highly nontrivial; it is sometimes referred to as the ``Ising model'' of strong turbulence. The importance of the problem for plasma physics, astrophysics, physics of self-organized criticality, disordered systems, etc., is discussed in Chapter 1. In this thesis a new self-consistent theoretical approach to the problem is developed. The problem is treated from the field-theoretical point of view, and, therefore, appropriate methods such as regularization, operator product expansion, and an assumption about scaling invariance are employed. The scheme ``from particular to general'' is adopted. The main ideas of the approach are first developed in detail for the one-dimensional Burgers model in Chapter 2 and then generalized to the multidimensional case in Chapter 3. In all of the cases the velocity- difference and velocity-gradient probability density functions are obtained. Their derivation is based on the self-consistent conjecture about the operator product expansion for the dissipative term, introduced by Polyakov [1995]. Comparison of the obtained results with the available direct numerical simulations shows a very good agreement. The practically important longitudinal velocity-difference PDF and div v PDF in the multidimensional case are discussed within the approach. In Chapter 4 the statistics of passive quantities (such as temperature, concentration, magnetic field) ``frozen'' into the turbulent fluid are obtained by using the methods developed in Chapters 2 and 3. The velocity field is assumed to be Gaussian, and short-time correlated

  17. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  18. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  19. Frozen shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen shoulder is a condition in which the shoulder is painful and loses motion because of inflammation. ... The capsule of the shoulder joint has ligaments that hold the shoulder bones to each other. When the capsule becomes inflamed, the shoulder bones are ...

  20. Sample Structure of Forced Burgers Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, H.

    1981-05-01

    Burgers equation in the inviscid limit with Gaussian white noise type force is analyzed as a model for a class of forced Burgers turbulence problems in the light of a classical work of stochastic differential equations for total energy and total variation (in the space variable) of the field are derived. Significance of the quantity total variation and the prospects on the existence of the invariant measure are also discussed.

  1. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Shawish, Reyad R.; Al-Humam, Naser A.

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs) in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon) were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of S. aureus. Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates. The percentage presence of S. aureus in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted. PMID:27088066

  2. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shawish, Reyad R; Al-Humam, Naser A

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs) in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon) were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of S. aureus. Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates. The percentage presence of S. aureus in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted. PMID:27088066

  3. Viscous Instanton for Burgers' Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkovsky, E.; Falkovich, G.; Kolokolov, I.; Lebedev, V.

    We consider the tails of probability density functions (PDF) for different characteristics of velocity that satisfies Burgers equation driven by a large-scale force. The saddle-point approximation is employed in the path integral so that the calculation of the PDF tails boils down to finding the special field-force configuration (instanton) that realizes the extremum of probability. We calculate high moments of the velocity gradient ∂xu and find out that they correspond to the PDF with ln [P(∂ xu)]∝-(-partial_xu / {Re})3/2 where {Re} is the Reynolds number. That stretched exponential form is valid for negative ∂xu with the modulus much larger than its root-mean-square (rms) value. The respective tail of PDF for negative velocity differences w is steeper than Gaussian, ln℘(w) -(w/urms)3, as well as single-point velocity PDF ln℘(u) -(|u|/urms)3. For high velocity derivatives u{(k)}=∂ xku, the general formula is found: ln { P} (|u(k)|)∝ -(|u(k)| / {Re}k)3/(k+1).

  4. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) in frozen ground beef patties following cooking on commerical open-flame gas and electric clam-shell grills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both the prevalence and levels of serotype O157:H7 strains of Escherichia coli (ECOH) are quite low, yet this pathogen continues to cause food borne illness due to consumption of undercooked ground/non-intact beef. Thus, further studies are warranted to comparatively quantify thermal destruction of ...

  5. Comparison of the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties from internet and local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Ettinger, M R

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties sold at local (Virginia) and Internet (U.S.) retail markets. A total of 152 ground beef products, consisting of locally purchased raw ground beef (LRG) and frozen beef patties (LFP) and Internet-procured frozen ground beef (IFG) and frozen beef patties (IFP), were tested. Results showed that LFP had significantly lower levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms than LRG, IFG, and IFP. Furthermore, IFG had greater numbers of Escherichia coli than LRG and LFP. No sample was contaminated with E. coli 0157: H7, but one duplicate set of summer LFP samples contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 25 and 29% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. About 5.0, 11.1, 10.5, and 7.9% of LRG, LFP, IFG, and IFP samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. This study identified differences in microbial quality between local and Internet products. Careful handling and thorough cooking of ground beef products, regardless of market source, are recommended to prevent foodborne illness. PMID:19722408

  6. On the Burgers-Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, K.; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence and uniqueness of weak entropy solutions to the Burgers-Poisson equation for initial data in L1 (R). In addition an Oleinik type estimate is established and some criteria on local smoothness and wave breaking for weak entropy solutions are provided.

  7. Burger V. Brennan: A Debate on Obscenity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Terry W.

    Two 1973 Supreme Court rulings, "Miller v. California" and "Paris Adult Theatre I v. Slaton," consider the problem of obscenity in light of the First Amendment. Chief Justice Burger's stand, which represented that of a five-man majority, was based on the presumption that obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment because it is a form of…

  8. The Burger Court and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Philip R.

    This report discusses recent cases involving freedom of the press that have been heard before the Burger court of the United States Supreme Court. The report discerns a trend toward treating the press like an ordinary citizen; this is a reversal of the view of the Warren court that the First Amendment creates special rights for the press so that…

  9. On the decay of Burgers turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbatov, S. N.; Simdyankin, S. I.; Aurell, E.; Frisch, U.; Tóth, G.

    1997-08-01

    This work is devoted to the decay of random solutions of the unforced Burgers equation in one dimension in the limit of vanishing viscosity. The initial velocity is homogeneous and Gaussian with a spectrum proportional to kn at small wavenumbers k and falling off quickly at large wavenumbers.

  10. Analytic Solutions of the Vector Burgers Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerney, Steven; Schmahl, Edward J.; Musielak, Z. E.

    1996-01-01

    The well-known analytical solution of Burgers' equation is extended to curvilinear coordinate systems in three dimensions by a method that is much simpler and more suitable to practical applications than that previously used. The results obtained are applied to incompressible flow with cylindrical symmetry, and also to the decay of an initially linearly increasing wind.

  11. Reflections on "Replicating Milgram" (Burger, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur G.

    2009-01-01

    In "Replicating Milgram: Would People Still Obey Today?" Jerry M. Burger (see record 2008-19206-001) reported a high base rate of obedience, comparable to that observed by Stanley Milgram (1974). Another condition, involving a defiant confederate, failed to significantly reduce obedience. This commentary discusses the primary contributions of…

  12. Comparative Study of Two Methods for Detection of Clostridium perfringens in Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Emswiler, B S; Pierson, C J; Kotula, A W

    1977-03-01

    The tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar pour plate method was superior to selective enrichment in liquid sulfite medium for isolation of small numbers of Clostridium perfringens from frozen ground beef. PMID:16345236

  13. Comparative Study of Two Methods for Detection of Clostridium perfringens in Ground Beef

    PubMed Central

    Emswiler, B. S.; Pierson, C. J.; Kotula, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    The tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar pour plate method was superior to selective enrichment in liquid sulfite medium for isolation of small numbers of Clostridium perfringens from frozen ground beef. PMID:16345236

  14. Spontaneous Stochasticity and Anomalous Dissipation for Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Drivas, Theodore D.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a Lagrangian approach to conservation-law anomalies in weak solutions of inviscid Burgers equation, motivated by previous work on the Kraichnan model of turbulent scalar advection. We show that the entropy solutions of Burgers possess Markov stochastic processes of (generalized) Lagrangian trajectories backward in time for which the Burgers velocity is a backward martingale. This property is shown to guarantee dissipativity of conservation-law anomalies for general convex functions of the velocity. The backward stochastic Burgers flows with these properties are not unique, however. We construct infinitely many such stochastic flows, both by a geometric construction and by the zero-noise limit of the Constantin-Iyer stochastic representation of viscous Burgers solutions. The latter proof yields the spontaneous stochasticity of Lagrangian trajectories backward in time for Burgers, at unit Prandtl number. It is conjectured that existence of a backward stochastic flow with the velocity as martingale is an admissibility condition which selects the unique entropy solution for Burgers. We also study linear transport of passive densities and scalars by inviscid Burgers flows. We show that shock solutions of Burgers exhibit spontaneous stochasticity backward in time for all finite Prandtl numbers, implying conservation-law anomalies for linear transport. We discuss the relation of our results for Burgers with incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence, especially Lagrangian admissibility conditions for Euler solutions and the relation between turbulent cascade directions and time-asymmetry of Lagrangian stochasticity.

  15. Algorithm refinement for the stochastic Burgers' equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, John B.; Foo, Jasmine; Garcia, Alejandro L. . E-mail: algarcia@algarcia.org

    2007-04-10

    In this paper, we develop an algorithm refinement (AR) scheme for an excluded random walk model whose mean field behavior is given by the viscous Burgers' equation. AR hybrids use the adaptive mesh refinement framework to model a system using a molecular algorithm where desired while allowing a computationally faster continuum representation to be used in the remainder of the domain. The focus in this paper is the role of fluctuations on the dynamics. In particular, we demonstrate that it is necessary to include a stochastic forcing term in Burgers' equation to accurately capture the correct behavior of the system. The conclusion we draw from this study is that the fidelity of multiscale methods that couple disparate algorithms depends on the consistent modeling of fluctuations in each algorithm and on a coupling, such as algorithm refinement, that preserves this consistency.

  16. Optimal active control for Burgers equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, Yutaka

    1994-01-01

    A method for active fluid flow control based on control theory is discussed. Dynamic programming and fixed point successive approximations are used to accommodate the nonlinear control problem. The long-term goal of this project is to establish an effective method applicable to complex flows such as turbulence and jets. However, in this report, the method is applied to stochastic Burgers equation as an intermediate step towards this goal. Numerical results are compared with those obtained by gradient search methods.

  17. R.E. Burger Plant, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2007-10-15

    First Energy's R.E. Burger Plant at Shadyside, OH has hosted a number of R & D projects over the years, but none as large as the demonstration of Powerspan's 30-MW Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) multipollutant removal process a few years ago. Credit Powerspan for scaling up the demo unit and for adding CO{sub 2} as a target of a new pilot process called ECO{sub 2}.

  18. Dynamic Transitions of Generalized Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Limei; Ong, Kiah Wah

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we study the dynamic transition for the one dimensional generalized Burgers equation with periodic boundary condition. The types of transition are dictated by the sign of an explicitly given parameter b, which is derived using the dynamic transition theory developed by Ma and Wang (Phase transition dynamics. Springer, New York, 2014). The rigorous result demonstrates clearly the types of dynamics transition in terms of length scale l, dispersive parameter δ and viscosity ν.

  19. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and ovine meat from Uruguay. 94.22 Section 94.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.22 Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, fresh (chilled or frozen) beef and ovine...

  20. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  1. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  3. Quality characteristics of jerky made from hydrodynamic pressure processed (HDP) chevon and beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HDP processing has been reported to improve tenderness of beef and pork, but its effect on goat meat (chevon) has not been studied. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of HDP processing on quality characteristics of chevon and beef jerky. Vacuum packaged frozen/thawed boneless che...

  4. Decaying Turbulence in the Generalised Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boritchev, Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    We consider the generalised Burgers equation where f is strongly convex and ν is small and positive. We obtain sharp estimates for Sobolev norms of u (upper and lower bounds differ only by a multiplicative constant). Then, we obtain sharp estimates for the dissipation length scale and the small-scale quantities which characterise the decaying Burgers turbulence, i.e., the structure functions and the energy spectrum. The proof uses a quantitative version of an argument by Aurell et al. (J Fluid Mech 238:467-486, 1992). Note that we are dealing with decaying, as opposed to stationary turbulence. Thus, our estimates are not uniform in time. However, they hold on a time interval [ T 1, T 2], where T 1 and T 2 depend only on f and the initial condition, and do not depend on the viscosity. These results allow us to obtain a rigorous theory of the one-dimensional Burgers turbulence in the spirit of Kolmogorov's 1941 theory. In particular, we obtain two results which hold in the inertial range. On one hand, we explain the bifractal behaviour of the moments of increments, or structure functions. On the other hand, we obtain an energy spectrum of the form k -2. These results remain valid in the inviscid limit.

  5. Statistical properties of shocks in Burgers turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellaneda, Marco; Weinan, E.

    1995-08-01

    We consider the statistical properties of solutions of Burgers' equation in the limit of vanishing viscosity,partial /{partial t}uleft( {x,t} right) + partial /{partial x}left( {1/2uleft( {x,t} right)^2 } right) = 0, with Gaussian whitenoise initial data. This system was originally proposed by Burgers[1] as a crude model of hydrodynamic turbulence, and more recently by Zel'dovich et al..[12] to describe the evolution of gravitational matter at large spatio-temporal scales, with shocks playing the role of mass clusters. We present here a rigorous proof of the scaling relation P(s)∞s 1/2, s≪1 where P(s) is the cumulative probability distribution of shock strengths. We also show that the set of spatial locations of shocks is discrete, i.e. has no accumulation points; and establish an upper bound on the tails of the shock-strength distribution, namely 1- P(s)≤exp{- Cs 3} for s≫1. Our method draws on a remarkable connection existing between the structure of Burgers turbulence and classical probabilistic work on the convex envelope of Brownian motion and related diffusion processes.

  6. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Council North Carolina Cattlemen's Association North Dakota Beef Commission Ohio Beef Council Oklahoma Beef Commission Oregon Beef Council Pennsylvania Beef Council, Inc. South Carolina Cattle and Beef Board South Dakota Beef Industry Council Tennessee Beef Industry Council Texas Beef Industry...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Council North Carolina Cattlemen's Association North Dakota Beef Commission Ohio Beef Council Oklahoma Beef Commission Oregon Beef Council Pennsylvania Beef Council, Inc. South Carolina Cattle and Beef Board South Dakota Beef Industry Council Tennessee Beef Industry Council Texas Beef Industry...

  8. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Council North Carolina Cattlemen's Association North Dakota Beef Commission Ohio Beef Council Oklahoma Beef Commission Oregon Beef Council Pennsylvania Beef Council, Inc. South Carolina Cattle and Beef Board South Dakota Beef Industry Council Tennessee Beef Industry Council Texas Beef Industry...

  9. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Council North Carolina Cattlemen's Association North Dakota Beef Commission Ohio Beef Council Oklahoma Beef Commission Oregon Beef Council Pennsylvania Beef Council, Inc. South Carolina Cattle and Beef Board South Dakota Beef Industry Council Tennessee Beef Industry Council Texas Beef Industry...

  10. Some More Solutions of Burgers' Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    In this work, similarity solutions of viscous one-dimensional Burgers' equation are attained by using Lie group theory. The symmetry generators are used for constructing Lie symmetries with commuting infinitesimal operators which lead the governing partial differential equation (PDE) to ordinary differential equation (ODE). Most of the constructed solutions are found in terms of Bessel functions which are new as far as authors are aware. Effect of various parameters in the evolutional profile of the solutions are shown graphically and discussed them physically.

  11. Turbulence for the generalised Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boritchev, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    This survey reviews rigorous results obtained by A. Biryuk and the author on turbulence for the generalised space-periodic Burgers equation \\displaystyle u_t+f'(u)u_x=ν uxx+η,\\qquad x \\in S^1={R}/{Z}, where f is smooth and strongly convex, and the constant 0<ν\\ll 1 corresponds to the viscosity coefficient. Both the unforced case ( η=0) and the case when η is a random force which is smooth with respect to x and irregular (kick or white noise) with respect to t are considered. In both cases sharp bounds of the form Cν-δ, δ≥slant 0, are obtained for the Sobolev norms of u averaged over time and over the ensemble, with the same value of δ for upper and lower bounds. These results yield sharp bounds for small-scale quantities characterising turbulence, confirming the physical predictions. Bibliography: 56 titles.

  12. The deterministic and statistical Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, J.-D.; Frisch, U.

    Fourier-Lagrangian representations of the UV-region inviscid-limit solutions of the equations of Burgers (1939) are developed for deterministic and random initial conditions. The Fourier-mode amplitude behavior of the deterministic case is characterized by complex singularities with fast decrease, power-law preshocks with k indices of about -4/3, and shocks with k to the -1. In the random case, shocks are associated with a k to the -2 spectrum which overruns the smaller wavenumbers and appears immediately under Gaussian initial conditions. The use of the Hopf-Cole solution in the random case is illustrated in calculations of the law of energy decay by a modified Kida (1979) method. Graphs and diagrams of the results are provided.

  13. Spectrum and energy transfer in steady Burgers turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum, energy transfer, and spectral interactions in steady Burgers turbulence are studied using numerically generated data. The velocity field is initially random and the turbulence is maintained steady by forcing the amplitude of a band of low wavenumbers to be invariant in time, while permitting the phase to change as dictated by the equation. The spectrum, as expected, is very different from that of Navier-Stokes turbulence. It is demonstrated that the far range of the spectrum scales as predicted by Burgers. Despite the difference in their spectra, in matters of the spectral energy transfer and triadic interactions Burgers turbulence is similar to Navier-Stokes turbulence.

  14. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.121 Imported beef or...

  15. Rapid detection of irradiated frozen hamburgers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    DNA comet assay can be employed as a rapid and inexpensive screening test to check whether frozen ground beef patties (hamburgers) have been irradiated as a means to increase their safety by eliminating pathogenic bacteria, e.g. E. coli O157:H7. Such a detection procedure will provide an additional check on compliance with existing regulations, e.g. enforcement of labelling and rules in international trade. Frozen ready prepared hamburgers from the market place were `electron irradiated' with doses of 0, 1.3, 2.7, 4.5 and 7.2kGy covering the range of potential commercial irradiation. DNA fragmentation in the hamburgers was made visible within a few hours using the comet assay, and non-irradiated hamburgers could be easily discerned from the irradiated ones. Even after 9 months of frozen storage, irradiated hamburgers could be identified. Since DNA fragmentation may also occur with other food processes (e.g. temperature abuse), positive screening tests shall be confirmed using a validated method to specifically prove an irradiation treatment, e.g. EN 1784 or EN 1785.

  16. Frozen shoulder - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Adhesive capsulitis - aftercare; Frozen shoulder syndrome - aftercare ... Krabak BJ, Banks NL. Adhesive capsulitis. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders;2008: ...

  17. Behaviour of non-stressed and stressed Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni cells on fresh chicken burger meat packaged under modified atmosphere and inoculated with protective culture.

    PubMed

    Melero, Beatriz; Diez, Ana M; Rajkovic, Andreja; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi

    2012-08-17

    Numerous investigations have provided evidence that chicken products are a source of Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. Different strategies applied in final products are needed to prevent consumers' contamination. In this work, the combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and protective culture to control the growth of freeze stressed and non-stressed L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni on fresh chicken meat burger was studied. Meat burgers were inoculated with L. monocytogenes, C. jejuni and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides PCK 18, as protective strain against L. monocytogenes. Prior to the addition of the protective culture, half of the L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni - inoculated meat was frozen at -18°C for 48 h to subject cells to stress. Following the addition of the protective culture, meat burgers were packaged in air or MAP (50% CO(2)/50% O(2)) and stored under refrigeration conditions. L. monocytogenes counts were not reduced by the freezing temperature applied; however, the addition of Lc. pseudomesenteroides PCK 18 reduced its counts for 0.90 log cfu/g when chicken meat burgers were packaged under MAP. Furthermore, freezing stress was an effective strategy to reduce C. jejuni counts but only in combination with a high-O(2) MAP, it was completely eliminated. Chicken meat burgers' shelf-life under aerobic packaging conditions was reduced by the effect of freeze-thawing, while the use of MAP extended the product's shelf-life till 21days. Therefore, the combination of freezing, protective culture and MAP could extend the shelf-life and enhance the food safety of this kind of chicken products. PMID:22831819

  18. Wavelets meet Burgulence: CVS-filtered Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen van yen, Romain; Farge, Marie; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Kingsbury, Nick

    2008-08-01

    Numerical experiments with the one-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation show that filtering the solution at each time step in a way similar to CVS (Coherent Vortex Simulation) gives the solution of the viscous Burgers equation. The CVS filter used here is based on a complex-valued translation-invariant wavelet representation of the velocity, from which one selects the wavelet coefficients having modulus larger than a threshold whose value is iteratively estimated. The flow evolution is computed from either deterministic or random initial conditions, considering both white noise and Brownian motion.

  19. A discrete model of a modified Burgers' partial differential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.; Shoosmith, J. N.

    1990-01-01

    A new finite-difference scheme is constructed for a modified Burger's equation. Three special cases of the equation are considered, and the 'exact' difference schemes for the space- and time-independent forms of the equation are presented, along with the diffusion-free case of Burger's equation modeled by a difference equation. The desired difference scheme is then obtained by imposing on any difference model of the initial equation the requirement that, in the appropriate limits, its difference scheme must reduce the results of the obtained equations.

  20. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and...

  1. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  2. Effect of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on moisture retention of cooked ground beef patties and enhanced strip loins.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) on water holding capacity characteristics of enhanced beef strip loins. Sixty, frozen strip loins, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement with dietary program serving as the first factor and use of ExGP as the second factor, were thawed, injected with an enhancement solution, and stored for 7 days. Loins from ExGP cattle possessed the ability to bind more (P < 0.05) water before pumping and bind less (P < 0.05) water after pumping and storage. Loin pH across treatments was similar (P > 0.10) before injection, but increased post-injection and after storage (P < 0.01). Treatments did not affect loin purge loss, steak cook loss, and expressible moisture (P > 0.10). The Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and use of ExGPs minimally impacted water holding capacity of enhanced frozen/thawed beef strip loins. PMID:25460124

  3. The Inviscid Burgers Equation with Brownian Initial Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoin, Jean

    The law of the (Hopf-Cole) solution of the inviscid Burgers equation with Brownian initial velocity is made explicit. As examples of applications, we investigate the smoothness of the solution, the statistical distribution of the shocks, we determine the exact Hausdorff function of the Lagrangian regular points and investigate the existence of Lagrangian regular points in a fixed Borel set.

  4. Modified non-linear Burgers' equations and cosmic ray shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Mckenzie, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    A reductive perturbation scheme is used to derive a generalized non-linear Burgers' equation, which includes the effects of dispersion, in the long wavelength regime for the two-fluid hydrodynamical model used to describe cosmic ray acceleration by the first-order Fermi process in astrophysical shocks. The generalized Burger's equation is derived for both relativistic and non-relativistic cosmic ray shocks, and describes the time evolution of weak shocks in the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. The inclusion of dispersive effects modifies the phase velocity of the shock obtained from the lower order non-linear Burger's equation through the introduction of higher order terms from the long wavelength dispersion equation. The travelling wave solution of the generalized Burgers' equation for a single shock shows that larger cosmic ray pressures result in broader shock transitions. The results for relativistic shocks show a steepening of the shock as the shock speed approaches the relativistic cosmic ray sound speed. The dependence of the shock speed on the cosmic ray pressure is also discussed.

  5. Escherichia coli O157: burger bug or environmental pathogen?

    PubMed

    Strachan, Norval J C; Dunn, Geoffrey M; Locking, Mary E; Reid, Thomas M S; Ogden, Iain D

    2006-11-01

    The three main pathways of Escherichia coli O157 infection are foodborne, environmental (including direct contact with animals and their faeces and contaminated water supplies) or person to person contact. The disease is often nicknamed the 'burger bug' but it appears that environmental risk factors may be more important. In this study we use four techniques (outbreak analysis, case-control studies, disease mapping and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA)) to determine whether burgers or environmental pathways present the greater risk in Scotland. Analysis of E. coli O157 outbreaks in Scotland from 1994 to 2003 associated with either meat or dairy foods, or with environmental transmission shows that approximately 40% [M1] of these outbreaks were foodborne, 54% were environmental and 6% involved both transmission routes. However, the largest outbreaks tend to be foodborne accounting for 83% of outbreak cases. Case-control studies indicate strong risk associations with environmental exposure in Scotland, the UK as a whole and the USA, but burgers appear to be more of a risk in the USA. Canadian, Scottish and Swedish disease mapping studies found positive association with indicators of cattle density. In Grampian (North-East Scotland) we found that there was a positive association with cattle and sheep density (divided by human population density) as well as percentage of population on private water supplies. We found 63% of cases in rural postcodes compared with 37% urban after correcting for population differences suggesting that at least 26% of cases may be classified as environmental. QMRA showed that on average, the risk was 100 times greater when visiting a pasture than eating a burger in Grampian. However, it is difficult to determine which pathway actually causes most illnesses as it is unknown how many burgers are consumed daily and what is the frequency of human visits to pasture. The implementation of hygienic food processing post-1996 Central

  6. Frozen-intensity test research of frozen coal with steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Huang, Cheng; Liu, Weibo

    2002-05-01

    As a sort of multiple component, and dispersed state granule aggregation, frozen coal behaves similar to frozen soil. On the basis of its unique ice-cementation effect and not-frozen water along with dynamical balance state between the frameworks of mineral granule, the mechanical behavior of frozen coal is more complex than usual in compact medium, restrictedly with force amount, process time period and temperature. In all factors which impact on frozen intensity of frozen coal frozen with steel plate, water content is relatively easy to control. From results of this test research, values of frozen intensity is changeable under different water content. Up to the critical water content, the value of frozen intensity increase rapidly till a certain steady value. Under a certain temperature and water content condition, the granule component of frozen coal has somewhat effect on the frozen intensity. Usually, the frozen intensity of large granule coal is greater than the small granule's However, the distributing of coal granule size present a steady probability rule. So the effect from granule size is tiny.

  7. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  8. Effect of rapid thawing on the meat quality attributes of USDA Select beef strip loin steaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the meat quality effects of rapidly thawing steaks in a water bath. Frozen beef strip loins (n = 24) were cut into steaks sequentially from the rib end and identified by anatomical location (anterior, middle, posterior) within the loin. Within location,...

  9. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  10. Curation of Frozen Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, L. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Astromaterials Curator are charged by NPD 7100.10D with the curation of all of NASA s extraterrestrial samples, including those from future missions. This responsibility includes the development of new sample handling and preparation techniques; therefore, the Astromaterials Curator must begin developing procedures to preserve, prepare and ship samples at sub-freezing temperatures in order to enable future sample return missions. Such missions might include the return of future frozen samples from permanently-shadowed lunar craters, the nuclei of comets, the surface of Mars, etc. We are demonstrating the ability to curate samples under cold conditions by designing, installing and testing a cold curation glovebox. This glovebox will allow us to store, document, manipulate and subdivide frozen samples while quantifying and minimizing contamination throughout the curation process.

  11. FROZEN HYDROCARBONS IN COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Simonia, Irakli

    2011-02-15

    Recent investigations of the luminescence of frozen hydrocarbon particles of icy cometary halos have been carried out. The process of luminescence of organic icy particles in a short-wavelength solar radiation field is considered. A comparative analysis of observed and laboratory data leads to 72 luminescent emission lines in the spectrum of the comet 153P/Ikeya-Zhang. The concept of cometary relict matter is presented, and the creation of a database of unidentified cometary emission lines is proposed.

  12. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  13. Convergence of a random walk method for the Burgers equation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.

    1985-10-01

    In this paper we consider a random walk algorithm for the solution of Burgers' equation. The algorithm uses the method of fractional steps. The non-linear advection term of the equation is solved by advecting ''fluid'' particles in a velocity field induced by the particles. The diffusion term of the equation is approximated by adding an appropriate random perturbation to the positions of the particles. Though the algorithm is inefficient as a method for solving Burgers' equation, it does model a similar method, the random vortex method, which has been used extensively to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the strong convergence of our random walk method and so provide a model for the proof of convergence for more complex random walk algorithms; for instance, the random vortex method without boundaries.

  14. Intermittency in fractal Fourier hydrodynamics: Lessons from the Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar

    2016-03-01

    We present theoretical and numerical results for the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation decimated on a fractal Fourier set of dimension D. We investigate the robustness of the energy transfer mechanism and of the small-scale statistical fluctuations by changing D. We find that a very small percentage of mode-reduction (D ≲ 1) is enough to destroy most of the characteristics of the original nondecimated equation. In particular, we observe a suppression of intermittent fluctuations for D < 1 and a quasisingular transition from the fully intermittent (D=1) to the nonintermittent case for D ≲ 1. Our results indicate that the existence of strong localized structures (shocks) in the one-dimensional Burgers equation is the result of highly entangled correlations amongst all Fourier modes. PMID:27078449

  15. Intermittency in fractal Fourier hydrodynamics: Lessons from the Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar

    2016-03-01

    We present theoretical and numerical results for the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation decimated on a fractal Fourier set of dimension D . We investigate the robustness of the energy transfer mechanism and of the small-scale statistical fluctuations by changing D . We find that a very small percentage of mode-reduction (D ≲1 ) is enough to destroy most of the characteristics of the original nondecimated equation. In particular, we observe a suppression of intermittent fluctuations for D <1 and a quasisingular transition from the fully intermittent (D =1 ) to the nonintermittent case for D ≲1 . Our results indicate that the existence of strong localized structures (shocks) in the one-dimensional Burgers equation is the result of highly entangled correlations amongst all Fourier modes.

  16. Fluesorbent FGD at the Burger and Lausche plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    While large, capital-intensive coal-fired power plants have a number of waste-free flue gas desulfurization options available, few economical choices exist for operators of more moderately-sized industrial and institutional boilers. The Fluesorbent technology, a simple duct-injection process designed for waste-free operation and low capital costs, was designed to fill this gap. Its unique feature is the use of expanded vermiculite or perlite with the injected lime. This enables 85% SO{sub 2} removal at reasonable lime consumption rates and results in a valuable agricultural by-product, instead of a waste. A 6,500-acfm Fluesorbent pilot plant was recently tested at Ohio Edison`s Burger station with promising results. Plans are currently underway for the first permanent Fluesorbent installation on two coal-fired boilers at Ohio University`s Lausche heating plant. This paper describes the Burger plant results and the Lausche plant plans.

  17. Fluesorbent FGD at the Burger and Lausche plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    While large, capital-intensive coal-fired power plants have a number of waste-free flue gas desulfurization options available, few economical choices exist for operators of more moderately-sized industrial and institutional boilers. The Fluesorbent technology, a single duct-injection process designed for waste-free operation and low capital costs, was designed to fill this gap. Its unique feature is the use of expanded vermiculite or perlite with the injected lime. This enables 85% SO{sub 2} removal at reasonable lime consumption rates and results in a valuable agricultural by-product, instead of a waste. A 6,500-acfm Fluesorbent pilot plant was recently tested at Ohio Edison's Burger station with promising results. Plans are currently underway for the first permanent Fluesorbent installation on two coal-fired boilers at Ohio University's Lausche heating plant. This paper describes the Burger plant results and the Lausche plant plans.

  18. A lattice Boltzmann model for the Burgers-Fisher equation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Yan, Guangwu

    2010-06-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model is developed for the one- and two-dimensional Burgers-Fisher equation based on the method of the higher-order moment of equilibrium distribution functions and a series of partial differential equations in different time scales. In order to obtain the two-dimensional Burgers-Fisher equation, vector sigma(j) has been used. And in order to overcome the drawbacks of "error rebound," a new assumption of additional distribution is presented, where two additional terms, in first order and second order separately, are used. Comparisons with the results obtained by other methods reveal that the numerical solutions obtained by the proposed method converge to exact solutions. The model under new assumption gives better results than that with second order assumption. PMID:20590325

  19. A Jacobi collocation approximation for nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doha, Eid; Bhrawy, Ali; Abdelkawy, Mohamed; Hafez, Ramy

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a numerical approximation of the initial-boundary nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equation based on spectral methods. A Jacobi-Gauss-Lobatto collocation (J-GL-C) scheme in combination with the implicit Runge-Kutta-Nyström (IRKN) scheme are employed to obtain highly accurate approximations to the mentioned problem. This J-GL-C method, based on Jacobi polynomials and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature integration, reduces solving the nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equation to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equation which is far easier to solve. The given examples show, by selecting relatively few J-GL-C points, the accuracy of the approximations and the utility of the approach over other analytical or numerical methods. The illustrative examples demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and versatility of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Sailing the deep blue sea of decaying Burgers turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis

    1999-07-01

    We study Lagrangian trajectories and scalar transport statistics in decaying Burgers turbulence. We choose velocity fields solutions of the inviscid Burgers equation whose probability distributions are specified by Kida's statistics. They are time-correlated, and neither time-reversal invariant nor Gaussian. We discuss in some detail the effect of shocks on trajectories and transport equations. We derive the inviscid limit of these equations using a formalism of operators localized on shocks. We compute the probability distribution functions of the trajectories although they do not define Markov processes. As physically expected, these trajectories are statistically well defined but collapse with probability one at infinite time. We point out that the advected scalars enjoy inverse energy cascades. We also make a few comments on the connection between our computations and persistence problems.

  1. Generating functions for modular graphs and Burgers's equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamkin, I. V.

    2005-12-01

    It is shown that the generating functions of modular graphs satisfy Burgers's equations, which enable one to obtain in a unified way the generating functions for the virtual Euler characteristic and the Poincaré polynomial of the moduli space of punctured curves \\overline M_{g,n} and for the number (with weights 1/\\vert{\\operatorname{Aut} G}\\vert) of modular graphs G of a definite type.

  2. Conservation laws of inviscid Burgers equation with nonlinear damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the new conservation theorem presented in Ibragimov (2007) [14] is used to find conservation laws of the inviscid Burgers equation with nonlinear damping ut+g(u)ux+λh(u)=0. We show that this equation is both quasi self-adjoint and self-adjoint, and use these concepts to simplify conserved quantities for various choices of g(u) and h(u).

  3. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    PubMed

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown. PMID:27357049

  4. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  5. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  6. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the production of... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and... product, as well as the reduction of other pathogens and their toxins or toxic metabolites necessary...

  7. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for the production of... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and... product, as well as the reduction of other pathogens and their toxins or toxic metabolites necessary...

  8. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for the production of... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and... product, as well as the reduction of other pathogens and their toxins or toxic metabolites necessary...

  9. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for the production of... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and... product, as well as the reduction of other pathogens and their toxins or toxic metabolites necessary...

  10. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy with Beef” shall not be made with beef which, in the aggregate for each lot contains more than...

  11. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy with Beef” shall not be made with beef which, in the aggregate for each lot contains more than...

  12. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  13. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  14. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  15. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  16. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  17. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  18. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  20. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  1. Seedstock beef cattle: SPA.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J M; Leachman, L

    1995-07-01

    The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for seedstock beef cattle (SPA-SB) is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the seedstock cow-calf, replacement heifer, and the sale bull enterprises. These guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA) and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordinating Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Seedstock SPA Guidelines. PMID:7584819

  2. Renormalized dissipation in the nonconservatively forced Burgers equation

    SciTech Connect

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-19

    A previous calculation of the renormalized dissipation in the nonconservatively forced one-dimensional Burgers equation, which encountered a catastrophic long-wavelength divergence approximately [k min]-3, is reconsidered. In the absence of velocity shear, analysis of the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian closure predicts only a benign logarithmic dependence on kmin. The original divergence is traced to an inconsistent resonance-broadening type of diffusive approximation, which fails in the present problem. Ballistic scaling of renormalized pulses is retained, but such scaling does not, by itself, imply a paradigm of self-organized criticality. An improved scaling formula for a model with velocity shear is also given.

  3. Is Multiscaling an Artifact in the Stochastically Forced Burgers Equation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Bec, Jérémie; Pandit, Rahul; Frisch, Uriel

    2005-05-01

    We study turbulence in the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a white-in-time, Gaussian random force that has a Fourier-space spectrum ˜1/k, where k is the wave number. From very high-resolution numerical simulations, in the limit of vanishing viscosity, we find evidence for multiscaling of velocity structure functions which cannot be falsified by standard tests. We find a new artifact in which logarithmic corrections can appear disguised as anomalous scaling and conclude that bifractal scaling is likely.

  4. Some remarks on Li-Sinai-type solutions of the Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauls, W.

    2011-07-01

    For a class of complex-valued initial conditions, we construct solutions for the inviscid Burgers equations of the same type as those recently introduced by Li and Sinai. Obtained by very simple considerations, these solutions correspond to stable distributions with 1 < α <= 2. We furthermore show that solutions of non-Gaussian type can be constructed for the viscous Burgers equation.

  5. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burger made from duck surimi-like material.

    PubMed

    Ramadhan, K; Huda, N; Ahmad, R

    2012-09-01

    Burgers were prepared using duck surimi-like material (DSLM) with polydextrose added (SL) and DSLM with sucrose-sorbitol added (SS), and the properties of these burgers were compared with those of burgers made of chicken meat (CB) and duck meat (DB). Quality characteristics such as chemical composition, cooking loss, diameter shrinkage, color, and texture were measured. The DB had a lower moisture content (55.58%) and higher fat content (21.44%) and cooking loss (11.01%) compared with other samples, whereas CB, SS, and SL did not differ significantly in moisture (65.21-66.10%) and fat (10.42-11.16%) content or cooking loss (5.32-6.15%). The SS and SL were positioned below CB and above DB in terms of hardness, chewiness, and springiness. Ten trained panelists assessed the burgers using quantitative descriptive analysis. Among the burgers, CB had the greatest brightness of color, hardness, springiness, and chewiness. The SS had greater sweetness than the other burgers. Both SL and SS had significantly less animalic odor, meaty flavor, oiliness, juiciness, and saltiness compared with DB. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burgers prepared from DSLM approached those of burgers made of chicken. PMID:22912469

  6. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  7. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  8. Was Warren Burger Richard Nixon's Revenge? A Study of the Chief Justice's Attitudes toward the News Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, James M.

    The suggestion that Warren Burger's appointment to the Supreme Court was Richard Nixon's revenge upon the press is supported by some of Burger's judicial decisions and attitudes toward the press outside the courtroom, but not all of his decisions were against the news media. Burger's decision not to allow court clerks to speak to reporters, and…

  9. A Spectral Adaptive Mesh Refinement Method for the Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, Leila; Staples, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a powerful technique in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Many CFD problems have a wide range of scales which vary with time and space. In order to resolve all the scales numerically, high grid resolutions are required. The smaller the scales the higher the resolutions should be. However, small scales are usually formed in a small portion of the domain or in a special period of time. AMR is an efficient method to solve these types of problems, allowing high grid resolutions where and when they are needed and minimizing memory and CPU time. Here we formulate a spectral version of AMR in order to accelerate simulations of a 1D model for isotropic homogenous turbulence, the Burgers equation, as a first test of this method. Using pseudo spectral methods, we applied AMR in Fourier space. The spectral AMR (SAMR) method we present here is applied to the Burgers equation and the results are compared with the results obtained using standard solution methods performed using a fine mesh.

  10. Vacuum skin pack of beef--a consumer friendly alternative.

    PubMed

    Lagerstedt, Åsa; Ahnström, Maria L; Lundström, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how beef quality traits are affected by skin packaging compared with vacuum and high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 80% O(2) and 20% CO(2)). Both M. longissimus dorsi from 6 young bulls were cut and aged in vacuum for 7 days and then cut into 3.5-cm steaks, thereafter either frozen directly day 7 or stored in skin pack, vacuum pack or MAP for an additional 7 or 14 days and then frozen. Warner-Bratzler shear force, loss and colour were measured and sensory analysis was performed. The results showed no differences in shear force, sensory analysis and total loss between steaks packed in skin pack or vacuum, but skin packed steaks had lower purge loss. MAP steaks had lower sensory scores than the other treatments at days 14 and 21. Raw MAP-steaks were bright red, but showed signs of premature browning when cooked. PMID:21316869

  11. Frozen beverage machine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1988-04-12

    A frozen beverage machine is described, comprising: a. a frame having an exterior, an interior, a front and a back; b. a cylinder, having an interior and an exterior as well as first and second ends and further having an opening in each of the ends, the cylinder being horizontally and fixedly positioned within the interior of the frame with the second end facing the front of the frame; c. a means, sealingly attached to the opening in the second end of the cylinder, for emptying the cylinder; d. a means, positioned within the frame and communicating with the exterior of the cylinder, for removing heat from the cylinder; e. at least one support bracket; f. a shaft, rotatably attached within the opening in the support bracket and rotatably and sealingly attached within the opening in the first end of the cylinder and extending to the interior of the cylinder; g. a motor assembly, operatively connected to a portion of the shaft exterior to the cylinder and suspended from the shaft such that the weight of the motor assembly is supported only by the shaft; h. a contact switch; and i. a resilient means, connected to the frame and the motor assembly, for maintaining the position of the motor assembly relative to the shaft until a desired threshold resistance to rotation of the shaft within the cylinder occur, and then allowing the motor assembly to rotate to a desired position relative to the shaft.

  12. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  13. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas. (a) Identity—(1) Product...

  14. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  15. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  16. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  17. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    PubMed

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P < 0.05) adjusted fat thickness, and EXB had adjusted fat thickness that was lower (P < 0.05) than all other phenotypes except EXENB. Carcasses of EN and ENB had smaller (P < 0.05) longissimus muscle areas than phenotypes ENEX, EXB, and EXENB. Phenotype EN produced carcasses with the highest (P < 0.05) numerical yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P < 0.05) numerical yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  18. Further mathematical results concerning Burgers fluids and their generalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanilla, R.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the earlier work by Quintanilla and Rajagopal (Math Methods Appl Sci 29: 2133-2147, 2006) and establish qualitative new results for a proper generalization of Burgers' original work that stems form a general thermodynamic framework. Such fluids have been used to describe the behavior of several geological materials such as asphalt and the earth's mantle as well as polymeric fluids. We study questions concerning stability, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data for the solutions of the flows of these fluids. We show that if certain conditions are not satisfied by the material moduli, the solutions could be unstable. The spatial behavior of the solutions is also analyzed.

  19. [Microbiological study of spiced chicken burgers in Tripoli City, Libya].

    PubMed

    El Shrek, Y M; Ali, M R M

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the microbiological quality of uncooked and cooked spiced chicken burger in restaurants and fast food places in Tripoli city and surrounding areas. Thus 120 samples (64 cooked and 56 uncooked) were analysed microbiologically. All the samples were highly contaminated with bacteria: 66.6%, 25.9%, 29.6%, 20.3% and 12.9% of the uncooked samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli 0157:H7 and salmonella respectively. Additionally 10.9%, 3.1%, 4.68%, 3.12% and 1.56 of the cooked samples were contaminated with E. coli, Aeromonas spp., E. coli 0157:H7, S. aureus and salmonella respectively. PMID:22888625

  20. Using wavelets to solve the Burgers equation: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Schult, R.L.; Wyld, H.W. )

    1992-12-15

    The Burgers equation is solved for Reynolds numbers [approx lt]8000 in a representation using coarse-scale scaling functions and a subset of the wavelets at finer scales of resolution. Situations are studied in which the solution develops a shocklike discontinuity. Extra wavelets are kept for several levels of higher resolution in the neighborhood of this discontinuity. Algorithms are presented for the calculation of matrix elements of first- and second-derivative operators and a useful product operation in this truncated wavelet basis. The time evolution of the system is followed using an implicit time-stepping computer code. An adaptive algorithm is presented which allows the code to follow a moving shock front in a system with periodic boundary conditions.

  1. Structure of Shocks in Burgers Turbulencewith Stable Noise Initial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoin, Jean

    Burgers equation can be used as a simplified model for hydrodynamic turbulence. The purpose of this paper is to study the structure of the shocks for the inviscid equation in dimension 1 when the initial velocity is given by a stable Lévy noise with index α∈ (1/2,2]. We prove that Lagrangian regular points exist (i.e. there are fluid particles that have not participated in shocks at any time between 0 and t) if and only if α<= 1 and the noise is not completely asymmetric, and that otherwise the shock structure is discrete. Moreover, in the Cauchy case α= 1, we show that there are no rarefaction intervals, i.e. at time t >0$, there are fluid particles in any non-empty open interval.

  2. Karhunen-Loeve expansion of Burgers' model of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, D. H.; Adrian, R. J.; Stewart, D. S.; Sung, H. J.; Moin, P.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of a strongly inhomogeneous random process are examined with emphasis on applications to turbulent flow fields. The ability of the KL expansion to represent functions that have both slow and rapid variations in a relatively small number of expansion terms is tested on a one-dimensional model based on the forced Burgers' equation. The rate of the convergence of the expansion is evaluated, and its dependence on the Reynolds number is determined. It is shown that the KL eigenfunctions possess wall boundary layers attached to outer structures that are independent of the Reynolds number (at high Reynolds numbers). It is also shown that the spectrum of eigenvalues is broad at large Reynolds numbers, requiring many terms to represent higher-order derivatives of the function.

  3. On the Solution of Burgers' Equation with the New Fractional Derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, Ali; Çenesiz, Yücel; Tasbozan, Orkun

    2015-12-01

    Firstly in this article, the exact solution of a time fractional Burgers' equation, where the derivative is conformable fractional derivative, with dirichlet and initial conditions is found byHopf-Cole transform. Thereafter the approximate analytical solution of the time conformable fractional Burger's equation is determined by using a Homotopy Analysis Method(HAM). This solution involves an auxiliary parameter ~ which we also determine. The numerical solution of Burgers' equation with the analytical solution obtained by using the Hopf-Cole transform is compared.

  4. An implicit logarithmic finite-difference technique for two dimensional coupled viscous Burgers' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vineet K.; Awasthi, Mukesh K.; Singh, Sarita

    2013-12-01

    This article describes a new implicit finite-difference method: an implicit logarithmic finite-difference method (I-LFDM), for the numerical solution of two dimensional time-dependent coupled viscous Burgers' equation on the uniform grid points. As the Burgers' equation is nonlinear, the proposed technique leads to a system of nonlinear systems, which is solved by Newton's iterative method at each time step. Computed solutions are compared with the analytical solutions and those already available in the literature and it is clearly shown that the results obtained using the method is precise and reliable for solving Burgers' equation.

  5. Trigonometric quadratic B-spline subdomain Galerkin algorithm for the Burgers' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Buket; Dag, Idris; Gorgulu, Melis Zorsahin

    2015-12-01

    A variant of the subdomain Galerkin method has been set up to find numerical solutions of the Burgers' equation. Approximate function consists of the combination of the trigonometric B-splines. Integration of Burgers' equation has been achived by aid of the subdomain Galerkin method based on the trigonometric B-splines as an approximate functions. The resulting first order ordinary differential system has been converted into an iterative algebraic equation by use of the Crank-Nicolson method at successive two time levels. The suggested algorithm is tested on somewell-known problems for the Burgers' equation.

  6. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible products produced in whole or in part from beef, exclusive of milk and products made therefrom....

  7. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  8. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  9. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  10. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants. PMID:26579877

  11. Dry Zones Around Frozen Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbano, Caitlin; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    The saturation pressure of water vapor above supercooled water exceeds that above ice at the same temperature. A frozen droplet will therefore grow by harvesting water vapor from neighboring supercooled condensate, which has recently been demonstrated to be a primary mechanism of in-plane frost growth on hydrophobic surfaces. The underlying physics of this source-sink interaction is still poorly understood. In this work, a deposited water droplet is frozen on a dry hydrophobic surface initially held above the dew point. We demonstrate that when the surface is then cooled beneath the dew point, the frozen droplet harvests nearby water vapor in the air. This results in an annular dry zone that forms between the frozen droplet and the forming supercooled condensation. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the length of the dry zone varied strongly with surface temperature and weakly with droplet volume. The dependence of the dry zone on surface temperature is due to the fact that the vapor pressure gradients between the ambient and the surface and between the liquid and frozen water are both functions of temperature.

  12. Preweaning and weaning heterosis for maternal effects of beef x beef and beef x dairy crosses.

    PubMed

    Knapp, B W; Pahnish, O F; Urick, J J; Brinks, J S; Richardson, G V

    1980-05-01

    Effects of maternal heterosis were estimated from preweaning and weaning data on 178 three-breed cross progeny of straight Hereford, Angus and Charolais heifers (beef) and contemporary reciprocal cross heifers. In addition, 27 three-breed cross calves produced by beef x Brown swiss females were used for a comparison of beef x beef with beff x Brown Swiss crossbred dams. Statistical analyses were performed with and without the data from the 27 beef x Brown Swiss calves. Only first-calf records, obtained from 1965 through 1967, were used to evaluate maternal qualities of straightbred and crossbred dams. Breed of sire of sow was a source of variation (P less than .01) in all progeny traits, and breed of dam of cow was a source of variation (P less than .05 to P less than .01) in all of these traits except birth weight. Interaction effects of breed of sire of cow x breed of dam of cow were consistenetly nonsignificant. Estimated maternal heterosis percentages were 1.4, 1.0, 1.1 and .4 (.02 of one grade) for birth weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning, 205-day weaning weight and weaning conformation score of progeny, respectively. Comparison of beef x Brown Swiss dams with beef cross dams showed that beef x Brown Swiss dams had calves with higher average birth weight, higher preweaning average daily gain, higher average 205-day weaning weight and higher average weaning score (P less than .05 to P less than .01). PMID:7390939

  13. Laplace homotopy perturbation method for Burgers equation with space- and time-fractional order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. J.; Jafari, H.; Moshokoa, S. P.; Ariyan, V. M.; Baleanu, D.

    2016-07-01

    The fractional Burgers equation describes the physical processes of unidirectional propagation of weakly nonlinear acoustic waves through a gas-filled pipe. The Laplace homotopy perturbation method is discussed to obtain the approximate analytical solution of space-fractional and time-fractional Burgers equations. The method used combines the Laplace transform and the homotopy perturbation method. Numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to partial differential equations of fractional orders.

  14. The effects of freezing and thawing rates on tenderness, sensory quality, and retail display of beef subprimals.

    PubMed

    Hergenreder, J E; Hosch, J J; Varnold, K A; Haack, A L; Senaratne, L S; Pokharel, S; Beauchamp, C; Lobaugh, B; Calkins, C R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate processing methods for frozen beef subprimals; the effects of freezing and thawing rates on tenderness, sensory properties, and retail display were evaluated. There were 6 treatments: fresh, never frozen 14 d wet aged (14D); fresh, never frozen 21 d wet aged (21D); blast frozen-fast thawed (BF); blast frozen-slow thawed (BS); conventionally frozen-fast thawed (CF); and conventionally frozen-slow thawed (CS). All frozen beef subprimals were aged for 14 d before freezing. Three beef subprimal cuts, rib eye roll (n=90), strip loin (n=90), and top sirloin butt (n=90), were used with 3 replications of 5 samples per treatment per week (total of 9 wk, n=270). Blast freezing occurred by placing spacers between the boxes of meat on pallets at -28°C with high air velocity for 3 to 5 d. Conventional freezing occurred with boxes of meat stacked on pallets and placed in a -28°C freezer with minimal air movement for at least 10 d. Fast thawing of subprimals (to an internal temperature of -1°C to 1°C) occurred by immersion in a circulating water bath (<12°C) for 21 h, and slow thawing of subprimals occurred over a 2-wk period by placing individual subprimals on tables at 0°C. Steaks (2.5 cm thick) were cut from the longissimus thoracis (LT), longissimus lumborum (LL), and gluteus medius (GM) for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), trained sensory evaluation, and retail display. For LL and GM beef steaks, frozen treatments were equal or lower in WBS values to 14D and 21D beef steaks. No differences were detected in WBS among the treatments applied to GM beef steaks (P=0.08). There were no differences in sensory tenderness among the LL, LT, and GM (P>0.05). All LL and LT beef steaks had approximately 4 d to 40% discoloration, and all GM steaks had over 3 d to 40% discoloration. Steaks from the LL and LT began to discolor at about 3 d, and the GM began to discolor after 1 d. For all beef subprimals, purge loss during storage and

  15. Microheterogeneity in Frozen Protein Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyoprotectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyoprotectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (−20 < TF < 0°C) on the MH generated within a frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10 wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20 wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (−16 < TF < −10°C). In the 30 wt% trehalose solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (−12 < TF < −10°C) was needed to ensure a fairly homogeneous FCL. The method developed here will be helpful for the development of uniformly frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  16. Microheterogeneity in frozen protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-06-20

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyo-protectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyo-protectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (-20frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (-16frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  17. Flavour perception of oxidation in beef.

    PubMed

    Campo, M M; Nute, G R; Hughes, S I; Enser, M; Wood, J D; Richardson, R I

    2006-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is a major factor in meat quality. In order to relate human perceptions of lipid oxidation, as determined by a trained taste panel, to a chemical measurement of oxidation, we studied meat from animals with a wide range of potential oxidation through differences in their PUFA composition and by displaying the meat in high oxygen modified atmosphere packs for varying lengths of time. Meat was obtained from 73 Angus- and Charolais-cross steers from different trials that had been raised on 10 different diets: grass silage (high in C18:3, n-3), cereal concentrate (high in C18:2, n-6), three diets with 3% added fat consisting of three levels of protected lipid supplement (high in C18:2, n-6 and C18:3, n-3, ratio 1:1), a control with Megalac(®) (relatively saturated), three diets with three levels of inclusion of protected fish oil (high in C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3) plus a constant amount of unprotected fish oil and a final diet with an unprotected fish oil control. The longissimus dorsi muscle was excised from the left carcass side, aged vacuum packaged for 10-13 days depending on the projects and frozen for less than eight months. TBARS and sensory analyses were performed on steaks displayed for 0, 4 or 9 days under simulated retail conditions, exposed to light in modified atmosphere packaging (CO(2):O(2); 25:75). Meat oxidation increased throughout display for each of the diets, as shown by a rise in TBARS values. This increase was not linear, differences between 0 and 4 days of display were smaller than between 4 and 9 days of display. The lowest TBARS and lowest increment occurred in the two control diets and the grass-fed animals, probably due to the more saturated fat of meat from animals fed the control diets and the higher content of vitamin E. Sensory attributes were also influenced by time of display. Positive attributes, such as beef flavour or overall liking, decreased throughout display, whereas negative attributes, such as abnormal and

  18. Evaluation of Physicochemical Deterioration and Lipid Oxidation of Beef Muscle Affected by Freeze-thaw Cycles.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M H; Hossain, M M; Rahman, S M E; Amin, M R; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the deterioration of physicochemical quality of beef hind limb during frozen storage at -20℃, affected by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef hind limb were investigated comparing with unfrozen beef muscle for 80 d by keeping at -20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to select the best one on the basis of deterioration of physicochemical properties of beef. As the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased, drip loss decreased and water holding capacity (WHC) increased (p<0.05) till two cycles and then decreased. Cooking loss increased in cycle one and three but decreased in cycle two. Moreover, drip loss, WHC and cooking loss affected (p<0.05) by thawing methods within the cycles. However, pH value decreased (p<0.05), but peroxide value (p<0.05), free fatty acids value (p<0.05) and TBARS value increased (p<0.05) significantly as the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased. Moreover, significant (p<0.05) interactive effects were found among the thawing methods and repeated cycles. As a result, freeze-thaw cycles affected the physicochemical quality of beef muscle, causing the degradation of its quality. PMID:26877637

  19. Evaluation of Physicochemical Deterioration and Lipid Oxidation of Beef Muscle Affected by Freeze-thaw Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. H.; Hossain, M. M.; Rahman, S. M. E.; Amin, M. R.; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the deterioration of physicochemical quality of beef hind limb during frozen storage at −20℃, affected by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef hind limb were investigated comparing with unfrozen beef muscle for 80 d by keeping at −20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to select the best one on the basis of deterioration of physicochemical properties of beef. As the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased, drip loss decreased and water holding capacity (WHC) increased (p<0.05) till two cycles and then decreased. Cooking loss increased in cycle one and three but decreased in cycle two. Moreover, drip loss, WHC and cooking loss affected (p<0.05) by thawing methods within the cycles. However, pH value decreased (p<0.05), but peroxide value (p<0.05), free fatty acids value (p<0.05) and TBARS value increased (p<0.05) significantly as the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased. Moreover, significant (p<0.05) interactive effects were found among the thawing methods and repeated cycles. As a result, freeze-thaw cycles affected the physicochemical quality of beef muscle, causing the degradation of its quality. PMID:26877637

  20. Frozen Scope and Grammatical Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The literature on quantifier scope has repeatedly observed that some otherwise expected permutations of scope taking elements are unavailable. Various methods have been proffered explaining these facts. This thesis aims to unify three disparate areas where the scope of operators seems to be frozen: the interaction of universal quantifiers with…

  1. Frozen shoulder: a sympathetic dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Müller, L P; Müller, L A; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    2000-01-01

    Diagnostic and clinical features of the frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are similar in many aspects. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in affected areas in both diseases, while native radiographs show a progressive demineralisation. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative digital radiography objectified these local decalcification processes in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome; 10 of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder had BMD decreases greater 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the non-affected side. In the immobilised control group with degenerative changes of the rotator cuff, calcifying tendinitis and shoulder instability (n = 12) and in the group of healthy probands (n = 20), the difference between the affected and non-affected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was only more than 21% in one case each. There are several references in the literature that assume frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process; our observations support this hypothesis, possibly leading to earlier diagnoses and extended therapeutic management. PMID:10653111

  2. Algebro-geometric Solutions for the Derivative Burgers Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yu; Fan, Engui; Qiao, Zhijun; Wang, Zhong

    2015-02-01

    Though completely integrable Camassa-Holm (CH) equation and Degasperis-Procesi (DP) equation are cast in the same peakon family, they possess the second- and third-order Lax operators, respectively. From the viewpoint of algebro-geometrical study, this difference lies in hyper-elliptic and non-hyper-elliptic curves. The non-hyperelliptic curves lead to great difficulty in the construction of algebro-geometric solutions of the DP equation. In this paper, we study algebro-geometric solutions for the derivative Burgers (DB) equation, which is derived by Qiao and Li (2004) as a short wave model of the DP equation with the help of functional gradient and a pair of Lenard operators. Based on the characteristic polynomial of a Lax matrix for the DB equation, we introduce a third order algebraic curve with genus , from which the associated Baker-Akhiezer functions, meromorphic function, and Dubrovin-type equations are constructed. Furthermore, the theory of algebraic curve is applied to derive explicit representations of the theta function for the Baker-Akhiezer functions and the meromorphic function. In particular, the algebro-geometric solutions are obtained for all equations in the whole DB hierarchy.

  3. Hyperbolic asymptotics in Burgers' turbulence and extremal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, S. A.; Surgailis, D.; Woyczynski, W. A.

    1995-03-01

    Large time asymptotics of statistical solution u(t,x) (1.2) of the Burgers' equation (1.1) is considered, where ξ(x)=ξ L(x) is a stationary zero mean Gaussian process depending on a large parameter L>0 so that 220_2005_Article_BF02099589_TeX2GIFE1.gif ξ _L (x) ˜ σ _L η (x/L)(L to infty ), whereσ _L = L^2 (2log L)^{1/2} and η( x) is a given standardized stationary Gaussian process. We prove that as L→∞ the hyperbolicly scaled random fields u(L 2t, L2x) converge in distribution to a random field with “saw-tooth” trajectories, defined by means of a Poisson process on the plane related to high fluctuations of ξ( x), which corresponds to the zero viscosity solutions. At the physical level of rigor, such asymptotics was considered before by Gurbatov, Malakhov and Saichev (1991).

  4. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  5. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    MedlinePlus

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . In the human intestine, the young ...

  6. Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat burgers sampled anonymously at the point of sale in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Gillespie, I A; Mitchell, R T

    2001-12-01

    During May and June 1999 a microbiological study of ready-to-eat burgers purchased anonymously from burger outlets (combined take-away and burger restaurants, take-away-only fixed premises, mobile vendors, temporary stalls and other burger outlets) was undertaken. The intention was to determine the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat burgers as purchased by customers of take-away premises and to ascertain, where information was available, whether the Chief Medical Officer's advice on cooking burgers was being followed. Examination of 3,128 ready-to-eat burgers found that 2,868 (92%) were of acceptable quality and 260 (8%) were of unsatisfactory quality. Unsatisfactory results were mostly due to high aerobic colony counts (ACCs). Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli O157 were not detected in any of the samples examined. Acceptable microbiological quality of ready-to-eat burgers was associated with outlets, such as combined take-away and burger restaurants and in particular national franchise outlets, which had management food hygiene training and hazard analysis in place. Poor microbiological quality was associated with undercooking and local outlets as indicated by Local Authority Inspectors' Consumers at Risk scores. PMID:12109398

  7. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  8. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  9. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  10. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  11. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  12. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  13. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  14. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  15. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  16. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  17. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    PubMed

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932

  18. The inviscid Burgers equation with initial data of Brownian type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Zhen-Su; Aurell, Erik; Frisch, Uriel

    1992-09-01

    The solutions to Burgers equation, in the limit of vanishing viscosity, are investigated when the initial velocity is a Brownian motion (or fractional Brownian motion) function, i.e. a Gaussian process with scaling exponent 0< h<1 (type A) or the derivative thereof, with scaling exponent -1< h<0 (type B). Largesize numerical experiments are performed, helped by the fact that the solution is essentially obtained by performing a Legendre transform. The main result is obtained for type A and concerns the Lagrangian function x(a) which gives the location at time t=1 of the fluid particle which started at the location a. It is found to be a complete Devil's staircase. The cumulative probability of Lagrangian shock intervals Δ a (also the distribution of shock amplitudes) follows a ( Δa)- h law for small Δ a. The remaining (regular) Lagrangian locations form a Cantor set of dimension h. In Eulerian coordinates, the shock locations are everywhere dense. The scaling properties of various statistical quantities are also found. Heuristic interpretations are provided for some of these results. Rigorous results for the case of Brownian motion are established in a companion paper by Ya. Sinai. For type B initial velocities (e.g. white noise), there are very few small shocks and shock locations appear to be isolated. Finally, it is shown that there are universality classes of random but smooth (non-scaling) initial velocities such that the long-time large-scale behavior is, after rescaling, the same as for type A or B.

  19. The JLab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, C. D.

    2009-08-04

    A polarized, frozen spin target has been designed and constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol are polarized via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to approximately 90% using microwaves and an external, 5 T solenoid magnet. The target sample is then cooled to approximately 30 mK while an internal 0.56 T superconducting magnet is used to maintain the polarization. Relaxation times in excess of 3500 hours have been observed.

  20. Heat Diffusion with Frozen Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Laura; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Peres, Yuval; Spencer, Joel

    2015-11-01

    Consider "frozen random walk" on Z: n particles start at the origin. At any discrete time, the leftmost and rightmost lfloor {n/4}rfloor particles are "frozen" and do not move. The rest of the particles in the "bulk" independently jump to the left and right uniformly. The goal of this note is to understand the limit of this process under scaling of mass and time. To this end we study the following deterministic mass splitting process: start with mass 1 at the origin. At each step the extreme quarter mass on each side is "frozen". The remaining "free" mass in the center evolves according to the discrete heat equation. We establish diffusive behavior of this mass evolution and identify the scaling limit under the assumption of its existence. It is natural to expect the limit to be a truncated Gaussian. A naive guess for the truncation point might be the 1 / 4 quantile points on either side of the origin. We show that this is not the case and it is in fact determined by the evolution of the second moment of the mass distribution.

  1. Acidity of frozen electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carmen; Boxe, C S; Guzman, M I; Colussi, A J; Hoffmann, M R

    2006-04-20

    Ice is selectively intolerant to impurities. A preponderance of implanted anions or cations generates electrical imbalances in ice grown from electrolyte solutions. Since the excess charges are ultimately neutralized via interfacial (H(+)/HO(-)) transport, the acidity of the unfrozen portion can change significantly and permanently. This insufficiently recognized phenomenon should critically affect rates and equilibria in frozen media. Here we report the effective (19)F NMR chemical shift of 3-fluorobenzoic acid as in situ probe of the acidity of extensively frozen electrolyte solutions. The sign and magnitude of the acidity changes associated with freezing are largely determined by specific ion combinations, but depend also on solute concentration and/or the extent of supercooling. NaCl solutions become more basic, those of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or Na(2)SO(4) become more acidic, while solutions of the 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid zwitterion barely change their acidity upon freezing. We discuss how acidity scales based on solid-state NMR measurements could be used to assess the degree of ionization of weak acids and bases in frozen media. PMID:16610849

  2. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Beef production without mature cows.

    PubMed

    Seidel, G E; Whittier, J C

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients in animal feed get partitioned to growth, lactation, pregnancy, fat accretion, and/or maintenance. For mature beef cows, >80% of nutrients consumed annually go to unproductive maintenance. Integrated over the entire U.S. beef cattle production system, nearly one-half of the nutrients consumed go to maintenance of cow herds. This accounts for much of the inefficiency of beef production and can be minimized by the single-calf heifer system, in which heifers are fattened and slaughtered after having their first calf. We propose a modification, use of sexed semen, so that most heifers replace themselves with a heifer calf. This greatly decreases the size of the inherently inefficient cow herd required for beef production and greatly increases efficiency of beef production in terms of nutrients consumed and waste produced, such as methane, by increasing the ratio of nutrients used for growth to those used for maintenance. Additional management is required including AI, early weaning, and the attention required when calving 2-yr-old heifers. Low conception rates with sexed semen and less efficient growth of females than males also must be considered. However, these issues seem greatly outweighed by the benefits of increased efficiency from decreasing cow herd size while eliminating the need for breeding back lactating first-calf heifers, the need for castration, and health problems inherent in older cows such as mastitis and lameness. Moreover, the decreased generation interval can greatly accelerate genetic progress. PMID:26440323

  3. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permitting that use in this subchapter or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs,...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order...

  5. Complex PT-symmetric nonlinear Schrödinger equation and Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenya

    2013-04-28

    The complex -symmetric nonlinear wave models have drawn much attention in recent years since the complex -symmetric extensions of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation were presented in 2007. In this review, we focus on the study of the complex -symmetric nonlinear Schrödinger equation and Burgers equation. First of all, we briefly introduce the basic property of complex symmetry. We then report on exact solutions of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations (known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates) with several complex -symmetric potentials. Finally, some complex -symmetric extension principles are used to generate some complex -symmetric nonlinear wave equations starting from both -symmetric (e.g. the KdV equation) and non- -symmetric (e.g. the Burgers equation) nonlinear wave equations. In particular, we discuss exact solutions of some representative ones of the complex -symmetric Burgers equation in detail. PMID:23509385

  6. Simulation of the Burgers equation by NMR quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhiying; Cory, David G.; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-10-15

    We report on the implementation of Burgers equation as a type-II quantum computation on a NMR quantum-information processor. Since the flow field evolving under the Burgers equation develops sharp features over time, this is a better test of liquid-state NMR implementations of type-II quantum computers than the previous examples using the diffusion equation. In particular, we show that Fourier approximations used in the encoding step are not the dominant error. Small systematic errors in the collision operator accumulate and swamp all other errors. We propose, and demonstrate, that the accumulation of this error can be avoided to a large extent by replacing the single collision operator with a set of operators with random errors and similar fidelities. Experiments have been implemented on 16 two-qubit sites for eight successive time steps for the Burgers equation.

  7. The Legacy of the Burger Court and the Schools, 1969-1986. NOLPE Monograph/Book Series No. 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacca, Richard S.; Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    This book is limited to a study of the education opinions of the Supreme Court during the time that Warren Earl Burger served as Chief Justice. Over 100 opinions having direct bearing on education were issued during the Burger years, a total greater than in the entire Court's history. The first chapter presents the history of the establishment of…

  8. Infinitely many generalized symmetries and Painlevé analysis of a (2 + 1)-dimensional Burgers system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Yong; Liang, Zu-Feng; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Infinitely many generalized symmetries of a coupled (2 + 1)-dimensional Burgers system are obtained by means of the formal series symmetry approach. It is found that the generalized symmetries constitute a closed infinite-dimensional Lie algebra. Three interesting special cases are presented, including a closed infinite-dimensional Lie algebra and a Kac-Moody-Virasoro-type Lie symmetry algebra. From the first one of the positive flow, a new integrable coupled system of the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation and the potential Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli equation is constructed. In addition, it is demonstrated that the coupled Burgers system can pass the Painlevé test.

  9. Note on the single-shock solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourakis, Ioannis; Sultana, Sharmin; Verheest, Frank

    2012-04-01

    The well-known shock solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation are revisited, together with their limitations in the context of plasma (astro)physical applications. Although available in the literature for a long time, it seems to have been forgotten in recent papers that such shocks are monotonic and unique, for a given plasma configuration, and cannot show oscillatory or bell-shaped features. This uniqueness is contrasted to solitary wave solutions of the two parent equations (Korteweg-de Vries and Burgers), which form a family of curves parameterized by the excess velocity over the linear phase speed.

  10. The One-Point Statistics of Viscous Burgers Turbulence Initialized with Gaussian Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Reade; Avellaneda, Marco

    We study the statistics of the viscous Burgers turbulence (BT) model initialized at time t=0 by a large class of Gaussian data. Using a first-principles analysis of the Hopf-Cole formula for the Burgers equation and the theory of large deviations for Gaussian processes, we characterize the tails of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the velocity u(x,t) and the velocity derivatives . The PDF tails have a non-universal structure of the form , where Re is the Reynolds number and p, q, and r depend on the order of differentiation and the infrared behavior of the initial energy spectrum.

  11. The Statistics of Burgers Turbulence Initialized with Fractional Brownian Noise Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Reade

    The statistics of the solution to the inviscid Burgers equation are investigated when the initial velocity potential is fractional Brownian motion. Using the theory of large deviations for Gaussian processes, we characterize the tails of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the velocity, the distance between shocks, and the shock strength. These PDFs are shown to decay like ``stretched'' exponentials of the form . Our method of proof can also be used to extend these results to a much larger class of Gaussian potentials. This work generalizes the results of Avellaneda and E [2, 3] on the inviscid Burgers equation with white-noise initial data.

  12. Evaluation of combined effects of ageing period and freezing rate on quality attributes of beef loins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuan H Brad; Liesse, Charlotte; Kemp, Robert; Balan, Prabhu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the combined effects of ageing period and different freezing rates on meat quality attributes of beef loins. Pairs of loins (M. longissimus at 1 day post mortem) from 12 carcasses were divided into four equal portions and randomly assigned to four ageing/freezing treatments (aged only, frozen only, and 3 or 4 weeks ageing at -1.5°C then frozen). Two freezing methods (fast freezing by calcium chloride immersion or slow freezing by air freezer at -18°C) were applied to the loin sections. Fast freezing had no effect on shear force (P>0.05), but significantly improved the water-holding capacity of the aged/frozen loins by reducing purge and drip losses. Ageing-then-freezing significantly improved shear force values of loins compared to both the aged only and frozen only loins. These observations suggest that fast freezing will add more value to the aged/frozen/thawed meat by minimising the amount of water-loss due to the freezing/thawing process. PMID:26172242

  13. Autophagy during beef aging

    PubMed Central

    García-Macia, Marina; Sierra, Verónica; Palanca, Ana; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio; de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Rodríguez-González, Susana; Oliván, Mamen; Coto-Montes, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of muscle into meat is a complex process of major concern for meat scientists due to its influence on the final meat quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of autophagic processes in the conversion of muscle into meat. Our findings demonstrated, for the first time, the occurrence of autophagic processes in the muscle tissue at early postmortem period (2 h to 24 h) in both beef breeds studied (Asturiana de los Valles and Asturiana de la Montaña) showing significant time-scale differences between breeds, which could indicate a role of this process in meat maturation. These breeds have different physiological features: while Asturiana de los Valles is a meat-specialized breed showing high growth rate, an elevated proportion of white fibers in the muscle and low intramuscular fat level, Asturiana de la Montaña is a small- to medium-sized rustic breed adapted to less-favored areas, showing more red fibers in the muscle and a high intramuscular fat content. PMID:24225649

  14. Fractal Feature Analysis Of Beef Marblingpatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kunjie; Qin, Chunfang

    The purpose of this study is to investigate fractal behavior of beef marbling patterns and to explore relationships between fractal dimensions and marbling scores. Authors firstly extracted marbling images from beef rib-eye crosssection images using computer image processing technologies and then implemented the fractal analysis on these marbling images based on the pixel covering method. Finally box-counting fractal dimension (BFD) and informational fractal dimension (IFD) of one hundred and thirty-five beef marbling images were calculated and plotted against the beef marbling scores. The results showed that all beef marbling images exhibit fractal behavior over the limited range of scales accessible to analysis. Furthermore, their BFD and IFD are closely related to the score of beef marbling, suggesting that fractal analyses can provide us a potential tool to calibrate the score of beef marbling.

  15. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  16. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  17. Grading of cervical dysplasias by frozen section.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, S; Smart, G E; Livingstone, J R

    1985-09-14

    Grading of cervical dysplasias at colposcopy by means of rapid frozen section avoids the delay inevitable with paraffin sections. The immediacy of the diagnosis benefits the patient, who can be treated at her first visit. A comparison of grading by frozen sections with paraffin sections has confirmed the safety of the frozen method. Additional advantages are opportunities for optimum orientation and "rescue" of specimens, improved colposcopic training, and the facilitation of special investigations on fresh cervical tissue. PMID:2863606

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched beef production.

    PubMed

    Mir, Priya S; McAllister, Timothy A; Scott, Shannon; Aalhus, Jennifer; Baron, Vern; McCartney, Duane; Charmley, Edward; Goonewardene, Laki; Basarab, John; Okine, Erasmus; Weselake, Randall J; Mir, Zahir

    2004-06-01

    Canadian beef consumption is approximately 31 kg per annum, or a third of all meats consumed. Beef is a nutrient-rich food, providing good quality protein, vitamins B-6 and B-12, niacin, iron, and zinc. However, animal fats have gained the reputation of being less healthy. The identification of the anticarcinogenic effects of beef extracts due to the presence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has heightened interest in increasing the amount of CLA deposited in beef. Beef cattle produce CLA and deposit these compounds in the meat; thus, beef consumers can receive bioformed CLA. Beef contains both of the bioactive CLA isomers, namely, cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12. The relative content of these CLA isomers in beef depends on the feeds consumed by the animals during production. Feeding cattle linoleic acid-rich oils for extended periods of time increases the CLA content of beef. Depending on the type and relative maturity of the pasture, beef from pasture-fed cattle may have a higher CLA content than beef from grain- or silage-fed cattle. In feedlot animals fed high-grain diets, inclusion of dietary oil along with hay during both the growth and finishing phases led to an increase in CLA content from 2.8 to 14 mg/g beef fat, which would provide 77 mg CLA in an 85-g serving of beef. The CLAs appear to be concentrated in intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of beef cattle, with the CLA trans-10, cis-12 isomer being greater in the subcutaneous fat. PMID:15159258

  19. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat...

  20. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat...

  1. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat...

  2. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat...

  3. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat...

  4. The Burger Court: Its Liberal/Conservative Attitude Toward Educational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Morte, Michael W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the Burger court's liberal/conservative orientation in 65 cases grouped in the following areas: racial discrimination, separation of church and state, due process for teachers, freedom of expression, school finance, due process and equal protection for students, and school board members' liability. (Author/IRT)

  5. Combined effect of MAP and active compounds on fresh blue fish burger.

    PubMed

    Del Nobile, M A; Corbo, M R; Speranza, B; Sinigaglia, M; Conte, A; Caroprese, M

    2009-11-15

    The combined effects of three essential oils [thymol, lemon extract and grapefruit seed extract (GFSE)] and modified atmosphere packaging conditions (MAP) on quality retention of blue fish burgers was studied and discussed. In particular, samples were packaged in air and in three different gas mix compositions: 30:40:30 O(2):CO(2):N(2), 50:50 O(2):CO(2) and 5:95 O(2):CO(2). During a 28-day storage period at 4 degrees C, the nutritional, microbiological and sensorial quality of the packed products was assessed. The potential development of biogenic amines was also evaluated. The obtained results highlight the possibility to improve the microbial quality of blue fish burgers by using very small amount of thymol (110ppm), GFSE (100ppm) and lemon extract (120ppm) in combination with MAP. Based primarily on microbiological results, the combined use of the tested natural preservatives and a packaging system characterized by a high CO(2)-concentration, was able to guarantee the microbial acceptability of fish burgers until the 28th day of storage at 4 degrees C. On the other hand, results from sensory analyses showed that sensorial quality was the sub-index that limited the burgers shelf life (to about 22-23days), even if the proposed strategy was also effective in minimizing the sensory quality loss of the product having no effect on its nutritional quality. PMID:19755204

  6. The Warren Court and the Burger Court: Some Comparisons of Education-Related Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the records of the Warren Court and the Burger Court on education-related cases concerning religion and the schools, teachers' loyalty, due process and racial segregation, freedom of expression, civil rights, and equal protection under the law. Reports the voting record of individual justices. (Author/MLF)

  7. A control problem for Burgers' equation with bounded input/output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, John A.; Kang, Sungkwon

    1990-01-01

    A stabilization problem for Burgers' equation is considered. Using linearization, various controllers are constructed which minimize certain weighted energy functionals. These controllers produce the desired degree of stability for the closed-loop nonlinear system. A numerical scheme for computing the feedback gain functional is developed and several numerical experiments are performed to show the theoretical results.

  8. A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu

    2015-04-01

    Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated. PMID:25920838

  9. On the well-posedness for Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers I equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwich, Mohamad

    We prove local and global well-posedness in H(R2), s>-1/2 >, for the Cauchy problem associated with the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers I equation (KPBI) by working in Bourgain's type spaces. This result is almost sharp if one requires the flow-map to be smooth.

  10. Nonlocalization of Nonlocal Symmetry and Symmetry Reductions of the Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yan; Jia, Man; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2012-12-01

    Symmetry reduction method is one of the best ways to find exact solutions. In this paper, we study the possibility of symmetry reductions of the well known Burgers equation including the nonlocal symmetry. The related new group invariant solutions are obtained. Especially, the interactions among solitons, Airy waves, and Kummer waves are explicitly given.

  11. Two-component integrable generalizations of Burgers equations with nondiagonal linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talati, Daryoush; Turhan, Refi˙k.

    2016-04-01

    Two-component second- and third-order Burgers type systems with nondiagonal constant matrix of leading order terms are classified for higher symmetries. New integrable systems are obtained. Master symmetries of the obtained symmetry integrable systems, and bi-Poisson structures of those that also possess conservation laws, are given.

  12. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of atmospheric emissions of fugitive dusts and volatile products from beef cattle feedlots. Total particulate emissions are affected by feedlot area, cattle density in pens, wind speed, and the regional precipitation-evaporation index. The predominant...

  13. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... meat. Bacteria multiply rapidly in the "Danger Zone" — temperatures between 40 and 140 °F (4.4 and ... cook ground beef to a safe minimum internal temperature of 160 °F (71.1 °C). Other bacteria ...

  14. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  15. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  16. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  17. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  18. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  19. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  20. 5 CFR 1650.3 - Frozen accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... child support legal process, and child abuse enforcement orders (found in 5 CFR part 1653). (b) A... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen accounts. 1650.3 Section 1650.3... SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.3 Frozen accounts. (a) All withdrawals from the TSP are subject to the...

  1. Testing the frozen flow approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the frozen-flow approximation (FFA), recently proposed by Matarrese, et al. (1992), for following the nonlinear evolution of cosmological density fluctuations under gravitational instability. We compare a number of statistics between results of the FFA and n-body simulations, including those used by Melott, Pellman & Shandarin (1993) to test the Zel'dovich approximation. The FFA performs reasonably well in a statistical sense, e.g. in reproducing the counts-in-cell distribution, at small scales, but it does poorly in the crosscorrelation with n-body which means it is generally not moving mass to the right place, especially in models with high small-scale power.

  2. Canadian beef quality audit.

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  3. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. PMID:27045253

  4. Analysis of stress-induced Burgers vector anisotropy in pressurized tube specimens of irradiated ferritic-martensitic steel: JLF-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Shibayama, T.

    1998-09-01

    A procedure for determining the Burgers vector anisotropy in irradiated ferritic steels allowing identification of all a<100> and all a/2<111> dislocations in a region of interest is applied to a pressurized tube specimen of JLF-1 irradiated at 430 C to 14.3 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV) or 61 dpa. Analysis of micrographs indicates large anisotropy in Burgers vector populations develop during irradiation creep.

  5. Optical characterization of beef muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Gang; Xia, Jinjun

    2005-11-01

    An objective and reliable method for meat quality measurement will benefit both consumers and meat industry. Among various techniques, optical methods have the advantage of being fast, flexible, inexpensive and nondestructive, which are important characteristics for online quality control. Although there have been great progress in this area, many results are inconsistent and controversial because of the lack of fundamental understanding of in light-meat interactions. Optical measurements on meat tissues are affected by both meat scattering and absorption properties. In the project, a method based on diffuse approximation solution of light transport in tissue was used to derive meat scattering and absorption coefficients. Differentiating muscle scattering properties from absorption properties are important for muscle characterization because they represent distinctly different aspects of muscle physical and chemical components. Our preliminary results showed that scattering coefficients can detect variations in beef steak tenderness. This new technique is promising to be used as an indicator for beef tenderness. However, a more extensive study with larger sample population will be necessary to fully test the capability of using optical scattering for beef tenderness characterization.

  6. On Exact Solutions for Oscillatory Flows in a Generalized Burgers Fluid with Slip Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Najam, Saher; Sajid, Muhammad; Ayub, Muhammad; Mesloub, Said

    2010-05-01

    An analysis is performed for the slip effects on the exact solutions of flows in a generalized Burgers fluid. The flow modelling is based upon the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nature of the fluid and modified Darcy law in a porous space. Two illustrative examples of oscillatory flows are considered. The results obtained are compared with several limiting cases. It has been shown here that the derived results hold for all values of frequencies including the resonant frequency.

  7. Travelling wave solutions of a coupled Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motsepa, Tanki; Khalique, Chaudry Masood

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study a coupled Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers system which arises in mathematical physics and has a wide range of scientific applications. We obtain new travelling wave solutions of this system by employing the (G'/G)-expansion method. The solutions that will be obtained are going to be expressed in two different forms, viz., hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions.

  8. New multiple-soliton (kink) solutions for the high-order Boussinesq-Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Liangbi

    2016-07-01

    The homogeneous balance method is extended to find more new solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. As illustrative examples, many new multiple-soliton (kink) solutions of the high-order Boussinesq-Burgers equation are constructed. It is shown that the homogeneous balance method may provide us with a straightforward and effective mathematic tool for generating new multiple-soliton (kink) solutions of nonlinear evolution equations.

  9. KdV-Burgers equation in the modified continuum model considering anticipation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaqing; Zheng, Pengjun; Zhu, Keqiang; Ge, Hongxia

    2015-11-01

    The new continuum model mentioned in this paper is developed based on optimal velocity car-following model, which takes the drivers' anticipation effect into account. The critical condition for traffic flow is derived, and nonlinear analysis shows density waves occur in traffic flow because of the small disturbance. Near the neutral stability line, the KdV-Burgers equation is derived and one of the solutions is given. Numerical simulation is carried out to show the local cluster described by the model.

  10. U. S. consumer perceptions of U. S. and Canadian beef quality grades.

    PubMed

    Tedford, J L; Rodas-González, A; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Starkey, J D; Clark, G O; Derington, A J; Collins, J A; Miller, M F

    2014-08-01

    A U.S. consumer (n = 642) study (Baltimore, MD; Phoenix, AZ; and Lubbock, TX) was conducted to compare consumer sensory scores of U.S. beef (83 USDA Choice [Choice] and 96 USDA Select [Select]) and Canadian beef (77 AAA and 82 AA) strip loins. Strip loins (n = 338) were obtained from beef processors in Canada and the United States and were wet aged until 21 d postmortem at 2°C. Marbling scores were assigned at 21 d and loins were paired according to quality grades and marbling score. Strip loins were fabricated into 2.54-cm thick steaks; steaks were vacuum packaged and frozen until further evaluations. Proximate analysis was performed to compare fat, moisture, and protein. Choice and Canadian AAA had similar marbling scores and intramuscular fat. Both Choice and Canadian AAA had greater (P < 0.05) marbling scores and intramuscular fat than Canadian AA, but Select strip loins had intermediate values that were not different from any of the other grades (P > 0.05). Consumers' opinions did not differ when comparing equivalent grades (Choice with Canadian AAA and Select with Canadian AA), but they rated Choice and Canadian AAA more palatable than Select and Canadian AA for all sensory attributes (P < 0.05). Regarding percentage of acceptability and likelihood to buy score, consumers indicated a preference and greater probability to buy (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively) strip loin steaks from higher quality grade carcasses (Choice and Canadian AAA) than lower quality grade carcasses (Select and Canada AA). Additionally, consumers gave their opinion of Canadian beef, where its quality and safety were rated as "good" to "excellent" for both attributes (76.72% and 88.36%, respectively; P < 0.05), feeling confident in beef that is imported from Canada. In the same way, consumers indicated that country-of-origin labeling was a minimal factor influencing their beef steak purchasing decisions. Results from this consumer study indicated U.S. consumers could not

  11. Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 μL/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 μL/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 μL/L, while the addition of 200 μL/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 μL/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 μL/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 μL/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. PMID:25077550

  12. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  13. Frozen shoulder--an algoneurodystrophic process?

    PubMed

    Müller, L P; Rittmeister, M; John, J; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    1998-12-01

    The frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are clinically in many aspects similar. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in the affected areas in both diseases, while standard radiographs show a progressive demineralization. With measurement of bone-mineral density by quantitative digital radiography these local decalcification processes were diagnosed in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome: of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder 10 had a bone-mineral density decrease of more than 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the unaffected side. In the control groups (n = 32) the difference between affected and unaffected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was in only one case each above 21%. There are several indications in the literature assuming the frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process. Our observation supports this hypothesis, and may possibly lead to earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic management. PMID:9922549

  14. Material effects in photoconductive frozen wave generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnell, Robert M.; Thaxter, J. B.; Bell, Richard E.

    1991-04-01

    Linear photoconductive gallium arsenide (GaAs) fast closing switches for microwave applications, such as frozen wave pulse generation, are analyzed and compared to experimental measurements. Material effects in photo-conductive frozen wave generators fabricated in semiconductor-based microstrip transmission line are studied from three perspectives; frozen wave propagation in the line; the spacing between the switches in a frozen wave generator and their maximum number; and the switching behavior of the gap-switch itself, which is modeled as a lumped-element, modified Ebers-Moll equivalent circuit. The experimental transient behavior of hybrid gap-switches fabricated on semi-insulating GaAs with ohmic and non-ohmic contacts is compared with predicted performance. Picosecond laser pulses, doubled to 527 micron wavelength are used to excite linear photoconductivity in 75 micron gap switches mounted in a test fixture of 50 ohm microstrip lines on alumina.

  15. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    ... canned vegetables. Try to buy those without added salt and don't overcook any vegetable, whether fresh, frozen, or canned. Instead of boiling them in water for longer periods of time, they should be ...

  16. Group for frozen soil and rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Society for Testing and Materials wants participants for D18.19, its new subcommittee on frozen soil and rock. The group will write standards for engineering practices in northern Canada, Alaska, and other areas where soil and rock are commonly in the frozen or recently thawed state. Three standards are currently under development: axial compressive load tests o n piles in frozen soils, laboratory rate of frost-heave tests, and laboratory creep testing of frozen soil.The next D18.19 meeting is June 26 in St. Louis, Mo. Scientists who want to work on the subcommittee should contact Bill Lovell, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, tel. 317-494- 5034; or Wendy Dyer, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, tel. 215-299-5526.

  17. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  18. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  19. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  20. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  1. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  2. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  3. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...This proposed rule would adjust representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that have occurred since the most recent Board reapportionment rule became effective in October 2008. These adjustments are required by the Beef......

  4. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  5. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  6. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... permitting that use in this subchapter or 9 CFR chapter III, subchapter E, or in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter... head meat and beef heart meat may be used to the extent of 5 percent of the meat ingredient in... beef heart meat is used in preparation of this product, its presence shall be reflected in...

  7. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... permitting that use in this subchapter or 9 CFR chapter III, subchapter E, or in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter... head meat and beef heart meat may be used to the extent of 5 percent of the meat ingredient in... beef heart meat is used in preparation of this product, its presence shall be reflected in...

  8. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... permitting that use in this subchapter or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter... head meat and beef heart meat may be used to the extent of 5 percent of the meat ingredient in... beef heart meat is used in preparation of this product, its presence shall be reflected in...

  9. Assessing the sustainability of beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a major food source, beef production provides an important service to our economy. Production of cattle and the associated feed crops also impact our environment, and this impact is not well understood. Although several studies have assessed the carbon footprint of beef, there are other environme...

  10. Genomics of Disease in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases have a considerable effect in the productivity of the beef cattle industry. Given the low heritability of immunity, it is necessary to identify genes involved in this response. Initial efforts to identify genomic regions associated with these characteristics in beef cattle have been limited...

  11. Frozen singularities in M and F theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the duality between ALE singularities in M-theory and 7-branes on a circle in F-theory. We see that a frozen M-theory singularity maps to a circle compactification involving a rotation of the plane transverse to the 7-brane, showing an interesting correspondence between commuting triples in simply-laced groups and Kodaira's classification of singular elliptic fibrations. Our analysis strongly suggests that the O7+ plane is the only completely frozen F-theory singularity.

  12. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  13. Shoulder pain in primary care: frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Angela; Mohammed, Khalid D

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Frozen shoulder is a painful condition that follows a protracted clinical course. We aim to review the management of patients with a diagnosis of frozen shoulder who are referred for specialist orthopaedic evaluation against existing guidelines in primary care. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM Referrals and clinical records were reviewed for all patients referred for orthopaedic specialist assessment who received a specialist diagnosis of frozen shoulder. Diagnostic, investigation and management practices from a regional primary health care setting in New Zealand were compared with guideline-recommended management. RESULTS Eighty patients with frozen shoulder were referred for orthopaedic evaluation in the 13 month study period, mostly from general practice. Fifteen patients (19%) were identified as having a frozen shoulder in their medical referral. Most (99%) had received previous imaging. Seven patients (12%) had received guideline recommended treatment. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT Education of all clinicians involved in patient management is important to ensure an understanding of the long natural history of frozen shoulder and provide reassurance that outcomes are generally excellent. HealthPathways now include more information regarding diagnosis, imaging and evidence-based management for frozen shoulder. LESSONS Frozen shoulder may be under-diagnosed among patients referred for orthopaedic review. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used and may identify occult and unrelated pathology in this age-group. When managed according to clinical guidelines, patients report significant clinical and functional improvement with most reporting 80% function compared with normal after 1 year. KEYWORDS Adhesive capsulitis; bursitis; injections; practice guideline; primary health care; ultrasound. PMID:27477374

  14. Adhesive capsulitis of the ankle (frozen ankle).

    PubMed

    van Moppes, F I; van den Hoogenband, C R; Greep, J M

    1979-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or "frozen ankle" is a syndrome resulting from repeated ankle sprains, or perhaps following immobilization after trauma. Ankle arthrography is a useful and safe diagnostic procedure in this syndrome. Typical arthrographic features are described together with case histories of two patients with frozen ankle. We suggest that early mobilization of the patient following trauma is particularly important in preventing the development of a forzen ankle syndrome. PMID:508071

  15. Effect of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) and ascorbic acid on physical characteristics and oxidative status of fresh and stored rabbit burgers.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simone; Preziuso, Giovanna; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Szendrő, Zsolt; Fratini, Filippo; Paci, Gisella

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Curcuma longa powder and ascorbic acid on some quality traits of rabbit burgers. The burgers (burgers control with no additives; burgers with 3.5 g of turmeric powder/100g meat; burgers with 0.1g of ascorbic acid/100g meat) were analyzed at Days 0 and 7 for pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, fatty acid profile, TBARS, antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) and microbial growth. The addition of turmeric powder modified the meat color, produced an antioxidant capacity similar to ascorbic acid and determined a lower cooking loss than other formulations. Turmeric powder might be considered as a useful natural antioxidant, increasing the quality and extending the shelf life of rabbit burgers. PMID:26188362

  16. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  17. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  18. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  19. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  20. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  1. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  2. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  3. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  4. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  5. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  6. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  7. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  8. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  9. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  10. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  11. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  12. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  13. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  14. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  15. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  16. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  17. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  18. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  19. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  20. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  1. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  2. Functional proteomic and interactome analysis of proteins associated with beef tenderness in angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef is a source of high quality protein for the human population, and beef tenderness has significant influence on beef palatability, consumer expectation and industry profitability. To further elucidate the factors affecting beef tenderness, functional proteomics and bioinformatics interactome ana...

  3. Prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter species in Saskatchewan retail ground beef.

    PubMed

    Trokhymchuk, Anatoliy; Waldner, Cheryl; Chaban, Bonnie; Gow, Sheryl; Hill, Janet E

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. DNA by PCR in retail ground beef sold in Saskatchewan, Canada, and to identify the presence of individual Campylobacter species (C. coli, C. curvus, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. jejuni, C. rectus, and C. upsaliensis) using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Secondary objectives were to assess potential differences in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ground beef offered for sale during cold and warm seasons as well as that offered for sale fresh and frozen, to investigate any association between the presence of Campylobacter spp. DNA and E. coli and/or aerobic bacterial counts, and finally to compare the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. DNA in ground beef originating from different production and retail environments. Out of the 309 total samples included in the study, 50 (16.2%) samples tested positive for Campylobacter spp. DNA, while 49 (15.9%) samples were determined positive for up to five individual species. Collectively, these assays determined that 14 (4.5%) samples were positive for C. coli, 11 (3.6%) for C. curvus, 6 (1.9%) for C. fetus, 24 (7.8%) for C. hyointestinalis, 12 (3.9%) for C. jejuni, 6 (1.9%) for C. rectus, and 9 (2.9%) for C. upsaliensis. There were 27 (8.7%) samples that were positive at the genus level that did not test positive for any of the seven Campylobacter species investigated (suggesting an alternate Campylobacter species). Also, 26 (8.4%) samples generated positive results by one of the species-specific qPCR assays, but returned no product in the conventional genus-level assay (suggesting a higher sensitivity for the species-specific qPCR assays). There was no significant association between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in Saskatchewan retail ground beef and any of the investigated risk factors. PMID:25474057

  4. Expression Marker-Based Strategy to Improve Beef Quality

    PubMed Central

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Picard, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    For beef cattle research, a main objective is to control concomitantly the development of muscles and the qualities of beef cuts. Beef quality is a complex phenotype that is only detectable after slaughter and is highly variable. The beef industry is in need of tools to estimate beef quality of live cattle or online in abattoirs, with specific attention towards sensory attributes (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, and colour). Identification of relevant genetic and genomic markers is ongoing, especially for tenderness—a top priority quality attribute. In this paper, we describe the steps of an expression marker-based strategy to improve beef sensory quality, from the discovery of biomarkers that identify consistent beef and the biological functions governing beef tenderness to the integration of the knowledge into detection tests for desirable animals. These tools should soon be available for the management of sensory quality in the beef production chain for meeting market's demands and assuring good quality standards. PMID:27066527

  5. Effects of forage level in feedlot finishing diets on carcass characteristics and palatability of Jersey beef.

    PubMed

    Arnett, E J; Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Zerby, H N; Zinn, R A; Kuber, P S

    2012-03-01

    Jersey cattle are known for producing carcasses with a greater amount of marbling, but they require more days on feed to achieve acceptable market weights compared with other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary forage (12 vs. 24% sudangrass:alfalfa hay, DM basis) in steam-flaked, corn-based finishing diets on carcass characteristics, beef palatability, and retail color stability of steaks from Jersey beef compared with conventionally fed commodity beef strip loins (COM) of identified quality (Choice(-) and Select(+)). Jersey steers (n = 77) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of the following treatments for a 383-d trial period: Jersey low 12% (JL; n = 38) or Jersey high 24% (JH; n = 39) forage (DM basis). A comparison group was selected from conventionally fed cattle on the same day of slaughter as the Jersey treatments, and strip loins from USDA Select(+) (COM; n = 20) and Choice(-) (COM; n = 20) were removed for data analysis. Seventy-two hours postmortem, strip loins were removed, vacuum-packaged, and aged at 3°C for 18 d postmortem. After the aging period, steaks from the LM were sliced, vacuum-packaged, and frozen (-20°C) until analyzed. Jersey steaks had reduced (P < 0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear force values compared with COM steaks. Trained sensory panelists rated JL greater (P < 0.05) for initial and sustained tenderness and initial juiciness than COM, whereas JH was intermediate. As expected, marbling was greater (P < 0.05) for both JL and JH compared with COM, and trained sensory panel sustained juiciness, beef flavor intensity, and overall acceptability scores were greater (P < 0.05) for both JL and JH compared with COM; however, no differences (P = 0.14) were reported for consumer tenderness and flavor. Objective color (L*, a*, b*) measurements decreased (P < 0.05) over time across treatments. There were no differences among treatments for lightness (L*); however, overall during retail display JL were

  6. Soil organic matter mineralization in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson Drotz, S.; Sparrman, T.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M.; Öquist, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are frozen for a large part of the year and soil organic matter mineralization during this period has been shown to significantly influence the C balance of boreal forest ecosystems. Mineralization proceeds through heterotrophic microbial activity, but the understanding of the environmental controls regulating soil organic matter mineralization under frozen conditions is poor. Through a series of investigations we have addressed this issue in order to elucidate to what extent a range of environmental factors control mineralization processes in frozen soils and also the microbial communities potential to oxidize organic substrates and grow under such conditions. The unfrozen water content in the frozen soils was shown to be an integral control on the temperature response of biogenic CO2 production across the freezing point of bulk soil water. We found that osmotic potential was an important contributor to the total water potential and, hence, the unfrozen water content of frozen soil. From being low and negligible in an unfrozen soil, the osmotic potential was found to contribute up to 70% of the total water potential in frozen soil, greatly influencing the volume of liquid water. The specific factors of how soil organic matter composition affected the unfrozen water content and CO2 production of frozen soil were studied by CP-MAS NMR. We concluded that abundance of aromatics and recalcitrant compounds showed a significant positive correlation with unfrozen water content and these were also the major soil organic fractions that similarly correlated with the microbial CO2 production of the frozen soils. Thus, the hierarchy of environmental factors controlling SOM mineralization changes as soils freeze and environmental controls elucidated from studies of unfrozen systems can not be added on frozen conditions. We have also investigated the potential activity of soil microbial communities under frozen conditions in order to elucidate temperature

  7. Numerical study on comparison of Navier-Stokes and Burgers equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkitani, Koji; Dowker, Mark

    2012-05-01

    We compare freely decaying evolution of the Navier-Stokes equations with that of the 3D Burgers equations with the same kinematic viscosity and the same incompressible initial data by using direct numerical simulations. The Burgers equations are well-known to be regular by a maximum principle [A. A. Kiselev and O. A. Ladyzenskaya, "On existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the nonstationary problem for a viscous incompressible fluid," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Mat. 21, 655 (1957); A. A. Kiselev and O. A. Ladyzenskaya, Am. Math. Soc. Transl. 24, 79 (1957)] unlike the Navier-Stokes equations. It is found in the Burgers equations that the potential part of velocity becomes large in comparison with the solenoidal part which decays more quickly. The probability distribution of the nonlocal term -{u}\\cdot nabla p, which spoils the maximum principle, in the local energy budget is studied in detail. It is basically symmetric, i.e., it can be either positive or negative with fluctuations. Its joint probability density functions with 1/2|{u}|^2 and with 1/2|{ω }|^2 are also found to be symmetric, fluctuating at the same times as the probability density function of -{u}\\cdot nabla p. A power-law relationship is found in the mathematical bound for the enstrophy growth dfrac{dQ}{dt} + 2 ν P ∝ left(Q^a P^bright)^α , where Q and P denote the enstrophy and the palinstrophy, respectively, and the exponents a and b are determined by calculus inequalities. We propose to quantify nonlinearity depletion by the exponent α on this basis.

  8. Peristaltic transport of a fractional Burgers' fluid with variable viscosity through an inclined tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachid, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    In the present study,we investigate the unsteady peristaltic transport of a viscoelastic fluid with fractional Burgers' model in an inclined tube. We suppose that the viscosity is variable in the radial direction. This analysis has been carried out under low Reynolds number and long-wavelength approximations. An analytical solution to the problem is obtained using a fractional calculus approach. Figures are plotted to show the effects of angle of inclination, Reynolds number, Froude number, material constants, fractional parameters, parameter of viscosity and amplitude ratio on the pressure gradient, pressure rise, friction force, axial velocity and on the mechanical efficiency.

  9. Changes in the Burgers Vector of Perfect Dislocation Loops without Contact with the External Dislocations

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, K.; Hatanaka, M.; Mori, H.; Kuramoto, E.; Ono, K.

    2006-03-31

    We report the observations of a new type of changing process in the Burgers vector of dislocations by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Small interstitial-type perfect dislocation loops in bcc iron with diameters less than approximately 50 nm are transformed from a 1/2<111> loop to another 1/2<111> one or an energetically unfavorable <100> one; furthermore, a <100> loop is transformed to a 1/2<111> one. These transformations occurred on high-energy electron irradiation or simple heating without contact with external dislocations. The origin of these phenomena is discussed.

  10. Optimal fixed-finite-dimensional compensator for Burgers' equation with unbounded input/output operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, John A.; Marrekchi, Hamadi

    1993-01-01

    The problem of using reduced order dynamic compensators to control a class of nonlinear parabolic distributed parameter systems was considered. Concentration was on a system with unbounded input and output operators governed by Burgers' equation. A linearized model was used to compute low-order-finite-dimensional control laws by minimizing certain energy functionals. Then these laws were applied to the nonlinear model. Standard approaches to this problem employ model/controller reduction techniques in conjunction with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory. The approach used is based on the finite dimensional Bernstein/Hyland optimal projection theory which yields a fixed-finite-order controller.

  11. Two Different Methods for Numerical Solution of the Modified Burgers' Equation

    PubMed Central

    Karakoç, Seydi Battal Gazi; Başhan, Ali; Geyikli, Turabi

    2014-01-01

    A numerical solution of the modified Burgers' equation (MBE) is obtained by using quartic B-spline subdomain finite element method (SFEM) over which the nonlinear term is locally linearized and using quartic B-spline differential quadrature (QBDQM) method. The accuracy and efficiency of the methods are discussed by computing L 2 and L ∞ error norms. Comparisons are made with those of some earlier papers. The obtained numerical results show that the methods are effective numerical schemes to solve the MBE. A linear stability analysis, based on the von Neumann scheme, shows the SFEM is unconditionally stable. A rate of convergence analysis is also given for the DQM. PMID:25162064

  12. Chaotic motion for the generalized KdV-Burgers equation with external perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun; Li, Jieru; Ng, Tick Wan

    2009-12-01

    The bifurcation and chaos in the generalized KdV-Burgers equation under periodic perturbation are investigated numerically in some detail. It is shown that dynamical chaos can occur when we choose appropriately systematic parameters and initial conditions. Abundant bifurcation structures and different routes to chaos such as period-doubling and inverse period-doubling cascades, intermittent bifurcation and crisis are found by using bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré maps and phase portraits. To characterize the chaotic behavior of this system, the spectrum of the Lyapunov exponent and the Lyapunov dimension of the attractor are also employed.

  13. Approximate Symmetry Reduction Approach: Infinite Series Reductions to the KdV-Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xiaoyu; Yao, Ruoxia; Zhang, Shunli; Lou, Sen Y.

    2009-11-01

    For weak dispersion and weak dissipation cases, the (1+1)-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation is investigated in terms of approximate symmetry reduction approach. The formal coherence of similarity reduction solutions and similarity reduction equations of different orders enables series reduction solutions. For the weak dissipation case, zero-order similarity solutions satisfy the Painlevé II, Painlevé I, and Jacobi elliptic function equations. For the weak dispersion case, zero-order similarity solutions are in the form of Kummer, Airy, and hyperbolic tangent functions. Higher-order similarity solutions can be obtained by solving linear variable coefficients ordinary differential equations.

  14. Burgers equation with self-similar gaussian initial data: Tail probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchan, G. M.

    1996-09-01

    The statistical properties of solutions of the one-dimensional Burgers equation in the limit of vanishing viscosity are considered when the initial velocity potential is fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We establish the asymptotic power-law order for log-probability of large values, both velocity and shock (amplitude of velocity discontinuity). This confirms the conjecture of U. Frisch and his collaborators. Rigorous results for this problem were previously derived for the case of Brownian motion using Markov techniques. Our approach is based on the intrinsic properties of FBM and the theory of extreme values for Gaussian processes.

  15. Burgers equation with self-similar gaussian initial data: Tail probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchan, G. M.

    1997-09-01

    The statistical properties of solutions of the one-dimensional Burgers equation in the limit of vanishing viscosity are considered when the initial velocity potential is fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We establish the asymptotic power-law order for log-probability of large values, both velocity and shock (amplitude of velocity discontinuity). This confirms the conjecture of U. Frisch and his collaborators. Rigorous results for this problem were previously derived for the case of Brownian motion using Markov techniques. Our approach is based on the intrinsic properties of FBM and the theory of extreme values for Gaussian processes.

  16. Painlevé property, symmetries and symmetry reductions of the coupled Burgers system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zeng-Ju; Chen, Li-Li; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2005-08-01

    The Painlevé property, inverse recursion operator, infinite number of symmetries and Lie symmetry reductions of the coupled Burgers equation are given explicitly. Three sets of infinitely many symmetries of the considered model are obtained by acting the recursion operator and the inverse recursion operator on the trivial symmetries such as the identity transformation, the space translation and the scaling transformation respectively. These symmetries constitute an infinite dimensional Lie algebra while its finite dimensional Lie point symmetry subalgebra is used to find possible symmetry reductions and then the group invariant solutions.

  17. Kadomtsev—Petviashvili (KP) Burgers Equation in Dusty Negative Ion Plasmas: Evolution of Dust-Ion Acoustic Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. N., Dev; Sarma, J.; M. K., Deka; A. P., Misra; N. C., Adhikary

    2014-12-01

    We study the nonlinear propagation of dust-ion acoustic (DIA) shock waves in an un-magnetized dusty plasma which consists of electrons, both positive and negative ions and negatively charged immobile dust grains. Starting from a set of hydrodynamic equations with the ion thermal pressures and ion kinematic viscosities included, and using a standard reductive perturbation method, the Kadomtsev—Petviashivili—Burgers (K-P-Burgers) equation is derived, which governs the evolution of DIA shocks. A stationary solution of the K-P-Burgers equation is obtained and its properties are analysed with different plasma number densities, ion temperatures and masses. It is shown that a transition from shocks with negative potential to positive one occurs depending on the negative ion concentration in the plasma and the obliqueness of propagation of DIA waves.

  18. Numerical solution of two dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation using modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, H. S.; Tamsir, Mohammad; Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a numerical solution of two dimensional nonlinear coupled viscous Burger equation is discussed with appropriate initial and boundary conditions using the modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method. In this method, the weighting coefficients are computed using the modified cubic B-spline as a basis function in the differential quadrature method. Thus, the coupled Burger equation is reduced into a system of ordinary differential equations. An optimal five stage and fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta scheme is applied for solving the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of the scheme is illustrated by taking two numerical examples. Computed results are compared with the exact solutions and other results available in literature. Obtained numerical result shows that the described method is efficient and reliable scheme for solving two dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation.

  19. Microbial quality of frozen Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) meat samples from three selected farms in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Makanyanga, Tsitsi B; Mutema, Gideon; Mukarati, Norman L; Chikerema, Sylvester M; Makaya, Pious V; Musari, Shuvai; Matope, Gift

    2014-01-17

    Microbial quality of frozen Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) meat from three farms in Zimbabwe was assessed based on 2051 samples collected for pre-export testing during 2006 to 2011. Data were perused by season and year in terms of aerobic plate (APC), coliform (CC), Escherichia coli (ECC) and Listeria monocytogenes (LMC) counts and the presence of Salmonella spp. The log10-transformed data were compared among the farms and seasons using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Microbial quality of the samples was graded based on the EC No. 2073.2005 criteria for beef. The mean APC and CC for the crocodile meat differed significantly (P=0.000) among the farms with the highest APC (3.2±0.05 log10 cfu/g) and the lowest (2.7±0.05 log10 cfu/g) recorded from farms A and C, respectively. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in ECC and LMC among the farms, while Salmonella spp. were only isolated from one farm. Although the microbial quality of frozen crocodile meat from these farms was generally within acceptable limits, the isolation of E. coli and Salmonella spp. is of public health concern. Thus, implementing of measures to control the pasteurizing process and to minimize bacterial contamination of crocodile meat after pasteurization need to be carefully considered. PMID:24291179

  20. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    PubMed

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  1. On a Frozen Fellow and Melding Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes an art project that constructed a realistic model of a frozen prehistoric cadaver including its clothing and tool kit. Originally conceived as a way to introduce students to art materials, ancient history, and different cultures, the project grew to include a traveling exhibit and instructional puppet shows. (MJP)

  2. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC BONELESS BEEF TRIM USED FOR GROUND BEEF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of, and etiological agents responsible for, foodborne disease differ between these countries and the United States. Therefo...

  4. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Survey of instrument grading assessments of beef carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The instrument grading assessments for the 2011 National Beef Quality Audit evaluated seasonal trends of beef carcass quality and yield attributes over the course of the year. One week of instrument grading data, HCW, gender, USDA quality grade (QG), and yield grade (YG) factors, were collected ever...

  5. Anomalous scaling at nonthermal fixed points of Burgers' and Gross-Pitaevskii turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathey, Steven; Gasenzer, Thomas; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2015-08-01

    Scaling in the dynamical properties of complex many-body systems has been of strong interest since turbulence phenomena became the subject of systematic mathematical studies. In this article, dynamical critical phenomena far from equilibrium are investigated with functional renormalization-group equations. The focus is set on scaling solutions of the stochastic driven-dissipative Burgers equation and their relation to solutions known in the literature for Burgers' and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. We furthermore relate superfluid as well as acoustic turbulence described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model to known analytic and numerical results for scaling solutions. In this way, the canonical Kolmogorov exponent 5/3 for the energy cascade in superfluid turbulence is obtained analytically. We also get results for anomalous exponents of acoustic and quantum turbulence. These are consistent with existing experimental data. Our results should be relevant for future experiments with, e.g., exciton-polariton condensates in solid-state systems as well as with ultracold atomic gases.

  6. New analytical method for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer equations and comparison with HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Erfani, E.

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we present a numerical comparison between the differential transform method (DTM) and the homotopy analysis method (HAM) for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer problems. The first differential equation is the Burgers' equation serves as a useful model for many interesting problems in applied mathematics. The second one is the modeling equation of a straight fin with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity. In order to show the effectiveness of the DTM, the results obtained from the DTM is compared with available solutions obtained using the HAM [M.M. Rashidi, G. Domairry, S. Dinarvand, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 708-717; G. Domairry, M. Fazeli, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 489-499] and whit exact solutions. The method can easily be applied to many linear and nonlinear problems. It illustrates the validity and the great potential of the differential transform method in solving nonlinear partial differential equations. The obtained results reveal that the technique introduced here is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear partial differential equations and nonlinear ordinary differential equations that we are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.

  7. Numerical analysis of the Burgers' equation in the presence of uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, Per Iaccarino, Gianluca Nordstroem, Jan

    2009-12-01

    The Burgers' equation with uncertain initial and boundary conditions is investigated using a polynomial chaos (PC) expansion approach where the solution is represented as a truncated series of stochastic, orthogonal polynomials. The analysis of well-posedness for the system resulting after Galerkin projection is presented and follows the pattern of the corresponding deterministic Burgers equation. The numerical discretization is based on spatial derivative operators satisfying the summation by parts property and weak boundary conditions to ensure stability. Similarly to the deterministic case, the explicit time step for the hyperbolic stochastic problem is proportional to the inverse of the largest eigenvalue of the system matrix. The time step naturally decreases compared to the deterministic case since the spectral radius of the continuous problem grows with the number of polynomial chaos coefficients. An estimate of the eigenvalues is provided. A characteristic analysis of the truncated PC system is presented and gives a qualitative description of the development of the system over time for different initial and boundary conditions. It is shown that a precise statistical characterization of the input uncertainty is required and partial information, e.g. the expected values and the variance, are not sufficient to obtain a solution. An analytical solution is derived and the coefficients of the infinite PC expansion are shown to be smooth, while the corresponding coefficients of the truncated expansion are discontinuous.

  8. Entropy Stable Staggered Grid Spectral Collocation for the Burgers' and Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).

  9. Burgers equation with no-flux boundary conditions and its application for complete fluid separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Matsumoto, Sohei; Higurashi, Tomohiro; Ono, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Burgers equation in a one-dimensional bounded domain with no-flux boundary conditions at both ends is proven to be exactly solvable. Cole-Hopf transformation converts not only the governing equation to the heat equation with an extra damping but also the nonlinear mixed boundary conditions to Dirichlet boundary conditions. The average of the solution v bar is conserved. Consequently, from an arbitrary initial condition, solutions converge to the equilibrium solution which is unique for the given v bar. The problem arises naturally as a continuum limit of a network of certain micro-devices. Each micro-device imperfectly separates a target fluid component from a mixture of more than one component, and its input-output concentration relationships are modeled by a pair of quadratic maps. The solvability of the initial boundary value problem is used to demonstrate that such a network acts as an ideal macro-separator, separating out the target component almost completely. Another network is also proposed which leads to a modified Burgers equation with a nonlinear diffusion coefficient.

  10. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  11. Consumer impressions of Tender Select beef.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Meade, M K; Reagan, J O; Byrnes, B L; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-10-01

    With the recent development of technology to classify beef for tenderness, it is now possible for packers and retailers to market brands of beef known to be consistently tender. The present experiment was conducted to determine consumer impressions of Tender Select, a model beef brand comprised of cuts from tender U.S. Select carcasses. A telephone survey was conducted in metropolitan Denver, CO, to recruit consumers (n = 1,036) for this study. Consumers who met minimal limits for household income, age, and beef consumption were invited to participate in a beef shopping and usage study in a local supermarket. Point-of-purchase material was developed that described Tender Select as "the only steak guaranteed tender and lean." When shown a copy of the Tender Select concept card, 89% of participating consumers (n = 759) indicated that they would definitely or probably buy that product. Of those consumers that said they would buy the product, 35% indicated that their purchases of Tender Select would be in addition to their current fresh meat purchases. Most consumers (54.1%) indicated that if Tender Select was available at their grocery store, 1 or 2 of their next 10 purchases of beef cuts would be Tender Select. Sixty-five percent of consumers indicated that if a grocery store carried a line of beef cuts guaranteed to be tender, they would buy all of their beef at that store. Both strip loins from 104 U.S. Select beef carcasses, representing a broad range (8.7 to 43.4 kg; CV = 42%) in slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem, were used to determine the effect of SSF classification on consumer satisfaction and the correlation among trained sensory panel descriptive attribute ratings and in-home consumer ratings of beef longissimus steaks. Both trained sensory panelists and consumers rated low-SSF steaks higher than the high-SSF steaks for all traits (P < 0.001). All consumer traits (like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, flavor amount, and overall satisfaction

  12. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  13. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  14. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  15. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  16. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  17. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  18. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  19. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  20. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  1. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  2. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  3. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  4. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  5. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  6. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  7. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  8. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  9. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  10. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  11. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  17. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  18. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  19. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  20. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  1. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  2. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  3. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  5. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  6. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.181 - Qualified State beef councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State beef councils. 1260.181 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Assessments § 1260.181 Qualified State...

  8. Comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national assessment is being conducted by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, a contractor to the beef checkoff, to develop better scientific understanding of the sustainability of beef. This includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions along with other environmental, ...

  9. Teaching Consumer Selection of Market Quality Beef by Observable Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Dorothy; Jacobson, Marion

    1977-01-01

    Through a series of five tests, a slide-tape instructional presentation on the identification of beef quality was developed. It was determined that the slide-tape instruction can enable consumers to score more accurately characteristics of raw beef in relation to the characteristics of cooked beef. (Editor/TA)

  10. Food safety issues and the microbiology of beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World demand for high-quality animal protein presents opportunities for growth and expanded trade which is predicted to increase more than 6% for major beef producing countries and their beef industries. Contingent upon an increased consumer demand for beef is the production of high quality and mic...

  11. The relevancy of forage quality to beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low cost and abundant fossil fuels have driven the USA beef industry toward greater dependence on feed grains as the major feedstuff for finished beef cattle production and has lead to a centralized beef cattle feeding and processing system concentrated in the High Plains states. Low cost fuel and m...

  12. r-modified Crank-Nicholson difference schemes for one dimensional nonlinear viscous Burgers' equation for an incompressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Gambo, Yusuf Ya'u.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlocal boundary value problem for viscous Burgers' equation is considered. Solutions to the 1-D equation are presented numerically by Rothe, Crank-Nicholson and r-modified Crank-Nicholson difference schemes. Matlab codes for all the three schemes are designed based on the idea of fixed-point iteration procedure and modified Gauss elimination method. The numerical results are compared.

  13. Inverting Glacial Isostatic Adjustment with Paleo Sea Level Records using Bayesian Framework and Burgers Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, L.; Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Fleitout, L.; Rouby, H.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models most often assume a mantle with a viscoelastic Maxwell rheology and a given ice history model. Here we use a Bayesian Monte Carlo with Markov Chains formalism to invert the global GIA signal simultaneously for the mechanical properties of the mantle and for the volume of the various ice-sheets using as starting ice models two distinct previously published ice histories. Burgers as well as Maxwell rheologies are considered.The fitted data consist of 5720 paleo sea level records from the last 35kyrs, with a world-wide distribution. Our ambition is to present not only the best fitting model, but also the range of possible solutions (within the explored space of parameters) with their respective probability of explaining the data, and thus reveal the trade-off effects and range of uncertainty affecting the parameters. Our a posteriori probality maps exhibit in all cases two distinct peaks: both are characterized by an upper mantle viscosity around 5.1020Pa.s but one of the peaks features a lower mantle viscosity around 3.1021Pa.s while the other indicates lower mantle viscosity of more than 1.1022Pa.s. The global maximum depends upon the starting ice history and the chosen rheology: the first peak (P1) has the highest probability only in the case with a Maxwell rheology and ice history based on ICE-5G, while the second peak (P2) is favored when using ANU-based ice history or Burgers rheology, and is our preferred solution as it is also consistent with long-term geodynamics and gravity gradients anomalies over Laurentide. P2 is associated with larger volumes for the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice-sheets and as a consequence of total ice volume balance, smaller volumes for the Antactic ice-sheet. This last point interfers with the estimate of present-day ice-melting in Antarctica from GRACE data. Finally, we find that P2 with Burgers rheology favors the existence of a tectosphere, i.e. a viscous sublithospheric layer.

  14. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  15. Protocol for ultrarapid immunostaining of frozen sections.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, T; Nährig, J; Komminoth, P; Kowolik, J; Werner, M

    1999-01-01

    Rapid immunostaining of frozen sections within a tolerable time span would be very helpful for intraoperative diagnosis. A protocol was therefore established using the enhanced polymer one-step staining (EPOS) system (Dako) with antibodies against leucocyte common antigen (LCA), cytokeratin (CK), and anti-melanoma (MEL). Best results with reliable and specific immunostaining and a labelling intensity comparable to standard immunostaining protocols were achieved with fixation of samples in 100% acetone for 20 seconds (CK, LCA) or two minutes (MEL), followed by incubation of the primary antibody and development of the chromogen reaction with 3,3'diaminobenzidine (DAB) for three and five minutes at 37 degrees C, respectively. The total procedure takes only 12 minutes, thus enabling rapid immunostaining on intraoperative frozen sections. Apart from its use in tumour classification, this method is especially useful in detecting tumour cells in sentinel lymph nodes. Images PMID:10562816

  16. The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  17. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements...

  18. Frozen multipartite entanglement in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the multipartite entanglement dynamics of a many-body system consisting of N identical two-level atoms locally embedded in their own band-gap photonic crystals. It is shown that the tripartite entanglement of this photonic-crystal system can be frozen in a stationary state. We also find that a double-sudden-change phenomenon of four-partite entanglement occurs in this photonic-crystal system during the decoherence process under certain suitable conditions.

  19. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat. PMID:21426952

  20. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  1. Making Thin Laminae Of Frozen Alloy Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, A. K.; Holmes, L. M.; Houston, R. B.; Ecer, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    In new technique, primary objective to develop method to distribute uniformly-thin powder-metal-alloy layers between alternate fiber layers prior to consolidation. Involves use of sheets of frozen alloy powder. These laminae, interspersed with fiber mats, used to make metal/fiber composites. In addition to aerospace applications, this technique, appropriately modified, has potential in the manufacture of future automobile engines or components including molded ceramics.

  2. Existence of frozen-in coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    The 'frozen-in' coordinate systems were first introduced in the works on 'reconnection' and 'magnetic barrier' theories (see review by M.l.Pudovkin and V.S.Semenov, Space Sci. Rev. 41,1 1985). The idea was to utilize the mathematical apparatus developed for 'general relativity' theory to simplify obtaining solutions to the ideal MHD equations set. Magnetic field (B), plasma velocity (v), and their vector product were used as coordinate vectors. But there exist no stationary solutions of ideal MHD set that satisfies the required boundary conditions at infinity (A.D.Chertkov, Solar Wind Seven Conf.,Pergamon Press,1992,165) having non-zero vector product of v and B where v and B originate from the same sphere. The existence of a solution is the hidden mine of the mentioned theories. The solution is constructed in the coordinate system, which is unknown and indeterminate before obtaining this solution. A substitution of the final solution must be done directly into the initial MHD set in order to check the method. One can demonstrate that 'solutions' of Petschek's problem, obtained by 'frozen-in' coordinate systems, does not satisfy just the 'frozen-in' equation, i.e. induction equation. It stems from the fact that Petschek's 're-connection' model, treated as a boundary problem, is over determined. This problem was incorrectly formulated.

  3. The new frozen spin target at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Borisov, N. S.; Arends, H.-J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Gurevich, G. M.; Kondratiev, R. L.; Korolija, M.; Lazarev, A. B.; Martinez, M.; Meyer, W.; Mironov, S. V.; Neganov, A. B.; Pavlov, V. N.; Ortega, H.; Reicherz, G.; Usov, Yu. A.

    2013-11-01

    The new frozen spin polarized target for experiments at the polarized beam of the real photon facility A2 of the MAMI accelerator is described. The A2-collaboration at the Mainz Microtron MAMI is measuring photon absorption cross section using circularly and linearly polarized photons up to the energy of 1.5 GeV. The photons are produced in the' Bremsstrahlungs' process. In the years 2005/2006 the Crystal Ball detector with its unique capability to cope with multi photon final states was set up in Mainz. Since 2010 the experimental apparatus has been completed by a polarized target. The horizontal dilution refrigerator of the Frozen-Spin Target has been constructed and is operated in close cooperation with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The system offers the opportunity to provide longitudinally and transversely polarized protons and deuteron. In this paper the operation experience of this new Frozen-Spin Target and first results from the runs in 2010 and 2011 are presented.

  4. VISCOUS ENERGY DISSIPATION IN FROZEN CRYOGENS

    SciTech Connect

    Meitner, S. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Andraschko, M. R.

    2008-03-16

    ITER is an international research and development project with the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of fusion power. The fuel for the ITER plasma is injected in the form of frozen deuterium pellets; the current injector design includes a batch extruder, cooled by liquid helium. A more advanced fuel system will produce deuterium pellets continuously using a twin-screw extruder, cooled by a cryocooler. One of the critical design parameters for the advanced system is the friction associated with the shearing planes of the frozen deuterium in the extruder; the friction determines the required screw torque as well as the cryocooler heat load.An experiment has been designed to measure the energy dissipation associated with shearing frozen deuterium. Deuterium gas is cooled to its freezing point in the gap between a stationary outer canister and a rotating inner cylinder. The dissipation is measured mechanically and through calorimetric means. The experiment has also been used to measure dissipation in other cryogens, such as neon, as a function of rotational velocity and temperature. This paper describes the design and construction of the experiment and presents measurements over a range of cryogens and test conditions.

  5. Specific identification of chicken and soybean fraud in premium burgers using multiplex-PCR method.

    PubMed

    Tafvizi, Farzaneh; Hashemzadegan, Masumeh

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of meat products, such as hamburger in large cities such as Tehran, has highlighted the importance of quality control for these products. Due to the escalating cost of red meat, and the difficulty of detecting adulteration in ground meat, the replacement of red meat with cheaper animal and plant proteins in these products is clearly possible. As a result, the aim of this study was to investigate the validity of labeling in premium hamburgers made of beef. In addition, the presence of soybean and chicken meat, which constitutes commercial fraud in premium hamburgers, was detected using a sensitive and quick multiplex-PCR method. In total, 10 specified brands of premium hamburgers purported to consist of beef were collected from markets in Tehran City, Iran. DNA was extracted from the premium hamburgers, then, simplex-PCR and multiplex-PCR fwere optimized using specific beef, chicken and soybean primers. The 118, 183, and 274 bp fragments, were amplified in all samples from soybean lectin, 12 s rRNA, and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes, respectively. The results indicated the addition of chicken meat and soybean in the premium hamburgers which were not indicated on their labels. PMID:26788003

  6. Forced convection analysis for generalized Burgers nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood; Khan, Waqar Azeem

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the two-dimensional forced convective flow of a generalized Burgers fluid over a linearly stretched sheet under the impacts of nano-sized material particles. Utilizing appropriate similarity transformations the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The analytic results are carried out through the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to investigate the impact of various pertinent parameters for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The obtained results are presented in tabular form as well as graphically and discussed in detail. The presented results show that the rate of heat transfer at the wall and rate of nanoparticle volume fraction diminish with each increment of the thermophoresis parameter. While incremented values of the Brownian motion parameter lead to a quite opposite effect on the rates of heat transfer and nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall.

  7. A Generalized Simplest Equation Method and Its Application to the Boussinesq-Burgers Equation

    PubMed Central

    Sudao, Bilige; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized simplest equation method is proposed to seek exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). In the method, we chose a solution expression with a variable coefficient and a variable coefficient ordinary differential auxiliary equation. This method can yield a Bäcklund transformation between NLEEs and a related constraint equation. By dealing with the constraint equation, we can derive infinite number of exact solutions for NLEEs. These solutions include the traveling wave solutions, non-traveling wave solutions, multi-soliton solutions, rational solutions, and other types of solutions. As applications, we obtained wide classes of exact solutions for the Boussinesq-Burgers equation by using the generalized simplest equation method. PMID:25973605

  8. Nonlinear wave solutions of the three-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers equation in dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2015-12-01

    The propagation of dust-ion-acoustic waves with high-energy electrons and positrons in three-dimensional is considered. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers (ZKB) equations for the dust-ion-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas is obtained. The conservations laws and integrals of motion for the ZKB equation are deduced. In the present study, by applying the modified direct algebraic method, we found the electric field potential, electric field and quantum statistical pressure in form water wave solutions for three-dimensional ZKB equation. The solutions for the ZKB equation are obtained precisely and efficiency of the method can be demonstrated. The stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making the graphs of the exact solutions are discussed and analyzed.

  9. Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation for magnetosonic wave in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-05-15

    Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) equation for magnetosonic wave propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is derived for homogeneous electron-ion magneto-plasmas. The dissipation in the system is taken into account through the kinematic viscosity of the ions. The effects of kinematic viscosity of ions, plasma density, and magnetic field strength on the formation of magnetosonic shocks are investigated. It is found that the shock strength is enhanced with the increase in the plasma density of the system. However, the increase in magnetic field strength decreases the amplitude of magnetosonic shock wave. The critical value of the dissipative coefficient to form oscillatory profile and monotonic shock is also discussed. The numerical results have also been plotted by taking the parameters from laboratory plasma experiments.

  10. Investigation of detonation velocity in heterogeneous explosive system using the reactive Burgers' analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Labbio, G.; Kiyanda, C. B.; Mi, X.; Higgins, A. J.; Nikiforakis, N.; Ng, H. D.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the applicability of the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) criterion is tested numerically for heterogeneous explosive media using a simple detonation analog. The analog system consists of a reactive Burgers' equation coupled with an Arrhenius type reaction wave, and the heterogeneity of the explosive media is mimicked using a discrete energy source approach. The governing equation is solved using a second order, finite-volume approach and the average propagation velocity of the discrete detonation is determined by tracking the leading shock front. Consistent with previous studies, the averaged velocity of the leading shock front from the unsteady numerical simulations is also found to be in good agreement with the velocity of a CJ detonation in a uniform medium wherein the energy source is spatially homogenized. These simulations have thus implications for whether the CJ criterion is valid to predict the detonation velocity in heterogeneous explosive media.

  11. MHD flow of Burger's fluid over an off-centered rotating disk in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Najeeb Alam; Khan, Sidra; Ullah, Saif

    2015-08-01

    In this study, off-centered stagnation flow of three dimensional Burger's fluid over an infinite rotating disk in a porous medium with a uniform magnetic field, which is applying normal to the disk, is investigated. A uniform suction/injection is applied through the surface of the porous disk. The structure has been modeled in the form of ordinary differential equations, which are reduced from partial differential equations by using the similarity transformation. Analytical solution is obtained by non-perturbation technique of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity profile is presented in graphical form and the numerical comparison is made with the viscous fluid as a special case.

  12. A hybrid numerical scheme for the numerical solution of the Burgers' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwari, Ram

    2015-03-01

    In this article, a hybrid numerical scheme based on Euler implicit method, quasilinearization and uniform Haar wavelets has been developed for the numerical solutions of Burgers' equation. Most of the numerical methods available in the literature fail to capture the physical behavior of the equations when viscosity ν → 0. In Jiwari (2012), the author presented the numerical results up to ν = 0.003 and the scheme failed for values smaller than ν = 0.003. The main aim in the development of the present scheme is to overcome the drawback of the scheme developed in Jiwari (2012). Lastly, three test problems are chosen to check the accuracy of the proposed scheme. The approximated results are compared with existing numerical and exact solutions found in literature. The use of uniform Haar wavelet is found to be accurate, simple, fast, flexible, convenient and at small computation costs.

  13. Probabilistic Aspects of Equation of Motion of Forced Burgers and Navier-Stokes Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, H.

    1980-11-01

    Physical requirements and limitations on the force terms of the equations of motion for forced Burgers turbulence and for a class of forced, incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence are discussed from probabilistic point of view. A basic problem, to determine the appropriate normalization of equations of motion, is answered. The normalization and the physical requirements are shown to stipulate that the force terms must bear Gaussian and white character for their time dependence as an exclusive consequence of the central limit theorem of Rosenblatt. A range of physical phenomena is thus pointed out to substantialize Kraichnan-Wyld-Edwards type of equations of motion for turbulence. A problem is found in the definition, as stochastic partial differential equations, of such equations with Gaussian-white-noise forces in the inviscid limit, and a possible way to circumvent the difficulty is shown to be inherent in the central limit theorem itself.

  14. Madelung representation of damped parametric quantum oscillator and exactly solvable Schroedinger-Burgers equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bueyuekasik, Sirin A.; Pashaev, Oktay K.

    2010-12-15

    We construct a Madelung fluid model with time variable parameters as a dissipative quantum fluid and linearize it in terms of Schroedinger equation with time-dependent parameters. It allows us to find exact solutions of the nonlinear Madelung system in terms of solutions of the Schroedinger equation and the corresponding classical linear ordinary differential equation with variable frequency and damping. For the complex velocity field, the Madelung system takes the form of a nonlinear complex Schroedinger-Burgers equation, for which we obtain exact solutions using complex Cole-Hopf transformation. In particular, we give exact results for nonlinear Madelung systems related with Caldirola-Kanai-type dissipative harmonic oscillator. Collapse of the wave function in dissipative models and possible implications for the quantum cosmology are discussed.

  15. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws and exact solutions of the generalized time fractional Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Bin; Tian, Shou-Fu; Qin, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2016-04-01

    Under investigation in this work are the invariance properties of the generalized time fractional Burgers equation, which can be used to describe the physical processes of unidirectional propagation of weakly nonlinear acoustic waves through a gas-filled pipe. The Lie group analysis method is applied to consider its vector fields and symmetry reductions. Furthermore, based on the sub-equation method, a new type of explicit solutions for the equation is well constructed with a detailed analysis. By means of the power series theory, exact power series solutions of the equation are also constructed. Finally, by using the new conservation theorem, conservation laws of the equation are well constructed with a detailed derivation.

  16. A unified approach for the numerical solution of time fractional Burgers' type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, A.; Bulut, F.; Oruç, Ö.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a relatively new approach is devised for obtaining approximate solution of time fractional partial differential equations. Time fractional diffusion equation and time fractional Burgers-Fisher equation are solved with Haar wavelet method where fractional derivatives are Caputo derivative. Time discretization of the problems made by L1 discretization formula and space derivatives discretized by Haar series. L2 and L_{∞} error norms are used for measuring accuracy of the proposed method. Numerical results obtained with proposed method compared with exact solutions as well as with available results from the literature. The numerical results verify the feasibility of Haar wavelet combined with L1 discretization formula for the considered problems.

  17. Control of estrus and ovulation in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David J; Thomas, Jordan M; Martin, Neal T; Nash, Justin M; Smith, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    Expanded use of artificial insemination (AI) and/or adoption of emerging reproductive technologies for beef heifers and cows require precise methods of estrous-cycle control. New protocols for inducing and synchronizing a fertile estrus in replacement beef heifers and postpartum beef cows in which progestins are used provide new opportunities for beef producers to synchronize estrus and ovulation and to facilitate fixed-time AI. This article reviews the various estrous synchronization protocols currently available for use in replacement beef heifers. New methods of inducing and synchronizing estrus now create the opportunity to significantly expand the use of AI in the United States cowherd. PMID:24182437

  18. Proteome basis for intramuscular variation in color stability of beef semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Nair, Mahesh N; Suman, Surendranath P; Chatli, Manish K; Li, Shuting; Joseph, Poulson; Beach, Carol M; Rentfrow, Gregg

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the proteome basis for intramuscular color stability variations in beef semimembranosus. Semimembranosus muscles from eight carcasses (n=8) were fabricated into 2.54-cm thick color-labile inside (ISM) and color-stable outside (OSM) steaks. One steak for sarcoplasmic proteome analysis was immediately frozen, whereas other steaks were allotted to retail display under aerobic packaging. Color attributes were evaluated instrumentally and biochemically on 0, 2, and 4days. Sarcoplasmic proteome was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. ISM steaks demonstrated greater (P<0.01) abundance of glycolytic enzymes (fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, and beta-enolase) and phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 than their OSM counterparts. Possible rapid post-mortem glycolysis in ISM, insinuated by over-abundance of glycolytic enzymes, could lead to rapid pH decline during early post-mortem, which in turn could potentially compromise its color stability. These results indicated that differential abundance of sarcoplasmic proteome contributes to intramuscular variations in beef color stability. PMID:26588815

  19. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; O'Fallon, J; Ringkob, T P; Rogers-Klette, K R; Joos, D; Piper, K

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the influence of diet and aging on beef palatability, lipid oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition, crossbred steers were assigned to Feedlot S (alfalfa and grain), Forage TR (triticale and annual ryegrass), Forage TK (triticale and kale), or Forage+Feedlot (grazing ryegrass, fescue and orchardgrass, finished on alfalfa and grain) dietary treatments. Heifers were finished on Feedlot H (alfalfa and grain). Longissimus and tricep muscles were sampled from these animals for steaks and ground beef, respectively. Steaks were either dry- or wet-aged for 14 d. Ground beef was dry-aged, wet-aged for 14 d, or not aged. Trained sensory panelists evaluated palatability attributes of steaks and ground beef. Diet did not influence sensory attributes of steaks or ground beef. Aging impacted (P<0.05) sensory attributes of ground beef. Diet and aging had no impact on lipid oxidative stability but affected fatty acid composition of raw ground beef. PMID:20709462

  20. Quantitative distribution of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and raw beef at retail establishments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Chávez, L; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Pérez-Montaño, J A; Garay-Martínez, L E; Varela-Hernández, J J; Castillo, A; Lucia, L; Ávila-Novoa, M G; Cardona-López, M A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy feedlot cattle and can be transferred to the carcass surface during hide removal and evisceration procedures. Numerous investigations on Salmonella prevalence throughout different stages of the beef chain have been conducted. In contrast, limited studies are available on quantitative determinations of Salmonella at different steps in raw meat production. Quantitative data, particularly for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella are important for quantitative risk assessment. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli populations were enumerated on beef carcass samples collected at abattoirs and also in beef chunks and ground beef samples collected from butcher's shops at retail in Jalisco State, Mexico. Sponge samples from beef carcass sides (n=142) were collected immediately after final water wash and before chilling at three non-federally inspected abattoirs following USDA-FSIS sampling protocols. Beef chunks (n=84) and ground beef (n=65) samples were obtained from 86 butcher's shops. Salmonella enumeration was conducted by the Most Probable Number method and E. coli counts were determined using Petrifilm plates. Salmonella was isolated from 18% of beef carcasses, 39% of beef chunks and 71% of ground beef samples. Salmonella mean counts were 1.3±0.9 Log MPN/300 cm(2) on beef carcasses, 1.9±0.9 and 2.3±1.1 Log MPN/25 g in beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Twenty-six Salmonella serotypes and 11 serogroups were identified among 432 isolates recovered. Salmonella typhimurium (14%), Salmonella sinstorf (12%) and S. Group E1 monophasic (10%) were the most frequent. Escherichia coli was present on 97, 84 and 100% of beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Escherichia coli mean counts were 3.2±0.7 Log CFU/300 cm(2), 3.9±1.1 and 4.5±1.2 Log CFU/25 g on beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef, respectively. Salmonella prevalence

  1. Quantitative digital X-ray imaging using frozen hydrated and frozen dried tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Saubermann, A J; Heyman, R V

    1987-05-01

    Application of quantitative X-ray imaging to frozen hydrated tissue sections has presented a number of major problems including lack of a suitable algorithm which could deal effectively with mass loss due to radiation damage, problems of low characteristic X-ray signal to background ratios, and provide a means of analysis of the same location in both hydrated and dried states. This paper presents details of the application of our algorithm for analysis of frozen hydrated, then dried cryosections applied to quantitative X-ray imaging, which provides relatively high precision quantitative measurement of elemental content (related to both wet and dry weight) and water content of each pixel. This algorithm largely circumvents many of the problems of analysis of frozen hydrated tissue sections. Our algorithm for X-ray imaging obtains reasonably precise quantitative measurements coupled with morphological information by trading speed and image resolution. PMID:3612771

  2. A healthy patient with bilateral frozen hips preceding bilateral frozen shoulders: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Miller, Abigail R; Arnot, Dean; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (frozen shoulder) is a common disease characterised by spontaneous onset of pain and restriction of movement, followed by 'thawing', with complete or near-complete resolution. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip has been reported in around a dozen patients. This report describes an otherwise-healthy middle-aged woman with apparent sequential resolving adhesive capsulitis of all four ball-and-socket joints over a 9-year period, initially affecting each hip and then each shoulder sequentially. The likely hip diagnosis became clear only retrospectively with development of the second frozen shoulder, 5 years after the first pain. All joints subsequently resolved within the expected timeframe and the patient remains healthy, other than having mild hypertension. This case illustrates that, when hip precedes shoulder involvement, there is the potential for the frozen hip to receive alternate diagnoses for which invasive open hip surgery could unnecessarily be recommended. PMID:26564111

  3. [The hygiene of refrigerated and frozen foods].

    PubMed

    Sinell, H J

    1989-04-01

    Health and spoilage hazards arising from refrigerated and deep frozen foods may be due to - raw materials, e.g. pathogenic microorganisms which come from infected living animals or contaminate raw foods during handling. Psychrotrophic organisms have particular significance as pathogens or spoilage organisms as they can multiply also during refrigeration; - improper processing. Temperature abuse and incorrect time/temperature relations are main causes for microorganisms being not destroyed at the expected rate or even getting a chance of multiplying. Proper handling after refrigeration or frozen storage of foods ("hygiene of thawing") deserves also particular attention. - contamination, i.e. initial contamination of raw products which are ready for consumption without further processing (fruits, raw salads). Recontamination which follows a heat process is much more important and occurs before, during and after application of cold. In those cases, again, one has to distinguish between products which (a) are ready for consumption without a process (bakery and confectionary goods, ice cream, drinking milk) and (b) have to pass a process which reduces the bacterial load before consuming the food (ready to eat dishes or other foods ready for reheating in the home). Sites of increased hygienic hazard are a) lack of partitioning "clean" and "unclean" areas and processes, b) defects of sanitation and hygiene of personnel, c) defects of packaging, d) leakage during aseptic filling. Hazards are controlled through product and plant specific analysis of the process flow followed by continuous monitoring the "Critical Control Points". As an example, a report is given on a study on random samples taken from 180.000 prepackaged deep frozen menus which had been produced for a mass meeting. Microbiological monitoring of the process revealed time/temperature relations as critical control points of primary importance. Particular problems arose from any stoppage at the production line

  4. Temperature Effects on Free Radicals in Gamma-sterilized Beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, S. I.; Jahan, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    Gamma irradiation has become the method of choice for sterilizing frozen meat and their products to reduce levels of food-borne pathogens and to extend shelf life. In this report we have employed ESR technique for detection of free radicals in sterilized and non-sterilized dry beef without bone. We have also determined the heating effects on free radicals at temperatures 176^°C and 250^°C. Meat samples were dried in a food dehydrator at 60^°C and were packaged in dry N_2. They were then sterilized by γ-irradiation (2.5 MRad), ground into powder, and placed in ESR sample tubes. Non-sterilized powder samples were used as control. While all powder samples, sterilized or not, produced a broad single line in the ESR spectra with (Δ H_pp ~ 9 G) and g = 2.013, the radical concentration in the sterilized samples increased by a factor of five. Heat treatment at 176^°C produced similar radicals. But, when samples were heated 250^°C different radical species were formed which are characterized by narrow width (Δ H_pp ~ 6 G) and lower g-value (g =2.010). In contrast with previous work, where free radicals in chicken bones were reduced by heating [1], we observed an increase in concentration. Results of structural analyses of the radicals will be presented. Ref.[1]: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 49, 477-481, 1997. Work supported by Grants from the University of Memphis

  5. Imaging radar observations of frozen Arctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Bryan, M. L.; Weeks, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic aperture imaging L-band radar flown aboard the NASA CV-990 remotely sensed a number of ice-covered lakes about 48 km northwest of Bethel, Alaska. The image obtained is a high resolution, two-dimensional representation of the surface backscatter cross section, and large differences in backscatter returns are observed: homogeneous low returns, homogeneous high returns and/or low returns near lake borders, and high returns from central areas. It is suggested that a low return indicates that the lake is frozen completely to the bottom, while a high return indicates the presence of fresh water between the ice cover and the lake bed.

  6. Frozen shoulder and other shoulder disturbances in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Riley, D; Lang, A E; Blair, R D; Birnbaum, A; Reid, B

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of shoulder disturbances, particularly frozen shoulder, has not been assessed previously in Parkinson's disease. In a survey of 150 patients compared with 60 matched control subjects a significantly higher incidence of both a history of shoulder complaints (43% vs. 23%) and frozen shoulder (12.7% vs. 1.7%) was found in the Parkinson's disease population. Those developing a frozen shoulder had initial disease symptoms indicative of akinesia twice as frequently as tremor while the ratio was reversed in those without frozen shoulder. In at least 8% of the patients frozen shoulder was the first symptom of disease, occurring 0-2 years prior to the onset of more commonly recognised features. Parkinson's disease should be added to the list of causes of frozen shoulder, and clinicians must be aware that the latter is often the presenting symptom of Parkinson's disease. PMID:2709037

  7. Noninvasive Prediction of Beef Longissimus Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we developed accurate technology to predict tenderness of U.S. Select beef longissimus using visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VISNIR). Originally this technology was applied on the bloom chain in commercial packing plants at approximately 2 min after the carcasses wer...

  8. Genomics and the global beef cattle industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After two decades of developing DNA-based tools for selection, we are at an interesting juncture. Genomic technology has essentially eliminated the potentially large negative impact of spontaneous single mutation genetic defects as the management of recent examples of beef defects has demonstrated....

  9. Beef Heifer Development Within Three Calving Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Heifer calves (n=676) born in late winter (LW; avg birth date = Feb 7 ± 9 d) or early spring (ES; avg birth date Apr 3 ± 10 d) were weaned at 190- or...

  10. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  11. An alternative animal protein source: cultured beef.

    PubMed

    Post, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    Alternative sources of animal proteins are needed that can be produced efficiently, thereby providing food security with diminished ecological burden. It is feasible to culture beef from bovine skeletal muscle stem cells, but the technology is still under development. The aim is to create a beef mimic with equivalent taste, texture, and appearance and with the same nutritional value as livestock-produced beef. More specifically, there is a need for optimization of protein content and fat content. In addition, scalability of production requires modification of current small-scale bioreactors to the largest possible scale. The necessary steps and current progress suggest that this aim is achievable, but formal evidence is still required. Similarly, we can be optimistic about consumer acceptance based on initial data, but detailed studies are needed to gain more insight into potential psychological obstacles that could lead to rejection. These challenges are formidable but likely surmountable. The severity of upcoming food-security threats warrants serious research and development efforts to address the challenges that come with bringing cultured beef to the market. PMID:25376889

  12. Genetic relationships among breeds of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic distance among 16 populations of beef cattle from within the U.S. Thirty-three microsatellite markers representing 26 autosomes were used. MicroSatellite Analyzer 3.15 (MSA) program was used to quantify number of alleles per marker, and observed and expected het...

  13. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  14. PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM BEEF PACKING EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wastewater from a beef packing plant contained 4,600 mg/1 COD and 2,500 mg/1 of suspended solids. A physiochemical wastewater treatment process that recovers protein removed 80% of the oxygen demand and suspended solids, and 94% of the fat, oil, and grease. Total cost was $3 ...

  15. Annual grass as supplements for beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown when limit grazing cool-season annual grasses as a supplement in a complementary forage system, energy and CP supplementation are not required and hay requirements are reduced 23% for gestating beef cows. To further improve the sustainability of complementary forage systems, repla...

  16. Pregnancy toxaemia of beef cows in Orkney.

    PubMed

    Spence, A B

    1978-05-27

    Pregnancy toxaemia in beef cows is assessed based on approximately 30 isolated cases seen in Orkney during the period 1974 to 1977. Case histories of nine of these are included. A mortality rate of over 90 per cent was recorded. The importance of nutrition and early detection is emphasised. PMID:664198

  17. Whole Genome Analysis for Beef Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat tenderness is the single most important trait affecting palatability and consumer satisfaction with beef products. Current breeding values for meat tenderness traits have low accuracy because progeny phenotypes are not generally recorded. Selection for this trait could be accelerated by DNA m...

  18. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  19. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  20. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  1. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  2. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  3. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  4. Comparison of frozen and freeze-dried particulate bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Malinin, Theodore; Temple, H Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Freeze-dried and frozen particulate bone allografts are used interchangeably on the assumption that the biologic behavior of these grafts is similar. Dissimilarities in biologic behavior and differences in the rate and extent of bone incorporation of freeze-dried and frozen particulate grafts were demonstrated in a comparative study using a non-human primate model. Freeze-dried particulate allografts induced new bone formation and healing of the osseous defects much faster than the frozen allografts. PMID:17658506

  5. Modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method for numerical solution of three-dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, H. S.; Tamsir, Mohammad; Srivastava, Vineet K.; Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM) to solve three-dimensional (3D) coupled viscous Burger equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. In this method, modified cubic B-spline is treated as a basis function in the differential quadrature method (DQM) to compute the weighting coefficients. In this way, the Burger equation is reduced into a system of ordinary differential equations. An optimal strong stability-preserving Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) method is employed to solve the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. In order to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, a numerical problem is considered. From the numerical experiment, it is found that the computed result is in good agreement with the exact solution. Stability analysis of the method is also carried out using the matrix stability analysis method and found to be unconditionally stable.

  6. Simulation of seismic waves in the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) using a Burgers model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, Flavio; Farina, Biancamaria; Carcione, José Maria

    2014-05-01

    The seismic characterization of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in the Earth's crust is of great importance for the study of high-enthalpy geothermal fields in the proximity of magmatic zones. It is well known that the BDT can be viewed as the transition between zones with viscoelastic and plastic behavior, i.e., the transition between the upper, cooler, brittle crustal zone, and the deeper ductile zone. Depending on stress and temperature conditions, the BDT behavior is basically determined by the viscosity of the crustal rocks, which acts as a key factor. In situ shear stress and temperature are related to shear viscosity and steady-state creep flow through the Arrhenius equation, and deviatory stress by octahedral stress criterion. We present a numerical approach to simulate the propagation of P-S and SH seismic waves in a 2D model of the heterogeneous Earth's crust. The full-waveform simulation code is based on a Burgers mechanical model (Carcione, 2007), which enables us to describe both the seismic attenuation effects and the steady-state creep flow (Carcione and Poletto, 2013; Carcione et al. 2013). The differential equations of motion are calculated for the Burgers model, and recast in the velocity-stress formulation. Equations are solved in the time domain using memory variables. The approach uses a direct method based on the Runge-Kutta technique, and the Fourier pseudo-spectral methods, for time integration and for spatial derivation, respectively. In this simulation we assume isotropic models. To test the code, the signals generated by the full-waveform simulation algorithm are compared with success to analytic solutions obtained with different shear viscosities. Moreover, synthetic results are calculated to simulate surface and VSP seismograms in a realistic rheological model with a dramatic temperature change, to study the observability of BDT by seismic reflection methods. The medium corresponds to a selected rheology of the Iceland scenario

  7. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models. PMID:24398839

  8. Study on radiation preservation of frozen egg liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengmei, Li; Yongbao, Gu; Dianhua, Chen

    2000-03-01

    In this paper the preservation process of γ-irradiated frozen egg liquid has been studied. It shows that the proper absorbed dose is 2 kGy and there is no significant difference in nutrient components, vitamins content between the irradiated frozen egg liquid and the control. A study of a diet including γ-irradiated frozen egg liquid was carried out with 58 volunteers who, during a 70-day test, indicated that the frozen egg liquid exposed to radiation is hygienic and safe.

  9. Frozen spin targets in ribosomal structure research.

    PubMed

    Stuhrmann, H B

    1991-01-01

    Polarized neutron scattering strongly depends on nuclear spin polarisation, particularly on proton spin polarisation. A single proton in a deuterated environment then is as efficient as 10 electrons in X-ray anomalous diffraction. Neutron scattering from the nuclear spin label is controlled by the polarisation of neutron spins and nuclear spins. Pure deuteron spin labels and proton spin labels are created by NMR saturation. We report on results obtained from the large subunit of E. coli ribosomes which have been obtained at the research reactor of GKSS using the polarized target facility developed by CERN. The nuclear spins were oriented with respect to an external field by dynamic nuclear polarisation. Proton spin polarisations of more than 80% were obtained in ribosomes at temperatures below 0.5 K. At T = 130 mK the relaxation time of the polarized target is one month (frozen spin target). Polarized small-angle neutron scattering of the in situ structure of rRNA and the total ribosomal protein (TP) has been determined from the frozen spin targets of the large ribosomal subunit, which has been deuterated in the TP and rRNA respectively. The results agree with those from neutron scattering in H2O/D2O mixtures obtained at room temperature. This is a necessary prerequisite for the planned determination of the in situ structure of individual ribosomal proteins and especially of that of ribosome bound mRNA and tRNAs. PMID:1720669

  10. Primary Frozen Shoulder Syndrome: Arthroscopic Capsular Release.

    PubMed

    Arce, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, or primary frozen shoulder syndrome, is a fairly common orthopaedic problem characterized by shoulder pain and loss of motion. In most cases, conservative treatment (6-month physical therapy program and intra-articular steroid injections) improves symptoms and restores shoulder motion. In refractory cases, arthroscopic capsular release is indicated. This surgical procedure carries several advantages over other treatment modalities. First, it provides precise and controlled release of the capsule and ligaments, reducing the risk of traumatic complications observed after forceful shoulder manipulation. Second, release of the capsule and the involved structures with a radiofrequency device delays healing, which prevents adhesion formation. Third, the technique is straightforward, and an oral postoperative steroid program decreases pain and allows for a pleasant early rehabilitation program. Fourth, the procedure is performed with the patient fully awake under an interscalene block, which boosts the patient's confidence and adherence to the physical therapy protocol. In patients with refractory primary frozen shoulder syndrome, arthroscopic capsular release emerges as a suitable option that leads to a faster and long-lasting recovery. PMID:26870652

  11. Frozen Chemistry Effects on Nozzle Performance Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; O'Gara, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of exhaust nozzle flows are typically conducted assuming the gas is calorically perfect, and typically modeled as air. However the gas inside a real nozzle is generally composed of combustion products whose thermodynamic properties may differ. In this study, the effect of gas model assumption on exhaust nozzle simulations is examined. The three methods considered model the nozzle exhaust gas as calorically perfect air, a calorically perfect exhaust gas mixture, and a frozen exhaust gas mixture. In the latter case the individual non-reacting species are tracked and modeled as a gas which is only thermally perfect. Performance parameters such as mass flow rate, gross thrust, and thrust coefficient are compared as are mean flow and turbulence profiles in the jet plume region. Nozzles which operate at low temperatures or have low subsonic exit Mach numbers experience relatively minor temperature variations inside the nozzle, and may be modeled as a calorically perfect gas. In those which operate at the opposite extreme conditions, variations in the thermodynamic properties can lead to different expansion behavior within the nozzle. Modeling these cases as a perfect exhaust gas flow rather than air captures much of the flow features of the frozen chemistry simulations. Use of the exhaust gas reduces the nozzle mass flow rate, but has little effect on the gross thrust. When reporting nozzle thrust coefficient results, however, it is important to use the appropriate gas model assumptions to compute the ideal exit velocity. Otherwise the values obtained may be an overly optimistic estimate of nozzle performance.

  12. Primary Frozen Shoulder Syndrome: Arthroscopic Capsular Release

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, or primary frozen shoulder syndrome, is a fairly common orthopaedic problem characterized by shoulder pain and loss of motion. In most cases, conservative treatment (6-month physical therapy program and intra-articular steroid injections) improves symptoms and restores shoulder motion. In refractory cases, arthroscopic capsular release is indicated. This surgical procedure carries several advantages over other treatment modalities. First, it provides precise and controlled release of the capsule and ligaments, reducing the risk of traumatic complications observed after forceful shoulder manipulation. Second, release of the capsule and the involved structures with a radiofrequency device delays healing, which prevents adhesion formation. Third, the technique is straightforward, and an oral postoperative steroid program decreases pain and allows for a pleasant early rehabilitation program. Fourth, the procedure is performed with the patient fully awake under an interscalene block, which boosts the patient's confidence and adherence to the physical therapy protocol. In patients with refractory primary frozen shoulder syndrome, arthroscopic capsular release emerges as a suitable option that leads to a faster and long-lasting recovery. PMID:26870652

  13. Stability of Frozen Orbits Around Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Josué; Vilhena de Moraes, R.; Carvalho, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): A planetary satellite of interest at the present moment for the scientific community is Europa, one of the four largest moons of Jupiter. There are some missions planned to visit Europa in the next years, for example, Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO, NASA) and Jupiter IcyMoon Explorer (JUICE, ESA). In this work we are formulating theories and constructing computer programs to be used in the design of aerospace tasks as regards the stability of artificial satellite orbits around planetary satellites. The studies are related to translational motion of orbits around planetary satellites considering polygenic perturbations due to forces, such as the nonspherical shape of the central body and the perturbation of the third body. The equations of motion will be developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. For a description of canonical formalism are used the Delaunay canonical variables. The canonical set of equations, which are nonlinear differential equations, will be used to study the stability of orbits around Europa. We will use a simplified dynamic model, which considers the effects caused by non-uniform distribution of mass of Europa (J2, J3 and C22) and the gravitational attraction of Jupiter. Emphasis will be given to the case of frozen orbits, defined as having almost constant values of eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre. An approach will be used to search for frozen orbits around planetary satellites and study their stability by applying a process of normalization of Hamiltonian. Acknowledges: FAPESP

  14. A pseudo-spectral method for a non-local KdV-Burgers equation posed on R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Hoz, Francisco; Cuesta, Carlota M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new pseudo-spectral method to solve the initial value problem associated to a non-local KdV-Burgers equation involving a Caputo-type fractional derivative. The basic idea is, using an algebraic map, to transform the whole real line into a bounded interval where we can apply a Fourier expansion. Special attention is given to the correct computation of the fractional derivative in this setting.

  15. New methods in the theory of strong turbulence: Burgers turbulence, intermittency, and nonuniversality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyrev, Stanislav

    1997-11-01

    A new approach to the problem of strong turbulence is discussed. Recently developed methods of quantum field theory(A. M. Polyakov, Phys. Rev. E 52), 6183 (1995). are shown to predict the highly intermittent statistics of velocity fluctuations for a 1D model of strong turbulence of compressible fluid. Very good agreement between theory and numerical simulations is demonstrated. We start with turbulence without pressure, modelled by the Burgers equation with random Gaussian external force: ut + uux = ν u_xx + f(x, t) . This is believed to be the first exactly solvable model, which allows one to test many general ideas applied to fluid and plasma turbulence. The appropriate quantum field theory methods for treating such a problem are based on self-consistent conjectures about the operator product expansion, Galilean and scaling invariance. The problem is specified by choosing the force to have zero mean and white-in-time variance: < f(x, t)f(x^', t^')> = κ (x-x^')δ(t-t^') (2). This model describes stationary turbulence with nonlinear energy transfer over scales from the pumping region (external force) to the dissipative one (shocks). It is assumed that the regions of source and sink are very well separated --- i.e., the formal limits of large system dimension and small viscosity are considered. We choose the force to be large-scale-correlated, so that the κ function in (2) can be expanded as κ(y)=1-y^α. One can show that in this case the probability density function for velocity differences has rather peculiar structure. It decays hyperexponentially for large positive Δ u and has an algebraic tail for Δ u arrow -∞. This accounts for such general phenomena as intermittency on a rigorous basis: the structure functions Sn ≡ < \\vert u(y, t)-u(0, t)\\vert^n > ~ y^βn are non-universal, beginning with some n. These PDFs are found explicitly for some values(S. A. Boldyrev, Phys. Rev. E 55), 6907 (1997); S. A. Boldyrev (1997), unpublished. of α they agree

  16. Optimal system and exact solutions for the generalized system of 2-dimensional Burgers equations with infinite Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2015-01-01

    One of the equations used for studying fluid turbulence is the 2D Burgers equations. Researchers have used various numerical methods to compute the values of the velocity components at different Reynolds number and other parameters of choice. Reynolds number is important in analyzing any type of flow when there is substantial velocity gradient. It indicates the relative significance of the viscous effect compared to the inertia effect. Results available in the literature for the 2D Burgers equations are either for laminar flow which occurs at low Reynolds numbers or for turbulent flow which occurs at high Reynolds numbers. These results cannot be used for superfluidity, the hallmark property of quantum fluids, where Reynolds number is infinite. Although Reynolds number may not be infinite in some superfluid turbulence (Barenghi, 2008; Vinen, 2005) [1,2], it is definitely the case at zero-temperature limit (Sasa and Machida, 2011) [3]. Based on this assumption, we analyse the 2D Burgers equation at infinite Reynolds number using Lie group method. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras is derived and used to obtain generalized distinct exact solutions of the velocity components.

  17. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    PubMed

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits. PMID:21543160

  18. Fourth-order compact schemes for the numerical simulation of coupled Burgers' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, H. P.; Khaliq, A. Q. M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces two new modified fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta (ETDRK) schemes in combination with a global fourth-order compact finite difference scheme (in space) for direct integration of nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equations in their original form without using any transformations or linearization techniques. One scheme is a modification of the Cox and Matthews ETDRK4 scheme based on (1 , 3) -Padé approximation and other is a modification of Krogstad's ETDRK4-B scheme based on (2 , 2) -Padé approximation. Efficient versions of the proposed schemes are obtained by using a partial fraction splitting technique of rational functions. The stability properties of the proposed schemes are studied by plotting the stability regions, which provide an explanation of their behavior for dispersive and dissipative problems. The order of convergence of the schemes is examined empirically and found that the modification of ETDRK4 converges with the expected rate even if the initial data are nonsmooth. On the other hand, modification of ETDRK4-B suffers with order reduction if the initial data are nonsmooth. Several numerical experiments are carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and adaptability of the proposed schemes. The numerical results indicate that the proposed schemes provide better accuracy than other schemes available in the literature. Moreover, the results show that the modification of ETDRK4 is reliable and yields more accurate results than modification of ETDRK4-B, while solving problems with nonsmooth data or with high Reynolds number.

  19. Stability of discontinuity structures described by a generalized KdV-Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugainova, A. P.; Shargatov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of discontinuities representing solutions of a model generalized KdV-Burgers equation with a nonmonotone potential of the form φ( u) = u 4- u 2 is analyzed. Among these solutions, there are ones corresponding to special discontinuities. A discontinuity is called special if its structure represents a heteroclinic phase curve joining two saddle-type special points (of which one is the state ahead of the discontinuity and the other is the state behind the discontinuity).The spectral (linear) stability of the structure of special discontinuities was previously studied. It was shown that only a special discontinuity with a monotone structure is stable, whereas special discontinuities with a nonmonotone structure are unstable. In this paper, the spectral stability of nonspecial discontinuities is investigated. The structure of a nonspecial discontinuity represents a phase curve joining two special points: a saddle (the state ahead of the discontinuity) and a focus or node (the state behind the discontinuity). The set of nonspecial discontinuities is examined depending on the dispersion and dissipation parameters. A set of stable nonspecial discontinuities is found.

  20. Crossover to the Stochastic Burgers Equation for the WASEP with a Slow Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Tertuliano; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Simon, Marielle

    2016-03-01

    We consider the weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process in the presence of a slow bond and starting from the invariant state, namely the Bernoulli product measure of parameter {ρ in (0,1)} . The rate of passage of particles to the right (resp. left) is {1/2 + a/2n^{γ}} (resp. {1/2 - a/2n^{γ}}) except at the bond of vertices {{-1,0}} where the rate to the right (resp. left) is given by {α/2n^β + a/2n^{γ}} (resp. {α/2n^β-a/2n^{γ}}). Above, {α > 0} , {γ ≥ β ≥ 0} , {a≥ 0} . For {β < 1} , we show that the limit density fluctuation field is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process defined on the Schwartz space if {γ > 1/2} , while for {γ = 1/2} it is an energy solution of the stochastic Burgers equation. For {γ ≥ β =1} , it is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process associated to the heat equation with Robin's boundary conditions. For {γ ≥ β > 1} , the limit density fluctuation field is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process associated to the heat equation with Neumann's boundary conditions.

  1. Influence of discrete sources on detonation propagation in a Burgers equation analog system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, XiaoCheng; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    An analog to the equations of compressible flow that is based on the inviscid Burgers equation is utilized to investigate the effect of spatial discreteness of energy release on the propagation of a detonation wave. While the traditional Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) treatment of a detonation wave assumes that the energy release of the medium is homogeneous through space, the system examined here consists of sources represented by δ functions embedded in an otherwise inert medium. The sources are triggered by the passage of the leading shock wave following a delay that is either of fixed period or randomly generated. The solution for wave propagation through a large array (103-104) of sources in one dimension can be constructed without the use of a finite difference approximation by tracking the interaction of sawtooth-profiled waves for which an analytic solution is available. A detonation-like wave results from the interaction of the shock and rarefaction waves generated by the sources. The measurement of the average velocity of the leading shock front for systems of both regular, fixed-period and randomized sources is found to be in close agreement with the velocity of the equivalent CJ detonation in a uniform medium, wherein the sources have been spatially homogenized. This result may have implications for the applicability of the CJ criterion to detonations in highly heterogeneous media (e.g., polycrystalline, solid explosives) and unstable detonations with a transient and multidimensional structure (e.g., gaseous detonation waves).

  2. Measuring the desire for control: a Spanish version of Burger and Cooper's Scale.

    PubMed

    De Miguel Calvo, Jesús María; Martín Sanz, Noemy; Sánchez-Iglesias, Iván; Díaz Ruiz, Miguel Angel

    2012-11-01

    The following study will present findings on the validity of the adaptation of the Burger and Cooper's Desirability of Control Scale into Spanish. Two samples are present: the first involving 1,999 people to study their psychometric properties. In the second sample, 111 people were included to estimate test/retest reliability. Cultural adaptation was performed using the translation & back-translation method. Item analysis, internal consistency and test/retest reliability were assessed, then evidence of the validity of the internal structure was determined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Subject recruitment was performed to gather the 1,999 subjects stratified by age, gender quotas as designed in the sampling plan. Of the subjects, 51% were female, average age of 45 years old (SD = 17.5). All items from the original scale were understood correctly, while five items presented ceiling effect. Cronbach's alpha = .736 and a test-retest correlation r = .713 were obtained. The factor structure indicated the presence of four dimensions: forecast, autonomy, power and influence and reactance which were reassured in the confirmatory analysis (chi2/df = 4.805, CFI = .932, TLI = .954, RMSEA = .062). The basic dimensions of the scale have shown to be stable and well-defined, though not perfect. The scope, possible applications of the scale and further research are later proposed and discussed. PMID:23156945

  3. Zakharov-Kuznestov-Burger Equation for Ion-Acoustic Waves in Cylindrical Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Uday Narayan; Chaterjee, Prasanta

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear wave structures of ion acoustic waves in magnetized plasma comprising ions, non-extensive distributed electrons and kinematic viscosity are investigated through dynamical study. In a bounded cylindrical geometry Zakharov-Kuznestov-Burger (ZKB) equation is derived, for the first time, using reductive perturbation technic. System of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations is derived from ZKB equation and is solved numerically using fourth order Runge-kutta method. Equilibrium points are obtained and the features are studied dynamically in the neighbourhood of these points. With the variation of the non-extensive parameter and the kinematic viscosity parameter some important features in the nonlinear waves like oscillatory shocks to steady state propagation and vis-a-vis steady state propagation to oscillatory shocks emerge. When the values of the non-extensive parameter decrease, the phase portrait of the system shows that the change from stable spiral to stable closed and stable to unstable equilibrium happens . When the effect of dissipative term i.e. kinematic viscosity is considered some other significant features also evolve .The reduction of the value of kinematic viscosity results the change in nature of the waves from oscillatory shocks to periodic one.

  4. Resolution of the 1D regularized Burgers equation using a spatial wavelet approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liandrat, J.; Tchamitchian, PH.

    1990-01-01

    The Burgers equation with a small viscosity term, initial and periodic boundary conditions is resolved using a spatial approximation constructed from an orthonormal basis of wavelets. The algorithm is directly derived from the notions of multiresolution analysis and tree algorithms. Before the numerical algorithm is described these notions are first recalled. The method uses extensively the localization properties of the wavelets in the physical and Fourier spaces. Moreover, the authors take advantage of the fact that the involved linear operators have constant coefficients. Finally, the algorithm can be considered as a time marching version of the tree algorithm. The most important point is that an adaptive version of the algorithm exists: it allows one to reduce in a significant way the number of degrees of freedom required for a good computation of the solution. Numerical results and description of the different elements of the algorithm are provided in combination with different mathematical comments on the method and some comparison with more classical numerical algorithms.

  5. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  6. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  7. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  8. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  9. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  10. Application of manure to frozen ground in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six small watersheds (approximately 1 ha each) at the USDA-ARS North Appalachian Experimental Watershed research station near Coshocton, Ohio were used to evaluate the environmental impacts of applying manure to frozen ground. On frozen, snow-covered ground in February, two watersheds received turk...

  11. 129Xe spin relaxation in frozen xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. J.; Gatzke, M.; Fox, David C.; Cates, G. D.; Happer, W.

    1999-04-01

    We discuss the longitudinal spin relaxation of 129Xe nuclei in frozen xenon. Over a large range of temperatures and magnetic fields, the dominant spin-lattice relaxation mechanism is shown to be nuclear spin-flip Raman scattering of lattice phonons. Two closely related interactions couple the lattice phonons to the spins of 129Xe nuclei: (1) the nuclear spin-rotation interaction between nearest-neighbor atoms, and (2) the paramagnetic antishielding of the externally applied field at the site of 129Xe nuclei by the electrons of neighboring Xe atoms. We show that relaxation rates can be predicted by using measured chemical shifts of gaseous and condensed xenon. The predicted relaxation rates are in good agreement with measurements. We outline a simple way to estimate the spin-rotation coupling and paramagnetic antishielding in terms of the small perturbations of the outermost electron orbitals of one xenon atom due to a neighboring atom.

  12. Modular self-dispensing frozen confectionary maker

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.

    1988-04-12

    A self-dispensing frozen confectionary maker is described comprising: (a) a container defining a mixing chamber with an open end, the container having a hollow chamber at least partially filled with a freezable solution; (b) a coupling means rotatably mounted in the container; (c) means for driving the coupling means to rotate in either of first and second directions, the second direction being opposite to the first direction; (d) means for displacing a fluid in the mixing chamber, the fluid-displacing means being arranged in the mixing chamber and rotatably coupled to the coupling means; (e) cover means for securely covering the open end, the cover means having outlet means incorporated therein; and (f) means for supporting the container in first and second positions, wherein the fluid-displacing means has an axis of rotation which is generally vertical when the container is in the first position and generally horizontal when the container is in the second position.

  13. Frozen Ground Controls on Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzman, L. D.; Kane, D. L.; Woo, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Frozen ground establishes a unique discipline of hydrologic science where the hydrologic regime is intimately coupled with the thermal regime to the extent that one may not be completely understood without correct characterization of the other. In permafrost regions, material properties may change drastically on a scale of centimeters to meters, particularly in the vertical dimension due to distinct changes in soil and thermal characteristics. Properties may vary just as dramatically in the horizontal dimension across the boundary of discontinuous permafrost. Although the spatial extent of permafrost changes on relatively slow time scales in response to disturbance or a changing climate, this too introduces an added level of complexity. Permafrost may nearly eliminate the interactions between near-surface and sub-permafrost aquifers, which in essence defines the hydrologic response of every watershed that is directly influenced by permafrost. Even though the principles governing water movement in permafrost areas are the same as those in more temperate regions, interactions of extremes in climate and the land surface characteristics render permafrost hydrology different from the hydrology of temperate latitudes. Ice-rich permafrost prevents deep percolation of rainfall or snowmelt water, often maintaining a moist to saturated active layer above the permafrost table. Most hydrologic activities are confined above-ground or in the thin active layer, which supplies summer moisture for baseflow and/or plant transpiration. Limited storage capacity of the thawed active layer does not support extended baseflow in a stream, though the proportion of baseflow increases as the percentage of permafrost extent decreases. In areas where permafrost is discontinuous or where it has thawed substantially near the surface, local hydrology may display a markedly different character as there are stronger exchanges between the surface water and the ground water system, or water may drain

  14. Demographics and beef preferences affect consumer motivation for purchasing fresh beef steaks and roasts.

    PubMed

    Reicks, A L; Brooks, J C; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Lyford, C L; Miller, M F

    2011-04-01

    Surveys completed by 1370 consumers determined the motivational factors affecting consumer purchasing decisions for fresh beef steaks and roasts in three regions in the United States. Females placed greater importance on tenderness, ease of preparation, and nutritional value of steaks and roasts when compared to males. Age influenced tenderness, product consistency, and nutritional value of steaks, but influenced flavor, product consistency, and nutritional value of roasts. Consumers felt juiciness, nutritional value, and natural products were less important in determining their purchasing choices of steaks and roasts as their level of education increased. The preferred degree of doneness of steaks influenced the value placed on six of the nine purchasing motivators. Beef preferences and demographics influenced consumer purchasing decisions for fresh beef steaks and roasts. Results from this study can be used to help identify factors to positively influence purchasing decisions within targeted market segments. PMID:21159449

  15. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    PubMed

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. PMID:24607997

  16. Comment on "Application of the extended Lie group analysis to the Hopf functional formulation of the Burgers equation" [J. Math. Phys. 54, 072901 (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frewer, Michael; Khujadze, George; Foysi, Holger

    2016-03-01

    The quest to find new statistical symmetries in the theory of turbulence is an ongoing research endeavor which is still in its beginning and exploratory stage. In our comment we show that the recently performed study of Wacławczyk and Oberlack [J. Math. Phys. 54, 072901 (2013)] failed to present such new statistical symmetries. Despite their existence within a functional Fourier space of the statistical Burgers equation, they all can be reduced to the classical and well-known symmetries of the underlying deterministic Burgers equation itself, except for one symmetry, but which, as we will demonstrate, is only a mathematical artefact without any physical meaning. Moreover, we show that the proposed connection between the translation invariance of the multi-point moments and a symmetry transformation associated to a certain invariant solution of the inviscid functional Burgers equation is invalid. In general, their study constructs and discusses new particular solutions of the functional Burgers equation without referring them to the well-established general solution. Finally, we also see a shortcoming in the presented methodology as being too restricted to construct a complete set of Lie point symmetries for functional equations. In particular, for the considered Burgers equation essential symmetries are not captured.

  17. Radiation inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood products.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Rajkowski, Kathleen T

    2011-04-01

    Foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood is, unfortunately, a regular occurrence in the United States. Ionizing (gamma) radiation can effectively inactivate microorganisms and extend the shelf life of seafood. In this study, the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens surface inoculated onto frozen seafood (scallops, lobster meat, blue crab, swordfish, octopus, and squid) was investigated. The radiation D(10)-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit of a microorganism) for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella inoculated onto seafood samples that were then frozen and irradiated in the frozen state (-20°C) were 0.43 to 0.66, 0.48 to 0.71, and 0.47 to 0.70 kGy, respectively. In contrast, the radiation D(10)-value for the same pathogens suspended on frozen pork were 1.26, 0.98, and 1.18 kGy for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and Salmonella, respectively. The radiation dose needed to inactivate these foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood is significantly lower than that for frozen meat or frozen vegetables. PMID:21477481

  18. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  19. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  20. Management characteristics of grassfed beef operations in the northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much information is being circulated on resource use, environmental impact, and overall sustainability of beef, but finding scientifically sound information is difficult. In an effort to address consumer concerns, a comprehensive analysis is being conducted across the beef industry. As a significant...

  1. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  2. Influence of mitochondrial efficiency on beef lean color stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of electrons in the electron transport chain has been implicated as a source of variation in feed efficiency of meat producing animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electron loss during electron transport on beef lean color stability. Beef carcasses (n = 91) were...

  3. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  4. VALIDATION OF COMMERCIAL DNA TESTS FOR QUANTITATIVE BEEF QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR(TM) Quality Grade, GeneSTAR(TM) Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE(TM)) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the indepe...

  5. Tenderization of beef loins using a high efficiency sparker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of tenderizing beef strip loins using high-pressure shockwaves generated from a sparker source. A total of 117 steaks from 16 beef strip loins were utilized with each treated steak having an adjacent steak as a non-treated control. Ste...

  6. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH3 ...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State Beef Councils. 1260.315 Section 1260.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations...

  8. Nanopurification of semen improves AI pregnancy rates in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency is several times more important than any other factor affecting economic efficiency in beef production. Multiple studies have been conducted to improve fertility of beef cows, but few studies have been conducted to improve fertility in sires. Also, with current improvements...

  9. Effects of distillers grain on beef carcass quality and tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) during the finishing phase on beef carcass quality and ribeye steak tenderness. Crossbred beef steers (n = 304) received finishing diets including 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a dry-matter basis. Steers...

  10. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  11. Soil micro nutrients in backgrounding beef feedlot site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beef cattle backgrounding represent an intermediate tire of the U.S. commercial beef production system and grow out weaned calves from cow-calf enterprises to weights and conditions ready for feedlot finishing (Bradford et al.,1978). Steer calves in backgrounding feedlots are fed mainly with gr...

  12. Nitrogen loss from sprinkler applied beef feedlot effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of nitrogen from sprinkler applied beef feedlot effluent can be costly for both the producer and the environment. Sprinkler application of effluent is common throughout the Great Plains, though little work has occurred focusing specifically on N losses from beef feedlot effluent. The objectives...

  13. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  14. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef.

    PubMed

    Banović, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G; Barreira, Maria Madalena; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs. PMID:20374754

  15. Generating attenuation-resistant frozen waves in absorbing fluid.

    PubMed

    Dorrah, Ahmed H; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Mojahedi, Mo

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate a class of nondiffracting beams, called frozen waves, with a central spot that can be made to maintain a predefined intensity profile while propagating in an absorbing fluid. Frozen waves are composed of Bessel beams with different transverse and longitudinal wavenumbers, and are generated using a programmable spatial light modulator. The attenuation-resistant frozen waves demonstrated here address the problem of propagation losses in absorbing media. This development can be beneficial for many applications in particle micro-manipulation, data communications, remote sensing, and imaging. PMID:27519067

  16. Experiences with frozen blood products in the Netherlands military.

    PubMed

    Lelkens, C C M; Koning, J G; de Kort, B; Floot, I B G; Noorman, F

    2006-06-01

    For peacekeeping and peace enforcing missions abroad the Netherlands Armed Forces decided to use universal donor frozen blood products in addition to liquid products. This article describes our experiences with the frozen blood inventory, with special attention to quality control. It is shown that all thawed (washed) blood products are in compliance with international regulations and guidelines. By means of the -80 degrees C frozen stock of red cells, plasma and platelets readily available after thaw (and wash), we can now safely reduce shipments and abandon the backup 'walking' blood bank, without compromising the availability of blood products in theatre. PMID:16815757

  17. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-01

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens. PMID:27387141

  18. North American Beef Tenderness Survey 2011-2012: benchmarking tenderness and sample shipping procedures.

    PubMed

    Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Scanga, J A; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Igo, J L; Salman, M D; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2013-12-01

    Fifty-four stores in 30 U.S. cities were sampled from June 2011 through May 2012 to benchmark beef tenderness at retail, as assessed by Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Top loin (Longissimus dorsi; n = 980) and sirloin (Gluteus medius and Biceps femoris; n = 860) steaks were collected at random (Quality Grade and brand) and shipped via overnight delivery to Colorado State University. From June 2011 through November 2011, North American Beef Tenderness Survey (NABTS) Period 1, samples were shipped fresh and then frozen. Mean WBSF values during Period 1 were 2.9 and 3.5 kg for top loin and sirloin steaks, respectively. Frequencies of steaks classified as tough (WBSF ≥ 4.4 kg) were 8.6% and 17.7% for top loin and sirloin steaks, respectively. When shipped fresh, a disproportionately high frequency (16.9%) of top loin steaks had WBSF ≤ 2.0 kg, representing a deviation from previous works. Two trials were conducted to assess the effect of freezing, retail display, and shipping on WBSF and slice shear force (SSF) of beef top loin steaks. Freezing, retail display, and shipment reduced WBSF by 0.4, 0.3, and 0.0 kg during Trial 1, and by 0.4, 0.3, and 0.1 kg during Trial 2. Slice shear force was lower (P < 0.05) in steaks exposed to shipping conditions during Trial 1; however, this difference was not observed in Trial 2. Shipping decreased the frequency of steaks categorized as tough (SSF ≥ 20.0 kg) from 11.1 to 5.7% and from 30.5 to 28.6%, during Trial 1 and 2, respectively. During Trial 1, WBSF indicated that shipping increased incidence of tough samples from 0.0 to 3.8%, but this trend was reversed during Trial 2 when shipping reduced incidence of tough samples from 13.0 to 5.6%. Coefficients of variation for treatment effects suggested variance remained unchanged (± 2.0%), with respect to shear force values. However, mean values were reduced as a result of shipping conditions. These findings dictated a change in NABTS protocol from December 2011 through May

  19. A ray of light about frozen embryos.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Ellen Wright

    1992-12-01

    The Tennessee Supreme Court's decision in Davis v. Davis, a case that raises the question of how to allocate frozen embryos in the event of divorce, addresses many of the legal issues posed by in vitro fertilization. The decision considers the interests of the progenitors as well as of the children who may result. For example, the court held that gamete providers' discretion regarding the disposition of embryos can be limited only when their decisions would harm the children who might be born. The court also made clear that efforts to seek genetic parenthood are protected only when accompanied by a desire to raise the resulting children, a conclusion that also affects other reproductive technologies. In addition to elaborating an analytic framework, the court set guidelines for resolving disputes when the couples had made no prior agreements, including holding that while the embryos are ex-utero the desire to avoid genetic parenthood almost always trumps the wish to become a parent. The well-reasoned analysis in Davis v. Davis should help shape legal and ethical discussion regarding the use of in vitro fertilization for many years to come. PMID:11645754

  20. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  1. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like ‘top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and ‘bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  2. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like 'top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and 'bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  3. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed. PMID:20402170

  4. A meshless method using radial basis functions for numerical solution of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihi, F.; Saffarian, M.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this article is to obtain the numerical solution of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation. We construct the solution by using a different approach, that is based on using collocation points. The solution is based on using the thin plate splines radial basis function, which builds an approximated solution with discretizing the time and the space to small steps. We use a predictor-corrector scheme to avoid solving the nonlinear system. The results of numerical experiments are compared with analytical solutions to confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the presented scheme.

  5. Korteweg de Vries Burgers equation in multi-ion and pair-ion plasmas with Lorentzian electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N.

    2013-01-15

    Korteweg de Vries Burgers equation for multi-ion and pair-ion plasmas has been derived using reductive perturbation technique. The kinematic viscosities of both positive and negative ions are taken into account. Generalized Lorentzian distribution is assumed for the electron component, accounting for deviation from Maxwellian equilibrium, parametrized via a real parameter {kappa}. The modification in the strength of shock structure is presented. A comprehensive comparison between the profiles of shock wave structure in multi-ion and pair-ion plasmas, (for the Maxwellian electrons to Lorentzian electrons), is discussed.

  6. Mixed convection flow of a Burgers nanofluid in the presence of stratifications and heat generation/absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Waqas, M.; Shehzad, S. A.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-08-01

    Here formulation and computations are made to explore the characteristics of the boundary layer flow of a Burgers fluid in the presence of nanoparticles. Effects of thermal and concentration stratifications and heat generation/absorption are considered in the energy and concentration expressions. Meaningful transformations are employed to reduce the nonlinear partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Convergent solutions for arising nonlinear problems are obtained. Impacts of emerging physical parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are elaborated. Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are tabulated and interpreted for different values of physical parameters.

  7. Determination of protein markers for beef tenderness in U. S. select beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Beef tenderness is a primary quality feature that defines the consumer’s perception of the product quality. Therefore definition of chemical characteristics that contribute to variation in tenderness within a specific USDA grade can help refine our understanding of meat tenderness. The o...

  8. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  9. Ground beef consumption patterns in the United States, FoodNet, 2006 through 2007.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethel V; Holt, Kristin G; Mahon, Barbara E; Ayers, Tracy; Norton, Dawn; Gould, L Hannah

    2012-02-01

    Infection resulting from foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, is often associated with consumption of raw or undercooked ground beef. However, little is known about the frequency of ground beef consumption in the general population. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of self-reported ground beef and pink ground beef consumption using data from the 2006 through 2007 FoodNet Population Survey. From 1 July 2006 until 30 June 2007, residents of 10 FoodNet sites were contacted by telephone and asked about foods consumed within the previous week. The survey included questions regarding consumption of ground beef patties both inside and outside the home, the consumption of pink ground beef patties and other types of ground beef inside the home, and consumption of ground beef outside the home. Of 8,543 survey respondents, 75.3% reported consuming some type of ground beef in the home. Of respondents who ate ground beef patties in the home, 18.0% reported consuming pink ground beef. Consumption of ground beef was reported most frequently among men, persons with incomes from $40,000 to $75,000 per year, and persons with a high school or college education. Ground beef consumption was least often reported in adults ≥65 years of age. Men and persons with a graduate level education most commonly reported eating pink ground beef in the home. Reported consumption of ground beef and pink ground beef did not differ by season. Ground beef is a frequently consumed food item in the United States, and rates of consumption of pink ground beef have changed little since previous studies. The high rate of consumption of beef that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill pathogens makes pasteurization of ground beef an important consideration, especially for those individuals at high risk of complications from foodborne illnesses such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:22289595

  10. Effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on processing characteristics and eating quality of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Klassen, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85°C for 40s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes. PMID:26610290

  11. The Weighted Burgers Vector: a new quantity for constraining dislocation densities and types using electron backscatter diffraction on 2D sections through crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J; Mariani, E; Piazolo, S; Prior, D J; Trimby, P; Drury, M R

    2009-03-01

    The Weighted Burgers Vector (WBV) is defined here as the sum, over all types of dislocations, of [(density of intersections of dislocation lines with a map) x (Burgers vector)]. Here we show that it can be calculated, for any crystal system, solely from orientation gradients in a map view, unlike the full dislocation density tensor, which requires gradients in the third dimension. No assumption is made about gradients in the third dimension and they may be non-zero. The only assumption involved is that elastic strains are small so the lattice distortion is entirely due to dislocations. Orientation gradients can be estimated from gridded orientation measurements obtained by EBSD mapping, so the WBV can be calculated as a vector field on an EBSD map. The magnitude of the WBV gives a lower bound on the magnitude of the dislocation density tensor when that magnitude is defined in a coordinate invariant way. The direction of the WBV can constrain the types of Burgers vectors of geometrically necessary dislocations present in the microstructure, most clearly when it is broken down in terms of lattice vectors. The WBV has three advantages over other measures of local lattice distortion: it is a vector and hence carries more information than a scalar quantity, it has an explicit mathematical link to the individual Burgers vectors of dislocations and, since it is derived via tensor calculus, it is not dependent on the map coordinate system. If a sub-grain wall is included in the WBV calculation, the magnitude of the WBV becomes dependent on the step size but its direction still carries information on the Burgers vectors in the wall. The net Burgers vector content of dislocations intersecting an area of a map can be simply calculated by an integration round the edge of that area, a method which is fast and complements point-by-point WBV calculations. PMID:19250469

  12. Effects of crossbreeding on endocrine patterns determined in pregnant beef/dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    García-Ispierto, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Almería, S; Martínez-Bello, D; Tchimbou, A F; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; López-Gatius, F

    2015-03-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular coccidian parasite causing abortion worldwide in dairy cattle. Studies have shown that N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns and that beef cows or cows with a crossbreed pregnancy, especially for a greater maternal-paternal genetic distance, show a reduced risk of abortion when naturally infected compared with pure-breed Holstein Friesian (HF) pregnancies. This study examined the effects of crossbreeding on plasma progesterone (P4), pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG)-1 and -2, and prolactin patterns produced during gestation in N caninum-infected beef/dairy cows. We analyzed 74 pregnancies in nonaborting cows carrying a single fetus established in 26 lactating HF cows bred with Holstein bulls (H-H), 13 HF cows bred with Limousin bulls (H-L), 12 HF cows used as recipients of transferred in vivo-produced frozen-thawed Rubia Gallega (beef breed; RG) embryos (H-RG-ET), and 23 RG suckling cows bred with RG bulls (RG-RG). Of the cows, 29 (39%) were seropositive for N caninum. Blood samples for hormone and placental protein determinations were collected on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 of gestation. Procedures of repeated measures analysis of variance throughout gestation revealed higher PAG-1 levels in the H-L and H-RG-ET groups compared with H-H and RG-RG. Higher prolactin levels were detected in RG-RG than in the remaining groups. N caninum seropositivity and fetal genotype had a significant effect on PAG-2 concentrations, such that highest levels of PAG-2 occurred in RG-RG seropositive cows and lowest in H-H seropositive cows, whereas Neospora-seropositive cows showed lower P4 concentrations than their seronegative partners. In conclusion, chronic N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns of PAG-2 and P4 during pregnancy, whereas PAG-1 and prolactin concentrations are affected by breed and fetal genotype, irrespective of Neospora infection status. PMID:25459029

  13. View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking east. Proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  14. View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northeast, showing the retained alignment across the Beartooth Plateau - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  15. View of the highway, at the Frozen Lake switchback curve, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, at the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking northwest. The proposed realignment would be just to the southeast (right) of the existing alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  16. View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking south, showing the setting and retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  17. View of the highway, lower west summit switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, lower west summit switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northwest, showing retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  18. View of the highway, from the switchbacks above Frozen Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from the switchbacks above Frozen Lake (in midground), looking southwest, showing the general setting and retained switchback alignments - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  19. View of the highway, from just north of the frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from just north of the frozen Lake switchback, looking northwest, showing the retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  20. Herellea (Acinetobacter) and Pseudomonas ovalis (P. putida) from Frozen Foods

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Seventeen strains of Herellea vaginicola (Acinetobacter antitratus) and 8 of Pseudomonas ovalis (P. putida), isolated from 23 (6.3%) of 364 samples of frozen, foil-pack foods, were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. Herellea was isolated from 17 foods (4.7%), P. ovalis from 6 (1.6%). No Mima were found. The food samples included precooked frozen meats, precooked and uncooked frozen vegetables, and uncooked frozen desserts. The bacteria were detected in the food with a procedure used generally for the detection of salmonellae. The pseudomonad simulated the characteristics of Herellea on Sellers differential agar, except for the fact that it fluoresced. From consideration of the habitat and pathogenicity of Herellea and Mima, it is concluded that, although the presence of these bacteria may not be desirable, their significance in food remains unanswered. PMID:4886860

  1. [Hygienic evaluation of frozen and canned Pacific saury (Cololabis saira)].

    PubMed

    Shul'gin, Iu P

    2004-01-01

    The storage of frozen Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and the cans prepared from the latter in the refrigerator was examined for its impact on their quality. Changes in the parameters of proteins and lipids were studied in the samples of frozen Pacific saury during storage and of the cans prepared from the fish. The relative food value of the frozen fish was determined by biological tests using the infusoria Tetrachymena pyriformis. It was established that storage of frozen Pacific saury led to flesh protein and lipid degradation whose depth determined the loss of the food value of the fish. The results of biological tests fully correlate with the data of chemical analysis in assessing the quality of raw fish stored in the refrigerator. PMID:15197858

  2. Revealing the mechanisms and significance of frozen soil infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähli, Manfred; Hayashi, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    Frozen soil is one of the most characteristic features of Nordic hydrology. Depending on climate, snow cover and soil properties it can slow down or even inhibit the water's journey from the soil surface to the stream, or it can speed up the journey by generating overland flow. When Harald Grip's and Allan Rhode's book came out in the mid-eighties, state-of-the-art knowledge on frozen soil hydrology was based on numerous cold-chamber experiments and only few field measurements, especially from Alaska. It was already then recognized that frozen soil is not impermeable per se, but its permeability depends on the amount and connectivity of air-filled pores, which in turn depends on ice content. How has our understanding of frozen soil hydrology further developed since then? One important innovation was the application of dye tracers to frozen field plots and soil columns uncovering the flow paths of infiltrating water. A second crucial advance was the development of numerical models to calculate water transfer from the snow cover into soil profiles. These models made researchers aware of the high sensitivity of frozen soil infiltration to boundary conditions (e.g. depth to groundwater) and winter history (e.g. evolution of snow cover, number of mid-winter melt events). A further important insight was that local effects of frozen ground on water flow may vanish at the scale of catchments due to the highly variable topography, vegetation and soil of a landscape. Nevertheless, studies showing the impact of frozen soil on large scale ground-water recharge or stream runoff are still scarce. A recent analysis of long-term runoff data from Switzerland sheds new light on the response of small catchments to frozen ground. Finally, it can be concluded that the Nordic lessons on frozen soil hydrology have been noted by the worldwide research community and are receiving increased attention in the context of climate change and its impacts on seasonally and permanently frozen soil.

  3. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

  4. A retrospective study of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Eun Kyung; Song, Seung Hyun; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Kyung Sil; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical outcomes of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles according to the hatching status of frozen-thawed blastocysts. Methods Frozen-thawed blastocysts were divided into three groups according to their hatching status as follows: less-than-expanded blastocyst (≤EdB), hatching blastocyst (HgB), and hatched blastocyst (HdB). The female age and infertility factors of each group were evaluated. The quality of the single frozen-thawed blastocyst was also graded as grade A, tightly packed inner cell mass (ICM) and many cells organized in the trophectoderm epithelium (TE); grade B, several and loose ICM and TE; and grade C, very few ICM and a few cells in the TE. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were compared between each group. The data were analyzed by either t-test or chi-square analysis. Results There were no statistically significant differences in average female ages, infertility factors, or the distribution of blastocyst grades A, B, and C in each group. There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate of each group according to their blastocyst grade. However, there was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate between each group. In the HdB group, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were similar regardless of the blastocyst quality. Conclusion There was an effect on the clinical outcomes depending on whether the blastocyst hatched during single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer. When performing single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, the hatching status of the frozen-thawed blastocyst may be a more important parameter for clinical outcomes than the quality of the frozen-thawed blastocyst. PMID:27358829

  5. Space—time fractional KdV—Burgers equation for dust acoustic shock waves in dusty plasma with non-thermal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emad, K. El-Shewy; Abeer, A. Mahmoud; Ashraf, M. Tawfik; Essam, M. Abulwafa; Ahmed, Elgarayhi

    2014-07-01

    The KdV—Burgers equation for dust acoustic waves in unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged nonthermal ions, and hot and cold dust species is derived using the reductive perturbation method. The Boltzmann distribution is used for electrons in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The semi-inverse method and Agrawal variational technique are applied to formulate the space—time fractional KdV—Burgers equation which is solved using the fractional sub-equation method. The effect of the fractional parameter on the behavior of the dust acoustic shock waves in the dusty plasma is investigated.

  6. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. PMID:27180327

  7. Cytoplasmic structure in rapid-frozen axons

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Turtle optic nerves were rapid-frozen from the living state, fractured, etched, and rotary shadowed. Stereo views of fractured axons show that axoplasm consists of three types of longitudinally oriented domains. One type consists of neurofilament bundles in which individual filaments are interconnected by a cross-bridging network. Contiguous to neurofilament domains are domains containing microtubules suspended in a loose, granular matrix. A third domain is confined to a zone, 80-100 nm wide, next to the axonal membrane and consists of a dense filamentous network connecting the longitudinal elements of the axonal cytoskeleton to particles on the inner surface of the axolemma. Three classes of membrane-limited organelles are distinguished: axoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and discrete vesicular organelles. The vesicular organelles must include lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and vesicles which are retrogradely transported in axons, though some vesicular organelles may be components of the axoplasmic reticulum. Organelles in each class have a characteristic relationship to the axonal cytoskeleton. The axoplasmic reticulum enters all three domains of axoplasm, but mitochondria and vesicular organelles are excluded from the neurofilament bundles, a distribution confirmed in thin sections of cryoembedded axons. Vesicular organelles differ from mitochondria in at least three ways with respect to their relationships to adjacent axoplasm: (a) one, or sometimes both, of their ends are associated with a gap in the surrounding granular axoplasm; (b) an appendage is typically associated with one of their ends; and (c) they are not attached or closely apposed to microtubules. Mitochondria, on the other hand, are only rarely associated with gaps in the axoplasm, do not have an appendage, and are virtually always attached to one or more microtubules by an irregular array of side-arms. We propose that the longitudinally oriented microtubule domains are channels within which

  8. The diagnostic value of frozen section for borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Halenur; Guzin, Kadir; Gocmen, Ahmet; Kabaca, Sedef; Usta, Akın; Akdeniz Duran, Esra

    2016-07-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) are characterised histologically by a low degree of cellular proliferation and nuclear atypia in the absence of infiltrative growth or stromal invasion. Surgical treatment has been a crucial component of BOT therapy. Surgical decisions are established intraoperatively via the frozen section. We evaluated the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis. The rate of correct diagnosis, underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of BOTs with frozen sections was 78%, 17% and 5%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive values for the diagnosis of BOTs with frozen sections were 82.3% and 93.3%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96). The histological classification of BOTs had a significant effect on the accuracy of diagnosis (p = 0.001). Frozen section diagnosis is not suitable to be considered as the gold standard for a definitive diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware that using frozen sections is insufficient for the accurate staging of BOTs. PMID:26790979

  9. Preventive Medicine and Management in Beef Feedlots

    PubMed Central

    Church, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of beef feedlot preventive medicine are to reduce morbidity, mortality and culling rates, maximize feed efficiency and optimize expenditures for biologicals and pharmaceuticals. The veterinarian must provide regular inspection of all areas of the feedlot and constantly monitor disease incidence. The provision of advice on vaccination, treatment schedules, necropsies on all dead cattle and the regular analysis of disease and production records are all part of feedlot preventive medicine. All of this is aimed at improving net economical gain for the producer. PMID:7427851

  10. Professor Herman Burger (1893-1965), eminent teacher and scientist, who laid the theoretical foundations of vectorcardiography--and electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    van Herpen, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Einthoven not only designed a high quality instrument, the string galvanometer, for recording the ECG, he also shaped the conceptual framework to understand it. He reduced the body to an equilateral triangle and the cardiac electric activity to a dipole, represented by an arrow (i.e. a vector) in the triangle's center. Up to the present day the interpretation of the ECG is based on the model of a dipole vector being projected on the various leads. The model is practical but intuitive, not physically founded. Burger analysed the relation between heart vector and leads according to the principles of physics. It then follows that an ECG lead must be treated as a vector (lead vector) and that the lead voltage is not simply proportional to the projection of the vector on the lead, but must be multiplied by the value (length) of the lead vector, the lead strength. Anatomical lead axis and electrical lead axis are different entities and the anatomical body space must be distinguished from electrical space. Appreciation of these underlying physical principles should contribute to a better understanding of the ECG. The development of these principles by Burger is described, together with some personal notes and a sketch of the personality of this pioneer of medical physics. PMID:24506911

  11. Direct Determination of Burgers Vectors of Threading Mixed Dislocations in 4H-SiC Grown by PVT Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianqiu; Yang, Yu; Wu, Fangzhen; Sumakeris, Joe; Leonard, Robert; Goue, Ouloide; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In addition to pure threading screw dislocations (TSDs), the presence of threading mixed dislocations (TMDs) (with a component) has been reported both in 4H-SiC axial slices (wafers cut parallel to the growth axis) and in commercial offcut wafers (cut almost perpendicular to the growth axis). In this paper, we first demonstrate a method to quickly distinguish TMDs from TSDs in axial slices via synchrotron white-beam x-ray topography. Since such axial slices are usually not available for commercial purposes, a systematic method is then developed and demonstrated here to unambiguously determine the Burgers vectors of TMDs in 4H-SiC commercial offcut wafers. In this second study, both synchrotron monochromatic-beam x-ray topography and ray-tracing simulation are used. The x-ray topographs were recorded using grazing-incidence geometry. The principle of this method is that the contrast of dislocations on different reflections varies with the relative orientation of Burgers vectors with respect to the diffraction vectors. Measurements confirm that, in a commercial offcut wafer, the majority of the threading dislocations with screw component are mixed-type dislocations.

  12. Numerical Solution to Generalized Burgers'-Fisher Equation Using Exp-Function Method Hybridized with Heuristic Computation

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems. PMID:25811858

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12... § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported... accordance with the requirements for importing frozen fruits and vegetables in part 305 of this chapter....

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12... § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported... accordance with the requirements for importing frozen fruits and vegetables in part 305 of this chapter.....

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12... § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported... accordance with the requirements for importing frozen fruits and vegetables in part 305 of this chapter.....

  16. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12... § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported... accordance with the requirements for importing frozen fruits and vegetables in part 305 of this chapter.....

  18. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12... § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported... with the requirements for importing frozen fruits and vegetables in part 305 of this chapter....

  20. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns. PMID:22063690