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Sample records for frozen ram sperma

  1. Capacitation status and fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gillan, L; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of cryopreservation on the capacitation status and fertility of ram spermatozoa was observed. After the chlortetracycline staining technique was validated for ram spermatozoa, it was applied to fresh or long-term frozen-stored spermatozoa. Fresh spermatozoa displayed mainly the F pattern (non-capacitated; 61.3%), becoming B pattern (capacitated; 54%) and AR pattern (acrosome reacted; 41%) with incubation (6 h at 37 degrees C). In contrast, frozen spermatozoa displayed the B pattern (65.9%), becoming the AR pattern (64.2%) with incubation. This demonstrates that cryopreservation may cause membrane changes in ram spermatozoa functionally equivalent to capacitation. The differences in capacitation status did not affect in vitro fertilization rates between fresh and frozen spermatozoa, but pregnancy rates at Day 18 after intrauterine artificial insemination were higher for fresh than for frozen spermatozoa. This difference was not evident at Day 50, possibly as a result of the high embryonic loss between Days 18 and 50 when fresh unincubated and frozen incubated spermatozoa were inseminated. Further research is necessary to determine what part of the cryopreservation process is responsible for the membrane changes in ram spermatozoa. PMID:9418976

  2. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (P<0.05) of motile cells compared to rest while no differences were found between different oil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. PMID:23561943

  3. Relationship between in vitro sperm functional tests and in vivo fertility of rams following cervical artificial insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    O' Meara, C M; Hanrahan, J P; Prathalingam, N S; Owen, J S; Donovan, A; Fair, S; Ward, F; Wade, M; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2008-03-01

    Several procedures have been proposed to assess structural and functional characteristics of cryopreserved ram semen but none so far have yielded consistent relationships with in vivo fertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate several sperm function tests as potential markers of in vivo ram fertility (determined by pregnancy rate in ewes) using frozen-thawed semen. In experiment 1, frozen-thawed straws (n=3 per ram) of semen from three high and three low fertility rams were assessed using fluorescent microscopy for (1) progressive motility, (2) viability and, (3) acrosomal status. In experiment 2, frozen-thawed straws (n=3 per ram) of semen from 18 rams of known fertility were analysed using either computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) for eight motion characteristics or flow cytometric staining for: (1) viability and acrosomal status, (2) plasma membrane status and capacitation-like changes, and (3) live cells following an osmotic resistance test (ORT). In experiment 3, platelet-activating factor (PAF) was isolated from straws (n=2 per ram) of semen using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry for 18 rams. In experiment 1, no association was found between motility, viability (% live) or acrosomal status (% damaged, % intact and % reacted) and in vivo fertility. In experiment 2, no correlation was found between motility (CASA), viability (% live), acrosomal status (% live, % live intact and % reacted), capacitation status (% capacitated, % non-capacitated), plasma membrane stability (% dead) and % live cells following ORT and ram in vivo fertility. In experiment 3, there was no relationship between PAF content in spermatozoa and ram fertility. In conclusion, we were unable to relate the in vivo fertility of rams with in vitro functional tests of their frozen-thawed semen and suggest that the fertility of a given semen sample cannot easily be quantified using available in vitro tests. PMID

  4. Effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and flow cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo Bo; Ma, Yuan; Li, Jian; Wu, Guo Quan; Li, Dong Jiang; Ni, Yi Na; Lv, Chun Rong; Zhu, Lan; Hong, Qiong Hua

    2015-02-01

    Cytometric sorting of frozen-thawed sperm can overcome difficulties caused by the unavailability of sorting facilities on farms where semen is collected from male livestock. In order to optimize the cytometric sex-sorting procedure, effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and cytometric sorting efficiency of frozen-thawed ram sperm were evaluated. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with Hoechst33342 at various dye concentrations (80 μM, 120 μM, 160 μM, 200 μM, 240 μM, or 320 μM) for 45 min to evaluate effects of dye dose. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with 160 μM Hoechst33342 for various durations (0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 75 min, or 90 min) to evaluate effects of staining duration. Sperm motility and moving velocity were analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system (CASAS). Acrosome status, membrane integrity, and distribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in Hoechst33342-stained sperm were analyzed using flow cytometry after staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectin from pisum sativum (FITC-PSA), Annexin V, or propidium iodide (PI). The fertility of Hoechst33342-stained sperm was analyzed by in vitro fertilization (IVF). A high-speed cell sorter was used to evaluate effects of Hoechst33342 staining on cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed sperm. The motility, moving velocity, membrane integrity, and PS distribution of Hoechst33342-stained sperm were significantly different from that of immediately thawed sperm (P<0.05). However, there is no significant difference existing among the Hoechst33342-stained groups with respect to the above evaluated parameters. Additionally, along with the staining durations, the adverse effects of the staining procedure on sperm showed a steady increase. However, Hoechst33342 staining did not damage acrosome and in vitro fertilizing capability of frozen-thawed ram sperm. Results of cytometric sorting indicated that frozen-thawed sperm can be efficiently sorted into two

  5. Effect of medium on the kinematics of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Sharon T; Maxwell, W M Chis

    2004-02-01

    Cervically inseminated cryopreserved ram spermatozoa have reduced fertility due to poor mucus-penetrating ability. This effect is ameliorated by the addition of 20% (v/v) seminal plasma (SP) to the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) thawing medium. The aims of this study were to determine whether the impaired mucus penetration was due to alterations in the sperm motility and, if so, whether these alterations were due to the SP or its viscosity, or to the medium components. To this end, artificial SP medium (ASP), a medium which supports motility but not capacitation, was compared with PBS and SP. Thawed, pooled semen from seven mature rams was layered under 1 ml each of PBS, SP and ASP and motile spermatozoa allowed to swim up (37 degrees C, 30 min). Upper regions of the overlays were harvested, and the capacitation status of the spermatozoa in each suspension determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) analysis. Sperm movement was videotaped in 300 microm chambers for both computer-aided sperm analysis assessment and manual flagellar curvature analysis. There was no effect of the culture medium on the concentration of spermatozoa recovered by swim up, nor on the proportion of motile spermatozoa. However, the spermatozoa resuspended in PBS did show changes associated with capacitation in both the CTC-binding patterns and in their movement patterns. These changes were significantly greater than those observed in spermatozoa resuspended in SP or ASP. These results indicated that the differences in sperm movement and function observed in SP medium were not due to changes in viscosity, but rather to components of the medium. PMID:15056794

  6. Frozen Frozen CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    2 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar residual cap of Mars. Much of the south polar residual cap exhibits terrain that resembles stacks of sliced Swiss cheese, but this portion of the cap lacks the typical, circular depressions that characterize much of the region. Carbon dioxide on Mars freezes at a temperature of around 148 Kelvins, which is -125oC or about -193oF.

    Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  7. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  8. SQL-RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro, Victor O.; Casey, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    SQL-RAMS (where "SQL" signifies Structured Query Language and "RAMS" signifies Rocketdyne Automated Management System) is a successor to the legacy version of RAMS a computer program used to manage all work, nonconformance, corrective action, and configuration management on rocket engines and ground support equipment at Stennis Space Center. The legacy version resided in the FileMaker Pro software system and was constructed in modules that could act as stand-alone programs. There was little or no integration among modules. Because of limitations on file-management capabilities in FileMaker Pro, and because of difficulty of integration of FileMaker Pro with other software systems for exchange of data using such industry standards as SQL, the legacy version of RAMS proved to be limited, and working to circumvent its limitations too time-consuming. In contrast, SQL-RAMS is an integrated SQL-server-based program that supports all data-exchange software industry standards. Whereas in the legacy version, it was necessary to access individual modules to gain insight to a particular work-status documents, SQL-RAMS provides access through a single-screen presentation of core modules. In addition, SQL-RAMS enable rapid and efficient filtering of displayed statuses by predefined categories and test numbers. SQL-RAMS is rich in functionality and encompasses significant improvements over the legacy system. It provides users the ability to perform many tasks which in the past required administrator intervention. Additionally many of the design limitations have been corrected allowing for a robust application that is user centric.

  9. SQL-RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro, Victor O.; Casey, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    SQL-RAMS (where "SQL" signifies Structured Query Language and "RAMS" signifies Rocketdyne Automated Management System) is a successor to the legacy version of RAMS -- a computer program used to manage all work, nonconformance, corrective action, and configuration management on rocket engines and ground support equipment at Stennis Space Center. The legacy version resided in the File-Maker Pro software system and was constructed in modules that could act as standalone programs. There was little or no integration among modules. Because of limitations on file-management capabilities in FileMaker Pro, and because of difficulty of integration of FileMaker Pro with other software systems for exchange of data using such industry standards as SQL, the legacy version of RAMS proved to be limited, and working to circumvent its limitations too time-consuming. In contrast, SQL-RAMS is an integrated SQL-server-based program that supports all data-exchange software industry standards. Whereas in the legacy version, it was necessary to access individual modules to gain insight into a particular workstatus document, SQL-RAMS provides access through a single-screen presentation of core modules. In addition, SQL-RAMS enables rapid and efficient filtering of displayed statuses by predefined categories and test numbers. SQL-RAMS is rich in functionality and encompasses significant improvements over the legacy system. It provides users the ability to perform many tasks, which in the past required administrator intervention. Additionally, many of the design limitations have been corrected, allowing for a robust application that is user centric.

  10. Ram-jet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cervenko, A. J.; Friedman, R.

    1956-01-01

    The ram jet is basically one of the most dimple types of aircraft engine. It consists only of an inlet diffuser, a combustion system, and an exit nozzle. A typical ram-jet configuration is shown in figure 128. The engine operates on the Brayton cycle, and ideal cycle efficiency depends only on the ratio of engine to ambient pressure. The increased, engine pressures are obtained by ram action alone, and for this reason the ram jet has zero thrust at zero speed. Therefore, ram-jet-powered aircraft must be boosted to flight speeds close to a Mach number of 1.0 before appreciable thrust is generated by the engine. Since pressure increases are obtained by ram action alone, combustor-inlet pressures and temperatures are controlled by the flight speed, the ambient atmospheric condition, and by the efficiency of the inlet diffuser. These pressures and temperatures, as functions of flight speed and altitude, are shown in figure 129 for the NACA standard atmosphere and for practical values of diffuser efficiency. It can be seen that very wide ranges of combustor-inlet temperatures and pressures may be encountered over the ranges of flight velocity and altitude at which ram jets may be operated. Combustor-inlet temperatures from 500 degrees to 1500 degrees R and inlet pressures from 5 to 100 pounds per square inch absolute represent the approximate ranges of interest in current combustor development work. Since the ram jet has no moving parts in the combustor outlet, higher exhaust-gas temperatures than those used in current turbojets are permissible. Therefore, fuel-air ratios equivalent to maximum rates of air specific impulse or heat release can be used, and, for hydrocarbon fuels, this weight ratio is about 0.070. Lower fuel-air ratios down to about 0.015 may also be required to permit efficient cruise operation. This fuel-air-ratio range of 0.015 to 0.070 used in ram jets can be compared with the fuel-air ratios up to 0.025 encountered in current turbojets. Ram

  11. Frozen shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen shoulder is a condition in which the shoulder is painful and loses motion because of inflammation. ... The capsule of the shoulder joint has ligaments that hold the shoulder bones to each other. When the capsule becomes inflamed, the shoulder bones are ...

  12. The Ram's Horn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassias, John A., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The summer-fall and winter-spring numbers of the journal, "The Ram's Horn," contain these articles: "The Text as Dramatic Departure"; "The Dartmouth Language Outreach Approach to Spanish for Police Action"; "The Dartmouth Intensive Language Model (DILM) in Florida: John Rassias with High School Teachers"; "The Flexibility of Using Drama Techniques…

  13. Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rex

    Oakland Schools, an Intermediate School District for Administration, operates a Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS). RAMS is composed of over 100 computer programs, each of which performs procedures on the files of the 28 local school districts comprising the constituency of Oakland Schools. This regional service agency covers 900 square…

  14. Intrinsic Hydrophobicity of Rammed Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, M.; Stone, C.; Balintova, M.; Grul, R.

    2015-11-01

    Rammed earth is well known for its vapour diffusion properties, its ability to regulate humidity within the built environment. Rammed earth is also an aesthetically iconic material such as marble or granite and therefore is preferably left exposed. However exposed rammed earth is often coated with silane/siloxane water repellents or the structure is modified architecturally (large roof overhangs) to accommodate for the hydrophilic nature of the material. This paper sets out to find out optimal hydrophobicity for rammed earth based on natural composite fibres and surface coating without adversely affecting the vapour diffusivity of the material. The material is not required to be waterproof, but should resist at least driving rain. In order to evaluate different approaches to increase hydrophobicity of rammed earth surface, peat fibres and four types of repellents were used.

  15. All-Metal Magnetic RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torok, E. J.; Spitzer, R.

    2000-01-01

    The factors that enter into the development of an all-metal, nonvolatile magnetic RAM, in which multilayer giant magnetoresistive films are used for all functions - storage, readout, and support electronics - are described. Four significant characteristics are expected to favor all-metal over hybrid magnetic RAM. First, silicon-technology fabrication requires a large number of masking steps, including complex ones such as ion implantation. Conversely, all-metal technology is inherently simple: fewer masking steps, no doping, scaling to lithographic limits, very little operating power. Second, the all-metal footprint is significantly smaller than the hybrid one. Third, an all-metal RAM is expected to be able to be miniaturized to lithographic limits; miniaturization of hybrid magnetic RAMs is likely to be limited by the semiconductor circuitry. Finally, semiconductor processing and magnetic processing in MRAM are done separately because the former requires high temperatures, whereas magnetic fabrication is a low-temperature process. By contrast, because both GMR electronics and the memory elements are made of the same materials, the two major components are deposited and patterned concurrently on the same substrate.

  16. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for

  17. Development of battering ram vibrator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F.; Chen, Z.; Lin, J.; Tong, X.

    2012-12-01

    This paper researched the battering ram vibrator system, by electric machinery we can control oil system of battering ram, we realized exact control of battering ram, after analyzed pseudorandom coding, code "0" and "1" correspond to rest and shake of battering ram, then we can get pseudorandom coding which is the same with battering ram vibrator. After testing , by the reference trace and single shot record, when we using pseudorandom coding mode, the ratio of seismic wavelet to correlation interfere is about 68 dB, while the general mode , the ratio of seismic wavelet to correlation interfere only is 27.9dB, by battering ram vibrator system, we can debase the correlation interfere which come from the single shaking frequency of battering ram, this system advanced the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data, which can give direction of the application of battering ram vibrator in metal mine exploration and high resolving seismic exploration.

  18. Evaluation of seasonal variations of semen freezability in Leccese ram.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Martemucci, G

    2003-11-20

    The experiment was carried out in Southern Italy (41 degrees N latitude) to examine the effects of seasonal variations of semen freezability in Leccese ram. Semen from five rams, collected every 2 weeks for a whole year, was frozen in straws, using a system based on Tris-fructose egg yolk as extender to constitute semen doses of 100x10(6) spermatozoa. Post-thaw survival and acrosomal status of cells were assessed by dual staining by Hoechst 33258 and FITC-PSA. Three different forms of fluorescence distribution were displayed indicating sperm without acrosome (unstained cells), sperm with damaged acrosome (cells with incomplete fluorescence over the head), sperm with widespread fluorescence (cells completely fluorescent). Motility and kinetic rating at thawing and after 1 and 3h incubation (37 degrees C) were also assessed. Semen frozen in summer and autumn, corresponding to the breeding season, showed the highest (P<0.01) post-thaw survival of spermatozoa (41.7%) and the lowest (P<0.01) incidence of spermatozoa with damaged acrosome. The positive influence of the summer-autumn period was expressed also on motility and kinetic rating of spermatozoa at thawing. The integrity of the acrosomal membrane was positively correlated (P<0.01) with sperm viability before processing (r=0.32) and after thawing (r=0.51). In conclusion, the results show that season exerts a significant influence on semen freezability in Leccese ram, with the best performance occurring the summer and autumn period, corresponding to the reproductive season in temperate zones. PMID:12853182

  19. Experiment of rocket-ram annular combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuyanagi, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, K.; Ono, F.; Sasaki, M.; Takahashi, M.

    In this experiment, the double-nozzle type of rocket-ram annular combustor with a total thrust of 5kN was designed and tested with varying ratios of thrust produced by rocket and ram. Thrust and pressure distribution along the common expansion nozzle, i.e., the ram combustor nozzle, were measured to investigate the effect of interaction of the two expansion gases on thrust. Enhancement of specific impulse was verified by the experiments. That is, the specific impulse gains in rocket-ram parallel operation, the ratio of rocket thrust to ram thrust being 50 to 50, were found to be 190 percent of gains in pure rocket operation.

  20. Research and Applications Modules (RAM), phase B study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The research and applications modules (RAM) system is discussed. The RAM is a family of payload carrier modules that can be delivered to and retrieved from earth orbit by the space shuttle. The RAM's capability for implementing a wide range of manned and man-tended missions is described. The rams have evolved into three types; (1) pressurized RAMs, (2) unpressurized RAMs, and (3) pressurizable free-flying RAMs. A reference experiment plan for use as a baseline in the derivation and planning of the RAM project is reported. The plan describes the number and frequency of shuttle flights dedicated to RAM missions and the RAM payloads for the identified flights.

  1. Frozen shoulder - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Adhesive capsulitis - aftercare; Frozen shoulder syndrome - aftercare ... Krabak BJ, Banks NL. Adhesive capsulitis. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders;2008: ...

  2. HyRAM Testing Script.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkins, Owen

    2014-12-01

    The testing script is to provide a method of inspections to HyRAM (v1.0.0.244 Alpha) application features. This document will lead participants through the use of the application to make sure the application performs as designed. If a feature of the application becomes non-working, this script will relay useful information back to the designers of the application so that the feature can be fixed. This is essential to keep the application updated and performing as designed so that the users of this program can be satisfied. There will be frequent updates of this document to ensure proper testing of future application versions.

  3. Effect of freezing rate of ram spermatozoa on subsequent fertility in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Byrne, G P; Lonergan, P; Wade, M; Duffy, P; Donovan, A; Hanrahan, J P; Boland, M P

    2000-09-01

    Ram spermatozoa are most susceptible to damage during freezing between the temperatures of -10 degrees C and -25 degrees C. The objectives of the present study were to examine how freezing rate through this critical temperature zone affected the fertility of spermatozoa as assessed in vivo and in vitro. Semen from six adult rams was frozen at two different rates ("fast": 5 degrees C/min from +5 to -25 degrees C; "slow": 0.5 degrees C/min from +5 to -25 degrees C). In Experiment 1, semen from the fast and slow treatments was used to fertilize ovine oocytes that had been matured in vitro. Semen from the fast treatment yielded a higher cleavage rate (57% vs. 26%; P<0.001) and more blastocysts per oocyte (28% vs. 13%, P<0. 001) than slow-frozen. No correlation was found between fertilizing ability and viability as assessed by fluorescent probes. Experiment 2 was designed to establish the conception rates following both cervical and intrauterine insemination of frozen-thawed semen from the same bank of semen as used in Experiment 1. Ewes were superovulated with FSH and inseminated by laparoscopy with frozen semen. A significant difference was found in the number of fertilized ova following embryo recovery (81.4% vs. 39.3%; P<0.001). In a further study, 119 mature cull ewes were inseminated following a 12-day synchronization treatment with frozen semen by either intrauterine (laparoscopic) or cervical insemination. Insemination with fast-frozen semen resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (P<0.05) irrespective of method of insemination. The data show that freezing rate affects the proportion of spermatozoa that retain their fertilizing ability post-thawing. However, once fertilization has occurred, development to the blastocyst stage is independent of freezing rate. PMID:10924829

  4. Hugoniot analysis of the ram accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlen, C.; Bruckner, A. P.

    The thermodynamic properties of a combustible propellant gas, after it has been processed by a ram accelerator propulsive mode, are related by a 'ram accelerator Hugoniot' expression. These end states are determined from the 1-D conservation equations in a manner similar to that used for detonation waves, but with the addition of a force term in the momentum equation. Establishment of a region of potentially accessible thermodynamic end states that are consistent with ram accelerator operation at and above the Chapman-Jouguet detonation speed indicates that there are no fundamental constraints on accelerating projectiles over a wide range of Mach numbers in a single propellant mixture. Interpreting experimental data in the context of a generalized ram accelerator process leads to relatively simple propulsive models which can predict the projectile acceleration of any propulsive mode. The projectile velocity and acceleration histories determined by the Hugoniot analysis for the thermally choked ram accelerator mode are in excellent agreement with experiments.

  5. Frozen-intensity test research of frozen coal with steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Huang, Cheng; Liu, Weibo

    2002-05-01

    As a sort of multiple component, and dispersed state granule aggregation, frozen coal behaves similar to frozen soil. On the basis of its unique ice-cementation effect and not-frozen water along with dynamical balance state between the frameworks of mineral granule, the mechanical behavior of frozen coal is more complex than usual in compact medium, restrictedly with force amount, process time period and temperature. In all factors which impact on frozen intensity of frozen coal frozen with steel plate, water content is relatively easy to control. From results of this test research, values of frozen intensity is changeable under different water content. Up to the critical water content, the value of frozen intensity increase rapidly till a certain steady value. Under a certain temperature and water content condition, the granule component of frozen coal has somewhat effect on the frozen intensity. Usually, the frozen intensity of large granule coal is greater than the small granule's However, the distributing of coal granule size present a steady probability rule. So the effect from granule size is tiny.

  6. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  7. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  8. Transient simulation of ram accelerator flowfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabczuk, Randall P.; Rolader, G.; Dash, S.; Sinha, N.; York, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation capability in support of the USAF Armament Directorate ram accelerator research initiative. The state-of-the-art CRAFT computer code has been specialized for high fidelity, transient ram accelerator simulations via inclusion of generalized dynamic gridding, solution adaptive grid clustering, and high pressure thermo-chemistry. Selected ram accelerator simulations are presented that serve to exhibit the CRAFT code capabilities and identify some of the principle research/design Issues.

  9. Transient simulation of ram accelerator flowfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, N.; York, B. J.; Dash, S. M.; Drabczuk, R.; Rolader, G. E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation capability in support of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate's ram accelerator research initiative. The state-of-the-art CRAFT computer code has been specialized for high fidelity, transient ram accelerator simulations via inclusion of generalized dynamic gridding, solution adaptive grid clustering, high pressure thermochemistry, etc. Selected ram accelerator simulations are presented which serve to exhibit the CRAFT code's capabilities and identify some of the principal research/design issues.

  10. Texture of Frozen Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  11. Curation of Frozen Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, L. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Astromaterials Curator are charged by NPD 7100.10D with the curation of all of NASA s extraterrestrial samples, including those from future missions. This responsibility includes the development of new sample handling and preparation techniques; therefore, the Astromaterials Curator must begin developing procedures to preserve, prepare and ship samples at sub-freezing temperatures in order to enable future sample return missions. Such missions might include the return of future frozen samples from permanently-shadowed lunar craters, the nuclei of comets, the surface of Mars, etc. We are demonstrating the ability to curate samples under cold conditions by designing, installing and testing a cold curation glovebox. This glovebox will allow us to store, document, manipulate and subdivide frozen samples while quantifying and minimizing contamination throughout the curation process.

  12. FROZEN HYDROCARBONS IN COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Simonia, Irakli

    2011-02-15

    Recent investigations of the luminescence of frozen hydrocarbon particles of icy cometary halos have been carried out. The process of luminescence of organic icy particles in a short-wavelength solar radiation field is considered. A comparative analysis of observed and laboratory data leads to 72 luminescent emission lines in the spectrum of the comet 153P/Ikeya-Zhang. The concept of cometary relict matter is presented, and the creation of a database of unidentified cometary emission lines is proposed.

  13. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  14. Energy-Saving RAM-Power Tap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Alan Roy

    1987-01-01

    Reverse-flow HEXFET(R) minimizes voltage drop and power dissipation. HEXFET(R) scheme reduces voltage drop by approximately 80 percent. Design for power tap for random-access memory (RAM) has potential application in digital systems.

  15. Ram Pressure Stripping: The Long Goodbye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Peter, Annika; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    What turns off star formation in satellite galaxies? Ram pressure stripping, the removal of a galaxy's gas through direct interaction with the gas halo in which it orbits, is an attractive quenching mechanism, particularly in the Milky Way halo where the radial distribution of quenching is dramatic. However, many implementations of this process in semi-analytic models result in overly-rapid gas removal when compared with observations. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with Enzo to parameterize the stripping of disk and halo gas from an orbiting satellite galaxy for use in the semi-analytic modeling code Galacticus. We find that using the instantaneous ram pressure overestimates the amount of gas that is stripped, and present a physically-motivated module for including ram pressure stripping in semi-analytic models that uses the integral of the ram pressure experienced by a satellite galaxy. We will compare our results to observations of the Milky Way satellites.

  16. HyRAM Testing Strategy and Quality Design Elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, John Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Strategy document and tentative schedule for testing of HyRAM, a software toolkit that integrates data and methods relevant to assessing the safety of hydrogen fueling and storage infrastructure. Because proposed and existing features in HyRAM that support testing are important factors in this discussion, relevant design considerations of HyRAM are also discussed. However, t his document does not cover all of HyRAM desig n, nor is the full HyRAM software development schedule included.

  17. FPS-RAM: Fast Prefix Search RAM-Based Hardware for Forwarding Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Koji; Kuroda, Yasuto; Inoue, Kazunari; Ata, Shingo; Oka, Ikuo

    Ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is becoming very popular for designing high-throughput forwarding engines on routers. However, TCAM has potential problems in terms of hardware and power costs, which limits its ability to deploy large amounts of capacity in IP routers. In this paper, we propose new hardware architecture for fast forwarding engines, called fast prefix search RAM-based hardware (FPS-RAM). We designed FPS-RAM hardware with the intent of maintaining the same search performance and physical user interface as TCAM because our objective is to replace the TCAM in the market. Our RAM-based hardware architecture is completely different from that of TCAM and has dramatically reduced the costs and power consumption to 62% and 52%, respectively. We implemented FPS-RAM on an FPGA to examine its lookup operation.

  18. Experiment of rocket-ram annular combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuyanagi, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazuo; Sasaki, Masaki; Ono, Fumiei

    Superiority in specific impulse of the double-nozzle type of rocket-ram combined engine over the ducted type of combined engine was shown by performance calculations. Then, a double-nozzle type of rocket-ram annular combustor with a total thrust of 5 kN was designed and experimentally tested with varying ratios of thrust produced by rocket and ram. With the combustor having different diverging half-angles, namely 10 deg 18 arcmin, and 6 deg 40 arcmin, thrust and pressure distribution along the common expansion nozzle were measured to investigate the effect of interaction of the two expansion gases on thrust. Enhancement of specific impulse was experimentally verified. That is, the specific impulse gained in rocket-ram parallel operations, the ratio of rocket thrust to ram thrust being 50 to 50, were found to be 190 percent of those in pure rocket operations. However, in the downstream region of the common nozzle, the flow might separate due to the generation of shock waves in either type of nozzle configuration.

  19. -based electrochemical metallization ReRAM application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Fun-Tat; Lin, Yu-Hsien; You, Hsin-Chiang; Yang, Wen-Luh; Lin, Li-Min; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Ko, Chum-Min; Chao, Tien-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates an advanced copper (Cu) chemical displacement technique (CDT) with varying the chemical displacement time for fabricating Cu/SiO2-stacked resistive random-access memory (ReRAM). Compared with other Cu deposition methods, this CDT easily controls the interface of the Cu-insulator, the switching layer thickness, and the immunity of the Cu etching process, assisting the 1-transistor-1-ReRAM (1T-1R) structure and system-on-chip integration. The modulated shape of the Cu-SiO2 interface and the thickness of the SiO2 layer obtained by CDT-based Cu deposition on SiO2 were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The CDT-fabricated Cu/SiO2-stacked ReRAM exhibited lower operation voltages and more stable data retention characteristics than the control Cu/SiO2-stacked sample. As the Cu CDT processing time increased, the forming and set voltages of the CDT-fabricated Cu/SiO2-stacked ReRAM decreased. Conversely, decreasing the processing time reduced the on-state current and reset voltage while increasing the endurance switching cycle time. Therefore, the switching characteristics were easily modulated by Cu CDT, yielding a high performance electrochemical metallization (ECM)-type ReRAM.

  20. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  1. Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM).

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Mann, Nikki; Phills, Curtis E

    2010-07-01

    In 4 experiments anxious uncertainty threats caused reactive approach motivation (RAM). In Studies 1 and 2, academic anxious uncertainty threats caused RAM as assessed by behavioral neuroscience and implicit measures of approach motivation. In Study 3 the effect of a relational anxious uncertainty threat on approach-motivated personal projects in participants' everyday lives was mediated by the idealism of those projects. In Study 4 the effect of a different relational anxious uncertainty threat on implicit approach motivation was heightened by manipulated salience of personal ideals. Results suggest a RAM account for idealistic and ideological reactions in the threat and defense literature. Speculative implications are suggested for understanding diverse social and clinical phenomena ranging from worldview defense, prejudice, and meaning making to narcissism, hypomania, and aggression. PMID:20565191

  2. Reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Prentice, Mike

    2010-07-01

    In 3 experiments, participants reacted with religious zeal to anxious uncertainty threats that have caused reactive approach motivation (RAM) in past research (see McGregor, Nash, Mann, & Phills, 2010, for implicit, explicit, and neural evidence of RAM). In Study 1, results were specific to religious ideals and did not extend to merely superstitious beliefs. Effects were most pronounced among the most anxious and uncertainty-averse participants in Study 1 and among the most approach-motivated participants in Study 2 (i.e., with high Promotion Focus, Behavioral Activation, Action Orientation, and Self-Esteem Scale scores). In Studies 2 and 3, anxious uncertainty threats amplified even the most jingoistic and extreme aspects of religious zeal. In Study 3, reactive religious zeal occurred only among participants who reported feeling disempowered in their everyday goals in life. Results support a RAM view of empowered religious idealism for anxiety management (cf. Armstrong, 2000; Inzlicht, McGregor, Hirsch, & Nash, 2009). PMID:20565192

  3. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  4. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  5. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  6. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  7. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  8. USER'S GUIDE FOR RAM. SECOND EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAM is an air quality model based on the Gaussian-plume simplication of the diffusion equation which assumes time independence in the input meteorology and concentration. The model is primarily used to determine short-term (one hour to one day) concentrations from point and area ...

  9. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  10. Frozen beverage machine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1988-04-12

    A frozen beverage machine is described, comprising: a. a frame having an exterior, an interior, a front and a back; b. a cylinder, having an interior and an exterior as well as first and second ends and further having an opening in each of the ends, the cylinder being horizontally and fixedly positioned within the interior of the frame with the second end facing the front of the frame; c. a means, sealingly attached to the opening in the second end of the cylinder, for emptying the cylinder; d. a means, positioned within the frame and communicating with the exterior of the cylinder, for removing heat from the cylinder; e. at least one support bracket; f. a shaft, rotatably attached within the opening in the support bracket and rotatably and sealingly attached within the opening in the first end of the cylinder and extending to the interior of the cylinder; g. a motor assembly, operatively connected to a portion of the shaft exterior to the cylinder and suspended from the shaft such that the weight of the motor assembly is supported only by the shaft; h. a contact switch; and i. a resilient means, connected to the frame and the motor assembly, for maintaining the position of the motor assembly relative to the shaft until a desired threshold resistance to rotation of the shaft within the cylinder occur, and then allowing the motor assembly to rotate to a desired position relative to the shaft.

  11. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  12. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas. (a) Identity—(1) Product...

  13. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  14. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  15. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  16. Semen characteristics after vasectomy in the ram.

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Hüssy, D; Lischer, C; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in semen characteristics in vasectomized rams and to determine if infertility was present 14 days after vasectomy. Experiments were performed using five cross-breed rams, aged between 18 and 30 months. Semen was collected weekly by artificial vagina from 2 months before to 5 months after vasectomy. After sexual rest for 10 days, vasectomy was performed by the cranial midscrotal approach. In all ejaculates the volume, concentration, total sperm number, motility and morphology (normal spermatozoa, loose heads) were determined and sperm viability (SYBR-14/PI) was evaluated in all semen samples collected after vasectomy. In the first ejaculate obtained 14 days post vasectomy all rams showed a significant (P < 0.05) drop in mean volume (from 1.2 to 0.5 mL), total sperm count (from 5176.8 to 51.1 x 10(6)) and morphologically normal sperm (from 84.1 to 15.7%), when compared to the last prevasectomy collection. We could also demonstrate a positive correlation (r = 0.89) between the individual cumulative total number of spermatozoa after vasectomy and the scrotal circumference measured before vasectomy. Sperm motility and viability could never be demonstrated after vasectomy and normal spermatozoa continuously decreased concomitant with an increase in loose heads. On post mortem examination 5 months after surgery, spermatocele formation and multiple sperm granulomas were present in all five rams. Our results show that in the first ejaculate collected by artificial vagina 14 days after vasectomy, no motile and viable spermatozoa could be detected. Despite weekly collections during a 5-month period after sterilization, azoospermia could never be achieved. PMID:11516127

  17. Spacecraft ram glow and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Llewellyn, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Space shuttle glow intensity measurements show large differences when the data from different missions are compared. In particular, on the 41-G mission the space shuttle ram glow was observed to display an unusually low intensity. Subsequent investigation of this measurement and earlier measurements suggest that there was a significant difference in temperature of the glow producing ram surfaces. The highly insulating properties coupled with the high emissivity of the shuttle tile results in surfaces that cool quickly when exposed to deep space on the night side of the orbit. The increased glow intensity is consistent with the hypothesis that the glow is emitted from excited NO2. The excited NO2 is likely formed through three body recombination (OI + NO + M = NO2*) where ramming of OI interacts with weakly surface bound NO. The NO is formed from atmospheric OI and NI which is scavenged by the spacecraft moving through the atmosphere. It is postulated that the colder surfaces retain a thicker layer of NO thereby increasing the probability of the reaction. It has been found from the glow intensity/temperature data that the bond energy of the surface bound precursor, leading to the chemical recombination producing the glow, is approximately 0.14 eV. A thermal analysis of material samples of STS-8 was made and the postulated temperature change of individual material samples prior to the time of glow measurements above respective samples are consistent with the thermal effect on glow found for the orbiter surface.

  18. Resuspending ram spermatozoa in seminal plasma after cryopreservation does not improve pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, C M; Donovan, A; Hanrahan, J P; Duffy, P; Fair, S; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2007-04-15

    The role of seminal plasma (SP) components on the maintenance of motility, viability and fertilising ability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa is of considerable interest. However, differences observed in constituents of SP among males could explain differences in fertility obtained in vivo. Two experiments were designed to examine the effects of seminal plasma on fertility from cervically inseminated frozen-thawed semen. The objective of Experiment 1 was to investigate if source or type of SP influences pregnancy rate. Seminal plasma was collected from rams previously classified as having either High (HSP; n=3) or Low (LSP; n=3) fertility in vivo. Artificial SP (fructose/sodium solution with 10% BSA; ASP) was made. Frozen semen from the same 6 rams was thawed and inseminated (Control) or resuspended either in HSP, LSP or ASP (20% in semen) prior to insemination of ewes (n=284, over 2 farms). The overall pregnancy rate was 28.1%. Treatments (Control, ASP, HSP and LSP) were not significantly different (P>0.3). There was no difference between HSP and LSP (P>0.5), and no effect of using ASP compared to ram SP (P>0.7), on pregnancy rate. As there was no effect of SP on pregnancy rate a repeat experiment (Experiment 2) was designed to test the effect of washing and selecting motile sperm prior to resuspending in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing SP on pregnancy rate. Frozen-thawed semen from each of 2 rams was centrifuged through a density gradient, pellets were centrifuged through a wash medium and the sperm concentration/ram was counted. Sperm cells were resuspended in: (1) control PBS, (2) PBS containing 30% HSP or (3) PBS containing 30% LSP to give 100 x 10(6) motile sperm in 0.25 mL. Control straws were thawed and inseminated directly. Ewes (n=223 over 2 farms) were inseminated 57 h post-sponge withdrawal and those not returning to oestrus were slaughtered 29-50 days post-insemination for pregnancy determination. In Experiment 2, the pregnancy rate for Control

  19. Dry Zones Around Frozen Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbano, Caitlin; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    The saturation pressure of water vapor above supercooled water exceeds that above ice at the same temperature. A frozen droplet will therefore grow by harvesting water vapor from neighboring supercooled condensate, which has recently been demonstrated to be a primary mechanism of in-plane frost growth on hydrophobic surfaces. The underlying physics of this source-sink interaction is still poorly understood. In this work, a deposited water droplet is frozen on a dry hydrophobic surface initially held above the dew point. We demonstrate that when the surface is then cooled beneath the dew point, the frozen droplet harvests nearby water vapor in the air. This results in an annular dry zone that forms between the frozen droplet and the forming supercooled condensation. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the length of the dry zone varied strongly with surface temperature and weakly with droplet volume. The dependence of the dry zone on surface temperature is due to the fact that the vapor pressure gradients between the ambient and the surface and between the liquid and frozen water are both functions of temperature.

  20. Heterologous recombinant protein with decapacitating activity prevents and reverts cryodamage in ram sperm: An emerging biotechnological tool for cryobiology.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, L; Ledesma, A; Hozbor, F; Cesari, A

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades fundamental and applied aspects of mammalian ram sperm cryopreservation have been increasingly explored by scientists and biotechnologists. Many works report modifications in the composition of the freezing extenders and explore the beneficial and detrimental effects of seminal plasma or seminal plasma components in cryopreservation. Seminal plasma is known to contain stabilizing proteins, thereby this is a good start point to study the maintenance of membrane stability based on the basic knowledge of sperm physiology. However, seminal plasma composition is variable among rams and also the introduction of exogenous seminal plasma or its fractions to commercial semen can be associated with the transmission of viral diseases. Our work shows that a mouse protein, called SPINK3 (Serine Protease Inhibitor Kazal type 3) with decapacitating activity interacts with heterologous ram sperm when it is produced as a recombinant molecule. By immunocytochemistry assays we demonstrate that this protein (naturally expressed by mouse seminal vesicle under androgenic control) binds to the apical portion of both fresh and frozen ram sperm, the same localization described in mouse homologous sperm. Furthermore, it significantly improves sperm progressive motility compared to non-treated samples when it is added to freezing extenders and to dilution media after thawing. On the contrary, addition of SPINK3 does not modify sperm viability. The percentage of sperm with intact acrosome after ionophore induction was also significantly higher in sperm frozen in the presence of SPINK3 compared to control samples and the addition of SPINK3 after thawing significantly reduced both induced and non induced acrosomal loss, indicating that heterologous SPINK3 might act as a calcium inhibitor transport as described in mouse. Based on our results SPINK3 may find a place as a desirable biotechnological tool to achieve a higher proportion of competent sperm to fertilize. PMID

  1. Microheterogeneity in Frozen Protein Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyoprotectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyoprotectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (−20 < TF < 0°C) on the MH generated within a frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10 wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20 wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (−16 < TF < −10°C). In the 30 wt% trehalose solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (−12 < TF < −10°C) was needed to ensure a fairly homogeneous FCL. The method developed here will be helpful for the development of uniformly frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  2. Microheterogeneity in frozen protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-06-20

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyo-protectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyo-protectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (-20frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (-16frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  3. Incorporation of RAM techniques into simulation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. C., Jr.; Haire, M. J.; Schryver, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    This work concludes that reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analytical techniques can be incorporated into computer network simulation modeling to yield an important new analytical tool. This paper describes the incorporation of failure and repair information into network simulation to build a stochastic computer model to represent the RAM Performance of two vehicles being developed for the US Army: The Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS) and the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV). The AFAS is the US Army's next generation self-propelled cannon artillery system. The FARV is a resupply vehicle for the AFAS. Both vehicles utilize automation technologies to improve the operational performance of the vehicles and reduce manpower. The network simulation model used in this work is task based. The model programmed in this application requirements a typical battle mission and the failures and repairs that occur during that battle. Each task that the FARV performs--upload, travel to the AFAS, refuel, perform tactical/survivability moves, return to logistic resupply, etc.--is modeled. Such a model reproduces a model reproduces operational phenomena (e.g., failures and repairs) that are likely to occur in actual performance. Simulation tasks are modeled as discrete chronological steps; after the completion of each task decisions are programmed that determine the next path to be followed. The result is a complex logic diagram or network. The network simulation model is developed within a hierarchy of vehicle systems, subsystems, and equipment and includes failure management subnetworks. RAM information and other performance measures are collected which have impact on design requirements. Design changes are evaluated through 'what if' questions, sensitivity studies, and battle scenario changes.

  4. SeaRAM: an evaluation of the safety of RAM transport by sea

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, P.; Sorenson, K.B.; Carter, M.H.; Keane, M.P.; Keith, V.F.; Heid, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    SeaRAM is a multi-year Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to validate the safety of shipping radioactive materials (RAM) by sea. The project has an ultimate goal of developing and demonstrating analytic tools for performing comprehensive analyses to evaluate the risks to humans and the environment due to sea transport of plutonium, vitrified high-level waste (VHLW), and spent fuel associated with reprocessing and research reactors. To achieve this end, evaluations of maritime databases and structural an thermal analyses of particular severe collision and fire accidents have been and will continue to be conducted. Program management for SeaRAM is based at the DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration. Technical activities for the project are being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Several private organizations are also involved in providing technical support, notably Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc. (ECO). The technical work performed for SeaRAM also supports DOE participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Program (CRP) entitled Accident Severity at Sea During Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper discusses activities performed during the first year of the project.

  5. A 1K Shadow RAM for circumvention applications

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A 1K bit Shadow RAM has been developed for storage of critical data in a high transient radiation environment. The circuit includes a 1K bit (128 {times} 8) static RAM with two non-volatile (NV) shadows. The NV shadows are used to back-up the data in the static RAM allowing the circuit to be powered down during transient radiation without losing critical data. This paper will describe the circuit's operation and characterization results.

  6. The rams horn in western history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  7. Robotic Assisted Microsurgery - RAMS FY'97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    JPL and Microdexterity Systems collaborated to develop new surgical capabilities. They developed a Robot Assisted Microsurgery (RAM) tool for surgeons to use for operating on the eye, ear, brain, and blood vessels with unprecedented dexterity. A surgeon can hold the surgical instrument with motions of 6 degrees of freedom with an accuracy of 25 microns in a 70 cu cm workspace. In 1996 a demonstration was performed to remove a microscopic particle from a simulated eyeball. In 1997, tests were performed at UCLA to compare telerobotics with mechanical operations. In 5 out of 7 tests, the RAM tool performed with a significant improvement of preciseness over mechanical operation. New design features include: (1) amplified forced feedback; (2) simultaneous slave robot instrumentation; (3) index control switch on master handle; and (4) tool control switches. Upgrades include: (1) increase in computational power; and (2) installation of hard disk memory storage device for independent operation and independent operation of forceps. In 1997 a final demonstration was performed using 2 telerobotics simultaneously in a microsurgery suture procedure to close a slit in a thin sheet of latex rubber which extended the capabilities of microsurgery procedures. After completing trials and demonstrations for the FDA the potential benefits for thousands of operations will be exposed.

  8. Effects of melatonin implants during non-breeding season on sperm motility and reproductive parameters in Rasa Aragonesa rams.

    PubMed

    Casao, A; Vega, S; Palacín, I; Pérez-Pe, R; Laviña, A; Quintín, F J; Sevilla, E; Abecia, J A; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Forcada, F; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2010-06-01

    The effect of melatonin implants administered during non-breeding season in Rasa Aragonesa rams on sperm motility parameters and other reproductive traits was assessed. In a first experiment, two Rasa Aragonesa rams were implanted (with melatonin group M), remaining other two males as control group (C). Semen of each group was collected from 1 May to 23 June, twice or three times a week, and motility parameters were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Melatonin increased the percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa, particularly during 46-75 days after melatonin implantation (p < 0.01). In experiment 2, M and C in vitro fertilization ability had been determined by zona-pellucida binding assays, using spermatozoa from experiment 1, obtained 60-70 days after melatonin was implanted. A significantly higher number of spermatozoa attached per oocyte was observed in frozen-thawed immature ovine oocytes incubated with sperm from M animals than in those incubated with sperm from the C group (p < 0.01). Finally, a field assay (experiment 3) was performed. In this case, five Rasa Aragonesa rams were implanted with melatonin and three remained as control group. Sperm doses from those animals were used for artificial insemination of 2608 Rasa Aragonesa ewes from 39 different farms at non-breeding season. Fertility, litter size and fecundity were studied. Semen from melatonin implanted rams seemed to increase both fertility and fecundity in ewes inseminated with spermatozoa obtained 46-60 days after implantation (p < 0.1). Thus, melatonin treatment in rams during non-breeding season modifies sperm motility parameters and seems to improve the fertilization parameters obtained. PMID:18954380

  9. Frozen Scope and Grammatical Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The literature on quantifier scope has repeatedly observed that some otherwise expected permutations of scope taking elements are unavailable. Various methods have been proffered explaining these facts. This thesis aims to unify three disparate areas where the scope of operators seems to be frozen: the interaction of universal quantifiers with…

  10. Frozen shoulder: a sympathetic dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Müller, L P; Müller, L A; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    2000-01-01

    Diagnostic and clinical features of the frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are similar in many aspects. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in affected areas in both diseases, while native radiographs show a progressive demineralisation. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative digital radiography objectified these local decalcification processes in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome; 10 of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder had BMD decreases greater 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the non-affected side. In the immobilised control group with degenerative changes of the rotator cuff, calcifying tendinitis and shoulder instability (n = 12) and in the group of healthy probands (n = 20), the difference between the affected and non-affected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was only more than 21% in one case each. There are several references in the literature that assume frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process; our observations support this hypothesis, possibly leading to earlier diagnoses and extended therapeutic management. PMID:10653111

  11. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  12. Melatonin protects ram spermatozoa from cryopreservation injuries in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Succu, Sara; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Pasciu, Valeria; Satta, Valentina; Leoni, Giovanni G; Naitana, Salvatore

    2011-04-01

    Cryopreservation harms spermatozoa at different levels and thus impairs their fertilizing ability. The role of melatonin in protecting spermatozoa from different kind injuries has been widely reported. Thus, this study tested whether the addition of melatonin to ram semen freezing extender could exert a protective effect and ameliorate postthawing sperm function. Melatonin was added to recommended ram extender to yield five different final concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mm. A control group without melatonin supplementation was included. Spermatozoa viability, motility parameters, and intracellular ATP concentrations were evaluated both before and after cryopreservation, while DNA integrity and in vitro fertilizing ability were evaluated only after thawing. Obtained results showed that the concentration of 1 mm melatonin led to higher viability rates, higher percentages of total motile and progressive motile spermatozoa, higher percentages of spermatozoa with average rapid and medium velocity, higher intracellular ATP concentrations, and higher DNA integrity among semen frozen in control and melatonin-supplemented extenders (P<0.05). In addition, results obtained after the IVF test showed that at 1 mm concentration, melatonin led to a faster first embryonic division and to higher total cleavage rates compared to the other experimental groups (P<0.05). No difference in embryo output was observed among the six experimental groups. In conclusion, the addition of melatonin to ram semen freezing extender protected spermatozoa during cryopreservation in a dose-dependent manner. These results are likely to be mediated by its well-known antioxidant properties, even if a direct action of the indolamine cannot be ruled out. PMID:21214627

  13. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  14. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  15. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  16. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  17. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  18. Feasibility of Integrated Insulation in Rammed Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, C.; Balintova, M.; Holub, M.

    2015-11-01

    Building Codes in Europe stipulate strict thermal performance criteria which any traditional rammed earth recipe cannot meet. This does not infer that the material itself is inferior; it has many other face saving attributes such as low embodied energy, high workability, sound insulation, fire resistance, aesthetics, high diffusivity and thermal accumulation properties. Integrated insulation is experimented with, to try achieve a 0.22 [W/(m2.K)] overall coefficient of heat transfer for walls required by 2015 Slovak standards, without using external insulation or using technologically complex interstitial insulation. This has the added aesthetic benefit of leaving the earth wall exposed to the external environment. Results evaluate the feasibility of this traditional approach.

  19. Trip Report: RAM-PAC International

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

    1988-09-09

    In the final design of the DO Detector, the three cryostats (CC and both EC's) will ride on a pair of hardened ways so as to move the EC's out and away from the CC cryostat to provide access between cryostats for repairs and such. Each of the cryostats sits on a carriage which has a pair of Tychoway rollers placed at each corner to roll on the hardened ways. When in position, the full weight of the cryostats is to be relieved from the rollers with the use of a pair of 90-ton jacks flanking the pair of rollers at each corner. Due to confined space, these jacks had to be custom made, triple cylinder, single block units. Five manufacturers were presented with the problem and three came back with proposals. All three satisfied the technical requirements but Ram-Pac International was easily the lowest priced.

  20. Space station synergetic RAM-logistics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejulio, Edmund T.; Leet, Joel H.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Maintenance Planning and Analysis (MP&A) Study is a step in the overall Space Station Program to define optimum approaches for on-orbit maintenance planning and logistics support. The approach used in the MP&A study and the analysis process used are presented. Emphasis is on maintenance activities and processes that can be accomplished on orbit within the known design and support constraints of the Space Station. From these analyses, recommendations for maintainability/maintenance requirements are established. The ultimate goal of the study is to reduce on-orbit maintenance requirements to a practical and safe minimum, thereby conserving crew time for productive endeavors. The reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) and operations performance evaluation models used were assembled and developed as part of the MP&A study and are described. A representative space station system design is presented to illustrate the analysis process.

  1. SEU evaluation of FeRAM memories for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, L.; Guertin, S.; Nguyen, d.

    2002-01-01

    SEU cross-sections were obtained for two different FeRAM memories: The 64 kbit and 256 kbit Ramtron FeRAM and the Hynix 64 kbit device. The devices were seen to have latch-up characteristics typical of commercial CMOS. Also, errors in the memory were also seen from heavy ion irradiation.

  2. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  3. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  4. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  5. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  6. The JLab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, C. D.

    2009-08-04

    A polarized, frozen spin target has been designed and constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol are polarized via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to approximately 90% using microwaves and an external, 5 T solenoid magnet. The target sample is then cooled to approximately 30 mK while an internal 0.56 T superconducting magnet is used to maintain the polarization. Relaxation times in excess of 3500 hours have been observed.

  7. Acidity of frozen electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carmen; Boxe, C S; Guzman, M I; Colussi, A J; Hoffmann, M R

    2006-04-20

    Ice is selectively intolerant to impurities. A preponderance of implanted anions or cations generates electrical imbalances in ice grown from electrolyte solutions. Since the excess charges are ultimately neutralized via interfacial (H(+)/HO(-)) transport, the acidity of the unfrozen portion can change significantly and permanently. This insufficiently recognized phenomenon should critically affect rates and equilibria in frozen media. Here we report the effective (19)F NMR chemical shift of 3-fluorobenzoic acid as in situ probe of the acidity of extensively frozen electrolyte solutions. The sign and magnitude of the acidity changes associated with freezing are largely determined by specific ion combinations, but depend also on solute concentration and/or the extent of supercooling. NaCl solutions become more basic, those of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or Na(2)SO(4) become more acidic, while solutions of the 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid zwitterion barely change their acidity upon freezing. We discuss how acidity scales based on solid-state NMR measurements could be used to assess the degree of ionization of weak acids and bases in frozen media. PMID:16610849

  8. Heat Diffusion with Frozen Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Laura; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Peres, Yuval; Spencer, Joel

    2015-11-01

    Consider "frozen random walk" on Z: n particles start at the origin. At any discrete time, the leftmost and rightmost lfloor {n/4}rfloor particles are "frozen" and do not move. The rest of the particles in the "bulk" independently jump to the left and right uniformly. The goal of this note is to understand the limit of this process under scaling of mass and time. To this end we study the following deterministic mass splitting process: start with mass 1 at the origin. At each step the extreme quarter mass on each side is "frozen". The remaining "free" mass in the center evolves according to the discrete heat equation. We establish diffusive behavior of this mass evolution and identify the scaling limit under the assumption of its existence. It is natural to expect the limit to be a truncated Gaussian. A naive guess for the truncation point might be the 1 / 4 quantile points on either side of the origin. We show that this is not the case and it is in fact determined by the evolution of the second moment of the mass distribution.

  9. Ram-Jet off Design Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, Roberto; Ghezzi, Umberto

    2002-01-01

    In this work it is intended to study the off-design performances of a ram jet engine. To this purpouse it has been analyzed in a first time the behaviour of an ideal engine, that means to not consider the losses in the various components, or, under a thermodynamic point of view, to consider the fluid transformation through the air intake and exhaust nozzle, remembering that in a ram jet there are not rotating components as compressor and turbine, isentropic. Referring to the ram-jet scheme of fig.1. we can say, neglecting the fuel introduced, that the air mass flow rate throughout the engine is constant. If we consider the two control sections 4 and 8, respectively the throat section of the converging-diverging supersonic inlet and the throat section of the discharge nozzle, the condition of constant mass flow leads to the relation: m4 =f (M 4 ) m8 = m 4 = m8 We can imaging that the throat section # 4 is always choked for any value of the flight Mach number M0. This means that the throat section 4 is adjusted at any value of M0 so that the flow Mach number in 4 is equal to unity. In this it follows: R. Andriani, U. Ghezzi1 Since in an ideal case T t8 The relation [1] allows to determine the T8 temperature, that represent the maximum cycle temperature, for different operating conditions, as flight Mach number and altitude. We then have two cases: the first is A8 (nozzle throat section) fixed, and the second is A8 variable. In the first case the maximum temperature T8 is univocally determined by the operating condition. In the second case A8 can be varied so to maintain T8 at a chosen value. The graphic of fig.2 shows the first case. In particular it has been considered as design point an altitude of 15000 meters and a flight Mach number equal to 2. In this condition it has been evaluated the section A8 for unity mass flow rate. At the same altitude, varying the flight Mach number, with the section A4 always choked, the graphic shows the variation of the maximum

  10. 26. EASTERNMOST HYDRAULIC RAM IN CENTER RANK (STILL OPERABLE), LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. EASTERNMOST HYDRAULIC RAM IN CENTER RANK (STILL OPERABLE), LOWER LEVEL OF STAGE, LOOKING SOUTH. THE CENTER BANK OF RAMS MOVED SMALL SECTIONS OF STAGE IN THE CENTER OF EACH LARGE MOVABLE SECTION. THE WEST EDGE OF THIS SECTION HAS BEEN EXTENDED TO THE WEST EDGE OF THE LARGE SECTION WHICH ORIGINALLY SURROUNDED IT. THE SOUTH RAM FOR THE LARGE SECTION IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. THE SMALL MOVABLE SECTIONS COULD NOT TILT BUT COULD BE LOWERED TO THE LOWER LEVEL OF THE STAGE WITH HINGED PANELS UNDER EACH LARGE SECTION FILLING THE VOID. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. Ram pressure stripping in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, C.; Combes, F.; Dasyra, K.; Salomé, P.; Braine, J.

    2015-10-01

    Gas can be violently stripped from their galaxy disks in rich clusters, and be dispersed over 100 kpc-scale tails or plumes. Young stars have been observed in these tails, suggesting they are formed in situ. This will contribute to the intracluster light, in addition to tidal stripping of old stars. We want to quantify the efficiency of intracluster star formation. We present CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) observations, made with the IRAM-30 m telescope, towards the ram-pressure stripped tail northeast of NGC 4388 in Virgo. We selected HII regions found all along the tails, together with dust patches, as observing targets. We detect molecular gas in 4 positions along the tail, with masses between 7 × 105 to 2 × 106M⊙. Given the large distance from the NGC 4388 galaxy, the molecular clouds must have formed in situ, from the HI gas plume. We compute the relation between surface densities of star formation and molecular gas in these regions, and find that the star formation has very low efficiency. The corresponding depletion time of the molecular gas can be up to 500 Gyr and more. Since this value exceeds a by far Hubble time, this gas will not be converted into stars, and will stay in a gaseous phase to join the intracluster medium.

  12. New River Geothermal Exploration (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Miller, Clay

    2013-11-15

    The New River Geothermal Exploration (DOE Award No. EE0002843) is located approximately 25km south of the Salton Sea, near town of Brawley in Imperial County and approximately 150km east of San Diego, California. A total of 182 MT Logger sites were completed covering the two separate Mesquite and New River grids. The data was collected over a frequency range of 320Hz to 0.001Hz with variable site spacing. A number of different inversion algorithms in 1D, 2D and 3D were used to produce resistivity-depth profiles and maps of subsurface resistivity variations over the survey area. For 2D inversions, a total of eighteen lines were constructed in east-west and north-south orientations crossing the entire survey area. For MT 3D inversion, the New River property was divided in two sub-grids, Mesquite and New River areas. The report comprises of two parts. For the first part, inversions and geophysical interpretation results are presented with some recommendations of the potential targets for future follow up on the property. The second part of the report describes logistics of the survey, survey parameters, methodology and the survey results (data) in digital documents. The report reviews a Spartan MT survey carried out by Quantec Geoscience Limited over the New River Project in California, USA on behalf of Ram Power Inc. Data was acquired over a period of 29 days from 2010/06/26 to 2010/07/24.

  13. Grading of cervical dysplasias by frozen section.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, S; Smart, G E; Livingstone, J R

    1985-09-14

    Grading of cervical dysplasias at colposcopy by means of rapid frozen section avoids the delay inevitable with paraffin sections. The immediacy of the diagnosis benefits the patient, who can be treated at her first visit. A comparison of grading by frozen sections with paraffin sections has confirmed the safety of the frozen method. Additional advantages are opportunities for optimum orientation and "rescue" of specimens, improved colposcopic training, and the facilitation of special investigations on fresh cervical tissue. PMID:2863606

  14. 10. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  15. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES. - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  16. RAM simulation model for SPH/RSV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, J.C.; Primm, A.H.; Nelson, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The US Army`s Project Manager, Crusader is sponsoring the development of technologies that apply to the Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH), formerly the Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS), and Resupply Vehicle (RSV), formerly the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV), weapon system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently performing developmental work in support of the SPH/PSV Crusader system. Supportive analyses of reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) aspects were also performed for the SPH/RSV effort. During FY 1994 and FY 1995 OPNL conducted a feasibility study to demonstrate the application of simulation modeling for RAM analysis of the Crusader system. Following completion of the feasibility study, a full-scale RAM simulation model of the Crusader system was developed for both the SPH and PSV. This report provides documentation for the simulation model as well as instructions in the proper execution and utilization of the model for the conduct of RAM analyses.

  17. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  18. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  19. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  20. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  1. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  2. Quality and freezing qualities of first and second ejaculates collected from endangered Gulf Coast Native rams.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Harding, G D; Chandler, J E; Chenevert, J F; Damiani, P; Fernandez, J M; Humes, P E; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2006-10-01

    The Gulf Coast Native sheep, or Louisiana Native sheep, is an endangered previously feral domestic sheep population of European origin that has been under natural selection pressure for reproductive survival in their transplanted range while roaming in the southern Gulf Coast Region of the United States. This sheep population has an increased natural resistance to internal parasites, breeds year-around and has a greater percentage of live lambs as compared with other breeds of sheep raised in similar environments. To preserve the genetic diversity of this important feral sheep population, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to cryopreservation for subsequent storage in a genome resource bank. Unrelated rams (n=5) were collected 3 days-a-week, allowing at least 2 days of rest between collections. Two ejaculates were obtained from each ram per collection day, with the second collection conducted 10min after the first ejaculation. Semen was processed using the standard Salamon cryopreservation procedure in a Tris-yolk-glycerol extender, frozen in 0.5ml plastic straws using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor and stored in LN(2). Each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, sperm concentration/ml (x10(9)/ml), number of spermatozoa/ejaculate (x10(9)), sperm progressive motility (%) for pre-cooled semen, cooled semen and semen after thawing. For the five rams, each semen variable for the first ejaculate was compared with that of the second ejaculate collected 10min later. The mean semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate obtained from the first ejaculate were significantly greater (P< or =0.01) than those of the second ejaculate (comparisons being 1.62 and 1.06; 3.2 and 1.5; 5.4 and 1.8, respectively). Overall, the mean motility of pre-cooled (22 degrees Celsius), cooled (5 degrees Celsius) and frozen (-196 degrees Celsius) post-thawed spermatozoa was less (P< or =0.01) in the first ejaculate (71.5, 64.8 and 34.1%, respectively

  3. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  4. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  5. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  6. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  7. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  8. 5 CFR 1650.3 - Frozen accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... child support legal process, and child abuse enforcement orders (found in 5 CFR part 1653). (b) A... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen accounts. 1650.3 Section 1650.3... SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.3 Frozen accounts. (a) All withdrawals from the TSP are subject to the...

  9. Testing the frozen flow approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the frozen-flow approximation (FFA), recently proposed by Matarrese, et al. (1992), for following the nonlinear evolution of cosmological density fluctuations under gravitational instability. We compare a number of statistics between results of the FFA and n-body simulations, including those used by Melott, Pellman & Shandarin (1993) to test the Zel'dovich approximation. The FFA performs reasonably well in a statistical sense, e.g. in reproducing the counts-in-cell distribution, at small scales, but it does poorly in the crosscorrelation with n-body which means it is generally not moving mass to the right place, especially in models with high small-scale power.

  10. The post-thaw quality of ram sperm held for 0 to 48 h at 5 degrees C prior to cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Purdy, P H

    2006-06-01

    The effects of holding diluted ram semen at 5 degrees C for up to 48 h prior to cryopreservation were investigated. Semen from six rams was collected by electro-ejaculation in the autumn and again from six different rams in the spring. The sperm concentration and motility were determined using spectrophotometry and computerized automated semen analysis, respectively. Samples were diluted at 23 degrees C to 400 x 10(6)cells/ml in a one-step Tris-egg yolk-glycerol (5%, v/v) media, cooled to 5 degrees C over 2h and maintained at 5 degrees C for the duration of the experiments. Aliquots were loaded into 0.5 ml French straws at 0, 24 or 48 h after cooling, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor for 12-13 min, 4.5 cm above the liquid nitrogen, and plunged into liquid nitrogen for storage. After thawing, autumn samples frozen after 0, 24, or 48 h of storage exhibited similar percentages of motility (29, 31, 36%, respectively), progressively motility (16, 15, 17%, respectively), plasma membrane integrity (28, 35, 29%, respectively) and live acrosome-reacted cells (0.4, 0.6, 0.8%, respectively; P>0.05). In addition, the quantity of sperm that bound to hen's egg perivitelline membranes after being held at 5 degrees C for 0, 24, or 48 h was not significantly different when the values were expressed as means of the quantity of sperm (155, 177, 106 sperm, respectively) or as the proportion of sperm inseminated (0.39, 0.49, 0.34, respectively; P>0.05). Likewise, ram sperm collected in the spring and frozen at 0, 24 and 48 h after cooling had similar (P>0.05) total motility (21, 25, 20%, respectively), progressive motility (14, 15, 11%, respectively), plasma membrane integrity (26, 33, 31%, respectively) and live acrosome-reacted cells (3.7, 3.5, 3.2%, respectively; P>0.05). The 0 h holding time had significantly less sperm bound to a hen's egg perivitelline membrane compared to the 48 h holding time (250 and 470 sperm, respectively) although the 24h holding time was not different from

  11. Ultramicroscopic and biochemical changes in ram spermatozoa cryopreserved with trehalose-based hypertonic extenders.

    PubMed

    Aisen, E; Quintana, M; Medina, V; Morello, H; Venturino, A

    2005-06-01

    The ability of a range of extenders to cryopreserve ram spermatozoa was tested. The extenders were modified by the inclusion of citrate, Tris buffer, trehalose, and EDTA. Ejaculates from three Pampinta rams were evaluated and pooled at 30 degrees C. The semen was diluted to contain 1 x 10(9) cells/mL, cooled to 5 degrees C, loaded into 0.25-mL straws, frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Evaluation was based on the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS test), electron microscopy, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation and reduced and total glutathione levels, all measured after thawing. The HOS test indicated that the percentage of intact plasma membranes after freezing and thawing was significantly higher for the hypertonic extender containing trehalose (T), compared with an extender containing trehalose+EDTA (TE) or an isotonic Tris extender (B) (p < 0.05). Membrane evaluation by ultramicroscopy also indicated better sperm cryopreservation in extender T compared with the others, and there was a significant reduction in the number of damaged membranes (27%, p < 0.0002). The level of reduced glutathione was significantly higher after sperm cryopreservation in either hypertonic diluent (T and TE) with respect to the isotonic extender B, immediately after thawing (12%) and after a 3-h post-thawing thermotolerance test at 37 degrees C (17%, p = 0.007). Total glutathione levels did not show statistical differences among the extenders. After 3h post-thawing incubation at 37 degrees C, lipid peroxide levels in spermatozoa were statistically lower for T than TE (35%) or isotonic extender B (44%) (p = 0.002). Taken together these results indicate a reduction in the oxidative stress provoked by freezing and thawing when semen is cryopreserved in extender T. The antioxidant properties of extender T may be related to its effectiveness in membrane cryopreservation. PMID:15925576

  12. Modeling rammed earth wall using discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, T.-T.; Bui, Q.-B.; Limam, A.; Morel, J.-C.

    2016-03-01

    Rammed earth is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its "green" characteristics in the context of sustainable development. Several research studies have thus recently been carried out to investigate this material. Some of them attempted to simulate the rammed earth's mechanical behavior by using analytical or numerical models. Most of these studies assumed that there was a perfect cohesion at the interface between earthen layers. This hypothesis proved to be acceptable for the case of vertical loading, but it could be questionable for horizontal loading. To address this problem, discrete element modeling seems to be relevant to simulate a rammed earth wall. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted thus far using discrete element modeling to study a rammed earth wall. This paper presents an assessment of the discrete element modeling's robustness for rammed earth walls. Firstly, a brief description of the discrete element modeling is presented. Then the parameters necessary for discrete element modeling of the material law of the earthen layers and their interfaces law following the Mohr-Coulomb model with a tension cut-off and post-peak softening were given. The relevance of the model and the material parameters were assessed by comparing them with experimental results from the literature. The results showed that, in the case of vertical loading, interfaces did not have an important effect. In the case of diagonal loading, model with interfaces produced better results. Interface characteristics can vary from 85 to 100% of the corresponding earthen layer's characteristics.

  13. Operational advances in ring current modeling using RAM-SCB

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, Daniel T; Jordanova, Vania K; Zaharia, Sorin G; Morley, Steven K

    2010-12-03

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combines a kinetic model of the ring current with a force-balanced model of the magnetospheric magnetic field to create an inner magnetospheric model that is magnetically self consistent. RAM-SCB produces a wealth of outputs that are valuable to space weather applications. For example, the anisotropic particle distribution of the KeV-energy population calculated by the code is key for predicting surface charging on spacecraft. Furthermore, radiation belt codes stand to benefit substantially from RAM-SCB calculated magnetic field values and plasma wave growth rates - both important for determining the evolution of relativistic electron populations. RAM-SCB is undergoing development to bring these benefits to the space weather community. Data-model validation efforts are underway to assess the performance of the system. 'Virtual Satellite' capability has been added to yield satellite-specific particle distribution and magnetic field output. The code's outer boundary is being expanded to 10 Earth Radii to encompass previously neglected geosynchronous orbits and allow the code to be driven completely by either empirical or first-principles based inputs. These advances are culminating towards a new, real-time version of the code, rtRAM-SCB, that can monitor the inner magnetosphere conditions on both a global and spacecraft-specific level. This paper summarizes these new features as well as the benefits they provide the space weather community.

  14. Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Frank B.

    2006-07-25

    A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

  15. Application of RAM to Facility/Laboratory Design

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, K

    2008-04-14

    Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) studies are extensively used for mission critical systems (e.g., weapons systems) to predict the RAM parameters at the preliminary design phase. A RAM methodology is presented for predicting facility/laboratory inherent availability (i.e., availability that only considers the steady-state effects of design) at the preliminary design phase in support of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1A (Life Cycle Asset Management) and DOE Order 420.1B (Facility Safety). The methodology presented identifies the appropriate system-level reliability and maintainability metrics and discusses how these metrics are used in a fault tree analysis for predicting the facility/laboratory inherent availability. The inherent availability predicted is compared against design criteria to determine if changes to the facility/laboratory preliminary design are necessary to meet the required availability objective in the final design.

  16. The use of buck and ram extenders and two packaging systems to cryopreserve aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, C C; Martin, L M; Mains, C R; Wright, R D; Dart, M G; Perkins, R M; Purdy, P H; Ericsson, S A

    2000-07-01

    Because the aoudad has been hunted to near extinction, cryopreservation of their semen would be useful for DNA conservation and for the possible re-establishment of captive bred animals to their former ranges. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of cryopreserving aoudad spermatozoa. Semen samples from four post-pubertal animals were collected using electro-ejaculation. Microscopic analysis was performed to assess the percentages of progressively and non-progressively motile spermatozoa as well as intact acrosomes in samples prior to freezing and post-thaw. Extended samples (0.2 mL) were frozen using 2 different extenders and packaging systems and stored in LN2 Post-thaw data were arcsine-transformed and analyzed using ANOVA, 2 x 2 factorial. Samples that were processed using the ram/straw method had a significantly higher percentage (P < 0.05) of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes than did any other system. In addition, samples that were processed with the buck/pellet system had significantly greater percentages (P < 0.05) of progressive and non-progressively motile spermatozoa than the samples processed using either extender and packaged in straws. This study illustrates that some aoudad spermatozoa may be cryopreserved using the extender/processing systems developed for the domestic buck and ram. PMID:10990348

  17. Simulation of the flow field of a ram accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetrisno, Moeljo; Imlay, Scott T.

    1991-06-01

    An effort is made to achieve a more complete numerical model than heretofore available for analysis and performance prediction regarding ram-accelerator projectiles, using the finite-rate chemistry code HANA. Results are presented from such analyses of a ram accelerator projectile operating in both the thermally-choked mode and the transdetonative mode. The flow field about the projectile, the complex oblique shock system, and the flow properties in the combusting region are detailed. The code uses a novel diagonal implicit solution algorithm which eliminates the expense of inverting the large block matrices arising in chemically reacting flows.

  18. Data requirements for verification of ram glow chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    A set of questions is posed regarding the surface chemistry producing the ram glow on the space shuttle. The questions surround verification of the chemical cycle involved in the physical processes leading to the glow. The questions, and a matrix of measurements required for most answers, are presented. The measurements include knowledge of the flux composition to and from a ram surface as well as spectroscopic signatures from the U to visible to IR. A pallet set of experiments proposed to accomplish the measurements is discussed. An interim experiment involving an available infrared instrument to be operated from the shuttle Orbiter cabin is also be discussed.

  19. Material effects in photoconductive frozen wave generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnell, Robert M.; Thaxter, J. B.; Bell, Richard E.

    1991-04-01

    Linear photoconductive gallium arsenide (GaAs) fast closing switches for microwave applications, such as frozen wave pulse generation, are analyzed and compared to experimental measurements. Material effects in photo-conductive frozen wave generators fabricated in semiconductor-based microstrip transmission line are studied from three perspectives; frozen wave propagation in the line; the spacing between the switches in a frozen wave generator and their maximum number; and the switching behavior of the gap-switch itself, which is modeled as a lumped-element, modified Ebers-Moll equivalent circuit. The experimental transient behavior of hybrid gap-switches fabricated on semi-insulating GaAs with ohmic and non-ohmic contacts is compared with predicted performance. Picosecond laser pulses, doubled to 527 micron wavelength are used to excite linear photoconductivity in 75 micron gap switches mounted in a test fixture of 50 ohm microstrip lines on alumina.

  20. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    ... canned vegetables. Try to buy those without added salt and don't overcook any vegetable, whether fresh, frozen, or canned. Instead of boiling them in water for longer periods of time, they should be ...

  1. Group for frozen soil and rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Society for Testing and Materials wants participants for D18.19, its new subcommittee on frozen soil and rock. The group will write standards for engineering practices in northern Canada, Alaska, and other areas where soil and rock are commonly in the frozen or recently thawed state. Three standards are currently under development: axial compressive load tests o n piles in frozen soils, laboratory rate of frost-heave tests, and laboratory creep testing of frozen soil.The next D18.19 meeting is June 26 in St. Louis, Mo. Scientists who want to work on the subcommittee should contact Bill Lovell, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, tel. 317-494- 5034; or Wendy Dyer, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, tel. 215-299-5526.

  2. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  3. Frozen shoulder--an algoneurodystrophic process?

    PubMed

    Müller, L P; Rittmeister, M; John, J; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    1998-12-01

    The frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are clinically in many aspects similar. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in the affected areas in both diseases, while standard radiographs show a progressive demineralization. With measurement of bone-mineral density by quantitative digital radiography these local decalcification processes were diagnosed in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome: of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder 10 had a bone-mineral density decrease of more than 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the unaffected side. In the control groups (n = 32) the difference between affected and unaffected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was in only one case each above 21%. There are several indications in the literature assuming the frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process. Our observation supports this hypothesis, and may possibly lead to earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic management. PMID:9922549

  4. Frozen singularities in M and F theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the duality between ALE singularities in M-theory and 7-branes on a circle in F-theory. We see that a frozen M-theory singularity maps to a circle compactification involving a rotation of the plane transverse to the 7-brane, showing an interesting correspondence between commuting triples in simply-laced groups and Kodaira's classification of singular elliptic fibrations. Our analysis strongly suggests that the O7+ plane is the only completely frozen F-theory singularity.

  5. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  6. Shoulder pain in primary care: frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Angela; Mohammed, Khalid D

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Frozen shoulder is a painful condition that follows a protracted clinical course. We aim to review the management of patients with a diagnosis of frozen shoulder who are referred for specialist orthopaedic evaluation against existing guidelines in primary care. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM Referrals and clinical records were reviewed for all patients referred for orthopaedic specialist assessment who received a specialist diagnosis of frozen shoulder. Diagnostic, investigation and management practices from a regional primary health care setting in New Zealand were compared with guideline-recommended management. RESULTS Eighty patients with frozen shoulder were referred for orthopaedic evaluation in the 13 month study period, mostly from general practice. Fifteen patients (19%) were identified as having a frozen shoulder in their medical referral. Most (99%) had received previous imaging. Seven patients (12%) had received guideline recommended treatment. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT Education of all clinicians involved in patient management is important to ensure an understanding of the long natural history of frozen shoulder and provide reassurance that outcomes are generally excellent. HealthPathways now include more information regarding diagnosis, imaging and evidence-based management for frozen shoulder. LESSONS Frozen shoulder may be under-diagnosed among patients referred for orthopaedic review. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used and may identify occult and unrelated pathology in this age-group. When managed according to clinical guidelines, patients report significant clinical and functional improvement with most reporting 80% function compared with normal after 1 year. KEYWORDS Adhesive capsulitis; bursitis; injections; practice guideline; primary health care; ultrasound. PMID:27477374

  7. Adhesive capsulitis of the ankle (frozen ankle).

    PubMed

    van Moppes, F I; van den Hoogenband, C R; Greep, J M

    1979-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or "frozen ankle" is a syndrome resulting from repeated ankle sprains, or perhaps following immobilization after trauma. Ankle arthrography is a useful and safe diagnostic procedure in this syndrome. Typical arthrographic features are described together with case histories of two patients with frozen ankle. We suggest that early mobilization of the patient following trauma is particularly important in preventing the development of a forzen ankle syndrome. PMID:508071

  8. Involvement of Regulatory Interactions among Global Regulators GlxR, SugR, and RamA in Expression of ramA in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Koichi; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Gunji, Wataru; Inui, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The central carbon metabolism genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum are under the control of a transcriptional regulatory network composed of several global regulators. It is known that the promoter region of ramA, encoding one of these regulators, interacts with its gene product, RamA, as well as with the two other regulators, GlxR and SugR, in vitro and/or in vivo. Although RamA has been confirmed to repress its own expression, the roles of GlxR and SugR in ramA expression have remained unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of GlxR binding site inactivation on expression of the ramA promoter-lacZ fusion in the genetic background of single and double deletion mutants of sugR and ramA. In the wild-type background, the ramA promoter activity was reduced to undetectable levels by the introduction of mutations into the GlxR binding site but increased by sugR deletion, indicating that GlxR and SugR function as the transcriptional activator and repressor, respectively. The marked repression of ramA promoter activity by the GlxR binding site mutations was largely compensated for by deletions of sugR and/or ramA. Furthermore, ramA promoter activity in the ramA-sugR double mutant was comparable to that in the ramA mutant but was significantly higher than that in the sugR mutant. Taken together, it is likely that the level of ramA expression is dynamically balanced by GlxR-dependent activation and repression by RamA along with SugR in response to perturbation of extracellular and/or intracellular conditions. These findings add multiple regulatory loops to the transcriptional regulatory network model in C. glutamicum. PMID:23396909

  9. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  10. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  11. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  12. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  13. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  14. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  15. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  16. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  17. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  18. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  19. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  20. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  1. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  2. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  3. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  4. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  5. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  6. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  7. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  8. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  9. An evaluation of RAMS radiation schemes by field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, S; Doran, J C

    1994-02-01

    At present, two radiation schemes are used in RAMS: the Mahrer and Pielke (M-P) scheme and the Chen and Cotton (C-C) scheme. The M-P scheme requires little computational expense, but does not include the radiative effects of liquid water or ice; the C-C scheme accounts for the radiative effects of liquid water and ice but is fairly expensive computationally. For simulations with clouds, the C-C scheme is obviously a better choice, but for clear sky conditions, RAMS users face a decision regarding which radiation scheme to use. It has been noted that the choice of radiation scheme may result in significantly different results for the same case. To examine the differences in the radiative fluxes and the boundary-layer structure corresponding to the two radiation schemes in RAMS we have carried out a study where Rams was used to simulate the same case with two different radiation schemes. The modeled radiative fluxes by the two schemes were then compared with the field measurements. A description of the observations and the case study, a comparison and discussion of the results, and a summary and conclusions follow.

  10. Does breed of ram affect ewe and lamb productivity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic use of breed diversity in terminal crossbreeding systems can improve the efficiency of commercial lamb production. Data from controlled research should be used to select the genetic line or lines of rams to use in terminal crossbreeding systems. Thus, research is underway at the USDA, ARS...

  11. BioRAM Lite v.1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-08-05

    BioRAM lite is a training tool for teaching the processes which should be using in assessing biosafety and biosecurity risks. The tool includes 4 separate workbooks – two for biosafety and two for biosecurity. The tools include a set of questions which are scored using ordinal values and the mathematical equations to combine the answers into likelihood and consequence values.

  12. Ram pressure stripping in elliptical galaxies - II. Magnetic field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Min-Su; Ruszkowski, Mateusz

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of magnetic fields and turbulence on ram pressure stripping in elliptical galaxies using ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We consider weakly magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) characterized by subsonic turbulence, and two orientations of the magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM) - parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the galaxy motion through the ICM. While the stronger turbulence enhances the ram pressure stripping mass-loss, the magnetic fields tend to suppress the stripping rates, and the suppression is stronger for parallel fields. However, the effect of magnetic fields on the mass stripping rate is mild. Nevertheless, the morphology of the stripping tails depends significantly on the direction of the ICM magnetic field. The effect of the magnetic field geometry on the tail morphology is much stronger than that of the level of the ISM turbulence. The tail has a highly collimated shape for parallel fields, while it has a sheet-like morphology in the plane of the ICM magnetic field for perpendicular fields. The magnetic field in the tail is amplified irrespectively of the orientation of the ICM field. More strongly magnetized regions in the ram pressure stripping tails are expected to have systematically higher metallicity due to the strong concentration of the stripped ISM than the less magnetized regions. Strong dependence of the morphology of the stripped ISM on the magnetic field could potentially be used to constrain the relative orientation of the ram pressure direction and the dominant component of the ICM magnetic field.

  13. Copper toxicity in confinement-housed ram lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, N J; Fallah-Rad, A H; Connor, M L

    1997-01-01

    Fourteen Suffolk rams (6 mo) were diagnosed with chronic copper poisoning. Preliminary results indicated that a combination of serum aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, and copper could be used as a test so that high risk lambs could be treated more aggressively. PMID:9262859

  14. Experimental studies on methane-fuel laboratory scale ram combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Y.; Kitajima, J.; Seki, Y.; Tatara, A.

    1995-07-01

    The laboratory scale ram combustor test program has been investigating fundamental combustion characteristics of a ram combustor, which operates from Mach 2.5 to 5 for the super/hypersonic transport propulsion system. In the previous study, combustion efficiency had been found poor, less than 70 percent, due to a low inlet air temperature and a high velocity at Mach 3 condition. To improve the low combustion efficiency, a fuel zoning combustion concept was investigated by using a subscale combustor model first. Combustion efficiency more than 90 percent was achieved and the concept was found very effective. Then a laboratory scale ram combustor was fabricated and combustion tests were carried out mainly at the simulated condition of Mach 5. A vitiation technique wa used to simulate a high temperature of 1,263 K. The test results indicate that ignition, flame stability, and combustion efficiency were not significant, but the NO{sub x} emissions are a critical problem for the ram combustor at Mach 5 condition.

  15. Treating ram sperm with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins improves cryosurvival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diluted ram sperm can be held for 24 h at 5º C prior to cryopreservation without impacting cryosurvival rates, however, the effects this storage has on subsequent fertility is unknown. These studies were conducted to evaluate the fertility of semen held for 24 h (to mimic shipping semen to a cryopr...

  16. Initiation of combustion in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Burnham, E. A.; Knowlen, C.; Hertzberg, A.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

    The methodology for initiating stable combustion in a ram accelerator operating in the thermally choked mode is presented in this paper. The ram accelerator is a high velocity ramjet-in-tube projectile launcher whose principle of operation is similar to that of an airbreathing ramjet. The subcaliber projectile travels supersonically through a stationary tube filled with a premixed combustible gas mixture. In the thermally choked propulsion mode subsonic combustion takes place behind the base of the projectile and leads to thermal choking, which stabilizes a normal shock system on the projectile, thus producing forward thrust. Projectiles with masses in the 45-90 g range have been accelerated to velocities up to 2650 m/sec in a 38 mm bore, 16 m long accelerator tube. Operation of the ram accelerator is started by injecting the projectile into the accelerator tube at velocities in the 700 - 1300 m/sec range by means of a conventional gas gun. A specially designed obturator, which seals the bore of the gun during this initial acceleration, enters the ram accelerator together with the projectile. The interaction of the obturator with the propellant gas ignites the gas mixture and establishes stable combustion behind the projectile.

  17. The Neurobiology of Sexual Partner Preferences in Rams

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. PMID:19446078

  18. 17. Detail of base of 'Flying Ram' in NW corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail of base of 'Flying Ram' in NW corner of foyer. Camera is looking SW. First doorway beyond fountain leads to basement and men's lounge seen in WA-197-44. Second doorway leads to storefront corner at Seventh Ave. and Olive Way. (Aug. 1991) - Fox Theater, Seventh Avenue & Olive Way, Seattle, King County, WA

  19. Initiation of combustion in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Burnham, E. A.; Knowlen, C.; Hertzberg, A.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The methodology for initiating stable combustion in a ram accelerator operating in the thermally choked mode is presented in this paper. The ram accelerator is a high velocity ramjet-in-tube projectile launcher whose principle of operation is similar to that of an airbreathing ramjet. The subcaliber projectile travels supersonically through a stationary tube filled with a premixed combustible gas mixture. In the thermally choked propulsion mode subsonic combustion takes place behind the base of the projectile and leads to thermal choking, which stabilizes a normal shock system on the projectile, thus producing forward thrust. Projectiles with masses in the 45-90 g range have been accelerated to velocities up to 2650 m/sec in a 38 mm bore, 16 m long accelerator tube. Operation of the ram accelerator is started by injecting the projectile into the accelerator tube at velocities in the 700 - 1300 m/sec range by means of a conventional gas gun. A specially designed obturator, which seals the bore of the gun during this initial acceleration, enters the ram accelerator together with the projectile. The interaction of the obturator with the propellant gas ignites the gas mixture and establishes stable combustion behind the projectile.

  20. A realization of the RAM digital filter. [Random Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1976-01-01

    The digital filtering algorithm of W. D. Little, which employs a large RAM to obtain high speed, is implemented in a simple hardware configuration. The nonrecursive version of this filter is compared to the counting digital filter and found to be competitive for low-order filters up to order 7 (8 coefficients).

  1. Experimental demonstration of a 120-mm ram accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczynski, David L.

    1992-10-01

    Ram acceleration is an emerging propulsion technology in which a projectile similar in shape to the centerbody of a ramjet aircraft engine is injected at high speed into a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture. As the projectile moves into the tube, under supersonic conditions, shocks occur on and around the projectile. If the gases are then ignited either by the energy in the shock system or an external mechanism, the combustion around or behind the projectile can be self-sustaining. The net effect is to generate a localized high pressure region around and/or behind the projectile which produces acceleration. Work at the University of Washington, Seattle, has demonstrated velocities in excess of 2.6 km/s in 38-mm caliber, while theory predicts velocities above 7 km/s may be obtainable. A program was initiated at the Weapons Technology Directorate of the US Army Research Laboratory (formerly Ballistic Research Laboratory) to examine the scaling potential of ram acceleration for use as a high velocity, high mass, (i.e., high kinetic energy) launcher. Data from initial gas mixing tests and first firings through a 120-mm bore diameter ram accelerator with both inert and live fuel gases are presented. Initial comparisons with ram accelerators of smaller scale are made. Discussions of scaling parameters as currently understood will be presented.

  2. USER'S GUIDE FOR RAM. VOLUME II. DATA PREPARATION AND LISTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information presented in this user's guide is directed to air pollution scientists having an interest in applying air quality simulation models. RAM is a method of estimating short-term dispersion using the Gaussian steady-state model. These algorithms can be used for estimat...

  3. USER'S GUIDE FOR RAM. VOLUME I. ALGORITHM DESCRIPTION AND USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information presented in this user's guide is directed to air pollution scientists having an interest in applying air quality simulation models. RAM is a method of estimating short-term dispersion using the Gaussian steady-state model. These algorithms can be used for estimat...

  4. Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat

    PubMed Central

    Spyridis, Panagiotis; Mehari Abraha, Hyab; Carrier, David R.; Pataky, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the “spermaceti organ” and “junk,” that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of the total length of the whale. Recognized as playing an important role in echolocation, previous studies have also attributed the complex structural configuration of the spermaceti organ and junk to acoustic sexual selection, acoustic prey debilitation, buoyancy control, and aggressive ramming. Of these additional suggested functions, ramming remains the most controversial, and the potential mechanical roles of the structural components of the spermaceti organ and junk in ramming remain untested. Here we explore the aggressive ramming hypothesis using a novel combination of structural engineering principles and probabilistic simulation to determine if the unique structure of the junk significantly reduces stress in the skull during quasi-static impact. Our analyses indicate that the connective tissue partitions in the junk reduce von Mises stresses across the skull and that the load-redistribution functionality of the former is insensitive to moderate variation in tissue material parameters, the thickness of the partitions, and variations in the location and angle of the applied load. Absence of the connective tissue partitions increases skull stresses, particularly in the rostral aspect of the upper jaw, further hinting of the important role the architecture of the junk may play in ramming events. Our study also found that impact loads on the spermaceti organ generate lower skull stresses than an impact on the junk. Nevertheless, whilst an impact on the spermaceti organ

  5. Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Spyridis, Panagiotis; Mehari Abraha, Hyab; Carrier, David R; Pataky, Todd C

    2016-01-01

    Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the "spermaceti organ" and "junk," that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of the total length of the whale. Recognized as playing an important role in echolocation, previous studies have also attributed the complex structural configuration of the spermaceti organ and junk to acoustic sexual selection, acoustic prey debilitation, buoyancy control, and aggressive ramming. Of these additional suggested functions, ramming remains the most controversial, and the potential mechanical roles of the structural components of the spermaceti organ and junk in ramming remain untested. Here we explore the aggressive ramming hypothesis using a novel combination of structural engineering principles and probabilistic simulation to determine if the unique structure of the junk significantly reduces stress in the skull during quasi-static impact. Our analyses indicate that the connective tissue partitions in the junk reduce von Mises stresses across the skull and that the load-redistribution functionality of the former is insensitive to moderate variation in tissue material parameters, the thickness of the partitions, and variations in the location and angle of the applied load. Absence of the connective tissue partitions increases skull stresses, particularly in the rostral aspect of the upper jaw, further hinting of the important role the architecture of the junk may play in ramming events. Our study also found that impact loads on the spermaceti organ generate lower skull stresses than an impact on the junk. Nevertheless, whilst an impact on the spermaceti organ would

  6. Antioxidant effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in soybean lecithin-based semen extender following freeze-thawing process of ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Mahdi Khodaei; Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Shakeri, Malak; Soleimani, Masoud; Zeinoaldini, Saeed

    2014-10-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate effect of rosemary aqueous extract on post-thawed ram sperm quality in a soybean lecithin-based (SL) extender. Ram semen samples were obtained, extended with SL extender and supplemented with 0% (SL-R0), 2% (SL-R2), 4% (SL-R4), 6% (SL-R6), and 8% (SL-R8) rosemary aqueous extract. Following equilibration, the straws were frozen, and then plunged into the liquid nitrogen. After thawing, sperm motility and velocity parameters, plasma membrane functionality, viability, acrosomal and capacitation status were evaluated. Membrane lipid peroxidation was also analyzed through the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Our results showed that SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups resulted in higher (p < 0.05) percentages of total motility, progressive motility, and plasma membrane functionality, as compared with other groups. Highest (p < 0.05) viable and lowest (p < 0.05) dead spermatozoa were observed in SL-R6 group compared to the other groups. The acrosomal and capacitation status were not affected (p > 0.05) by different levels of rosemary aqueous extract. Lower (p < 0.05) MDA concentration has been observed in SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups. The results of this study demonstrate that supplementation of SL extender with rosemary aqueous extract influences post-thawed ram sperm quality in a dose dependent manner. PMID:25050864

  7. Penicillamine prevents ram sperm agglutination in media that support capacitation.

    PubMed

    Leahy, T; Rickard, J P; Aitken, R J; de Graaf, S P

    2016-02-01

    Ram spermatozoa are difficult to capacitate in vitro. Here we describe a further complication, the unreported phenomenon of head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa following dilution in the capacitation medium Tyrodes plus albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP). Sperm agglutination is immediate, specific and persistent and is not associated with a loss of motility. Agglutination impedes in vitro sperm handling and analysis. So the objectives of this study were to investigate the cause of sperm agglutination and potential agents which may reduce agglutination. The percentage of non-agglutinated, motile spermatozoa increased when bicarbonate was omitted from complete TALP suggesting that bicarbonate ions stimulate the agglutination process. d-penicillamine (PEN), a nucleophilic thiol, was highly effective at reducing agglutination. The inclusion of 250 μM PEN in TALP reduced the incidence of motile, agglutinated spermatozoa from 76.7 ± 2.7% to 2.8 ± 1.4%. It was then assessed if PEN (1 mM) could be included in existing ram sperm capacitation protocols (TALP +1 mM dibutyryl cAMP, caffeine and theophylline) to produce spermatozoa that were simultaneously capacitated and non-agglutinated. This protocol resulted in a sperm population which displayed high levels of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and lipid disordered membranes (merocyanine-540) while remaining motile, viable, acrosome-intact and non-agglutinated. In summary, PEN (1 mM) can be included in ram sperm capacitation protocols to reduce sperm agglutination and allow for the in vitro assessment of ram sperm capacitation. PMID:26705263

  8. Evidence of melatonin synthesis in the ram reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Arto, M; Hamilton, T R Dos S; Gallego, M; Gaspar-Torrubia, E; Aguilar, D; Serrano-Blesa, E; Abecia, J A; Pérez-Pé, R; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Casao, A

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule found in a wide range of fluids, one of them being ram seminal plasma, in which it can reach higher concentrations than those found in blood, suggesting an extrapineal secretion by the reproductive tract. In order to identify the source of the melatonin found in ram seminal plasma, we first tried to determine whether the melatonin levels were maintained during the day. For this purpose, melatonin concentrations were measured in seminal plasma obtained from first ejaculates of six rams at 6:00 a.m. in total darkness, at 10:00 a.m. and at 14:00 p.m. The melatonin concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in ejaculates collected at 6:00 a.m. than at 10:00 and 14:00. There was no statistical difference between the latter. To further corroborate an extrapineal secretion of melatonin, the presence of the two key enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis, arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and N-acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (ASMT) was analyzed by RT-PCR, q-PCR and Western-blot in ram testes, epididymis, and accessory glands. The RT-PCR showed the presence of the m-RNA codifying both AANAT and ASTM in all the tissues under study, but the q-PCR and Western-blot revealed that gene expression of these enzymes was significantly higher in the testis (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of AANAT and ASMT in the testis and revealed that they were found in the Leydig cells, spermatocytes, and spermatids. Also, measurable levels of melatonin were found in testicular tissue and the tail of the epididymis. In conclusion, our study indicates that the testes are one of the likely sources of the high levels of melatonin found in ram seminal plasma, at least during the day. PMID:26742835

  9. Forging of compressor blades: Temperature and ram velocity effects

    SciTech Connect

    Saigal, A.; Zhen, K.; Chan, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Forging is one of the most widely used manufacturing process for making high-strength, structurally integrated, impact and creep-resistant Ti-6Al-4V compressor blades for jet engines. In addition, in modern metal forming technology, finite element analysis method and computer modeling are being extensively employed for initial evaluation and optimization of various processes, including forging. In this study, DEFORM, a rigid viscoplastic two-dimensional finite element code was used to study the effects of initial die temperature and initial ram velocity on the forging process. For a given billet, die temperature and ram velocity influence the strain rate, temperature distribution,and thus the flow stress of the material. The die temperature and the ram velocity were varied over the range 300 to 700 F and 15--25 in./sec, respectively, to estimate the maximum forging load and the total energy required to forge compressor blades. The ram velocity was assumed to vary linearly as a function of stroke. Based on the analysis,it was found the increasing the die temperature from 300 to 700 F decreases the forging loads by 19.9 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 43 F. Similarly, increasing the initial ram velocity from 15 to 25 in./sec decreases the forging loads by 25.2 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 36 F. The nodal temperature distribution is bimodal in each case. The forging energy required to forge the blades is approximately 18 kips *in./in.

  10. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  11. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  12. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  13. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  14. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  15. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  16. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  17. Windsock memory COnditioned RAM (CO-RAM) pressure effect: Forced reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörös, Z.; Facskó, G.; Khodachenko, M.; Honkonen, I.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) is a key physical concept explaining the addition of magnetic flux to the magnetotail and closed flux lines back-motion to the dayside magnetosphere. This scenario elaborated by Dungey (1963) can explain many aspects of solar wind-magnetosphere interaction processes, including substorms. However, neither the Dungey model nor its numerous modifications were able to explain fully the onset conditions for MR in the tail. In this paper, we introduce new onset conditions for forced MR in the tail. We call our scenario the "windsock memory conditioned ram pressure effect." Our nonflux transfer-associated forcing is introduced by a combination of the large-scale windsock motions exhibiting memory effects and solar wind dynamic pressure actions on the nightside magnetopause during northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Using global MHD Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation version 4 simulation results, upstream data from Wind, magnetosheath data from Cluster 1 and distant tail data from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun mission, we show that the simultaneous occurrence of vertical windsock motions of the magnetotail and enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure introduces strong nightside disturbances, including enhanced electric fields and persistent vertical cross-tail shear flows. These perturbations, associated with a stream interaction region in the solar wind, drive MR in the tail during episodes of northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We detect MR indirectly, observing plasmoids in the tail and ground-based signatures of earthward moving fast flows. We also consider the application to solar system planets and close-in exoplanets, where the proposed scenario can elucidate some new aspects of solar/stellar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  18. Soil organic matter mineralization in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson Drotz, S.; Sparrman, T.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M.; Öquist, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are frozen for a large part of the year and soil organic matter mineralization during this period has been shown to significantly influence the C balance of boreal forest ecosystems. Mineralization proceeds through heterotrophic microbial activity, but the understanding of the environmental controls regulating soil organic matter mineralization under frozen conditions is poor. Through a series of investigations we have addressed this issue in order to elucidate to what extent a range of environmental factors control mineralization processes in frozen soils and also the microbial communities potential to oxidize organic substrates and grow under such conditions. The unfrozen water content in the frozen soils was shown to be an integral control on the temperature response of biogenic CO2 production across the freezing point of bulk soil water. We found that osmotic potential was an important contributor to the total water potential and, hence, the unfrozen water content of frozen soil. From being low and negligible in an unfrozen soil, the osmotic potential was found to contribute up to 70% of the total water potential in frozen soil, greatly influencing the volume of liquid water. The specific factors of how soil organic matter composition affected the unfrozen water content and CO2 production of frozen soil were studied by CP-MAS NMR. We concluded that abundance of aromatics and recalcitrant compounds showed a significant positive correlation with unfrozen water content and these were also the major soil organic fractions that similarly correlated with the microbial CO2 production of the frozen soils. Thus, the hierarchy of environmental factors controlling SOM mineralization changes as soils freeze and environmental controls elucidated from studies of unfrozen systems can not be added on frozen conditions. We have also investigated the potential activity of soil microbial communities under frozen conditions in order to elucidate temperature

  19. Numerical simulations of the superdetonative ram accelerator combusting flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soetrisno, Moeljo; Imlay, Scott T.; Roberts, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of projectile canting and fins on the ram accelerator combusting flowfield and the possible cause of the ram accelerator unstart are investigated by performing axisymmetric, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional calculations. Calculations are performed using the INCA code for solving Navier-Stokes equations and a guasi-global combustion model of Westbrook and Dryer (1981, 1984), which includes N2 and nine reacting species (CH4, CO, CO2, H2, H, O2, O, OH, and H2O), which are allowed to undergo a 12-step reaction. It is found that, without canting, interactions between the fins, boundary layers, and combustion fronts are insufficient to unstart the projectile at superdetonative velocities. With canting, the projectile will unstart at flow conditions where it appears to accelerate without canting. Unstart occurs at some critical canting angle. It is also found that three-dimensionality plays an important role in the overall combustion process.

  20. Electron microscopic observations on the epithelium of ram seminal vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Plöen, L

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the ram seminal vesicle was studied on material fixed by immersion or by vascular perfusion. The signs of apocrine secretion seen after immersion fixation did not appear after perfusion fixation and are therefore interpreted as artefacts. Instead, vacuoles with a granule in them were seen. Such vacuoles were observed in the Golgi apparatus and in the apical cytoplasm. Further indications of merocrine secretion were also found. It therefore appears that protein secretion in the ram seminal vesicle follows the typical pattern of serous glands. The possibility that fructose is extruded with the protein as the vacuoles open at the luminal cell surface is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7410195

  1. Investigation of starting transients in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, E. A.; Hinkey, J. B.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental investigation of the starting transients of the thermally choked ram accelerator is presented in this paper. Construction of a highly instrumented tube section and instrumentation inserts provide high resolution experimental pressure, luminosity, and electromagnetic data of the starting transients. Data obtained prior to and following the entrance diaphragm show detailed development of shock systems in both combustible and inert mixtures. With an evacuated launch tube, starting the diffuser is possible at any Mach number above the Kantrowitz Mach number. The detrimental effects and possible solutions of higher launch tube pressures and excessive obturator leakage (blow-by) are discussed. Ignition of a combustible mixture is demonstrated with both perforated and solid obturators. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Data obtained from these starting experiments enhance the understanding of the ram accelerator, as well as assist in the validation of unsteady, chemically reacting CFD codes.

  2. Simulating Single-Event Upsets in Bipolar RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation technique saves testing. Uses interactive version of SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis). Device and subcircuit models available in software used to construct macromodel for an integrated bipolar transistor. Time-dependent current generators placed inside transistor macromodel to simulate charge collection from ion track. Significant finding of experiments is standard design practice of reducing power in unaddressed bipolar RAM cell increases sensitivity of cell to single-event upsets.

  3. The Alcoa ram fastener: A reusable blind rivet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewalt, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Results of tensile, shear, fatigue and accelerated weathering tests are presented for the ram fastener, a reusable, single unit blind rivet. The effects of variations in hole size, grip length and sheet thickness on strength properties of the fastener were determined. The test results show these fasteners to have strength characteristics suitable for light structural applications. Exposure to accelerated weathering did not impair their performance.

  4. Tracing Ram-pressure Stripping with Warm Molecular Hydrogen Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H.

    2014-12-01

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H2 emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H2 emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ~ 115-160 K) and a hot (T ~ 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 1019 to 1020 cm-2 with masses of 106 to 108 M ⊙. The warm H2 is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H2 is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H2 tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H2 within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 μm is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The Hα and 24 μm luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.

  5. 86. Photocopied August 1978. CLAY RAMMING EQUIPMENT IN OPERATION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Photocopied August 1978. CLAY RAMMING EQUIPMENT IN OPERATION IN THE POWER HOUSE IN 1910. A PILE OF CLAY USED TO FILL THE WASHED-OUT AREAS BENEATH THE FOUNDATIONS IS SHOWN IN THE CENTER OF THE ILLUSTRATION BESIDE THE FILLER PIPE. THE WEIGHT USED TO FORCE THE CLAY DOWN UNDER THE FOUNDATIONS IS SHOWN PRESSING ON THE PLUNGER PIPE. (542) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  6. Tracing ram-pressure stripping with warm molecular hydrogen emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H.

    2014-12-01

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H{sub 2} emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H{sub 2} emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ∼ 115-160 K) and a hot (T ∼ 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} with masses of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The warm H{sub 2} is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H{sub 2} is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H{sub 2} tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H{sub 2} within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 μm is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The Hα and 24 μm luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.

  7. Ram pressure statistics for bent tail radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mguda, Zolile; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Heyden, Kurt van der; Gottlöber, Stefan; Cress, Catherine; Vaisanen, Petri; Yepes, Gustavo

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we use the MareNostrum Universe Simulation, a large-scale, hydrodynamic, non-radiative simulation in combination with a simple abundance matching approach to determine the ram pressure statistics for bent radio sources (BRSs). The abundance matching approach allows us to determine the locations of all galaxies with stellar masses ≥ 1011 h- 1 M⊙ in the simulation volume. Assuming that ram pressure exceeding a critical value causes bent morphology, we compute the ratio of all galaxies exceeding the ram pressure limit (RPEX galaxies) relative to all galaxies in our sample. According to our model 50 per cent of the RPEX galaxies at z = 0 are found in clusters with masses larger than 1014.5 h- 1 M⊙ the other half resides in lower mass clusters. Therefore, the appearance of bent tail morphology alone does not put tight constraints on the host cluster mass. In low-mass clusters, M ≤ 1014 h- 1 M⊙, RPEX galaxies are confined to the central 500 h-1 kpc whereas in clusters of ≥ 1015 h- 1 M⊙ they can be found at distances up to 1.5 h-1 Mpc. Only clusters with masses ≥ 1015 h- 1 M⊙ are likely to host more than one BRS. Both criteria may prove useful in the search for distant, high-mass clusters.

  8. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  9. On a Frozen Fellow and Melding Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes an art project that constructed a realistic model of a frozen prehistoric cadaver including its clothing and tool kit. Originally conceived as a way to introduce students to art materials, ancient history, and different cultures, the project grew to include a traveling exhibit and instructional puppet shows. (MJP)

  10. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires: Effects of ram breed on ewe productivity and F1 lamb survival and growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to estimate effects of ram breed on ewe fertility, prolificacy, and F1 lamb survival and growth. Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams (n = 15, 15, 15, and 13, respectively) were sampled from US flocks. Data were from 665 exposures to Rambouillet ewes (3 to 7 yr of age)...

  11. The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent quality of liquid stored semen.

    PubMed

    Fair, S; Doyle, D N; Diskin, M G; Hennessy, A A; Kenny, D A

    2014-01-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent sperm function of liquid stored semen. Mature rams of proven fertility were individually housed and were blocked according to breed, body weight, and body condition score and randomly allocated within block to one of two dietary treatments (N = 7 per treatment). Rams were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate, with the concentrate enriched with either: (1) saturated palmitic acid (CON) or (2) high n-3 PUFA fish oil (FO) supplements. Both lipid supplements were added at 2% (wt/wt) of the total diet as fed and both were partially rumen-protected. The animals were fed their respective diets for a total of 9 weeks and blood samples were collected on weeks 0 (pre-experimental), 4, and 9, relative to initial allocation of diet (week 0), for measurement of plasma concentration of fatty acids, metabolites, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin. Semen was collected from each ram (on 1 day in each week) in weeks 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, and each ejaculate was assessed for volume, wave motion, and concentration of sperm, after which it was diluted in a skim milk-based extender and stored at 4 °C. A second ejaculate was collected on weeks 4, 7, and 9, centrifuged, and the sperm frozen for subsequent lipid analysis. A sample of semen from each ram was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after collection for sperm progressive linear motion, ability to penetrate artificial mucus, and the ability to resist lipid peroxidation (at 24 and 48 hours only) using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. There was no effect of diet on plasma insulin concentrations or on any of the metabolites measured, however, there was a diet by week interaction for plasma IGF-1 concentration (P < 0.05). This was manifested as the FO supplemented rams having higher IGF-1 concentrations on week 9 compared with the control

  12. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  13. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  14. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  15. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  16. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  17. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  18. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  19. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  20. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  1. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  2. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  3. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  4. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  5. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  6. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  7. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  8. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  9. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  10. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  11. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  17. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  18. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  19. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  20. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  1. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  2. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  3. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  5. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  6. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  7. The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS): a ten-year appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Agüera, Antonio; Broyer, Claude De; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) is a marine species database that manages an authoritative taxonomic list of species occurring in the Southern Ocean. RAMS links with several other initiatives managing biogeographic or genomics information. The current paper aims to briefly present RAMS and provides an updated snapshot of its contents, in the form of a DarwinCore checklist (available through http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=rams) and illustrative barplots. Moreover, this article presents a ten year appraisal (since the creation of RAMS). This appraisal first focuses on RAMS bibliometrics. We observed that RAMS was cited (Google Scholar) in 50 distinct publications among which 32 were peer-reviewed in 18 different journals. Three journals (Antarctic Science, Polar Biology, ZooKeys) represent almost 40% of these peer-review publications. The second appraisal focuses on the evolution of new RAMS records. We observed an important decrease in data additions since 2011. As a case study, we focused on an original dataset for a specific group (Asteroidea, Echinodermata). It appears that around one hundred species of asteroids are lacking in RAMS despite the relatively high availability of these data. This suggests that the users’ community (or collaborative projects such as AquaRES) could be helpful in order to maintain the RAMS database over the long term. PMID:26478709

  8. The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS): a ten-year appraisal.

    PubMed

    Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Agüera, Antonio; Broyer, Claude De; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) is a marine species database that manages an authoritative taxonomic list of species occurring in the Southern Ocean. RAMS links with several other initiatives managing biogeographic or genomics information. The current paper aims to briefly present RAMS and provides an updated snapshot of its contents, in the form of a DarwinCore checklist (available through http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=rams) and illustrative barplots. Moreover, this article presents a ten year appraisal (since the creation of RAMS). This appraisal first focuses on RAMS bibliometrics. We observed that RAMS was cited (Google Scholar) in 50 distinct publications among which 32 were peer-reviewed in 18 different journals. Three journals (Antarctic Science, Polar Biology, ZooKeys) represent almost 40% of these peer-review publications. The second appraisal focuses on the evolution of new RAMS records. We observed an important decrease in data additions since 2011. As a case study, we focused on an original dataset for a specific group (Asteroidea, Echinodermata). It appears that around one hundred species of asteroids are lacking in RAMS despite the relatively high availability of these data. This suggests that the users' community (or collaborative projects such as AquaRES) could be helpful in order to maintain the RAMS database over the long term. PMID:26478709

  9. Ram accelerator direct launch system for space cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A new method of efficiently accelerating relatively large masses (up to several metric tons) to velocities of 0.6 km/sec up to 12 km/sec using chemical energy has been developed. The vehicle travels through a tube filled with a premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixture. There is no propellant on-board the vehicle. The tube acts as the outer cowling of a ram jet and the energy release process travels with the vehicle. The ballistic efficiency remains high up to extremely high velocities and the acceleration can be maintained at a nearly constant level. Five modes of ram accelerator operation have been investigated; these modes differ primarily in the method of chemical heat release and the operational velocity range, and include two subsonic combustion modes (one of which involves thermally choke a combustion behind the vehicle) and three detonation drive modes. These modes of propulsion are capable of efficient acceleration in the range of 0.6-12 km/sec, although aerodynamic heating becomes severe above about 8 km/sec. Experiments carried out to date at the University of Washington up to 2 km/sec have established proof of principle of the ram accelerator concept and have shown close agreement between predicted and measured performance. A launch system capable of delivering two metric tons into low earth orbit was selected for the purposes of the present study. The preliminary analysis indicates that the overall dimensions of a restricted acceleration (less than approx. 1000 g) launch facility would require a tube 1 m in diameter, with an overall length of approximately 4 km. As in any direct launch scheme, a small on-board rocket is required to circularize the otherwise highly elliptical orbit which intersects the Earth. Various orbital insertion scenarios have been explored for the case of a 9 km/sec ram accelerator launch. These include direct insertion through a single circularization maneuver (i.e., on rocket burn), insertion involving two burns, and a

  10. Protocol for ultrarapid immunostaining of frozen sections.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, T; Nährig, J; Komminoth, P; Kowolik, J; Werner, M

    1999-01-01

    Rapid immunostaining of frozen sections within a tolerable time span would be very helpful for intraoperative diagnosis. A protocol was therefore established using the enhanced polymer one-step staining (EPOS) system (Dako) with antibodies against leucocyte common antigen (LCA), cytokeratin (CK), and anti-melanoma (MEL). Best results with reliable and specific immunostaining and a labelling intensity comparable to standard immunostaining protocols were achieved with fixation of samples in 100% acetone for 20 seconds (CK, LCA) or two minutes (MEL), followed by incubation of the primary antibody and development of the chromogen reaction with 3,3'diaminobenzidine (DAB) for three and five minutes at 37 degrees C, respectively. The total procedure takes only 12 minutes, thus enabling rapid immunostaining on intraoperative frozen sections. Apart from its use in tumour classification, this method is especially useful in detecting tumour cells in sentinel lymph nodes. Images PMID:10562816

  11. The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  12. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements...

  13. Frozen multipartite entanglement in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the multipartite entanglement dynamics of a many-body system consisting of N identical two-level atoms locally embedded in their own band-gap photonic crystals. It is shown that the tripartite entanglement of this photonic-crystal system can be frozen in a stationary state. We also find that a double-sudden-change phenomenon of four-partite entanglement occurs in this photonic-crystal system during the decoherence process under certain suitable conditions.

  14. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat. PMID:21426952

  15. Making Thin Laminae Of Frozen Alloy Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, A. K.; Holmes, L. M.; Houston, R. B.; Ecer, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    In new technique, primary objective to develop method to distribute uniformly-thin powder-metal-alloy layers between alternate fiber layers prior to consolidation. Involves use of sheets of frozen alloy powder. These laminae, interspersed with fiber mats, used to make metal/fiber composites. In addition to aerospace applications, this technique, appropriately modified, has potential in the manufacture of future automobile engines or components including molded ceramics.

  16. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  17. Rapid detection of irradiated frozen hamburgers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    DNA comet assay can be employed as a rapid and inexpensive screening test to check whether frozen ground beef patties (hamburgers) have been irradiated as a means to increase their safety by eliminating pathogenic bacteria, e.g. E. coli O157:H7. Such a detection procedure will provide an additional check on compliance with existing regulations, e.g. enforcement of labelling and rules in international trade. Frozen ready prepared hamburgers from the market place were `electron irradiated' with doses of 0, 1.3, 2.7, 4.5 and 7.2kGy covering the range of potential commercial irradiation. DNA fragmentation in the hamburgers was made visible within a few hours using the comet assay, and non-irradiated hamburgers could be easily discerned from the irradiated ones. Even after 9 months of frozen storage, irradiated hamburgers could be identified. Since DNA fragmentation may also occur with other food processes (e.g. temperature abuse), positive screening tests shall be confirmed using a validated method to specifically prove an irradiation treatment, e.g. EN 1784 or EN 1785.

  18. VISCOUS ENERGY DISSIPATION IN FROZEN CRYOGENS

    SciTech Connect

    Meitner, S. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Andraschko, M. R.

    2008-03-16

    ITER is an international research and development project with the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of fusion power. The fuel for the ITER plasma is injected in the form of frozen deuterium pellets; the current injector design includes a batch extruder, cooled by liquid helium. A more advanced fuel system will produce deuterium pellets continuously using a twin-screw extruder, cooled by a cryocooler. One of the critical design parameters for the advanced system is the friction associated with the shearing planes of the frozen deuterium in the extruder; the friction determines the required screw torque as well as the cryocooler heat load.An experiment has been designed to measure the energy dissipation associated with shearing frozen deuterium. Deuterium gas is cooled to its freezing point in the gap between a stationary outer canister and a rotating inner cylinder. The dissipation is measured mechanically and through calorimetric means. The experiment has also been used to measure dissipation in other cryogens, such as neon, as a function of rotational velocity and temperature. This paper describes the design and construction of the experiment and presents measurements over a range of cryogens and test conditions.

  19. Existence of frozen-in coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    The 'frozen-in' coordinate systems were first introduced in the works on 'reconnection' and 'magnetic barrier' theories (see review by M.l.Pudovkin and V.S.Semenov, Space Sci. Rev. 41,1 1985). The idea was to utilize the mathematical apparatus developed for 'general relativity' theory to simplify obtaining solutions to the ideal MHD equations set. Magnetic field (B), plasma velocity (v), and their vector product were used as coordinate vectors. But there exist no stationary solutions of ideal MHD set that satisfies the required boundary conditions at infinity (A.D.Chertkov, Solar Wind Seven Conf.,Pergamon Press,1992,165) having non-zero vector product of v and B where v and B originate from the same sphere. The existence of a solution is the hidden mine of the mentioned theories. The solution is constructed in the coordinate system, which is unknown and indeterminate before obtaining this solution. A substitution of the final solution must be done directly into the initial MHD set in order to check the method. One can demonstrate that 'solutions' of Petschek's problem, obtained by 'frozen-in' coordinate systems, does not satisfy just the 'frozen-in' equation, i.e. induction equation. It stems from the fact that Petschek's 're-connection' model, treated as a boundary problem, is over determined. This problem was incorrectly formulated.

  20. The new frozen spin target at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Borisov, N. S.; Arends, H.-J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Gurevich, G. M.; Kondratiev, R. L.; Korolija, M.; Lazarev, A. B.; Martinez, M.; Meyer, W.; Mironov, S. V.; Neganov, A. B.; Pavlov, V. N.; Ortega, H.; Reicherz, G.; Usov, Yu. A.

    2013-11-01

    The new frozen spin polarized target for experiments at the polarized beam of the real photon facility A2 of the MAMI accelerator is described. The A2-collaboration at the Mainz Microtron MAMI is measuring photon absorption cross section using circularly and linearly polarized photons up to the energy of 1.5 GeV. The photons are produced in the' Bremsstrahlungs' process. In the years 2005/2006 the Crystal Ball detector with its unique capability to cope with multi photon final states was set up in Mainz. Since 2010 the experimental apparatus has been completed by a polarized target. The horizontal dilution refrigerator of the Frozen-Spin Target has been constructed and is operated in close cooperation with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The system offers the opportunity to provide longitudinally and transversely polarized protons and deuteron. In this paper the operation experience of this new Frozen-Spin Target and first results from the runs in 2010 and 2011 are presented.

  1. Simulating lightning into the RAMS model: implementation and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, S.; Avolio, E.; Petracca, M.; Panegrossi, G.; Sanò, P.; Casella, D.; Dietrich, S.

    2014-05-01

    This paper shows the results of a tailored version of a previously published methodology, designed to simulate lightning activity, implemented into the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The method gives the flash density at the resolution of the RAMS grid-scale allowing for a detailed analysis of the evolution of simulated lightning activity. The system is applied in detail to two case studies occurred over the Lazio Region, in Central Italy. Simulations are compared with the lightning activity detected by the LINET network. The cases refer to two thunderstorms of different intensity. Results show that the model predicts reasonably well both cases and that the lightning activity is well reproduced especially for the most intense case. However, there are errors in timing and positioning of the convection, whose magnitude depends on the case study, which mirrors in timing and positioning errors of the lightning distribution. To assess objectively the performance of the methodology, standard scores are presented for four additional case studies. Scores show the ability of the methodology to simulate the daily lightning activity for different spatial scales and for two different minimum thresholds of flash number density. The performance decreases at finer spatial scales and for higher thresholds. The comparison of simulated and observed lighting activity is an immediate and powerful tool to assess the model ability to reproduce the intensity and the evolution of the convection. This shows the importance of the use of computationally efficient lightning schemes, such as the one described in this paper, in forecast models.

  2. The ram accelerator - A chemically driven mass launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaloupis, P.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1988-01-01

    The ram accelerator, a chemically propelled mass driver, is presented as a viable new approach for directly launching acceleration-insensitive payloads into low earth orbit. The propulsion principle is similar to that of a conventional air-breathing ramjet. The cargo vehicle resembles the center-body of a ramjet and travels through a tube filled with a pre-mixed fuel and oxidizer mixture. The launch tube acts as the outer cowling of the ramjet and the combustion process travels with the vehicle. Two drive modes of the ram accelerator propulsion system are described, which when used in sequence are capable of accelerating the vehicle to as high as 10 km/sec. The requirements are examined for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500 km orbit with a minimum of on-board rocket propellant for circularization maneuvers. It is shown that aerodynamic heating during atmospheric transit results in very little ablation of the nose. An indirect orbital insertion scenario is selected, utilizing a three step maneuver consisting of two burns and aerobraking. An on-board propulsion system using storable liquid propellants is chosen in order to minimize propellant mass requirements, and the use of a parking orbit below the desired final orbit is suggested as a means to increase the flexibility of the mass launch concept. A vehicle design using composite materials is proposed that will best meet the structural requirements, and a preliminary launch tube design is presented.

  3. Flow over a Ram-Air Parachute Canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslambolchi, Ali; Johari, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    The flow field over a full-scale, ram-air personnel parachute canopy was investigated numerically using a finite-volume flow solver coupled with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Ram-air parachute canopies resemble wings with arc-anhedral, surface protuberances, and an open leading edge for inflation. The rectangular planform canopy had an aspect ratio of 2.2 and was assumed to be rigid and impermeable. The chord-based Reynolds number was 3.2 million. Results indicate that the oncoming flow barely penetrates the canopy opening, and creates a large separation bubble below the lower lip of canopy. A thick boundary layer exists over the entire lower surface of the canopy. The flow over the upper surface of the canopy remains attached for an extended fraction of the chord. Lift increases linearly with angle of attack up to about 12 degrees. To assess the capability of lifting-line theory in predicting the forces on the canopy, the lift and drag data from a two-dimensional simulation of the canopy profile were extended using finite-wing expressions and compared with the forces from the present simulations. The finite-wing predicted lift and drag trends compare poorly against the full-span simulation, and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio is over-predicted by 36%. Sponsored by the US Army NRDEC.

  4. Flow over a Modern Ram-Air Parachute Canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad; Johari, Hamid

    2010-11-01

    The flow field on the central section of a modern ram-air parachute canopy was examined numerically using a finite-volume flow solver coupled with the one equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Ram-air parachutes are used for guided airdrop applications, and the canopy resembles a wing with an open leading edge for inflation. The canopy surfaces were assumed to be impermeable and rigid. The flow field consisted of a vortex inside the leading edge opening which effectively closed off the canopy and diverted the flow around the leading edge. The flow experienced a rather bluff leading edge in contrast to the smooth leading of an airfoil, leading to a separation bubble on the lower lip of the canopy. The flow inside the canopy was stagnant beyond the halfway point. The section lift coefficient increased linearly with the angle of attack up to 8.5 and the lift curve slope was about 8% smaller than the baseline airfoil. The leading edge opening had a major effect on the drag prior to stall; the drag is at least twice the baseline airfoil drag. The minimum drag of the section occurs over the angle of attack range of 3 -- 7 .

  5. Space shuttle ram glow: Implication of NO2 recombination continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, S.

    1985-01-01

    The ram glow data gathered to data from imaging experiments on space shuttle suggest the glow is a continuum (within 34 angstrom resolution); the continuum shape is such that the peak is near 7000 angstroms decreasing to the blue and red, and the average molecular travel leading to emission after leaving the surface is 20 cm (assuming isotropic scattering from the surface). Emission continuum is rare in molecular systems but the measured spectrum does resemble the laboratory spectrum of NO2 (B) recombination continuum. The thickness of the observed emission is consistent with the NO2 hypothesis given an exit velocity of approx. 2.5 km/sec (1.3 eV) which leaves approx. 3.7 eV of ramming OI energy available for unbonding the recombined NO2 from the surface. The NO2 is formed in a 3-body recombination of OI + NO + m = NO2 + m where OI originates from the atmosphere and NO is chemically formed on the surface from atmospheric NI and OI. The spacecraft surface then acts as the n for the reaction: Evidence exists from orbital mass spectrometer data that the NO and NO2 chemistry described in this process does occur on surfaces of spectrometer orifices in orbit. Surface temperature effects are likely a factor in the NO sticking efficiency and, therefore, glow intensities.

  6. Space shuttle Ram glow: Implication of NO2 recombination continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, S.

    1985-09-01

    The ram glow data gathered to data from imaging experiments on space shuttle suggest the glow is a continuum (within 34 angstrom resolution); the continuum shape is such that the peak is near 7000 angstroms decreasing to the blue and red, and the average molecular travel leading to emission after leaving the surface is 20 cm (assuming isotropic scattering from the surface). Emission continuum is rare in molecular systems but the measured spectrum does resemble the laboratory spectrum of NO2 (B) recombination continuum. The thickness of the observed emission is consistent with the NO2 hypothesis given an exit velocity of approx. 2.5 km/sec (1.3 eV) which leaves approx. 3.7 eV of ramming OI energy available for unbonding the recombined NO2 from the surface. The NO2 is formed in a 3-body recombination of OI + NO + m = NO2 + m where OI originates from the atmosphere and NO is chemically formed on the surface from atmospheric NI and OI. The spacecraft surface then acts as the n for the reaction: Evidence exists from orbital mass spectrometer data that the NO and NO2 chemistry described in this process does occur on surfaces of spectrometer orifices in orbit. Surface temperature effects are likely a factor in the NO sticking efficiency and, therefore, glow intensities.

  7. HVOF repair of steering rams for the USS Saipan

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, A.L.; Jones, S.A.; Wykle, R.J.; McCaw, B.; Hays, R.

    1995-12-31

    The steering rams aboard the USS Saipan (LHA-2) were badly corroded after 18 years of service. These rams are hydraulically operated and change the angle of the ship`s rudder. This corrosion allowed excessive leaking of hydraulic fluid into the machinery space. Permanent repairs were required as the ship has more than 20 years of service life remaining. Two methods of repair were considered, chrome plating and a HVOF applied coating. The size, 13 in. diameter and 15 ft in length, posed a significant problem for either process. The cost of the repair was similar but the time for completion was better with the HVOF process since chrome plating would have to be accomplished off yard. The HVOF process was not available within the shipyard at the time and the process and material to be used had not been approved. Extensive testing was required to get approval to proceed, a facility to accomplish the work had to be built, and the operators and HVOF procedure had to be qualified. After completion of spraying, single point machining and honing was used to obtain the required surface finish. This was the largest single HVOF coating applied by the Navy and great interest to all concerned.

  8. The modification and application of RAMS computer code. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, T.B.

    1995-01-17

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) has been utilized in its most updated form, version 3a, to simulate a case night from the Atmospheric Studies in COmplex Terrain (ASCOT) experimental program. ASCOT held a wintertime observational campaign during February, 1991 to observe the often strong drainage flows which form on the Great Plains and in the canyons embedded within the slope from the Continental Divide to the Great Plains. A high resolution (500 m grid spacing) simulation of the 4-5 February 1991 case night using the more advanced turbulence closure now available in RAMS 3a allowed greater analysis of the physical processes governing the drainage flows. It is found that shear interaction above and within the drainage flow are important, and are overpredicted with the new scheme at small grid spacing (< {approximately}1000 m). The implication is that contaminants trapped in nighttime stable flows such as these, will be mixed too strongly in the vertical reducing predicted ground concentrations. The HYPACT code has been added to the capability at LANL, although due to the reduced scope of work, no simulations with HYPACT were performed.

  9. Preliminary Tests of a Burner for Ram-Jet Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Paul W.

    1947-01-01

    Preliminary tests have been made of a small burner to meet the requirements for application to supersonic ram jets. The principal requirements were taken as: (1) efficient combustion in a high-velocity air stream, (2) utilization for combustion of only a small fraction of the air passing through the unit, (3) low resistance to air flow, (4) simple construction, and (5) light weight. Tests of a small burner were carried to stream velocities of nearly 150 feet per second and fuel rates such that one-eighth to one-fourth of the total air was involved in combustion. Commercial propane was selected as the fuel since its low boiling point facilitated vaporization. Combustion which was 80 percent complete along with low aerodynamic losses was obtained by injecting the fuel evenly, prior to ignition, and allowing it to mix with the air without appreciably disturbing the stream. The pressure drop due to frictional losses around the burner and to the adjacent inside walls of the ram jet is small compared with the pressure drop due to combustion.

  10. A CCaMK-CYCLOPS-DELLA Complex Activates Transcription of RAM1 to Regulate Arbuscule Branching.

    PubMed

    Pimprikar, Priya; Carbonnel, Samy; Paries, Michael; Katzer, Katja; Klingl, Verena; Bohmer, Monica J; Karl, Leonhard; Floss, Daniela S; Harrison, Maria J; Parniske, Martin; Gutjahr, Caroline

    2016-04-25

    Intracellular arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis between plants and glomeromycotan fungi leads to formation of highly branched fungal arbuscules that release mineral nutrients to the plant host. Their development is regulated in plants by a mechanistically unresolved interplay between symbiosis, nutrient, and hormone (gibberellin) signaling. Using a positional cloning strategy and a retrotransposon insertion line, we identify two novel alleles of Lotus japonicus REDUCED ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA1 (RAM1) encoding a GRAS protein. We confirm that RAM1 is a central regulator of arbuscule development: arbuscule branching is arrested in L. japonicus ram1 mutants, and ectopic expression of RAM1 activates genes critical for arbuscule development in the absence of fungal symbionts. Epistasis analysis places RAM1 downstream of CCaMK, CYCLOPS, and DELLA because ectopic expression of RAM1 restores arbuscule formation in cyclops mutants and in the presence of suppressive gibberellin. The corresponding proteins form a complex that activates RAM1 expression via binding of CYCLOPS to a cis element in the RAM1 promoter. We thus reveal a transcriptional cascade in arbuscule development that employs the promoter of RAM1 as integrator of symbiotic (transmitted via CCaMK and CYCLOPS) and hormonal (gibberellin) signals. PMID:27020747