Science.gov

Sample records for fructose-sorbitol ingestion provokes

  1. Fructose-sorbitol malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, Maria; Viver, Josep M

    2009-10-01

    Important dietary carbohydrates such as fructose and sorbitol are incompletely absorbed in the normal small intestine. This malabsorption is sometimes associated with abdominal complaints and diarrhea development, symptoms indistinguishable from those of functional bowel disease. Recently, polymerized forms of fructose (fructans) also were implicated in symptom production in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Evidence from uncontrolled and controlled challenge studies suggests that malabsorbed sugars (fructose, sorbitol, lactose) and fructans may act as dietary triggers for clinical symptoms suggestive of IBS. Further placebo-controlled studies are needed to obtain definite conclusions about the role of dietary sugar malabsorption in functional bowel disease. PMID:19765364

  2. Provoking Intellectual Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kien H.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates how activities or tasks can be designed that are based on the Necessity Principle. Two sections illustrate how tasks can be formulated to provoke the need to use two mathematical ideas--prime factorization and least common multiple. In each section, the author presents two examples to illustrate how some mathematical tasks…

  3. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  4. ST-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to coronary artery spasm provoked by food

    PubMed Central

    Young, William; Bhichhyan, Rai; Kabir, Alamgir; Hussain, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient with recurrent episodes of inferior ST elevation, secondary to coronary artery spasm. Each episode appeared to be provoked by the ingestion of rice and accompanied by a troponin T rise. An inpatient coronary angiogram immediately following an episode of pain demonstrated a focal area of spasm affecting the right coronary artery, which resolved with intracoronary nitrate injection. Although these episodes were self-limiting, cardiac MRI confirmed an acute subendocardial infarct. An association between food substances and coronary artery spasm with subsequent infarction has not been documented previously. Following appropriate advice and titration of antispasmodic medication, the patient has been pain free. PMID:25225191

  5. Ingestions considered nontoxic.

    PubMed

    Mofenson, H C; Greensher, J; Caraccio, T R

    1984-09-01

    The authors have compiled a list of common household products and drugs that are frequently ingested by children and may be considered nontoxic unless taken deliberately or in large amounts. An understanding of the nontoxic ingestion should prevent overtreatment and decrease emergency room visits. PMID:6148171

  6. [Hypokalemic periodic paralysis provoked by "Ambene"].

    PubMed

    Wessel, K; Schumm, F; Peiffer, J; Schlote, W

    1985-12-01

    The case of a 42-year-old man is reported, who on four occasions developed a hypokalaemic periodic paralysis after an intramuscular injection of "Ambene". The detailed examination of this patient shows, that it is the primary, autosomal dominant inherited form of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis, and not the secondary form, which is caused by a renal or gastrointestinal loss of potassium. Clinical and electrophysiological, as well as histopathological and electron microscopic findings are presented, showing the typical vacuolar myopathy with submicroscopic tubular structures. In the literature there is evidence for an increased sensitivity of the muscle membrane to insulin with an increased potassium-shift inside the cell in hypokalaemic periodic paralysis. "Ambene" is a combination, which contains amongst other substances dexamethasone and the local anaesthetic drug lidocain. In the present case the paresis was possibly caused by a combined effect of dexamethasone with a consequent hyperglycaemia and lidocain with a change in the excitability of the muscle membrane. The pathophysiological mechanism of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is discussed in terms of the release by the combination of these two drugs. It has not previously been reported that "Ambene" can provoke a hypokalaemic periodic paralysis. This is a severe side effect because of the resulting cardiac and respiratory problems. PMID:2936967

  7. Implantable, Ingestible Electronic Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Small quartz-crystal-controlled oscillator swallowed or surgically implanted provides continuous monitoring of patient's internal temperature. Receiver placed near patient measures oscillator frequency, and temperature inferred from previously determined variation of frequency with temperature. Frequency of crystal-controlled oscillator varies with temperature. Circuit made very small and implanted or ingested to measure internal body temperature.

  8. Polyurethane adhesive ingestion.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane adhesives are found in a large number of household products in the United States and are used for a variety of purposes. Several brands of these expanding wood glues (those containing diphenylmethane diisocyanate [MDI]) have the potential to form gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies if ingested. The ingested adhesive forms an expanding ball of glue in the esophagus and gastric lumen. This expansion is caused by a polymerization reaction using the heat, water, and gastric acids of the stomach. A firm mass is created that can be 4-8 times its original volume. As little as 2 oz of glue have been reported to develop gastric foreign bodies. The obstructive mass is reported to form within minutes of ingestion of the adhesive. The foreign body can lead to esophageal impaction and obstruction, airway obstruction, gastric outflow obstruction, mucosal hemorrhage, ulceration, laceration, perforation of the esophageal and gastric linings, and death. Clinical signs following ingestion include anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, tachypnea, and abdominal distention and pain, and typically develop within 12 hours. Clinical signs may depend upon the size of the mass. If left untreated, perforation and rupture of the esophagus or stomach can occur. The glue mass does not stick to the GI mucosa and is not always detectable on abdominal palpation. Radiographs are recommended to confirm the presence of the "glue-ball" foreign body, and radiographic evidence of the obstruction may be seen as early as 4-6 hours following ingestion. Emesis is contraindicated owing to the risk of aspiration of the glue into the respiratory tree or the subsequent lodging of the expanding glue mass in the esophagus. Likewise, efforts to dilute the glue and prevent the formation of the foreign body through administration of liquids, activated charcoal, or bulk-forming products to push the foreign body through the GI tract have proven ineffective. Even endoscopy performed to remove the foreign body has

  9. Acute gastroduodenal injury after ingestion of diluted herbicide pendimethalin.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, K; Azuhata, H; Katoh, H; Kuwano, H

    2009-03-01

    The herbicide, pendimethalin, is used worldwide, but its acute toxicity is not yet widely known. There have been some reported acute pendimethalin poisoning cases in humans and most of them intentionally ingested the concentrated formulation. We describe a 73-year-old man who developed corrosive gastroduodenal injury after accidental ingestion of the diluted (300 times with water) pendimethalin formulation. He had a history of reflux oesophagitis and had been taking omeprazol (10 mg/day) for a year. He consumed alcohol two hours after the accidental ingestion and then had nausea and epigastric pain. Endoscopy performed three days post-exposure revealed gastroduodenal injury. As he had consumed alcohol every day for years and had no history of gastroduodenal ulcer, the accidental ingestion may be associated with this injury. He was successfully treated by increasing his dosage of omeprazol (20 mg/day) for two weeks. This case indicates that ingestion of a small quantity of pendimethalin can provoke gastroduodenal injury. PMID:19352552

  10. Hypnosis provoked pseudoseizures: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zalsman, Gil; Dror, Shachar; Gadoth, Natan

    2002-07-01

    Only a few studies have been reported in which suggestion was used to provoke pseudoseizures (PS). In these studies PS were video EEG monitored, and saline injections were administered as placebo. This method may be somewhat unethical and carries a low success rate. The authors, two child psychiatrists (GZ and DS) and a neurologist (NG), applied hypnosis to provoke PS which were monitored by video-EEG. Pre-, intra- and post-ictal serum prolactin levels were determined. The first hypnotic session was diagnostic and for this reason featured controlled attempts to determine whether there might be childhood trauma material. The following sessions easily provoked PS during which the EEG was normal and pre-, intra- and post-ictal serum prolactin levels were identical and within normal values. We conclude that hypnosis (with informed consent) for PS monitored by video-EEG telemetry, seems to be an ethical, cheap and quite easy way to demonstrate PS. PMID:12116615

  11. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  12. What Provokes Young People to Get into Trouble: Singapore Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…

  13. Historical Conflict and Incitement Also Provoke the Journey to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on F. M. Moghaddam's article, (see record 2005-01817-002) which uses the metaphor of a narrowing staircase "to provide a more in-depth understanding of terrorism", describes the journey as being provoked by how people perceive of levels of fairness and experience feelings of relative deprivation. If the masses perceive…

  14. Pediatric Ingestions: Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Tarango Md, Stacy M; Liu Md, Deborah R

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric ingestions present a common challenge for emergency clinicians. Each year, more than 50,000 children aged less than 5 years present to emergency departments with concern for unintentional medication exposure, and nearly half of all calls to poison centers are for children aged less than 6 years. Ingestion of magnetic objects and button batteries has also become an increasing source of morbidity and mortality. Although fatal pediatric ingestions are rare, the prescription medications most responsible for injury and fatality in children include opioids, sedative/hypnotics, and cardiovascular drugs. Evidence regarding the evaluation and management of common pediatric ingestions is comprised largely of case reports and retrospective studies. This issue provides a review of these studies as well as consensus guidelines addressing the initial resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment of common pediatric ingestions. Also discussed are current recommendations for decontamination, administration of antidotes for specific toxins, and management of ingested foreign bodies. PMID:27104813

  15. Historical review: does stress provoke Plasmodium falciparum recrudescence?

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, unlike P. vivax, must maintain infection in the blood/bone marrow over many months/years in order to bridge periods between transmission periods. Asymptomatic parasitemia at very low concentrations is now known to be quite common due to molecular detection methods. Old tropical medicine texts commonly list many stressful events stated to provoke recrudescent falciparum parasitemia such as fatigue, heat/chill, trauma/surgery, famine/war, transit between areas and other febrile illness. The older literature is reviewed to discover the factual basis of such varied reports since they have not been recently confirmed. It seems likely that human stress sometimes induces falciparum recrudescence of an otherwise asymptomatic infection. Reproducing such observations today has been radically altered as malaria chemotherapy has evolved from suppressive quinine to curative artemisinin combinations. Host stress-provoked recrudescence may be part of P. falciparum's survival strategy. PMID:25918217

  16. Demonstration of ingested thinner.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Nagata, T; Kimura, K; Kudo, K; Imamura, T

    1990-06-01

    Taking a practical forensic case that provided an opportunity, an attempt was made to prove that paint thinner had been ingested by the victim. One ml of standard thinner solution, which was prepared by mixing toluene, ethyl acetate, and isobutanol, was given by gavage to rats, after which, on sacrifice of the animals, the distribution of thinner components in the body tissue and in the gastric contents was examined by gas chromatography, using the salting-out technique and the headspace method. Three thinner components and ethanol, a metabolite of ethyl acetate, were found to be present in the gastric contents, whereas only toluene was found in the blood and in the other tissue. From these results we thus have concluded that paint thinner taken can be proved by detecting the presence of ethyl acetate and isobutanol together with toluene in the stomach, whereas only toluene can be detected in the body fluids and the other tissue. PMID:2232332

  17. [FOCAL MOTOR SEIZURES AND STATUS EPILEPTICUS PROVOKED BY MIRTAZAPINE].

    PubMed

    Dömötör, Johanna; Clemens, Béla

    2015-07-30

    The seizure-provoking effect of the tetracyclic antidepressant mirtazapine is not a well-known adverse effect of the drug. The authors report on a 39-year-old non-epileptic patient who had been treated for depression with the usual daily dose of mirtazapine. Having increased the daily dose of the drug from 30 to 45 milligrams he experienced a few clonic seizures of the right lower limb. This symptom and insomnia erroneously intended the patient to further increase the daily dose of mirtazapine, which immediately resulted in the evolution of focal clonic status epilepticus in the same limb. After admission, this condition was recorded by video-EEG and abolished by intravenous administration of levetiracetam after the intravenous clonazepam had been ineffective. Discontinuation of mirtazapine and administration of carbamazepine resulted in completely seizure-free state that persisted even after carbamazepine treatment was terminated. The clinical and laboratory data indicate the seizure-provoking effect of mirtazapine in the reported case. PMID:26380424

  18. An ingestible temperature-transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    Pill-sized transmitter measures deep body temperature in studies of circadian rhythm and indicates general health. Ingestible device is a compromise between accuracy, circuit complexity, size and transmission range.

  19. Histamine in foods: its possible role in non-allergic adverse reactions to ingestants.

    PubMed

    Malone, M H; Metcalfe, D D

    1986-01-01

    Histamine is well recognized as a product of both mast cells and basophils. Its release from these sources in IgE-mediated reactions unquestionably contributes to the allergic response. It is often stated that ingestion of foods rich in histamine can result in absorption of sufficient histamine to provoke signs and symptoms reminiscent of an allergic reaction. A review of literature relevant to this issue suggests that certain foods do indeed contain histamine as measured by current methodology. Further, histamine ingestion in excess of 36 to 250 mg may or may not result in a clinical response which includes abdominal complaints, feelings of warmth, flushing and headache. Taken together, this evidence supports the hypothesis that ingestion of large amounts of histamine-containing foods or foods which contain the histamine precursor, histidine, under some circumstances can result in adverse reactions. PMID:3302658

  20. Foreign body ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Dereci, Selim; Koca, Tuğba; Serdaroğlu, Filiz; Akçam, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Foreign bodies ingested by the oral route enter into the gastrointestinal tract and are considered a significant health problem in the childhood. In this study, we evaluated the pediatric patients who presented to our hospital with the complaint of ingestion of foreign body. Material and Methods: The hospital records of all children who presented to our clinic because of ingestion of foreign body between January 2008 and January 2015 were examined retrospectively. The complaints at admission, the types of foreign bodies ingested, the localization of the foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract and the approaches and treatment methods used were examined. Results: Thirty-six (56%) of 64 patients included in the study were male and 28 (44%) were female and the mean age was 5.7±4.6 years (10 months–17 years). Thirty eight (59%) of 64 children who were included in the assessment were below the age of five years. The most common complaint at presentation was parental recognition of the ingested object and dysphagia. The most commonly ingested foreign bodies included coins, sewing pins, safety pins and hairclips. Nail clipper detected in the stomach, sewing pin which penetrated through the duodenal wall and stuck to hepatic parenchyma were the first pediatric cases in the literature. Upper esophagus was the most common location for foreign bodies. Endoscopic examinations were performed in 55 of 64 children. Conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ingested foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal system is important in terms of preventing possible complications. In our study, the most frequent foreign bodies detected in the upper digestive tract were coins and they were most frequently detected in the upper esophagus. Most of our patients were below the age of five years. Flexible endoscopic method was used commonly for treatment. PMID:26884693

  1. Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia

    PubMed Central

    Witzeman, Kathryn; Nguyen, Ruby HN; Eanes, Alisa; As-Sanie, Sawsan; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 8.3%—16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy. Objective To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD. Design In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity. Methods We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100) was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the highest level of pain. Results The lower vestibule’s mucosa 5.81 (standard deviation =2.83) was significantly more sensitive than the upper vestibule 2.52 (standard deviation =2.6) (P<0.01) on exam. However, mucosal sensitivity was not associated with intercourse pain, while muscle sensitivity was moderately associated with both average and highest intensity of intercourse pain (r=−0.46, P=0.01 and r=−0.42, P=0.02), respectively. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that mucosal measures alone may not sufficiently capture the spectrum of clinical pain report in women with PVD, which is consistent with the empirical success of physical therapy in this population. PMID:26316805

  2. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  3. Physiological Responses to Cola Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Handel, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from testing suggest that the ingestion of caffeine in the amount typically found in a single bottle of commercially available cola drink does not increase factors associated with coronary risk nor will it have an enhancing effect upon athletic performance. (MB)

  4. FMLP provokes coronary vasoconstriction and myocardial ischemia in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.N.; Booth, D.C.; Friedman, B.J.; Cunningham, M.R.; Jay, M.; De Maria, A.N. )

    1988-03-01

    Recent pathological studies of coronary arteries from humans with suspected coronary spasm have revealed an augmented intramural burden of inflammatory cells. To test the hypothesis than inappropriate activation of inflammatory cells participates in the evolution of coronary vasospasm, the present experiment employed a newly developed coronary arteriographic technique for use in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits to evaluate the coronary vasomotor actions of the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). In 10 of 10 animals, selective left intracoronary injection of 200 ng fMLP evoked profound left coronary narrowing accompanied in all cases by ST segment deviation and dysrhythmias. Thallium-201 scintigraphy demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left ventricular free wall and septum supplied by the spastic coronary artery. The fMLP-induced epicardial vasoconstriction, ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, and thallium perfusion defects were reversed by intravenous nitroglycerin. Neither the right coronary artery nor its distribution were influenced by left coronary injection of fMLP. Additional experiments in isolated, salt solution-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrated that fMLP failed to exert direct coronary vasoconstrictor effects. These observations indicate that the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, fMLP, provokes arteriographically demonstrable coronary spasm with attendant myocardial hypoperfusion and ischemic ECG changes in anesthetized rabbits. Such a model may be useful in exploring the dynamic role of inflammatory cells in development of coronary spasm.

  5. Pain Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Patients with and without Provoked Vulvodynia.

    PubMed

    Ghizzani, Anna; Di Sabatino, Valentina; Suman, Anna Lisa; Biasi, Giovanni; Santarcangelo, Enrica Laura; Carli, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients exhibiting (FMS+PVD) and not exhibiting (FMS) comorbidity with provoked vulvodynia. Study Design. The case control study was performed in 39 patients who had been diagnosed with FMS and accepted to undergo gynaecological examination and in 36 healthy women (C). All patients completed standardized questionnaires for pain intensity, pain area, and psychological functioning. The gynaecological examination included vulvar pain pressure reactivity (Q-tip), pelvic tone assessment (Kegel manoeuver), and a semistructured interview collecting detailed information about pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Results. FMS+PVD patients displayed a higher number of associated symptoms than FMS patients. The vulvar excitability was significantly higher in FMS+PVD than in FMS and in both groups than in Controls. Half of FMS+PVD patients were positive to Kegel manoeuver and displayed higher scores in widespread pain intensity, STAI-Y2, and CESD levels than Kegel negative patients. Conclusions. The study reveals that increased vulvar pain excitability may occur in FMS patients independently of the presence of coital pain. Results suggest that coital pain develops in patients with higher FMS symptoms severity due to the cooperative effects of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms. PMID:24624294

  6. Cue-Provoked Craving and Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…

  7. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign Bodies.

    PubMed

    Green, S Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal and aspirated foreign bodies have important clinical significance, and both should be considered carefully when the history or physical examination findings raise sufficient suspicion. The published evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of foreign body ingestion or aspiration is weighted disproportionately with observational studies, case controls, expert opinion, and systematic reviews. Most of the publications would receive a categorization of C (observational studies including case-control and cohort design) and D (expert opinion, case reports, and clinical reasoning). One of the few prospective studies examining the diagnostic evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children could be considered level B evidence (randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, or diagnostic studies with minor limitations). This study found that the medical history is the most important predictive part of the evaluation. There is evidence for considering bronchoscopy if there is significant history suggestive of foreign body aspiration, even in the setting of normal physical examination findings. (28). Most ingested foreign bodies spontaneously pass without incident. However, special attention should be paid to objects in the esophagus as well as to batteries and magnets. Based on a systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) and the potential for rapid and life-threatening damage, batteries in the esophagus should be removed immediately. (10) Other objects, such as coins, may be observed for passage in an asymptomatic patient. In addition, given the high risk of significant complications, ingestion of high-powered magnets should be quickly and carefully evaluated. Although single magnets are likely to pass without complication, multiple magnets or magnets ingested with other metal objects can cause significant damage and should be removed if there is any concern for mural entrapment, bowel perforation, or failure to progress. (10

  8. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate. PMID:20065833

  9. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  10. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  11. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  12. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  13. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  14. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  15. Hair relaxer ingestion: a new trend.

    PubMed

    Forsen, J W; Muntz, H R

    1993-10-01

    Although the health care system has done much to reduce the incidence of ingestion of such alkalis as drain and oven cleaners, in recent years we have seen an overwhelming increase in the incidence of hair relaxer ingestion. In a 5-year review (1987 to 1992) of 48 cases of caustic ingestion, 15 cases involved alkaline hair-relaxing agents. This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the agents ingested, the presenting signs and symptoms, the diagnostic procedures, and the outcomes in those 15 cases. Oral cavity and lip burns were common in these children, but none of the 15 had significant esophageal burns. Education of the medical and lay community about the risk of hair relaxer ingestion should be undertaken to reverse this worrisome trend. PMID:8215098

  16. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2007

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests.

  17. Death following ingestion of methylone.

    PubMed

    Barrios, L; Grison-Hernando, H; Boels, D; Bouquie, R; Monteil-Ganiere, C; Clement, R

    2016-03-01

    Methylone is a synthetic derivative of cathinone. It is sold principally on the Internet in powder form under the name «bath salts». Deaths following consumption are very rare. This report details the first case of a death in France (a 21-year-old man), following ingestion of methylone during an evening with friends. Anoxia was observed at the time of autopsy. Toxicological analyses highlighted a consumption of methylone and cannabis. However, biological analyses showed an absence of ethanol, cocaine, amphetamines, and opiate derivatives. Likewise, no medications were found. High concentrations of methylone were found in the peripheral blood (3.13 mg/L) and in the central blood (6.64 mg/L). Its presence in the gastric contents provides evidence that the substance was taken orally. The dosage of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) suggests a recent cannabis consumption (THC 12.9 μg/L, THC-COOH 29.3 μg/L, 11-OH-THC 4.9 μg/L). This case illustrates that the consumption of methylone, which has a reputation of being less «powerful» than ecstasy, is not without its dangers. PMID:26071183

  18. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  19. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  20. Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonate on muscle force, fatigue, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Verbitsky, O; Mizrahi, J; Levin, M; Isakov, E

    1997-08-01

    The influence of acute ingestion of NaHCO3 on fatigue and recovery of teh quadriceps femoris muscle after exercise was studied in six healthy male subjects. A bicycle ergometer was used for exercising under three loading conditions: test A, load corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption; test B, load in test A + 17%; test C, load in test B but performed 1 h after acute ingestion of NaHCO3. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was applied to provoke isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris. The resulting knee torque was monitored during fatigue (2-min chronic FES) and recovery (10-s FES every 10 min, for 40 min). Quadriceps torques were higher in the presence of NaHCO3 (P < 0.05): with NaHCO3 the peak, residual, and recovery (after 40 min) normalized torques were, respectively, 0.68 +/- 0.05 (SD), 0.58 +/- 0.05, and 0.73 +/- 0.05; without NaHCO3 the values were 0.45 +/- 0.04, 0.30 +/- 0.06, and 0.63 +/- 0.06. The increased torques obtained after acute ingestion of NaHCO3 indicate the possible existence of improved nonoxidative glycolysis in isometric contraction, resulting in reduced fatigue and enhanced recovery. PMID:9296948

  1. Are we eating plastic-ingesting fish?

    PubMed

    Miranda, Daniele de A; de Carvalho-Souza, Gustavo Freire

    2016-02-15

    Yes, we are eating plastic-ingesting fish. A baseline assessment of plastic pellet ingestion by two species of important edible fish caught along the eastern coast of Brazil is described. The rate of plastic ingestion by king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) was quite high (62.5%), followed by the Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii, 33%). From 2 to 6 plastic resin pellets were encountered in the stomachs of each fish, with sizes of from 1 to 5 mm, and with colors ranging from clear to white and yellowish. Ecological and health-related implications are discussed and the potential for transferring these materials through the food-chain are addressed PMID:26763323

  2. Ingestion of Laundry Detergent Packets in Children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lindsey Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of laundry detergent packets is an important threat to young children. Because of their developmental stage, toddlers are prone to place these small, colorful packets in their mouths. The packets can easily burst, sending a large volume of viscous, alkaline liquid throughout the oropharynx. Ingestion causes major toxic effects, including depression of the central nervous system, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, and dysphagia. Critical care nurses should anticipate these clinical effects and facilitate prompt intervention. Increased understanding of the risks and clinical effects of ingestion of laundry detergent packets will better prepare critical care nurses to provide care for these children. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:70-75). PMID:27481804

  3. Corrosive Esophagitis Caused by Ingestion of Picosulfate

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae Yong; Kang, Ho Suk; Kim, Seong Eun; Park, Ji Won; Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Corrosive esophagitis is characterized by caustic injury due to the ingestion of chemical agents, mainly alkaline substances such as detergents. Esophageal bleeding, perforation, or stricture can be worsened by high-degree corrosive esophagitis. Picosulfate is a commonly used laxative frequently administered for bowel preparation before colonoscopy or colon surgery. Picosulfate powder should be completely dissolved in water before ingestion because the powder itself may cause chemical burning of the esophagus and stomach. Here, we report a case of corrosive esophagitis due to the ingestion of picosulfate powder that was not completely dissolved in water. PMID:25674529

  4. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  5. MLA Report on Foreign-Language Education Continues to Provoke Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that, nearly one year after its release, the report on foreign language and higher education issued by an ad hoc committee of the Modern Language Association (MLA) is still provoking discussion about reforms in the teaching of foreign languages and the role of the association in any revamp. The debate continued at a panel held…

  6. Personality and Aggressive Behavior under Provoking and Neutral Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…

  7. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  8. 21 CFR 880.6305 - Ingestible event marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ingestible event marker. 880.6305 Section 880.6305... Devices § 880.6305 Ingestible event marker. (a) Identification. An ingestible event marker is a prescription device used to record time-stamped, patient-logged events. The ingestible component...

  9. Outcomes after isolated mirtazapine (Remeron) supratherapeutic ingestions.

    PubMed

    LoVecchio, Frank; Riley, Brad; Pizon, Anthony; Brown, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Mirtazapine (Remeron) is a newly approved medication for the treatment of depression. It is an alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist that causes increased levels of neuronal norepinephrine and serotonin. It is also believed to be an antagonist at the serotonin receptors 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(3). Little is known about isolated mirtazapine ingestions. We conducted a retrospective chart review of mirtazapine ingestions reported to our Poison Center during 2004. A standardized data sheet was completed collecting information regarding standard demographic data along with co-ingestants, neurologic and cardiovascular symptoms, and disposition. Data collection was reviewed by a second investigator, and a kappa score was calculated. Of 71 patients identified with mirtazapine ingestions, there were 33 isolated exposures that were further reviewed. A kappa score for inter-reviewer reliability was calculated and at 0.61, 95% confidence interval 56-70. The average age of these patients was 27 years (range 6-82 years), with the mean ingestion of 343 mg (range 15-1500 mg). The most common neurologic symptom was drowsiness seen in 8/23 patients, 1 patient became agitated, and 14 patients had no abnormal neurologic findings. Cardiovascular effects were recorded in 4/23 patients, with 3 patients exhibiting tachycardia and 1 patient with bradycardia and hypotension. Seven of 23 patients required admission; there were no deaths. Mirtazapine overdoses are generally very well tolerated, with the most common symptoms being drowsiness and lethargy. This study is limited by being a retrospective chart review. PMID:17976774

  10. (-)-Hydroxycitrate ingestion and endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Ryu, Sungpil; Suh, Heajung; Ishihara, Kengo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2005-02-01

    We have been interested in the ergogenic aid effects of food components and supplements for enhancing endurance exercise performance. For this purpose, acute or chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA) ingestion might be effective because it promotes utilization of fatty acid as an energy source. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP: citrate lyase, thereby increasing inhibition of lipogenesis in the body. Many researchers have reported that less body fat accumulation and sustained satiety cause less food intake. After focusing on exercise performance with HCA ingestion, we came up with different results that show positive effects or not. However, our previously reported data showed increased use of fatty acids during moderate intensity exercise. For future research, HCA and co-ingestion of other supplements, such as carnitine or caffeine, might have greater effect on glycogen-sparing than HCA alone. PMID:15915661

  11. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Following Synthetic Cannabinoid Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Adedinsewo, Demilade A.; Odewole, Oluwaseun; Todd, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion. Laboratory studies revealed markedly elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) with normal renal function. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid hydration and treatment of underlying psychiatric illness. Conclusion: We recommend the routine evaluation of renal function and CPK levels with early initiation of IV hydration among patients who present to the emergency department following acute ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids to identify potential complications early as well as institute early supportive therapy. PMID:27500131

  12. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  13. Water ingestion into jet engine axial compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1982-01-01

    An axial flow compressor has been tested with water droplet ingestion under a variety of conditions. The results illustrate the manner in which the compressor pressure ratio, efficiency and surging characteristics are affected. A model for estimating the performance of a compressor during water ingestion has been developed and the predictions obtained compare favorably with the test results. It is then shown that with respect to five droplet-associated nonlinearly-interacting processes (namely, droplet-blade interactions, blade performance changes, centrifugal action, heat and mass transfer processes and droplet break-up), the initial water content and centrifugal action play the most dominant roles.

  14. Simulation of a hydraulic air ingestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.C.; Golshani, A.

    1981-01-01

    A hydraulic air ingestion process which requires no mechanical moving parts to accomplish air compression but a downward flow of water and operates at nearly isothermal compression mode can be a viable alternative for the noncondensibles disposal of an OTEC open-cycle power system. A computer simulation of the process is presented based on one-dimensional lumped parameter analysis. Results of laboratory-scale experiments were obtained which compared favorably with the analytical results. A sensitivity study which depicts the effects of various parameters upon the applied head of the hydraulic air ingestion process is also presented.

  15. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  16. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  17. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  18. Impact of Provoking Risk Factors on the Prognosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jae; Noh, Sang-Mi; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S.; Kwon, Sun U.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Little is known about the relationships between provoking risk factors, prognosis, and optimal duration of anticoagulation in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), especially in Asians. We aimed to investigate whether the prognosis and required duration of anticoagulation in CVT patients differ according to the provoking risk factors. Methods Prospectively recorded data from a tertiary medical center in South Korea were retrospectively reviewed. CVTs were categorized into three groups: unprovoked, those with possibly resolved provoking factors (PR), and those with persistent provoking factors (PP). The baseline characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of patients in these three groups were analyzed. Results From 2000 to 2015, 61 patients presented with CVT: 19 (31.1%) unprovoked, 11 (18.0%) with PR, and 31 (50.9%) with PP. The patients in our cohort had a slight female predominance and lower frequency of oral contraceptive use compared to Western cohorts. Median follow-up and duration of anticoagulation were 35 and 8 months, respectively. Despite the similarities in baseline characteristics, deaths (n=3; P=0.256) and recurrences (n=7; P=0.020) were observed only in the PP group. The median intervals to death and recurrence were 9 and 13 months, respectively. Death was associated with underlying disease activity, not with CVT progression. Recurrences in the PP group were associated with lack of anticoagulation (P=0.012). Conclusions Although the prognosis of CVT is generally benign in Koreans, recurrence and death were observed in patients with persistent risk factors, suggesting their need for long-term treatment with anticoagulants. PMID:27165266

  19. Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kyler

    2016-07-01

    Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362-379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26522921

  20. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. PMID:23914794

  1. Button Battery Ingestion in Children: A Paradigm for Management of Severe Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestions.

    PubMed

    Leinwand, Kristina; Brumbaugh, David E; Kramer, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal injuries secondary to button battery ingestions in children have emerged as a dangerous and difficult management problem for pediatricians. Implementation of a multidisciplinary team approach, with rapid and coordinated care, is paramount to minimize the risk of negative outcomes. In addition to providing a comprehensive review of the topic, this article outlines the authors' referral center's experience with patients with severe battery ingestion, highlighting the complications, outcomes, and important lessons learned from their care. The authors also propose an algorithm for clinical care that may be useful for guiding best management of pediatric button battery ingestion. PMID:26616899

  2. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. PMID:27130966

  3. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  4. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; N N Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  5. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (September 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD; Gaustad, KL

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  6. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (November 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD: Gaustad, KL

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  7. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  8. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  9. Debris ingestion by juvenile marine turtles: an underestimated problem.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robson Guimarães; Andrades, Ryan; Boldrini, Marcillo Altoé; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2015-04-15

    Marine turtles are an iconic group of endangered animals threatened by debris ingestion. However, key aspects related to debris ingestion are still poorly known, including its effects on mortality and the original use of the ingested debris. Therefore, we analysed the impact of debris ingestion in 265 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) over a large geographical area and different habitats along the Brazilian coast. We determined the death rate due to debris ingestion and quantified the amount of debris that is sufficient to cause the death of juvenile green turtles. Additionally, we investigated the original use of the ingested debris. We found that a surprisingly small amount of debris was sufficient to block the digestive tract and cause death. We suggested that debris ingestion has a high death potential that may be masked by other causes of death. An expressive part of the ingested debris come from disposable and short-lived products. PMID:25749316

  10. Anxiety-provoked gait changes are selectively dopa-responsive in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand how dopamine modulates the effect of anxiety on gait, the goal of this study was to use virtual reality to provoke anxiety in Parkinson's disease (PD) (in both ON and OFF states) and quantify its effect on gait. Seventeen participants with PD and 20 healthy age-matched controls were instructed to walk in a virtual environment in two anxiety-provoking conditions: (i) across a plank that was located on the GROUND and (ii) across an ELEVATED plank. All participants with PD completed this experiment in both the ON and OFF states, and were then striated into groups based on baseline trait anxiety scores for further analyses. Anxiety (skin conductance and self-report) and spatiotemporal aspects of gait were measured. Overall, the ELEVATED condition resulted in greater skin conductance levels and self-reported anxiety levels. Additionally, all participants demonstrated slower gait with increased step-to-step variability when crossing the ELEVATED plank compared with the plank on the GROUND. The results showed that dopaminergic treatment selectively improved gait in only the highly anxious PD group, by significantly improving velocity, step length, step time and step-to-step variability specifically when walking across the ELEVATED plank (ON vs. OFF comparison). In conclusion, only highly trait anxious participants with PD benefitted from dopaminergic treatment, specifically when walking in the anxiety-provoking environment. Improvements to gait during anxious walking might be a result of dopaminergic medication acting in two ways: (i) improving the basal ganglia's capacity to process information and (ii) reducing the load from anxiety and subsequently making more resources available to effectively process other competing inputs. PMID:25899750

  11. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section... object ingestion—ice. (a)-(b) (c) Ingestion of ice under the conditions of paragraph (e) of this section... by engine test under the following ingestion conditions: (1) Ice quantity will be the...

  12. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Gambaracci, Giulio; Mecarini, Eleonora; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Scialpi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation. PMID:27403113

  13. Selective myelosuppression following yellow phosphorus ingestion.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Padhi, Somanath; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity from accidental and intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus, ubiquitously present in fireworks and rodenticides, has recently become more frequent. Gastrointestinal, renal, neurologic, and cardiovascular manifestations are common, with mortality of 23 per cent to 73 per cent. Reports of haematological abnormalities are rare. We report only the second case of severe neutropenia secondary to selective myelosuppression in a 14-year-old girl following intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus. Leucocyte counts recovered spontaneously without further complications. Our case indicates that, besides hepatic and renal function monitoring, physicians should meticulously monitor blood counts in such cases for early detection of marrow suppression. Further studies are required to elucidate the complex mechanisms and significance of this unusual toxicity of yellow phosphorus. PMID:25848404

  14. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. PMID:27625729

  15. Butanol ingestion in an airport hangar.

    PubMed

    Bunc, M; Pezdir, T; Mozina, H; Mozina, M; Brvar, M

    2006-04-01

    1-Butanol is a colourless organic solvent with a rancid sweet odour. 1-Butanol ingestion may result in vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, drowsiness and unconsciousness. We present a 47-year-old male with no previous medical history, who was found comatose and soiled after having vomited while unconscious. On arrival, he had a Glasgow coma scale of 3, tachycardia, hypotension, shallow tachypnoic breathing, hypotonic muscles, absent myotatic reflexes and aromatic odour. The patient was intubated and treated with oxygen, dopamine and volume replacement therapy. Gastric lavage was performed and activated charcoal was given. His initial laboratory test revealed hypokaliemia, renal failure, acidosis with elevated lactate and hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency. Twelve hours after admission, the patient started to respond to a painful stimulus and 4 h later he was conscious. He was extubated 23 h after admission. All pathological laboratory results gradually returned within normal limits. The subsequent toxicological examination of gastric content and urine sample by gas chromatography revealed 1-butanol. On awakening, he confirmed ingestion of a solvent stored in an airport hangar. In conclusion, we describe a patient who ingested - a posteriori with suicidal intention - an unknown dose of 1-butanol. Symptoms were headache, vomiting, abdominal pain, coma, muscular hypotonus, hypotension, respiratory insufficiency and mixed acidosis. The patient totally recovered after supportive therapy over 30 h. In future cases, intravenous administration of ethanol or even hemodialysis can be considered analogous to the treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning. PMID:16696295

  16. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

  17. Current Injection Provokes Rapid Expansion of the Guard Cell Cytosolic Volume and Triggers Ca(2+) Signals.

    PubMed

    Voss, Lena J; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution microscopy opens the door for detailed single-cell studies with fluorescent reporter dyes and proteins. We used a confocal spinning disc microscope to monitor fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent protein Venus in tobacco and Arabidopsis guard cells. Multi-barreled microelectrodes were used to inject dyes and apply voltage pulses, which provoke transient rises in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. Voltage pulses also caused changes in the distribution of Lucifer Yellow and Venus, which pointed to a reversible increase of guard cell cytosolic volume. The dynamic cytosolic volume changes turned out to be provoked by current injection of ions. A reduction of the clamp current, by blocking K(+) uptake channels with Cs(+), strongly suppressed the cytosolic volume changes. Cs(+) not only inhibited the expansion of the cytosol, but also inhibited hyperpolarization-induced elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. A complete loss of voltage-induced Ca(2+) signals occurred when Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channels were simultaneously blocked with La(3+). This shows that two mechanisms cause hyperpolarization-induced elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration: (i) activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-permeable channels, (ii) osmotically induced expansion of the cytosol, which leads to a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. PMID:26902185

  18. Intercontinental comparison of caustic ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Hazrati, Hakimeh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the caustic ingestion in children among different continents according to demographic characteristics (core purpose), main symptoms, common caustic agents, signs and symptoms, management, treatment and complications. Methods This systematic review was performed by searching the databases Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and PubMed, electronically and manually. We included studies that were published from 1980 to 2013, at University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz, Iran. A strategic search was performed with keywords including caustic, corrosive, ingestion and children, and was limited to articles in English and Persian. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS ver. 18. Results Of 63 selected articles of caustic ingestion with 9,888 samples, the proportion of Africa was 3 articles (4.8%) and 95 samples (1%), America 9 articles (14.3%) and 305 sample (3%), Asia 29 articles (46%) and 2,780 samples (28.1%), Europe 17 articles (27%) and 3,002 samples (30.4%), and Oceania 5 articles (7.9%) and 3,706 samples (37.5%). The average age was in the Africa 3.07±2.02 years, America 3.17±1.83 years, Asia 3.34±1.58 years, Europe 3.58±2.09 years and Oceania 3.52±2.02 years. Sex distribution was in Africa 76 males (0.91%) and 19 females (0.23%), America 49 males (0.58%) and 41 females (0.49%), Asia 1,575 males (18.76%) and 1,087 females (12.95%), Europe 1,018 males (12.13%) and 823 females (9.8%), and Oceania 1,918 males (22.85%) and 1,788 females (21.3%). Statistical analysis of the data indicated higher consumption in Europe and Oceania in the boys with higher average age of years. Conclusion The comparison of caustic ingestion indicated that the cause substances of caustic ingestion in children are different among continents, therefore prevention strategy and different treatment guidelines among continents will be needed. PMID:26770225

  19. Oesophagus obstruction due to ingestion of multiple foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Cegin, Muhammet Bilal; Sayir, Fuat; Gonullu, Hayriye; Olmez, Sehmuz

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of a foreign body (FB) is a potentially serious condition. In children, the most common years for FB ingestion are from the age of 6 months to 6 years. FB ingestion also occurs in those with psychiatric disorders or mental retardation and among adult prisoners and alcoholics. Most ingested FBs spontaneously pass out of the body via the gastrointestinal system. An endoscopic or surgical approach is only needed if the object fails to progress through the gastrointestinal tract. All objects impacted in the oesophagus require urgent treatment. This study reports a case of multiple FB ingestion and provides a literature review. PMID:27122280

  20. Estimated soil ingestion rates for use in risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    LaGoy, P.K.

    1987-09-01

    Assessing the risks to human health posed by contaminants present in soil requires an estimate of likely soil ingestion rates. In the past, direct measurements of soil ingestion were not available and risk assessors were forced to estimate soil ingestion rates based on observations of mouthing behavior and measurements of soil on hands. Recently, empirical data on soil ingestion rates have become available from two sources. Although preliminary, these data can be used to derive better estimates of soil ingestion rates for use in risk assessments. Estimates of average soil ingestion rates derived in this paper range from 25 to 100 mg/day, depending on the age of the individual at risk. Maximum soil ingestion rates that are unlikely to underestimate exposure range from 100 to 500 mg. A value of 5000 mg/day is considered a reasonable estimate of a maximum single-day exposure for a child with habitual pica. 12 references.

  1. [Gastric rupture after ingestion of liquid nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Nielsen, Casper; Christensen, Peter

    2009-02-01

    A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with severe abdominal distension and subcutaneous emphysema after ingesting 15 ml liquid nitrogen to produce an impressive burp. A rupture of the stomach at the lesser curvature was sutured by laparotomy. Peroperative gastroscopy showed no signs of cold-induced lesions. Liquid nitrogen boils at -196 degrees C. When heated to body temperature, it instantly expands 700 times, in this case predictably leading to gastric rupture. Therefore, any oral intake of even small amounts of liquid nitrogen should be avoided. PMID:19210943

  2. Pneumopericardium due to ingestion of button battery

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Pramod; Makwana, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Mostly ingested button batteries passed through the gastrointestinal tract without any adverse effects. But button battery can lead to hazardous complications including tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), especially when the battery is impacted in the esophagus. Urgent esophagoscopic removal of the battery is essential in all cases. Once the TEF is identified, conservative management is the initial treatment of choice. Delayed primary repair can be tried if spontaneous closure does not occur. Here in we want to report a rare case of air leak syndrome, pneumo-pericardium secondary to the corrosive effect of a button battery and child recovered completely with conservative management. PMID:27011705

  3. A model for provoking ischemic necrosis in rat liver parenchyma and its quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Frederiks, W M; James, J; Bosch, K S; Schröder, M J; Schuyt, H C

    1982-01-01

    Ischemia in the left lateral and median lobe of the rat liver was provoked by means of a small clip, as applied in human microvascular surgery. After various periods of ischemia (30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 min) the blood flow to these lobes was restored. Twenty-four hours after restoration, the extent of necrosis was estimated quantitatively via morphometric measurements of the relative surfaces of necrotic tissue in photomicrographs of gallocyanin-stained serial sections. After periods of ischemia longer than 40 min, the percentage of necrotic tissue increased linearly with the period of clamping. After 40 min of total ischemia the changes in hepatocytes are for the greater part reversible, whereas after 90 min the majority of the cells have passed the "point of no return" and will no more be able to maintain their integrity. PMID:7160451

  4. Head-down bed rest impairs vagal baroreflex responses and provokes orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Fritsch, Janice M.; Vernikos-Danellis, Joan

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis that baroreflex malfunction contributes to orthostatic hypotension in microgravity was tested by studying vagally mediated carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflexes in healthy human subjects before, during, and after 30 days of 6-deg head-down bed rest. The baroreflex response relationships were provoked with ramped neck pressure-suction sequences comprising pressure elevations to 40 mm Hg followed by serial R-wave-triggered 15-mm Hg reductions to -65 mm0 Hg; each R-R interval was plotted as a function of systolic pressure minus the neck chamber pressure applied during the interval. It is shown that head-down bed rest led to an impairment of vagal baroreflex function and that it was associated with an impairment of hemodynamic adjustments to standing, indicating that baroreflex impairment may contribute to orthostatic hypotension observed in spacecrews after a flight.

  5. Generalized seizure with falling and unresponsive staring provoked by somatosensory stimulation: a video-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sayaka; Sassa, Kaori; Abe, Yuichi; Yamanouchi, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We report a 4-year-old boy with generalized seizures with abrupt falling and unresponsive staring provoked by somatosensory stimuli of the face. Ictal manifestation comprised a sudden fall immediately after wiping the face, followed by unresponsive staring for around 10 seconds, during which time the video-EEG recorded paroxysmal 3-Hz diffuse spike-wave complexes, which were followed by high-voltage 3.5 to 4-Hz delta wave discharges, predominantly appearing in the bilateral frontal areas. Seizures were not controlled by clonazepam, valproate or levetiracetam, but were successfully treated with lamotrigine added to valproate. This type of generalized reflex seizure has so far not been reported in the literature. [Published with video sequence]. PMID:26235696

  6. Exercise-provoked esophageal motility disorder in patients with recurrent chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Budzyński, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between exercise-provoked esophageal motility disorders and the prognosis for patients with chest pain. METHODS: The study involved 63 subjects with recurrent angina-like chest pain non-responsive to empirical therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI). In all, a coronary artery angiography, panendoscopy, 24-h esophageal pH-metry and manometry, as well as a treadmill stress test with simultaneous esophageal pH-metry and manometry monitoring, were performed. Thirty-five subjects had no significant coronary artery lesions, and 28 had more than 50% coronary artery narrowing. In patients with hypertensive esophageal motility disorders, a calcium antagonist was recommended. The average follow-up period was 977 ± 249 d. RESULTS: The prevalence of esophageal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux or diffuse esophageal spasm, was similar in patients both with and without significant coronary artery narrowing. Exercise prompted esophageal motility disorders, such as a decrease in the percentage of peristaltic and effective contractions and their amplitude, as well as an increase in the percentage of simultaneous and non-effective contractions. In 14 (22%) patients the percentage of simultaneous contractions during the treadmill stress test exceeded the value of 55%. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the proportional hazard Cox regression model, it was shown that the administration of a calcium channel antagonist in patients with such an esophageal motility disorder significantly decreased the risk of hospitalization as a result of a suspicion of acute coronary syndrome after the 2.7-year follow-up period. CONCLUSION: In patients with chest pain non-responsive to PPIs, a diagnosis of exercise-provoked esophageal spasm may have the effect of lowering the risk of the next hospitalization. PMID:20845510

  7. Mirtazapine Provokes Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep in Young Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Stephany; Kloiber, Stefan; Dose, Tatjana; Lucae, Susanne; Holsboer, Florian; Schaaf, Ludwig; Hennings, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that certain antidepressants are associated with an increase of periodic leg movements (PLMS) that may disturb sleep. So far, this has been shown in patients clinically treated for depression and in cross-sectional studies for various substances, but not mirtazapine. It is unclear whether antidepressants induce the new onset of PLMS or only increase preexisting PLMS, and whether this is a general property of the antidepressant or only seen in depressed patients. We report here the effect of mirtazapine on PLMS in young healthy men. Design: Open-labeled clinical trial (NCT00878540) including a 3-week preparatory phase with standardized food, physical activity, and sleep-wake behavior, and a 10-day experimental inpatient phase with an adaptation day, 2 baseline days, and 7 days with mirtazapine. Setting: Research institute. Participants: Twelve healthy young (20-25 years) men. Interventions: Seven days of nightly intake (22:00) of 30 mg mirtazapine. Measurements and results: Sleep was recorded on 2 drug-free baseline nights, the first 2 drug nights, and the last 2 drug nights. Eight of the 12 subjects showed increased PLMS after the first dose of mirtazapine. Frequency of PLMS was highest on the first drug night and attenuated over the course of the next 6 days. Three subjects reported transient restless legs symptoms. Conclusions: Mirtazapine provoked PLMS in 67% of young healthy males. The effect was most pronounced in the first days. The possible role of serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic mechanisms in mirtazapine-induced PLMS is discussed. Citation: Fulda S; Kloiber S; Dose T; Lucae S. Mirtazapine provokes periodic leg movements during sleep in young healthy men. SLEEP 2013;36(5):661-669. PMID:23633748

  8. Automatic Ingestion Monitor: A Novel Wearable Device for Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Juan M.; Farooq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. PMID:24845288

  9. Bronchoconstriction provoked by exercise in a high-particulate-matter environment is attenuated by montelukast.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Spiering, Barry A; Baumann, Jennifer M; Evans, Tina M

    2005-02-01

    Airborne ultrafine and fine particulate matter (PM1 from fossil-fueled internal combustion engines may cause abnormal airway narrowing. Because of high PM1 exposure from ice resurfacing machines, the ice-rink athlete is especially vulnerable to PM1 toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate protection by a single dose of montelukast in college ice hockey players following PM1 exposure exercise. Nine male ice hockey players (age 19.3+/-1.22 yr) performed 4 randomized, double-blinded, high-intensity, 6-min cycle ergometer trials in low [PM1] (2260+/-500 particles/cm3) and high [PM1] (348,600+/-121,600 particles/cm3) after placebo or montelukast. Pre- and postspirometry showed similar peak FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) falls between placebo and montelukast after low [PM1] trials (14.5+/-18.06 vs. 9.5+/-11.75% of baseline, respectively). Peak FEV1 falls after high [PM1] trials were greater for placebo than for montelukast (17.3+/-9.79% vs. 1.7+/-5.77% of baseline; p<.0001). High [PM1] FEV1 fall after exercise following montelukast ingestion was less than after exercise following placebo ingestion under high and low [PM1] conditions and after exercise following montelukast ingestion under low [PM1] conditions at 5, 10, and 15 min postchallenge (p<.004, .0006, .009, respectively). Montelukast provided greater protection against bronchoconstriction after exercise during high [PM1] than low [PM1] exposure (approximately 90% vs. approximately 35%), suggesting that bronchoconstriction from PM1 exposure is predominately leukotriene mediated. The precise mechanism of airborne PM1-induced leukotriene-mediated airway narrowing remains unclear. PMID:15764487

  10. Quantitative determination of engine water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Hernan, M.; Sarohia, V.

    1986-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique is described for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The techniques were developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Independent measurements of the liquid water content (LWC) of the droplet laden airstream and of the droplet velocities were made at the stimulated nacelle inlet plane for the liquid mass flux determination. The LWC was measured by illuminating and photographing the droplets contained within a thin slice of the flow field by means of a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. A fluorescent dye introduced in the water enchanced the droplet image definition. The droplet velocities were determined from double exposed photographs of the moving droplet field. The technique was initially applied to a steady spray generated in a wind tunnel. It was found that although the spray was initially steady, the aerodynamic breakup process was inherently unsteady. This resulted in a wide variation of the instantaneous LWC of the droplet laden airstream. The standard deviation of ten separate LWC measurements was 31% of the average. However, the liquid mass flux calculated from the average LWC and droplet velocities came within 10% of the known water ingestion rate.

  11. Data ingestion into NeQuick 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Radicella, S. M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2011-12-01

    NeQuick 2 is the latest version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy with the collaboration of the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly designed for trans-ionospheric propagation applications that has been conceived to reproduce the median behavior of the ionosphere. To provide 3-D specification of the ionosphere electron density for current conditions, different ionosphere electron density retrieval techniques based on the NeQuick adaptation to GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) data and ionosonde measured peak parameters values have been developed. In the present paper the technique based on the ingestion of global vertical TEC map into NeQuick 2 will be validated and an assessment of the capability of the model to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day variability will also be performed. For this purpose hourly GPS-derived global vertical TEC maps and hourly foF2 values from about 20 ionosondes corresponding to one month in high solar activity and one month in low solar activity period will be used. Furthermore, the first results concerning the ingestion of space-based GPS-derived TEC data will be presented.

  12. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  13. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Qamar A.; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world’s oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia’s coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia’s avifauna. PMID:27574986

  14. Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

    1993-01-01

    Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

  15. Severe systemic intoxication following triclopyr-TEA ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kyong, Yeon Y; Lee, Kyoung U; Choi, Kyoung H

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of triclopyr ingestion, a herbicide that acts via the auxin system in plants. It is classified as low-toxicity herbicide. The patient ingested this product and developed metabolic acidosis and coma with cardiovascular impairment. Echocardiography and elevated Troponin T and CK MB with prolongation of QTc suggested direct myocardial toxicity. The patient was extubated 57 h after ingestion, and he recovered completely. This case illustrates the potential acute toxicity of this agent in humans. PMID:21171852

  16. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna. PMID:27574986

  17. Vapor ingestion in Centaur liquid-hydrogen tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    Vapor ingestion phenomena were investigated using scale models of the Centaur liquid hydrogen tank to determine the height of the free surface of the liquid when vapor is intially ingested into the tank outlet. Data are compared with an analysin and, is general the agreement is very good. Predictions are presented for minimum liquid levels required in the Centaur liquid hydrogen tank in order to prevent vapor ingestion when restarting the engines in space and the quantities of liquid remaining in the tank at vapor ingestion during main engine firing.

  18. Incidence of ingested lead shot in sora rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artmann, J.W.; Martin, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    Gizzards of 934 sora rails (Porzana carolina) collected in Maryland (767) and Missouri (167) were examined for ingested shot. Ingested shot were found in 12.3 percent of the Maryland sample and 1.8 percent of the Missouri birds. Individual Maryland birds had ingested up to 28 pellets. None of the lead pellets examined was larger than a No. 7 1/2 shot. Maryland ingestion rates did not differ by age or sex, but significant differences between collection areas, groups of years, and collection periods within years were indicated. This exploratory work points out a potential lead poisoning problem among sora rails.

  19. Acute appendicitis caused by foreign body ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Heung; Lee, Dae Sup; Kim, Kwang Min

    2015-09-01

    Foreign bodies usually do not cause complications and pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. Usually endoscopic intervention is recommended within 24 hours. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by foreign bodies are very rare. In our case, we experienced successful endoscopic and surgical treatment of a patient with ingestion of razor blade and some unrecognizable foreign bodies. A 22-year-old soldier was admitted with a small quantity of hematemesis and epigastric pain. We performed emergent endoscopy and successfully removed several foreign bodies. After 17 days, we performed appendectomy to remove the remaining foreign body and to relieve the symptoms. There is no doubt that endoscopic intervention is definitely useful method to remove foreign bodies. If there is no spontaneous drainage of the foreign body from the appendix, an appendectomy must be considered to remove the foreign body and prevent surgical complications such as appendicitis, periappendiceal abscess, and perforation. PMID:26366386

  20. Carotenemia associated with green bean ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sale, Tanya A; Stratman, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carotenemia is a condition characterized by yellow discoloration of the skin and elevated blood carotene levels. Excessive and prolonged ingestion of carotene-rich, yellow- or orange-colored foods such as carrots and winter squash is the most common cause, but more rarely it may be associated with consumption of other foods as well as with hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa, liver disease, or kidney disease. Though not uncommon in children, there are few reports in the pediatric literature since its early descriptions in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Awareness of carotenemia can help the provider resolve confusion with jaundice and avoid unnecessary worry and costly tests. Herein we describe carotenemia in an 8-month-old Caucasian girl secondary to increased consumption of commercial infant food green beans. PMID:15575851

  1. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

  2. Perforated appendicitis caused by foreign body ingestion.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong Kyu; Bae, Ok Suk; Hwang, Ilseon

    2012-04-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any incident. However, foreign bodies lodged in the appendix can cause an inflammatory reaction with or without perforation. Here, we present a case of a 54-year-old woman with perforated appendicitis who consumed wild game containing a shot pellet. Five months before admission, she had eaten the meat of a pheasant that had been shot with a shotgun. Abdominal computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis with abscess due to a foreign body. Subsequently, a laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Follow-up radiographs obtained after the surgery did not identify the foreign body. Histolopathologic examination confirmed appendiceal perforation with focal inflammation secondary to a foreign body. PMID:22487649

  3. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  4. Metal and sediment ingestion by dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.; Day, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical analysis of intestinal digesta from hunter-killed carcasses or of wildlife scat is a promising means of estimating the exposure of wildlife to those environmental contaminants that, like lead, are poorly absorbed in the digestive tract. When evaluating contaminants at a site, biologists may find the results of this non-destructive approach more straightforward to interpret in terms of exposure to wildlife than would be analyses of soils, sediments, water, or wildlife tissues. To illustrate the approach, we collected digesta from 47 waterfowl shot by hunters at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, in Delaware, USA. The waterfowl digesta contained an average of approximately 2.4% sediment, estimated from the Al concentrations in the digesta, a marker for sediment. Al concentrations were significantly correlated with concentrations of Cr (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r=0.57), V (r=0.70), Ni (r=0.31), and Pb (r=0.55), and we concluded that these metals were ingested mainly with sediment. American widgeon (Anas americana) ingested sediment at a rate of about four times that of three other species of dabbling ducks (Anas crecca, A. acuta, A. rubripes) and had several times the exposure to the sediment-associated metals. The digesta of one American black duck contained a high concentration of lead (70 mg/kg, dry wt.), presumably from lead shot, but none of the other samples had notably elevated metal concentrations. We suggest that scat and digesta be analyzed more widely by biologists and resource managers seeking a simple, inexpensive assessment of contaminants in local wildlife habitat.

  5. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  6. Metal and sediment ingestion by dabbling ducks.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Spann, J; Day, D

    1999-07-01

    The chemical analysis of intestinal digesta from hunter-killed carcasses or of wildlife scat is a promising means of estimating the exposure of wildlife to those environmental contaminants that, like lead, are poorly absorbed in the digestive tract. When evaluating contaminants at a site, biologists may find the results of this non-destructive approach more straightforward to interpret in terms of exposure to wildlife than would be analyses of soils, sediments, water, or wildlife tissues. To illustrate the approach, we collected digesta from 47 waterfowl shot by hunters at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, in Delaware, USA. The waterfowl digesta contained an average of approximately 2.4% sediment, estimated from the Al concentrations in the digesta, a marker for sediment. Al concentrations were significantly correlated with concentrations of Cr (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r = 0.57), V (r = 0.70), Ni (r = 0.31), and Pb (r = 0.55), and we concluded that these metals were ingested mainly with sediment. American widgeon (Anas americana) ingested sediment at a rate of about four times that of three other species of dabbling ducks (Anas crecca, A. acuta, A. rubripes) and had several times the exposure to the sediment-associated metals. The digesta of one American black duck contained a high concentration of lead (70 mg/kg, dry wt.), presumably from lead shot, but none of the other samples had notably elevated metal concentrations. We suggest that scat and digesta be analyzed more widely by biologists and resource managers seeking a simple, inexpensive assessment of contaminants in local wildlife habitat. PMID:10472136

  7. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 provokes mast cell aggregation and [3H]5HT release.

    PubMed Central

    Conti, P; Boucher, W; Letourneau, R; Feliciani, C; Reale, M; Barbacane, R C; Vlagopoulos, P; Bruneau, G; Thibault, J; Theoharides, T C

    1995-01-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and MCP-3, the most active and representative compounds of the CC chemokine family, are proinflammatory cytokines that attract and activate specific types of leucocytes. We have used highly purified isolated rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) cultured for different lengths of time with and without MCP-1 (200, 100, 50 and 25 nM). Our data clearly show that MCP-1 (200 nM) causes a marked release of [3H]serotonin ([3H]5HT and histamine, which reach a peak at 40 min of incubation (56.6 +/- 5.3 and 34.7 +/- 6 above the control, respectively). In dose-response experiments, MCP-1 (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.12 nM) provoked a dose-dependent release of [3H]5HT and histamine from RPMC, which was maximum at 200 nM. After preparation of the histidine decarboxylase (HDC) probe, a Northern blot analysis was determined for HDC mRNA. After 4 hr, steady-state levels of HDC mRNA were induced in a dose-dependent manner by MCP-1 (200-25 nM), compared to the controls. However, MCP-1 failed to prime RPMC in [3H]5HT and histamine release when C48/80 (0.05 micrograms/ml) or anti-IgE was used. In contrast, murine interleukin-3 (IL-3) in combination with MCP-1 (200 and 100 nM) provoked a greater release of histamine and [3H]5HT than the compounds alone. Moreover, RPMC treated with MCP-1 (200 nM) showed, under light microscopy (20x), greater clump formation, a phenomenon absent in the controls (untreated cells). The electron microscope studies revealed that treatment with MCP-1 (200 nM) promoted binding of RPMC and clearly demonstrated a communication between the cytoplasms of adjacent mast cells. Our report describes additional biological activities for MCP-1, suggesting for the first time that this human monocyte chemoattractant plays a fundamental role in histamine and serotonin release and cell aggregation in rat peritoneal mast cells. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8550082

  8. Comparative proteomics of inhaled silver nanoparticles in healthy and allergen provoked mice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chien-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Kuan; Liu, Wen-Te; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Kang-Yun; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Tseng, Hsiu-Er; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been associated with the exacerbation of asthma; however, the immunological basis for the adjuvant effects of AgNPs is not well understood. Objective The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the allergic effects of AgNP inhalation using proteomic approaches. Methods Allergen provoked mice were exposed to 33 nm AgNPs at 3.3 mg/m3. Following this, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were collected to determine protein profiles. Results In total, 106 and 79 AgNP-unique proteins were identified in the BALF of control and allergic mice, respectively. Additionally, 40 and 26 AgNP-unique proteins were found in the plasma of control and allergic mice, respectively. The BALF and plasma protein profiles suggested that metabolic, cellular, and immune system processes were associated with pulmonary exposure to AgNPs. In addition, we observed 18 proteins associated with systemic lupus erythematosus that were commonly expressed in both control and allergic mice after AgNP exposure. Significant allergy responses were observed after AgNP exposure in control and allergic mice, as determined by ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E. Conclusion Inhaled AgNPs may regulate immune responses in the lungs of both control and allergic mice. Our results suggest that immunology is a vital response to AgNPs. PMID:23946650

  9. Chronic Contractile Dysfunction without Hypertrophy Does Not Provoke a Compensatory Transcriptional Response in Mouse Hearts.

    PubMed

    Matkovich, Scot J; Grubb, David R; McMullen, Julie R; Woodcock, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Diseased myocardium from humans and experimental animal models shows heightened expression and activity of a specific subtype of phospholipase C (PLC), the splice variant PLCβ1b. Previous studies from our group showed that increasing PLCβ1b expression in adult mouse hearts by viral transduction was sufficient to cause sustained contractile dysfunction of rapid onset, which was maintained indefinitely in the absence of other pathological changes in the myocardium. We hypothesized that impaired contractility alone would be sufficient to induce a compensatory transcriptional response. Unbiased, comprehensive mRNA-sequencing was performed on 6 biological replicates of rAAV6-treated blank, PLCβ1b and PLCβ1a (closely related but inactive splice variant) hearts 8 weeks after injection, when reduced contractility was manifest in PLCβ1b hearts without evidence of induced hypertrophy. Expression of PLCβ1b resulted in expression changes in only 9 genes at FDR<0.1 when compared with control and these genes appeared unrelated to contractility. Importantly, PLCβ1a caused similar mild expression changes to PLCβ1b, despite a complete lack of effect of this isoform on cardiac contractility. We conclude that contractile depression caused by PLCβ1b activation is largely independent of changes in the transcriptome, and thus that lowered contractility is not sufficient in itself to provoke measurable transcriptomic alterations. In addition, our data stress the importance of a stringent control group to filter out transcriptional changes unrelated to cardiac function. PMID:27359099

  10. Psychological Treatments for Provoked Vestibulodynia: Integration of Mindfulness-Based and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, Cara R; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-07-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a chronic and distressing genital pain condition involving sharp pain to the vulvar vestibule with lifetime prevalence as high as 12%. PVD is the most prevalent cause of pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia) in premenopausal women, and gives rise to considerable sexual and relational concerns. As intercourse for women with PVD is either painful or impossible, PVD has pronounced negative effects on women's romantic relationship adjustment and sexual intimacy, as well as their emotional well-being and sense of sexual self-efficacy. Given the low efficacy and high side-effect profile of medications for the treatment of PVD, attention has shifted toward psychological interventions over the past decade. Psychological treatments for PVD have the advantage of targeting both the experience of pain and its many psychosexual consequences, such as reduced desire and arousal. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) currently represents one of the most popular first-line psychological interventions for PVD. Mindfulness has been increasingly used alongside, or instead of CBT for a variety of health-related conditions, particularly with respect to chronic pain disorders and more recently in women with PVD. This review provides a detailed overview of CBT and mindfulness-based approaches in treating PVD. PMID:27019368

  11. Chronic Contractile Dysfunction without Hypertrophy Does Not Provoke a Compensatory Transcriptional Response in Mouse Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, David R.; McMullen, Julie R.; Woodcock, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Diseased myocardium from humans and experimental animal models shows heightened expression and activity of a specific subtype of phospholipase C (PLC), the splice variant PLCβ1b. Previous studies from our group showed that increasing PLCβ1b expression in adult mouse hearts by viral transduction was sufficient to cause sustained contractile dysfunction of rapid onset, which was maintained indefinitely in the absence of other pathological changes in the myocardium. We hypothesized that impaired contractility alone would be sufficient to induce a compensatory transcriptional response. Unbiased, comprehensive mRNA-sequencing was performed on 6 biological replicates of rAAV6-treated blank, PLCβ1b and PLCβ1a (closely related but inactive splice variant) hearts 8 weeks after injection, when reduced contractility was manifest in PLCβ1b hearts without evidence of induced hypertrophy. Expression of PLCβ1b resulted in expression changes in only 9 genes at FDR<0.1 when compared with control and these genes appeared unrelated to contractility. Importantly, PLCβ1a caused similar mild expression changes to PLCβ1b, despite a complete lack of effect of this isoform on cardiac contractility. We conclude that contractile depression caused by PLCβ1b activation is largely independent of changes in the transcriptome, and thus that lowered contractility is not sufficient in itself to provoke measurable transcriptomic alterations. In addition, our data stress the importance of a stringent control group to filter out transcriptional changes unrelated to cardiac function. PMID:27359099

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reshape and Provoke Proliferation of Articular Chondrocytes by Paracrine Secretion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Wu, Yuxi; Xiong, Zhimiao; Zhou, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-01-01

    Coculture between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) represents a promising strategy for cartilage regeneration. This study aimed at elaborating how ACs were regulated by MSCs. Rabbit ACs (rACs) and rabbit MSCs (rMSCs) were seeded separately in a Transwell system to initiate non-contact coculture in growth medium without chondrogenic factors. Cell morphology, cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix (ECM), and gene expression of rACs were characterized. Upon coculture, rACs underwent a morphological transition from a rounded or polygonal shape into a fibroblast-like one and proliferation was provoked simultaneously. Such effects were dependent on the amount of rMSCs. Along with these changes, ECM production and gene expression of rACs were also perturbed. Importantly, when a ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) was supplemented to coculture, the effects except that on cell proliferation were inhibited, suggesting the involvement of RhoA/ROCK signaling. By applying an inhibitor (BIBF1120) of VEGFR1/2/3, FGFR1/2/3 and PDGFRα/β in coculture, or supplementing FGF-1, VEGF-A and PDGFbb in monoculture, it was confirmed that the paracrine factors by rMSCs mediated the compounding effects on rACs. These findings shed light on MSCs-ACs interactions and might confer an insight view on cell-based cartilage regeneration. PMID:27596239

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reshape and Provoke Proliferation of Articular Chondrocytes by Paracrine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Wu, Yuxi; Xiong, Zhimiao; Zhou, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-01-01

    Coculture between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) represents a promising strategy for cartilage regeneration. This study aimed at elaborating how ACs were regulated by MSCs. Rabbit ACs (rACs) and rabbit MSCs (rMSCs) were seeded separately in a Transwell system to initiate non-contact coculture in growth medium without chondrogenic factors. Cell morphology, cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix (ECM), and gene expression of rACs were characterized. Upon coculture, rACs underwent a morphological transition from a rounded or polygonal shape into a fibroblast-like one and proliferation was provoked simultaneously. Such effects were dependent on the amount of rMSCs. Along with these changes, ECM production and gene expression of rACs were also perturbed. Importantly, when a ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) was supplemented to coculture, the effects except that on cell proliferation were inhibited, suggesting the involvement of RhoA/ROCK signaling. By applying an inhibitor (BIBF1120) of VEGFR1/2/3, FGFR1/2/3 and PDGFRα/β in coculture, or supplementing FGF-1, VEGF-A and PDGFbb in monoculture, it was confirmed that the paracrine factors by rMSCs mediated the compounding effects on rACs. These findings shed light on MSCs-ACs interactions and might confer an insight view on cell-based cartilage regeneration. PMID:27596239

  14. The uptake of PLGA micro or nanoparticles by macrophages provokes distinct in vitro inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Nicolete, Roberto; dos Santos, Daiane F; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2011-10-01

    Biodegradable micro/nanoparticles generated from PLGA have recently attracted attention due to their clinically proven biocompatibility, especially for immunization purposes. These polymeric particulate delivery systems are able to present antigens and activate both humoral and cellular responses. Many studies have discussed the ideal size of these particles in contributing to the generation of the different types of immune response. However, these studies do not demonstrate the effect of micro or nanoparticles, without any encapsulated bioactive, on phagocytic cells after the uptake process. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the in vitro inflammatory behavior of J774 murine macrophages after particles' uptake, since nano/microparticles per se can differently activate phagocytic cells, using or not appropriate receptors, inducing distinct inflammatory responses. An o/w emulsion solvent extraction-evaporation method was chosen to prepare the particles. We determined their diameters, zeta potential and morphology. Fluorescent particles' uptake by J774 murine "macrophage-like" cells was also analyzed. To evaluate the in vitro inflammatory profile of these cells after micro or nanoparticles' uptake, we conducted NF-κB translocation assay by confocal microscopy and also determined the pro-inflammatory cytokines production provoked by the particles. PMID:21621649

  15. Lipid-Overloaded Enlarged Adipocytes Provoke Insulin Resistance Independent of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong In; Huh, Jin Young; Sohn, Jee Hyung; Choe, Sung Sik; Lee, Yun Sok; Lim, Chun Yan; Jo, Ala; Park, Seung Bum; Han, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy and proinflammatory responses are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, it is largely unknown whether adipocyte hypertrophy per se might be sufficient to provoke insulin resistance in obese adipose tissue. Here, we demonstrate that lipid-overloaded hypertrophic adipocytes are insulin resistant independent of adipocyte inflammation. Treatment with saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids resulted in adipocyte hypertrophy, but proinflammatory responses were observed only in adipocytes treated with saturated fatty acids. Regardless of adipocyte inflammation, hypertrophic adipocytes with large and unilocular lipid droplets exhibited impaired insulin-dependent glucose uptake, associated with defects in GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Moreover, Toll-like receptor 4 mutant mice (C3H/HeJ) with high-fat-diet-induced obesity were not protected against insulin resistance, although they were resistant to adipose tissue inflammation. Together, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that adipocyte hypertrophy alone may be crucial in causing insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:25733684

  16. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures. PMID:22167036

  17. Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Binali, Ali M.; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A.; Al-Barki, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

  18. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section... object ingestion—ice. (a)-(b) (c) Ingestion of ice under the conditions of paragraph (e) of this section... foreign object, or objects, stopped by the protective device will not obstruct the flow of induction...

  19. How much soil do young children ingest: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, E J; Barnes, R; Stanek, E J; Pastides, H; Gilbert, C E; Veneman, P; Wang, X R; Lasztity, A; Kostecki, P T

    1989-10-01

    Sixty-four children aged 1-4 years were evaluated for the extent to which they ingest soil. The study followed the soil tracer methodology of S. Binder, D. Sokal, and D. Maughan (1986, Arch. Environ. Health, 41, 341-345). However, the present study included a number of modifications from the Binder et al. study. The principal new features were (1) increasing the tracer elements from three to eight; (2) using a mass-balance approach so that the contribution of food and medicine ingestion would be considered; (3) extending the period of observation from 3 days to 8 days; and (4) validating the methodology by having adult volunteers ingest known amounts of soil in a mass-balance validation study. The principal findings reveal the following. (1) The adult study confirmed the validity of the tracer methodology to estimate soil ingestion. (2) Of the eight tracers employed in the adult study, only Al, Si, and Y provided sufficient recovery data that was directly acceptably stable and reliable. (3) If food ingestion determinations were taken into consideration, the median estimates of soil ingestion from the eight tracers ranged from a low of 9 mg/day (Y) to a high of 96 mg/day (V); the median values of Al, Si, and Y, the three most reliable tracers, ranged from 9 mg/day to 40 mg/day. (4) One child had soil ingestion values ranging from 5 to 8 g/day, depending on the tracer. (5) If food ingestion had not been considered, the estimates of soil ingestion would have increased about two- to sixfold, depending on the tracer with Ti and Y being most affected by food intake. (6) Since soil and dust samples did not significantly differ in their levels of tracer elements, no reliable differentiation between the contribution of ingestion of dust and soil could be made. (7) These findings are generally consistent with the previously reported findings of Binder et al. (1986) and P. Clausing, B. Brunekreff, and J.H. van Wijnen (1987, Int. Arch. Occup. Med., 59, 73) if these latter

  20. Severe hypoxia during incremental exercise to exhaustion provokes negative post-exercise affects.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Stavrou, Nektarios A M; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2016-03-15

    The post-exercise emotional response is mainly dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed; moderate exercise causes positive feelings, whereas maximal exercise may prompt negative affects. Acute hypoxia impairs peak O2 uptake (V̇O2peak), resulting in a shift to a lower absolute intensity at the point of exhaustion. Hence, the purpose of the study was to examine whether a severe hypoxic stimulus would influence the post-exercise affective state in healthy lowlanders performing an incremental exercise to exhaustion. Thirty-six male lowlanders performed, in a counter-balanced order and separated by a 48-h interval, two incremental exercise trials to exhaustion to determine their V̇O2peak, while they were breathing either room air (AIR; FiO2: 0.21), or a hypoxic gas mixture (HYPO; FiO2: 0.12). Before and immediately after each trial, subjects were requested to complete two questionnaires, based on how they felt at that particular moment: (i) the Profile of Mood States-Short Form, and (ii) the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List. During the post-exercise phase, they also completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. V̇O2peak was significantly lower in the HYPO than the AIR trial (~15%; p<0.001). Still, after the HYPO trial, energy, calmness and motivation were markedly impaired, whereas tension, confusion, and perception of physical and general fatigue were exaggerated (p≤0.05). Accordingly, present findings suggest that an incremental exercise to exhaustion performed in severe hypoxia provokes negative post-exercise emotions, induces higher levels of perceived fatigue and decreases motivation; the affective responses coincide with the comparatively lower V̇O2peak than that achieved in normoxic conditions. PMID:26802281

  1. Preferential loss of dorsal-hippocampus synapses underlies memory impairments provoked by short, multimodal stress

    PubMed Central

    Maras, P M; Molet, J; Chen, Y; Rice, C; Ji, S G; Solodkin, A; Baram, T Z

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive effects of stress are profound, yet it is unknown if the consequences of concurrent multiple stresses on learning and memory differ from those of a single stress of equal intensity and duration. We compared the effects on hippocampus-dependent memory of concurrent, hours-long light, loud noise, jostling and restraint (multimodal stress) with those of restraint or of loud noise alone. We then examined if differences in memory impairment following these two stress types might derive from their differential impact on hippocampal synapses, distinguishing dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Mice exposed to hours-long restraint or loud noise were modestly or minimally impaired in novel object recognition, whereas similar-duration multimodal stress provoked severe deficits. Differences in memory were not explained by differences in plasma corticosterone levels or numbers of Fos-labeled neurons in stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons. However, although synapses in hippocampal CA3 were impacted by both restraint and multimodal stress, multimodal stress alone reduced synapse numbers severely in dorsal CA1, a region crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. Ventral CA1 synapses were not significantly affected by either stress modality. Probing the basis of the preferential loss of dorsal synapses after multimodal stress, we found differential patterns of neuronal activation by the two stress types. Cross-correlation matrices, reflecting functional connectivity among activated regions, demonstrated that multimodal stress reduced hippocampal correlations with septum and thalamus and increased correlations with amygdala and BST. Thus, despite similar effects on plasma corticosterone and on hypothalamic stress-sensitive cells, multimodal and restraint stress differ in their activation of brain networks and in their impact on hippocampal synapses. Both of these processes might contribute to amplified memory impairments following short, multimodal stress. PMID:24589888

  2. Ozone Inhalation Provokes Glucocorticoid-Dependent and -Independent Effects on Inflammatory and Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Errol M; Pal, Shinjini; Guénette, Josée; Wade, Michael G; Atlas, Ella; Holloway, Alison C; Williams, Andrew; Vincent, Renaud

    2016-07-01

    Growing evidence implicates air pollutants in adverse health effects beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including metabolic impacts (diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity) and neurological/neurobehavioral outcomes (neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, perceived stress, depression, suicide). We have shown that inhalation of particulate matter or ozone activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats and increases plasma levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. To investigate the role of corticosterone in mediating inflammatory and metabolic effects of pollutant exposure, in this study male Fischer-344 rats were administered the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone (0, 50, 150 mg/kg body weight) and exposed by nose-only inhalation for 4 h to air or 0.8 ppm ozone. Ozone inhalation provoked a 2-fold increase in plasma corticosterone, an effect blocked by metyrapone, but did not alter epinephrine levels. Inhibition of corticosterone production was associated with increased inflammatory signaling in the lungs and plasma in response to ozone, consistent with a role for glucocorticoids in limiting local and systemic inflammatory responses. Effects of ozone on insulin and glucagon, but not ghrelin or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, were modified by metyrapone, revealing glucocorticoid-dependent and -independent effects on circulating metabolic and hemostatic factors. Several immunosuppressive and metabolic impacts of ozone in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen were blocked by metyrapone and reproduced through exogenous administration of corticosterone (10 mg/kg body weight), demonstrating glucocorticoid-dependent effects in target tissues. Our results support involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids in ozone-induced inflammatory and metabolic effects, providing insight into potential biological mechanisms underlying health impacts and susceptibility. PMID:27037194

  3. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology. PMID:26340855

  4. Angina pectoris-like pain provoked by intravenous adenosine in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sylvén, C; Beermann, B; Jonzon, B; Brandt, R

    1986-07-26

    In a study to characterise the chest pain induced by adenosine this agent was given as a bolus into a peripheral vein to six healthy volunteers (five men) aged 30-44. On the first day the maximum tolerable dose was determined in each case. On the second day three doses of adenosine (one third, two thirds, and the full maximum tolerable dose) and three doses of saline were given single blind in randomised order. Thereafter aminophylline 5 mg/kg was given and the procedure repeated in a different randomised order. On the third day between two thirds and the full maximum tolerable dose was given followed by 10 mg dipyridamole intravenously and a second injection of the same dose of adenosine. Heart rate and atrioventricular blocks were recorded by electrocardiography. One minute after each dose of adenosine the chest pain was scored. The maximum tolerable dose of adenosine ranged from 10.6 to 37.1 mg. All subjects experienced uneasy central chest pain provoking anxiety. The pain radiated to the shoulders, ulnar aspect of the arms, epigastric area, back, and into the throat. The pain began about 20 seconds after the injection and lasted 10-15 seconds. Increasing the dose of adenosine increased the intensity of the pain. Administration of aminophylline reduced the pain significantly. Second degree heart block was recorded in five of the six subjects during the time that the pain was experienced. After aminophylline no block was observed. Dipyridamole increased the intensity of pain. The duration of second degree heart block increased in four of the subjects, and in two of these third degree heart block occurred. These findings suggest that adenosine released from the myocardium during ischaemia induces angina pectoris by stimulating theophylline sensitive receptors. PMID:3089465

  5. Early social isolation provokes electrophysiological and structural changes in cutaneous sensory nerves of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Segura, Bertha; Melo, Angel I; Fleming, Alison S; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria Eugenia; González del Pliego, Margarita; Aguirre-Benitez, Elsa L; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2014-12-01

    Sensory and social deprivation from the mother and littermates during early life disturbs the development of the central nervous system, but little is known about its effect on the development of the peripheral nervous system. To assess peripheral effects of early isolation, male rat pups were reared artificially in complete social isolation (AR); reared artificially with two same-age conspecifics (AR-Social); or reared by their mothers and with littermates (MR). As adults, the electrophysiological properties of the sensory sural (SU) nerve were recorded. We found that the amplitude and normalized area (with respect to body weight) of the compound action potential (CAP) response provoked by single electrical pulses of graded intensity in the SU nerves of AR animals were shorter than the CAP recorded in SU nerves from MR and AR-Social animals. The slope of the stimulus-response curve of AR SU nerves was smaller than that of the other nerves. The histological characterization of axons in the SU nerves was made and showed that the myelin thickness of axons in AR SU nerves was significant lower (2-7µm) than that of the axons in the other nerves. Furthermore, the area and axon diameter of SU nerves of both AR and AR-Social animals were significant lower than in MR animals. This is the first report to show that maternal and littermate deprivation by AR disturbs the development of the myelination and electrophysiological properties of axons in the SU nerve; the replacement of social cues prevents most of the effects. PMID:24897933

  6. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions. PMID:26608506

  7. 78 FR 15110 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements... and assess the adequacy of certain portions of the existing engine bird ingestion requirements. This... bird ingestion type certification standards for aircraft turbine engines to better address the...

  8. [Alimentary trigger factors that provoke migraine and tension-type headache].

    PubMed

    Holzhammer, J; Wöber, C

    2006-04-01

    Based on a review of the literature the authors discuss the role of nutrition in the precipitation of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH). The available information relies largely on the subjective assessment of the patients. Controlled trials suggest that alcohol and caffeine withdrawal are the most important nutritional precipitating factors of migraine and TTH. In addition, there is some evidence that missing meals is also an important factor. Dehydration seems to deserve more attention. A selective sensitivity to red wine has been shown in some patients, the importance of chocolate has been doubted seriously, and scientific evidence for cheese as a precipitating factor is lacking. Despite a series of experimental studies demonstrating that NO donors such as nitroglycerin and parenteral histamine cause headache the role of histamine, nitrates, and nitrites in food remains unclear. Similarly, other biogenic amines and aspartame have not been proven to precipitate headache. Sodium glutamate causes adverse reactions including headache probably at large doses ingested on an empty stomach. Therefore, patients should be advised that food plays a limited role as a precipitating factor of migraine and TTH. Subjective sensitivity to certain foods should be examined critically, and proven precipitating factors should be avoided. General dietary restrictions have not been proven to be useful. PMID:15806385

  9. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance. PMID:19625976

  10. Parasitizing of trematodes provokes warts on the hinge plate of the bivalve mollusk Macoma balthica Linnaeus, 1758 (Veneroida, Tellinidae).

    PubMed

    Gantsevich, M M; Strelkov, P P; Basova, L A; Malakhov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on non-random correlation between abnormalities in the structure of hinge plate and infection of mollusks Macoma balthica with trematodes of the family Gymnophallidae has been tested on the basis of material from the Barents Sea. Significant correlation between the presence of warts and infection was established upon intraand interpopulation comparison. The hypothesis states that parasitizing of trematodes in the extrapallial cavity of mollusks influences the mantle functioning and provokes abnormalities in the hinge plate structure. PMID:27021361

  11. Carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress provoke cardiotoxicity in an ifosfamide-induced Fanconi Syndrome rat model

    PubMed Central

    Darweesh, Amal Q; Fatani, Amal J

    2010-01-01

    In addition to hemorrhagic cystitis, Fanconi Syndrome is a serious clinical side effect during ifosfamide (IFO) therapy. Fanconi syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule which is characterized by excessive urinary excretion of glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, amino acids and other solutes excreted by this segment of the nephron including L-carnitine. Carnitine is essential cofactor for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium. IFO therapy is associated with increased urinary carnitine excretion with subsequent secondary deficiency of the molecule. Cardiac abnormalities in IFO-treated cancer patients were reported as isolated clinical cases. This study examined whether carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress, secondary to Fanconi Syndrome, provoke IFO-induced cardiomyopathy as well as exploring if carnitine supplementation using Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) could offer protection against this toxicity. In the current study, an animal model of carnitine deficiency was developed in rats by D-carnitine-mildronate treatment Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups: the first three groups were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, D-carnitine (DC, 250 mg/kg/day) combined with mildronate (MD, 200 mg/kg/day) and PLC (250 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 10 successive days. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups were injected with the same doses of normal saline, DC-MD and PLC, respectively for 5 successive days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO (50 mg/kg/day). IFO significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary carnitine excretion and clearance, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA-SH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cardiac tissues and significantly decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total carnitine and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in cardiac tissues. In carnitine

  12. Carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress provoke cardiotoxicity in an ifosfamide-induced Fanconi Syndrome rat model.

    PubMed

    Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M; Darweesh, Amal Q; Fatani, Amal J

    2010-01-01

    In addition to hemorrhagic cystitis, Fanconi Syndrome is a serious clinical side effect during ifosfamide (IFO) therapy. Fanconi syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule which is characterized by excessive urinary excretion of glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, amino acids and other solutes excreted by this segment of the nephron including L-carnitine. Carnitine is essential cofactor for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium. IFO therapy is associated with increased urinary carnitine excretion with subsequent secondary deficiency of the molecule. Cardiac abnormalities in IFO-treated cancer patients were reported as isolated clinical cases. This study examined whether carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress, secondary to Fanconi Syndrome, provoke IFO-induced cardiomyopathy as well as exploring if carnitine supplementation using Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) could offer protection against this toxicity. In the current study, an animal model of carnitine deficiency was developed in rats by D-carnitine-mildronate treatment Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups: the first three groups were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, D-carnitine (DC, 250 mg/kg/day) combined with mildronate (MD, 200 mg/kg/day) and PLC (250 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 10 successive days. The 4(th), 5(th) and 6(th) groups were injected with the same doses of normal saline, DC-MD and PLC, respectively for 5 successive days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO (50 mg/kg/day). IFO significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary carnitine excretion and clearance, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA-SH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cardiac tissues and significantly decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total carnitine and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in cardiac tissues. In carnitine

  13. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis associated with isopropanol ingestion in an infant.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Michelle E; Golomb, Meredith R

    2009-03-01

    This report describes a 5-week-old female infant who presented with accidental ingestion of rubbing alcohol (which contains about 70% isopropanol), and was subsequently diagnosed with cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Isopropanol is a clear, volatile 3-carbon alcohol found in varying concentrations in many solvents. Mislabeled rubbing alcohol was mixed with this patient's formula. After ingesting it, she presented with a 1-day history of uncontrolled fussiness and an episode of deviation of the eyes to the right for 30 minutes, followed by rhythmic movements of the arms and legs for 20 minutes. Cerebral imaging demonstrated sinovenous thrombosis. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing cerebral sinovenous thrombosis as a complication of isopropanol ingestion. The possible association of isopropanol ingestion and sinovenous thrombosis is discussed. PMID:19258296

  14. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  15. Loeffler's Syndrome Induced by Ingestion of Urushiol Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Shin-Ok; Oh, Ji-Hyun; Kwak, Yun-Mi; Jang, An-Soo; Kim, Do-Jin; Park, Choon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic lung diseases are heterogeneous disorders characterized by varying degrees of pulmonary parenchyma or blood eosinophilia. Causes of eosinophilic lung diseases range from drug ingestion to parasitic or fungal infection as well as idiopathic. The exact pathogenesis of eosinophilic lung disease remains unknown. Urushiol chicken can frequently cause allergic reactions. Contact dermatitis (both local and systemic) represents the most-common side effect of urushiol chicken ingestion. However, there has been no previous report of lung involvement following urushiol chicken ingestion until now. A 66-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with exertional dyspnea. Serial chest X-ray revealed multiple migrating infiltrations in both lung fields, with eosinophilic infiltration revealed by lung biopsy. The patient had ingested urushiol chicken on two occasions within the 2 weeks immediately prior to disease onset. His symptoms and migrating lung lesions were resolved following administration of oral corticosteroids. PMID:26175781

  16. Ingestion of caustic hair relaxer: is endoscopy necessary?

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; Eisenbeis, J F

    1997-07-01

    Hair relaxer, a commercially available alkaline product, is commonly the offending agent in caustic ingestion. These patients often experience oral cavity and facial burns; however, no clinically significant esophageal injuries have been reported. Therefore, we questioned the therapeutic and economic efficacy of the "standard treatment protocol" that includes hospitalization and endoscopic evaluation. Twenty-six patients over a 7-year period presented to our institution having ingested hair relaxer. Presenting signs and symptoms, esophageal findings, and cost of the standard treatment protocol were reviewed. Also, we analyzed the caustic potential and current packaging of hair relaxer. Our findings support modifications in the standard treatment protocol for hair relaxer ingestion including elimination of hospitalization and endoscopy in most patients. We also question compliance with childproof packaging laws and suggest avenues for prevention of hair relaxer ingestion. PMID:9217127

  17. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Due to Rhus Ingestion Presenting with Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonsuk; Choi, Chan; Cho, Kyuman; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Rhus-related illnesses in Korea are mostly caused by ingestion of parts of the Rhus tree. Contact dermatitis occurrence after ingestion of Rhus-related food is very common in Korea. However, Rhus-related gastrointestinal disease is very rare. Herein, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis caused by Rhus ingestion. A 75-year-old woman was admitted with hematemesis and hematochezia after Rhus extract ingestion. Routine laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Endoscopy showed friable and granular mucosal changes with touch bleeding in the second portion of the duodenum. Abdominal computed tomography revealed edematous wall thickening of the duodenum and proximal jejunal loops. Patch testing with Rhus extracts showed a strong positive reaction, suggesting Rhus as the allergen. Her symptoms improved after avoidance of the allergen. PMID:25844348

  18. Soil ingestion estimates for children residing on a superfund site.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, E J; Stanek, E J; Pekow, P; Barnes, R M

    1997-04-01

    Soil ingestion estimates were obtained from a stratified, simple random sample of 64 children aged 1-4 years residing on a superfund site in Montana. The study was conducted during the month of September for 7 consecutive days. The study utilized a mass-balance methodology in which eight naturally occurring soil tracers (Al, Si, Ti, Ce, Nd, La, Y, and Zr) believed to be poorly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract were employed to provide soil ingestion estimates. Food and fecal samples were analyzed on a daily basis. Soil/dust samples representative of where the children played during the study period were obtained. Very high compliance among the participants was maintained throughout the study. The identical methodology employed in the childrens' study was used in an adult study of tracer recovery in 10 subjects over 28 days of observation to provide validation that soil ingestion over the range of 20 to 500 mg/day could be detected. Soil ingestion was estimated by each soil tracer via traditional methods as well as by an improved approach using five trace elements (Al, Si, Ti, Y, and Zr), called the Best Tracer Method (BTM), which substantially corrects for error due to misalignment of tracer input and output as well as error occurring from ingestion of tracers from nonfood, nonsoil sources, while being insensitive to the particle size of the soil/dust ingested. According to the BTM, the median soil ingestion was less than 1 mg/day while the upper 95% was 160 mg/day. No significant age (1 year vs 2, vs 3) or sex-related differences in soil ingestion were observed. These estimates are lower than estimates observed in another study in Massachusetts during September and October. Significant methodological improvements in this study as compared to previously conducted soil ingestion studies include the selection of a representative sample of children, longer study duration, inclusion of dietary recommendations to reduce food tracer input and variability, use of the

  19. Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Ross, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults. PMID:26066061

  20. Hyperoxaluria and Genitourinary Disorders in Children Ingesting Almond Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Demetrius; Lieb, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    We describe 3 children presenting with hematuria, dysuria or kidney stones, and hyperoxaluria believed to be related to ingestion of excessive amounts of almond milk products. Our investigation of the oxalate content of several popular plant-based milk substitutes indicates that almond milk products are a particularly rich source of dietary oxalate. All genitourinary and urinary metabolic disturbances resolved after discontinuation of almond milk ingestion. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of this potential link. PMID:26382627

  1. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nandita; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreert; Sai; Sharma, Jai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels. PMID:23559738

  2. Swallowing during ongoing fluid ingestion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J M; Grill, H J

    1989-10-01

    In order to identify fixed versus flexible aspects of swallowing and oromotor control, we developed a method for the concurrent analysis of swallow frequency, swallow volume, and the temporal correlation between swallowing and rhythmic orolingual movements during prolonged bouts of fluid ingestion in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats. Rats actively ingested 0.1 M sucrose solutions infused intraorally: (a) at a constant rate within sessions; and (b) during separate sessions across which the rate of intraoral infusion (= ingestion rate) was varied. Salient characteristics of 'intraoral intake' included: (1) covariation of swallow frequency and swallow volume to mediate adjustments in the rate of ingestion; (2) emission of rhythmic coupled movements (5-7 Hz) of the jaw and tongue that serve to transport fluid through the mouth; (3) a 20-40 ms increase in the duration of the rhythmic movement cycle associated with swallow onset; and (4) emergence of pauses between bursts of rhythmic oromotor behavior with increases in cumulative intake. That intraoral intake and fluid ingestion via spout-licking (Weijnen et al., Brain Behav. Evol., 25, 1985) share all of these features suggests strongly that common neural processes, relatively uninfluenced by sources of sensory feedback attending contact with an environmental fluid source, underlie these aspects of normal fluid ingestion. The dynamic adjustment of swallow frequency and swallow volume presents a challenge to traditional models of reflexive swallow initiation derived primarily from the neurophysiological study of acute, non-behaving preparations. PMID:2804670

  3. Fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-09-01

    To study fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The /sup 3/H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average /sup 3/H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of /sup 3/H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound /sup 3/H. Total /sup 3/H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of /sup 3/H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City.

  4. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Mullican, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on developing and applying codes for prediction of performance of a turbine jet engine and its components with water ingestion during flight operation, including power settings, and flight altitudes and speed changes, an attempt was made to establish the effects of water ingestion through simulation of a generic high bypass ratio engine with a generic control. In view of the large effects arising in the air compression system and the prediffuser-combustor unit during water ingestion, attention was focused on those effects and the resulting changes in engine performance. Under all conditions of operation, whether ingestion is steady or not, it became evident that water ingestion causes a fan-compressor unit to operate in a time-dependent fashion with periodic features, particularly with respect to the state of water in the span and the film in the casing clearance space, at the exit of the machine. On the other hand, the aerodynamic performance of the unit may be considered as quasi-steady once the distribution of water has attained an equilibrium state with respect to its distribution and motion. For purposes of engine simulation, the performance maps for the generic fan-compressor unit were generated based on the attainment of a quasi-steady state (meaning steady except for long-period variations in performance) during ingestion and operation over a wide enough range of rotational speeds.

  5. Is esophagoscopy necessary for corrosive ingestion in adults?

    PubMed

    Celik, Burcin; Nadir, Aydin; Sahin, Ekber; Kaptanoglu, Melih

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether early esophagoscopy is really necessary for the patients who have ingested a corrosive agent. Patients who were followed up with the diagnosis of corrosive ingestion in our clinic between the years 1998 and 2008 were studied retrospectively. The data were collected through the medical records of the patients and from interviews with them. The analyzed parameters included age, gender, the nature and the amount of the ingested agent, whether the event was accidental or suicidal, diagnostic tools, treatment and the results of the treatment, and long-term follow up. Over a 10-year period, a total of 124 cases of corrosive ingestion cases were determined. Of these, 64 (51.6%) were male and 60 (48.4%) were female. The mean age was 38 +/- 17.5 years. The most commonly ingested corrosive agents were sodium hypochlorite in 50 (40.3%) patients and hydrochloric acid in 33 (26.6%) patients. The mean admission time for the emergency department after ingestion of the corrosive agent was 2.5 +/- 3.7 hours. Ingestion was accidental in 82% of the patients and as a result of a suicide attempt in 18%. The amount of ingested corrosive agent in the suicidal group (190 +/- 208.3 mL) was higher than that of accidental group (66 +/- 58.3 mL) (P= 0.012). Nine patients underwent esophagoscopy, six of which were performed in other clinical centers. Only three (2.4%) patients experienced esophageal stricture, which were treated with repeated dilatations. In the long-term follow up, we could get in touch with only 63 patients and none of them had complications due to corrosive ingestion. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 120 months (median 45 +/- 29.2 months). Based on our study, early esophagoscopy appears to be unnecessary in adult patients who ingested the corrosive agent accidentally. A larger prospective study is needed to answer the question. PMID:19515187

  6. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  7. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  8. Intentional ingestions of foreign objects among prisoners: A review

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David C; Wojda, Thomas R; Jones, Christian D; Otey, Andrew J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The intentional ingestion of foreign objects (IIFO) is described more commonly in prison populations than in the general population, with an estimated annual incidence of 1 in 1900 inmates in our state correctional facilities. Incidents often involve ingestion of small metal objects (e.g., paperclips, razor blades) or other commonly available items like pens or eating utensils. Despite ingestion of relatively sharp objects, most episodes can be clinically managed with either observation or endoscopy. Surgery should be reserved for those with signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation or obstruction. For those with a history of IIFO, efforts should focus on prevention of recurrence as subsequent episodes are associated with higher morbidity, significant healthcare and security costs. The pattern of IIFO is often repetitive, with escalation both in frequency of ingestions and in number of items ingested. Little is known about successful prevention strategies, but efforts to monitor patients and provide psychiatric care are potential best-practice strategies. This article aims to provide state-of-the art review on the topic, followed by a set of basic recommendations. PMID:25789086

  9. Intentional ingestions of foreign objects among prisoners: A review.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; Wojda, Thomas R; Jones, Christian D; Otey, Andrew J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-03-16

    The intentional ingestion of foreign objects (IIFO) is described more commonly in prison populations than in the general population, with an estimated annual incidence of 1 in 1900 inmates in our state correctional facilities. Incidents often involve ingestion of small metal objects (e.g., paperclips, razor blades) or other commonly available items like pens or eating utensils. Despite ingestion of relatively sharp objects, most episodes can be clinically managed with either observation or endoscopy. Surgery should be reserved for those with signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation or obstruction. For those with a history of IIFO, efforts should focus on prevention of recurrence as subsequent episodes are associated with higher morbidity, significant healthcare and security costs. The pattern of IIFO is often repetitive, with escalation both in frequency of ingestions and in number of items ingested. Little is known about successful prevention strategies, but efforts to monitor patients and provide psychiatric care are potential best-practice strategies. This article aims to provide state-of-the art review on the topic, followed by a set of basic recommendations. PMID:25789086

  10. Arterial compliance may be reduced by ingestion of red wine.

    PubMed

    Fantin, F; Bulpitt, C J; Zamboni, M; Cheek, E; Rajkumar, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of alcohol on blood pressure and arterial compliance over 24 h in a group of volunteers, comparing the same group of subjects on two consecutive but separate days, one with alcohol intake (alcohol day) and one free of alcohol (control day). We studied 18 healthy subjects (mean age 34.2 years, range 25-53). The subjects received the two days in random order. On the alcohol day, the subjects were asked to drink two glasses of red wine (12% ethanol) between 1830 hours and 0430 hours. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and QKD interval (Q wave to Korotkoff (K) sound, diastolic phase (D) using Diasys Integra (Novacor, France)) were recorded (usually 1500 hours to 1500 hours). Three 'ingestion' periods were defined, from 1500 hours to 1830 hours ('before'), 1900 hours to 0430 hours ('during') and from 0430 hours to the following afternoon ('after') on both the alcohol day and on the control day. Red wine increased heart rate during alcohol ingestion and reduced arterial compliance after ingestion. The significant effect of interaction between day and ingestion period on heart rate, diastolic blood pressure and QKD were found, suggesting that the differences in response among the ingestion periods depended on whether alcohol has been consumed that day. For the first time our study indicates the effect of alcohol on 24 h arterial stiffness in a healthy group of volunteers. PMID:25787780

  11. Unintentional topical lindane ingestions--United States, 1998-2003.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide found in certain prescription-only shampoos and topical lotions used to treat pediculosis (i.e., lice infestation) and scabies; lindane has been associated with human neurologic toxicity. In 2004, CDC was alerted to cases of illness caused by unintentional ingestion of lindane by persons mistaking the product for a liquid oral medication (e.g., cough syrup). To assess the extent of illness from ingestion of lindane, CDC, with assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments, collected case reports and analyzed data from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides (SENSOR-Pesticides) program and the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which identified 870 cases of unintentional lindane ingestion during 1998-2003, and describes two examples of lindane ingestions. To reduce the risk of lindane ingestion, public health authorities should alert clinicians to the hazards of lindane and the importance of following FDA usage guidelines, which include dispensing lindane in manufacturer-produced, 1- or 2-ounce single-use containers. PMID:15931156

  12. Radar to detect foreign object ingestion by a jet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Eugene F., III

    1999-07-01

    Each year commercial, private and military aircraft jet engines are damaged by the ingestion of foreign objects. Annual engine repair costs for ingestion damage is in the tens of millions of dollars. Bird strikes represent the major foreign object threat to aircraft engines, although large hail and objects found on the ramp can also damage an engine. A radar based foreign object ingestion detection system concept, the subject of this paper, is capable of determining when an object as small as 4 millimeters has entered a fan jet engine. Additionally, such a system is capable of determining the relative size of the object and the approximate point within the engine where the object impacts the engine. These data can be displayed in real time to the pilot. In addition, the information recorded in the data base can be used by the mechanics between major engine inspections to determine if a detailed inspection of the turbine blade roots or other hard to access engine parts is required. Long term statistical data developed by the system can also be used as a measure of the foreign object and bird ingestion problem at various airports and improve the reporting of ingestion and bird strike events above the currently estimated 20 percent reporting rate.

  13. Effects of Phenibut and Citrocard on Non-Competitive and Competitive Behavior during Provoked Aggression in Animals.

    PubMed

    Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaya, A N; Tyurenkov, I N

    2015-05-01

    Anti-aggressive effects of phenibut (25 mg/kg) and its structural analogue citrocard (50 mg/kg) were revealed in rats under condition of provoked intraspecific aggression. These substances significantly decreased manifestations of aggression in animals: they increased the latency of attacks and reduced their number. Anti-aggressive effects of citrocard were more pronounced than effects of phenibut under conditions of non-competitive aggression induced by fear of inescapable painful exposure or under conditions of competitive aggression reflecting the ability of animals to reveal adaptive social communicative skills in aversive situation. PMID:26033589

  14. An ingested foreign body: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Kiran; Magill, Jennifer; Patel, Kalpesh

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old child presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of dysphagia and stertor. A plain anteroposterior chest X-ray revealed a single circular opacity in the middle third of the oesophagus consistent with an ingested coin. The child was taken to the theatre for rigid pharyngo-oesophagoscopy and removal of the coin. After the first coin was removed subsequent endoscopic examination revealed a second coin at the same location. This extremely rare case of two ingested coins becoming impacted with perfect radiological alignment emphasises the importance of thorough examination on endoscopy and the potential limitations of an X-ray in initial assessment of an ingested foreign body. PMID:24717590

  15. Ingested cylindrical batteries in an incarcerated male: a caustic tale!

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Louise; Maatouk, Mohamed; Raja, Mazhar; O'Hara, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old incarcerated man presented to the accident and emergency department following the deliberate ingestion of eight cylindrical batteries. He also admitted to inserting a razor blade wrapped in cling-film into his rectum; in addition, he sustained a self-inflicted laceration to his left antecubital fossa, using the metal casing from a battery. His medical history included a borderline and emotionally unstable personality disorder. He had ingested several batteries 12 months previously and required an emergency laparotomy to retrieve them. On the present admission, as there was no clinical evidence of small bowel obstruction, he was treated conservatively with serial radiographs. Following conservative management, the batteries failed to progress through the gastrointestinal tract, hence a laparotomy was performed and all the batteries were extricated. This paper discusses the management and associated sequelae of patients presenting following the intentional ingestion of a battery. PMID:26420691

  16. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus. PMID:27321884

  17. Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

    1992-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

  18. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Venkatanarasimha Karaddi, Nanda Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  19. Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community.

    PubMed

    Setälä, Outi; Norkko, Joanna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2016-01-15

    Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL(-1)). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment. PMID:26700887

  20. Influence of ingested lead on body mass of wintering canvasbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hohman, W.L.; Pritchert, R.D.; Pace, R.M. III; Woolington, D.W. ); Helm, R. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of lead shotgun pellets in gizzards of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at Catahoula Lake and the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana, during winter 1987-88 to assess the influence of ingested lead shot on canvasback body mass. The prevalence of ingested lead shot was significantly higher at Catahoula Lake (27%) than at the Mississippi River Delta (4%). Canvasbacks collected at Catahoula Lake showed significant differences in prevalence of ingested lead shot by age and month. The authors attributed age-related and seasonal variations to differences in foraging effort and exposure time. Body mass of canvasbacks at Catahoula Lake, after accounting for age, monthly variation, and body size, was significantly reduced (120 g or 10%) in birds that had lead shot in their gizzards.

  1. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  2. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear. PMID:26670991

  3. Ingestion of angel's trumpet: an increasingly common source of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Greene, G S; Patterson, S G; Warner, E

    1996-04-01

    Angel's trumpet is a hallucinogenic plant commonly cultivated as an ornamental in the southeastern United States. Consumption of any part of the plant may result in severe anticholinergic toxicity. In past years, toxicity has largely resulted from accidental ingestion, but in 1994 there was a ten-fold increase in the number of reported ingestions throughout the state of Florida, largely by persons experimenting with the plant for its hallucinogenic effects. We report three such cases and review the literature on diagnosis, treatment, and sequelae of angel's trumpet intoxication. PMID:8614873

  4. Superwarfarin ingestion treated successfully with prothrombin complex concentrate.

    PubMed

    Haesloop, Olivia; Tillick, Allison; Nichol, Graham; Strote, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Superwarfarin, a common component of rat poison, can cause long-lasting, severe coagulopathy and life-threatening hemorrhage when ingested. We report a case of intentional rat poison consumption with subsequent hemorrhage and hypotension requiring rapid coagulopathy reversal and resuscitation in the emergency department. In addition to traditional blood products, prothrombin complex concentrate was administered. Although prothrombin complex concentrate is increasingly used for severe hemorrhage in anticoagulated patients, it may be particularly useful in superwarfarin ingestions given the extreme, persistent coagulapathies that can occur. PMID:26070236

  5. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2003-07-21

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output.

  6. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    PubMed

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  7. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sari Dogan, Fatma; Ozaydin, Vehbi; Incealtin, Onur; Guneysel, Ozlem; Demireller, Merve

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto. In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. PMID:27239626

  8. Emergency treatment of petroleum distillate and turpentine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ng, R C; Darwish, H; Stewart, D A

    1974-09-21

    A comparative study was made of pulmonary complications following the use of ipecac syrup and gastric lavage for hydrocarbon ingestion. The selected 255 patients had chest radiography when first seen and again two to five days later. Of these patients 74 or 29% had been treated with ipecac syrup, 41 or 16% by gastric lavage. On follow-up radiographs 19% of the ipecac-treated group were unchanged or worsened, compared with 39% of the lavage group, suggesting that pneumonitis was significantly less severe in the ipecac-treated patients. Use of ipecac is preferred over gastric lavage for alert patients who have ingested an excessive amount of hydrocarbon. PMID:4153346

  9. Emergency treatment of petroleum distillate and turpentine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Raymond C.; Darwish, H.; Stewart, Donald A.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study was made of pulmonary complications following the use of ipecac syrup and gastric lavage for hydrocarbon ingestion. The selected 255 patients had chest radiography when first seen and again two to five days later. Of these patients 74 or 29% had been treated with ipecac syrup, 41 or 16% by gastric lavage. On follow-up radiographs 19% of the ipecac-treated group were unchanged or worsened, compared with 39% of the lavage group, suggesting that pneumonitis was significantly less severe in the ipecac-treated patients. Use of ipecac is preferred over gastric lavage for alert patients who have ingested an excessive amount of hydrocarbon. PMID:4153346

  10. Plastic ingestion by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; Van Franeker, Jan A; Jansen, Okka E; Brasseur, Sophie M J M

    2013-02-15

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics. Incidence of plastic was 11% for stomachs, 1% for intestines, and 0% for scats. Younger animals, up to 3 years of age, were most affected. This is the first quantitative study of plastic ingestion by phocid seals. The observed level of incidence is of environmental concern, but is low in the sense of suitability of seals for MSFD monitoring purposes. PMID:23245459

  11. Occult liver abscess following clinically unsuspected ingestion of foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Tsui, B C; Mossey, J

    1997-01-01

    Two uncommon cases of foreign body (a wooden clothespin and a toothpick) perforation of the gur with associated pyogenic liver abscesses are presented. These cases illustrate the difficulties of preoperative diagnosis. The lack of history of ingestion of foreign bodies, variable clinical presentation of the conditions and radiolucent natures of the foreign bodies all play a role in impeding the diagnosis preoperatively. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasound and computed tomographic scan in evaluating similar cases. Any patient with known risk factors for ingestion of foreign body should arouse suspicion and be investigated further. PMID:9286481

  12. Rotor noise due to atmospheric turbulence ingestion. I - Fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    In the present analytical procedure for the prediction of helicopter rotor noise generation due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence, different models for turbulence fluid mechanics and the ingestion process are combined. The mean flow and turbulence statistics associated with the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled with attention to the effects of atmospheric stability length, windspeed, and altitude. The turbulence field can be modeled as isotropic, locally stationary, and homogeneous. For large mean flow contraction ratios, accurate predictions of turbulence vorticity components at the rotor face requires the incorporation of the differential drift of fluid particles on adjacent streamlines.

  13. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  14. Ingestion of a Fixed Partial Denture During General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neustein, Steve; Beicke, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dental trauma during anesthesia is a common occurrence. Many patients have had extensive dental work, which is more fragile than the natural dentition. This work may include crowns, fixed partial dentures (bridges), and porcelain veneers. We report for the first time, a case in which a fixed partial denture became dislodged and was ingested, and was recovered postoperatively with endoscopy. PMID:17579503

  15. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacy L.; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic. PMID:24489394

  16. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacy L; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-02-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic. PMID:24489394

  17. Assessment of swimmer behaviors on pool water ingestion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric pathogens in pool water can be unintentionally ingested during swimming, increasing the likelihood of acute gastrointestinal illness(AGI). AGI cases in outbreaks are more likely to submerge heads than non-cases, but an association is unknown since outbreak data are self-r...

  18. Sheep Ingestion of Water Containing Quebracho or Black Wattle Tannin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of small amounts of condensed tannin by ruminants can produce valuable outcomes such as improved nitrogen use, reduced bloating and methane output, and internal parasite reduction. Many grasses and forbs have little if any condensed tannin in them. Not all livestock will consistently con...

  19. CRITICAL REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES RELATED TO INGESTED ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the U.S. and Canada were reviewed and evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. One or more studies found male or female associati...

  20. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Graham, T E; Hibbert, E; Sathasivam, P

    1998-09-01

    Caffeine (Caf) ingestion increases plasma epinephrine (Epi) and exercise endurance; these results are frequently transferred to coffee (Cof) consumption. We examined the impact of ingestion of the same dose of Caf in Cof or in water. Nine healthy, fit, young adults performed five trials after ingesting (double blind) either a capsule (Caf or placebo) with water or Cof (decaffeinated Cof, decaffeinated with Caf added, or regular Cof). In all three Caf trials, the Caf dose was 4.45 mg/kg body wt and the volume of liquid was 7.15 ml/kg. After 1 h of rest, the subject ran at 85% of maximal O2 consumption until voluntary exhaustion (approximately 32 min in the placebo and decaffeinated Cof tests). In the three Caf trials, the plasma Caf and paraxanthine concentrations were very similar. After 1 h of rest, the plasma Epi was increased (P < 0.05) by Caf ingestion, but the increase was greater (P < 0.05) with Caf capsules than with Cof. During the exercise there were no differences in Epi among the three Caf trials, and the Epi values were all greater (P < 0.05) than in the other tests. Endurance was only increased (P < 0. 05) in the Caf capsule trial; there were no differences among the other four tests. One cannot extrapolate the effects of Caf to Cof; there must be a component(s) of Cof that moderates the actions of Caf. PMID:9729561

  1. ABUSE OF BOOT POLISH BY INGESTION: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Anil K.; Srivastava, R.P.; Chavan, B.S.; Saxena, Shekhar

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY This case report describes the abuse of boot polish by inhalation and ingestion in a 32 year old patient who also had alcohol dependence. Pleasurable psychological effects, craving, active search for the substance and tolerance were present but withdrawal symptoms could not be demonstrated because of simultaneous alcohol dependence. PMID:21776174

  2. Intrathoracic gastric perforation secondary to corrosive ingestion: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Varma Gunturi, Surya Ramachandra; Arora, Abhishek; Parmar, Abhijot

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a rare and serious case of acid ingestion in a 50-year-old man who developed necrosis and perforation of gastric fundus and diaphragm with extension of air and fluid collection in the thorax. To the best of our knowledge, this complication has not been described so far in the literature. PMID:27190774

  3. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    SciTech Connect

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-08-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

  4. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  5. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  6. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  7. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  8. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  9. Ingestible Thermometer Pill Aids Athletes in Beating the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to monitor the core body temperature of astronauts during space flight, the ingestible "thermometer pill" has a silicone-coated exterior, with a microbattery, a quartz crystal temperature sensor, a space-aged telemetry system, and microminiaturized circuitry on the interior.

  10. Modeled Estimates of Soil and Dust Ingestion Rates for Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily soil/dust ingestion rates typically used in exposure and risk assessments are based on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of modeling soil and dust inge...

  11. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section 33.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.77...

  12. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section 33.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.77...

  13. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section 33.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.77...

  14. Gloriosa superba ingestion: Hair loss and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Khanam, P. S.; Sangeetha, B.; Kumar, B. V.; Kiran, U.; Priyadarshini, P. I.; Ram, R.; Sridhar, M. S.; Kumar, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that grows wild in several parts of South India. Tubers of this plant contain several alkaloids. Acute intoxication following the ingestion of G. superba results in gastrointestinal and haematological abnormalities, hepatic and renal insufficiency, cardiotoxicity and hair loss. We present a case with typical features of G superba toxicity. PMID:26060369

  15. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  16. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, Stefan H M; Rémond, Didier; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-11-01

    Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis. Previous work has shown that the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding can be modulated by changing the amount of protein ingested, the source of dietary protein, as well as the timing of protein consumption. Most of this work has studied the postprandial response to the ingestion of isolated protein sources. Only few studies have investigated the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of protein dense foods, such as dairy and meat. The current review will focus on the capacity of proteins and protein dense food products to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis and identifies food characteristics that may modulate the anabolic properties. PMID:26021783

  17. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea

    PubMed Central

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. PMID:24136910

  18. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  19. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreeja; George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  20. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  1. GNSS derived TEC data ingestion into IRI 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya-Orué, Yenca; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro; Alazo-Cuartas, Katy

    2015-04-01

    Experimental vertical total electron content (VTEC) data given by Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) has been ingested into the IRI version 2012, aiming to obtain grids of effective input parameter values that allow to minimize the difference between the experimental and modeled vertical TEC. Making use of the experience gained with the technique of model adaptation applied to NeQuick (Nava et al., 2005), it has been found possible to compute IRI world grids of effective ionosphere index parameters (IG). The IG grids thus obtained can be interpolated in space and time to calculate with IRI the 3D electron density at any location and also the TEC along any ground-to-satellite ray-path for a given epoch. In this study, the ingestion technique is presented and a posteriori validation, along with an assessment of the capability of the 'ingested' IRI to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day foF2 variability during disturbed and quiet periods. The foF2 values retrieved are compared with data from about 20 worldwide ionosondes for selected periods of high (year 2000) and moderate to low solar activity (year 2006). It was found that the use of the ingestion scheme enhances the performance of the model when compared with its standard use based on solar activity drivers (R12 and F10.7), especially for high solar activity. As an example, the mean and standard deviation of the differences between experimental and reconstructed F2-peak values for April of year 2000 is 0.09 and 1.28 MHz for ingested IRI, compared to -0.81 and 1.27 MHz (IRI with R12 input) and -0.02 and 1.46 MHz (IRI with F10.7 input).

  2. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior. PMID:24570803

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of coeliac mucosa following ingestion of oats.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, U; Jones, E; Carolan, J; Feighery, C

    2006-05-01

    There is now considerable clinical evidence that oats do not activate coeliac disease. Nonetheless, a reluctance to include oats in the gluten-free diet remains. Because gluten-induced damage is accompanied by activation of the gastrointestinal immune system, the purpose of this study was to investigate if similar changes were induced by oats ingestion. Small intestinal histological sections from 10 patients who ingested 50 g of oats daily for 3 months were investigated for possible evidence of immune activation. Tissue obtained before and after oats challenge was stained with a series of antibodies directed against the following molecules: human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR), Ki-67, CD25, CD54 [intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)] and mast cell tryptase. None of the patients developed clinical or laboratory evidence of adverse effects. The distribution of intestinal HLA-DR expression was not affected by oats ingestion and the crypt epithelium remained unstained. In the pre-oats biopsies, the percentage of Ki-67 positive enterocytes, 29.5 +/- 6.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-45.0] did not differ significantly from that found in post-oats biopsies, 41.2 +/- 3.7 (95% CI, 32.8-49.6), P = 0.19, not significant. Furthermore, oats ingestion did not alter the number of CD25 positive and tryptase positive cells. Finally, the distribution and intensity of ICAM-1 staining was unchanged by dietary oats. In summary, detailed immunohistological studies of biopsies from patients ingesting oats for 3 months did not reveal evidence of immune activation. Together with other reported findings, this study strengthens the view that oats can be included safely in the diet of gluten sensitive patients. PMID:16634791

  4. Hyperinsulinemia Enhances Hepatic Expression of the Fatty Acid Transporter Cd36 and Provokes Hepatosteatosis and Hepatic Insulin Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Steneberg, Pär; Sykaras, Alexandros G.; Backlund, Fredrik; Straseviciene, Jurate; Söderström, Ingegerd; Edlund, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Hepatosteatosis is associated with the development of both hepatic insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Hepatic expression of Cd36, a fatty acid transporter, is enhanced in obese and diabetic murine models and human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and thus it correlates with hyperinsulinemia, steatosis, and insulin resistance. Here, we have explored the effect of hyperinsulinemia on hepatic Cd36 expression, development of hepatosteatosis, insulin resistance, and dysglycemia. A 3-week sucrose-enriched diet was sufficient to provoke hyperinsulinemia, hepatosteatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and dysglycemia in CBA/J mice. The development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in CBA/J mice on a sucrose-enriched diet was paralleled by increased hepatic expression of the transcription factor Pparγ and its target gene Cd36 whereas that of genes implicated in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL secretion was unaltered. Additionally, we demonstrate that insulin, in a Pparγ-dependent manner, is sufficient to directly increase Cd36 expression in perfused livers and isolated hepatocytes. Mouse strains that display low insulin levels, i.e. C57BL6/J, and/or lack hepatic Pparγ, i.e. C3H/HeN, do not develop hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, or dysglycemia on a sucrose-enriched diet, suggesting that elevated insulin levels, via enhanced CD36 expression, provoke fatty liver development that in turn leads to hepatic insulin resistance and dysglycemia. Thus, our data provide evidence for a direct role for hyperinsulinemia in stimulating hepatic Cd36 expression and thus the development of hepatosteatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and dysglycemia. PMID:26085100

  5. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in a newborn after clomiphene ingestion during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Doğruyol, H; Günay, U; Esmer, A; Kahveci, R

    1987-10-01

    A case of megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) in a newborn after clomiphene ingestion during pregnancy is described. Review of the literature revealed no other MMIHS associated with maternal clomiphene ingestion. PMID:3687238

  6. Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

    2000-12-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  7. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-04-22

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  8. Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

  9. Histamine Poisoning from Ingestion of Fish or Scombroid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis. PMID:25544905

  10. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  11. Planned complex suicide: Self-strangulation and plaster ingestion.

    PubMed

    Germerott, Tanja; Jaenisch, Stefanie; Hatch, Gary; Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Guenther, Detlef

    2010-10-10

    The literature contains many case reports of planned and complex suicides, which combine various methods to commit suicide. In this article, we present the anomalous suicide of an adult male by strangulation with a belt and simultaneous ingestion of plaster. The specific circumstances of the case are described and relevant literature is briefly reviewed. This case vignette illustrates one example of the wide ranging methods employed in suicides and may represent the first reported case of a fatal complex suicide involving self-strangulation and plaster ingestion. Knowledge of varied and sometimes unusual suicide methods is important to the forensic investigator to prevent unnecessary criminal investigation and to reliably and confidently establish manner and cause of death. PMID:20554136

  12. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the US and Canada were evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. Associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality or incidence in humans were found in one or more studies dealing with neoplasms in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbaldder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain and thyroid as well as leukemia. However, no single study nor aggregate of studies existed that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. It is recommended that the integrated ecologic data to date be used to generate a rough priority of specific etiologic hypotheses that should be tested in the original settings or in independent study populations using studies designed at the more definitive individual level, such as case-control studies. 25 references, 7 tables.

  13. Hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion of mango flesh.

    PubMed

    Thoo, Caroline H F; Freeman, Susi

    2008-05-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with a hypersensitivity reaction after the ingestion of a small amount of fresh mango gelato. She developed itchy palpable purpuric lesions over her arms, legs, neck and abdomen 4 days after ingestion. The lesions persisted for 5 weeks despite treatment with betamethasone-17 valerate 0.05% ointment and avoidance of mango. Resolution of these lesions was eventually achieved with continuing treatment. The patient denied any prior contact with mango skin but had experienced previous sensitizing reactions to mango flesh. Patch testing was strongly positive to mango skin and mango flesh. Skin-prick testing was negative. This case describes a systemic contact dermatitis to mango flesh, an entity less common than allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:18412816

  14. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  15. Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Mark C; Curry, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning. PMID:15995006

  16. Debris ingestion by the Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    PubMed

    Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Balensiefer, Deisi Cristiane; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; de Sousa, Glaucia Pereira; da Cunha, Fábio Adonis Gouveia Carneiro; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira

    2015-12-15

    The Antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of North and Northeastern Brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. Aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. Over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released by the CMA/ICMBio and four of them were rescued again due to debris ingestion. Two of these manatees died and the other two were taken back into captivity for a new rehabilitation process. The four mammals had confirmed diagnosis of plastic debris ingestion. These findings demonstrate that the environment where the manatees live after being released had a significant amount of garbage which may hinder the success of the species conservation in Brazil. PMID:26431561

  17. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Sprint Performance Following Continuous Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahkohian, M.; Farhadi, H.; Naghizadeh Baghi, A.; Valizadeh, A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5% carbohydrate ingestion on the sprint performance immediately following 90 min of running at 70-80% of maximal heart rate reserve. Thirty young active men were selected as subjects and allocated randomly to two carbohydrate (CHO, N = 15) and placebo (PL, N = 15) groups. Pre-test 200 m dash, 90 min running and post-test 200 m dash took place, respectively. Exercise heart rate monitored during 90 min running by a cardio frequency meter. Significant differences were found between the CHO and PL post-test 200 m dash records (p<0.05). Blood glucose was found to be significantly higher at the end of the 90 min running for the CHO group than for the PL group (p<0.01). The results suggest that carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise inhibits failing of Sprint performance of young active men.

  18. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  19. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    PubMed

    Howerton, Amber; Patra, Manomita; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection. PMID:24023628

  20. Eosinophilic hepatitis after ingestion of choline magnesium trisalicylate.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, M M; Peller, C A; Retig, J

    1992-01-01

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is a non-acetylated salicylate used widely as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Although mild transient hepatotoxicity associated with aspirin and other salicylates has been well documented, most commonly with high-dose treatment for rheumatologic disorders 112), we report a case of severe hypersensitivity hepatitis with striking tissue and peripheral eosinophilia after ingestion of choline magnesium trisalicylate. PMID:1728115

  1. Suicidal ingestion of barium-sulfide-containing shaving powder.

    PubMed

    Downs, J C; Milling, D; Nichols, C A

    1995-03-01

    Physicians, familiar with the common usage of barium medicinally as the contrast agent barium sulfate, may consider it an innocuous or at most a minimally harmful compound. The barium cation is extremely toxic and produces characteristic gastrointestinal symptoms, periorbital and extremity paresthesia, hypertension, and progressive flaccid muscular paralysis. Profound hypokalemia also may be induced. Overdose may be rapidly fatal unless the ingestion is recognized and appropriate treatment is instituted expediently. PMID:7771386

  2. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  3. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p < .05). Mean power output during the sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p < .05) and also tended to be higher than the water trial (p = .075). Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24668608

  4. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations. PMID:26691320

  5. Sexual dimorphism in the osmopressor response following water ingestion.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Teodósio, Carolina; Lucena, Rui; Pereira, Fernando D

    2016-07-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to whether water drinking elicits a pressor response in healthy young adults. The inclusion of a variable number of women may have contributed to the discrepancies found in past research. Thus, we aimed at exploring whether the osmopressor response follows a sexually dimorphic pattern. In a randomized fashion, 31 healthy adults (16 men; 15 women, aged 18-40 years) ingested 50 and 500 ml of water before completing a resting protocol on two separate days. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate and spectral heart rate variability were measured in the seated position at pre- and post-25 min of water ingestion. Women responded to 500 ml of water with a greater proportion of change in diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P<0.05). Conversely, the percent change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate was not different between sexes after 500 ml of water. Overall, women demonstrated lower blood pressure, but higher resting heart rate compared with men (P<0.05). In contrast, heart rate variability was similar between sexes before and after ingesting either volume of water. There was a bradycardic effect of water and, irrespectively of sex; this was accompanied by increased high frequency power (HF) (P<0.05). We conclude that women display a greater magnitude of pressor response than men post-water ingestion. Accordingly, we provide direct evidence of sexual dimorphism in the haemodynamic response to water intake in young healthy adults. PMID:27129286

  6. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. PMID:18164162

  7. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    PubMed

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  8. Acute fatal poisoning cases due to furathiocarb ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Ameno, K; In, S W; Yang, W K; Koo, K S; Yoo, Y C; Kubota, T; Ameno, S; Ijiri, I

    1999-04-12

    Seven cases involving acute fatalities due to ingestion of furathiocarb, a carbamate insecticide, are presented. Furathiocarb was detected in the gastric contents using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS), and quantified in the blood using a gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). The fatal levels of furathiocarb in the blood ranged from 0.1 to 21.6 micrograms/ml. PMID:10376339

  9. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. {sup 131}I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided.

  10. Reversal of caffeine withdrawal by ingestion of a soft beverage.

    PubMed

    Watson, J M; Lunt, M J; Morris, S; Weiss, M J; Hussey, D; Kerr, D

    2000-05-01

    Followlng regular use, acute cessation of caffeine is associated with a characteristic withdrawal syndrome. Despite this, caffeine remains popular with its consumers. The aim of this study was to examine the physiologic and psychologic effects of small caffeine doses, administered in the form of a market-leading soft drink, on healthy women who were acutely withdrawn from caffeine. After 48-h abstinence and overnight fast, 11 healthy (22 to 40 years) female volunteers, all regular caffeine users (daily consumption 143 to 773 mg) consumed using a double-blind. randomized, controlled cross-over design either 2 tins of regular or caffeine-free Diet Coke. On both visits a Mars bar was eaten to prevent hypoglycaemia. Thus, the caffeine load was 76 or 10 mg respectively. Following ingestion of regular Diet Coke, there was a l0% fall in middle cerebral artery velocity (95% CI [6%-l4%], p < 0.005 versus caffeine free) and improvement in feelings of pleasure (p < 0.046) and energy (p < 0.037). Intellectual function (4-choice reaction time) was unaffected by caffeine status. On both visits, ingestion of Diet Coke induced a pressor response (maximum rise in systolic pressure +15+/- 2 mm Hg with caffeine and +l2 +/- 2 mm Hg with caffeine-free beverage, both p < 0.001 compared with baseline). In conclusion, in women acutely withdrawn from caffeine, ingestion of a popular soft beverage containing modest amounts of caffeine is associated with demonstrable physiologic and psychologic effects. PMID:10837839

  11. Numerical Investigation of Hot Gas Ingestion by STOVL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanka, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This report compiles the various research activities conducted under the auspices of the NASA Grant NAG3-1026, "Numerical Investigation of Hot Gas Ingestion by STOVL Aircraft" during the period of April 1989 to April 1994. The effort involved the development of multigrid based algorithms and computer programs for the calculation of the flow and temperature fields generated by Short Take-off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft, while hovering in ground proximity. Of particular importance has been the interaction of the exhaust jets with the head wind which gives rise to the hot gas ingestion process. The objective of new STOVL designs to reduce the temperature of the gases ingested into the engine. The present work describes a solution algorithm for the multi-dimensional elliptic partial-differential equations governing fluid flow and heat transfer in general curvilinear coordinates. The solution algorithm is based on the multigrid technique which obtains rapid convergence of the iterative numerical procedure for the discrete equations. Initial efforts were concerned with the solution of the Cartesian form of the equations. This algorithm was applied to a simulated STOVL configuration in rectangular coordinates. In the next phase of the work, a computer code for general curvilinear coordinates was constructed. This was applied to model STOVL geometries on curvilinear grids. The code was also validated in model problems. In all these efforts, the standard k-Epsilon model was used.

  12. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P < 0.01), and surface properties of the plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P < 0.01). A strong, significant correlation between propensity for plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P < 0.01). Exposure to 1 and 10 μm PS for up to 8 days had no significant effect on C. gigas feeding or growth at <100 microplastics mL(-1). In conclusion, whil micro- and nanoplastics were readily ingested by oyster larvae, exposure to plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study. PMID:26580574

  13. Size characteristics of stones ingested by common loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, S.P.; Pokras, M.A.; Miconi, R.

    2001-01-01

    Common Loon (Gavia immer) carcasses recovered in New England had more stones of greater combined mass in their stomachs than loons from the southeastern United States. Stones retained in sieves with mesh sizes between 4.75 and 8.00 mm accounted for the greatest percentage (by mass) of grit in loon stomachs. The median longest dimension of the largest single stone in each stomach was 12.5 mm in loons from New England and 10.7 mm in loons from the southeast (maximum = 23.1 mm and 16.8 mm, respectively). A recent national proposal to restrict the use of certain fishing weights in the United States called for a ban on lead fishing sinkers of 25.4 mm or less in any dimension. Our findings suggest it is unlikely that Common Loons would ingest lead fishing weights greater than 25.4 mm in any dimension, if such ingestion was solely the result of their search for replacement stones for their stomachs. However, this does not preclude the possibility that loons may ingest larger fishing weights under other circumstances, such as the consumption of fish with attached sinkers.

  14. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site fallout: internal dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Whicker, F W; Kirchner, T B; Anspaugh, L R; Ng, Y C

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a very few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (< 3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided. PMID:8830749

  15. Acute Iodine Toxicity From a Suspected Oral Methamphetamine Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Iodine is a naturally occurring element commercially available alone or in a multitude of products. Iodine crystals and iodine tincture are used in the production of methamphetamine. Although rarely fatal, iodine toxicity from oral ingestion can produce distressing gastrointestinal symptoms and systemic symptoms, such as hypotension and tachycardia, from subsequent hypovolemia. OBJECTIVE The objective of this case report is to describe a case of iodine toxicity from suspected oral methamphetamine ingestion. CASE REPORT A male in his early 20’s presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, chills, fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea after orally ingesting a substance suspected to be methamphetamine. The patient had elevated levels of serum creatinine, liver function tests, and bands on arrival, which returned to within normal limits by day 4 of admission. Based on the patient’s narrow anion gap, halogen levels were ordered on day 3 and indicated iodine toxicity. This is thought to be the first documented case of iodine toxicity secondary to suspected oral methamphetamine abuse. CONCLUSION Considering that the incidence of methamphetamine abuse is expected to continue to rise, clinicians should be aware of potential iodine toxicity in a patient with a history of methamphetamine abuse. PMID:25452705

  16. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

  17. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-05-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  18. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G M

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the United States and Canada were reviewed and evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. One or more studies found male or female associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality (or incidence) due to neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain, and thyroid, and also due to leukemia. Several methodologic weaknesses and limitations were found in each study, leading to the determination that no individual study or aggregation of studies exist that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. A binomial probability analysis of the eight independent studies suggested that, while the level of male-female agreement was generally low, the number of observed positive associations in males and females for neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and prostate was unlikely to have been generated by chance factors alone, and thus, may have a biological basis related to ingested asbestos. Cancers of the small intestine and leukemia were implicated to a lesser degree in this analysis. The patterns of integrated findings for most gastrointestinal cancers were somewhat consistent with patterns observed among asbestos-exposed occupational groups, whereas the patterns found for pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, and leukemia were not consistent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6662094

  19. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  20. Clostridium tertium Bacteremia in a Patient with Glyphosate Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    You, Myung-Jo; Shin, Gee-Wook; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 44 Final Diagnosis: Clostridium tertium bacteremia Symptoms: Fever Medication: Ertapenem • Metronidazole Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Disease Objective: Unknown etiology Background: Clostridium tertium is distributed in the soil and in animal and human gastrointestinal tracts. C. tertium has been isolated from patients with blood diseases, immune disorders, and abdominal surgeries. Glyphosate is toxic, causing cause eye and skin irritation, gastrointestinal pain, and vomiting. Ingestion of herbicides modifies the gastrointestinal environment, which stresses the living organisms. However, there has been little attention to cases of bacteremia in patients recovering from suicide attempt by ingesting herbicide. Case Report: Clostridium tertium was identified in a 44-year-old female who attempted suicide by glyphosate (a herbicide) ingestion. The 16S rRNA sequences from all colonies were 99% identical with that of C. tertium (AB618789) found on a BLAST search of the NCBI database. The bacterium was cultured on TSA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions showed that the bacterium was susceptible to penicillin, a combination of β-lactamase inhibitor and piperacillin or amoxicillin, and first- and second- generation cephalosporins. However, it was resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Conclusions: Glyphosate herbicide might be a predisposing factor responsible for the pathogenesis of C. tertium. The results highlight the need for careful diagnosis and selection of antibiotics in the treatment of this organism. PMID:25577783

  1. Orthodontic Wire Ingestion during Treatment: Reporting a Case and Review the Management of Foreign Body Ingestion or Aspiration (Emergencies).

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Seyed Morteza Saadat; Rezaei, Navid; Boluri, Ehsan Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided. PMID:23853727

  2. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  3. The impact of anti-inflammatory cytokines provoked by CD163 positive macrophages on ventricular functional recovery after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takao; Kameyama, Tomoki; Noto, Takahisa; Nakadate, Teruo; Ueno, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kunihiro; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Present study aimed to investigate the impact of anti-inflammatory cytokines provoked by the hemoglobin scavenger receptor, CD163, on left ventricular (LV) functional recovery after successful reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Intraplaque hemorrhage accelerates plaque destabilization. Extracellular hemoglobin is cleared by CD163, a macrophage scavenger receptor. This process provokes secretion of anti-inflammatory atheroprotective cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10. In 40 patients with the first AMI, coronary atherothrombotic debris was retrieved during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), stained with antibodies to CD163 and IL-10. LV function was determined by echocardiography before PCI and 6 months after PCI. %CD163 was defined as ratio of CD163 (+)-cells to whole cells. %IL-10 was expressed as the ratio of positively stained areas per total tissue. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the amount of CD163 (+)-cells: CD163 > 10 % (CD163high, n = 20) and CD163 ≤ 10 % (CD163low, n = 20). CD163high group had significantly higher %IL-10. Final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade was significantly lower in CD163high group. In subgroups with the final TIMI-3 flow (CD163high-Reflow, n = 15 and CD163low-Reflow, n = 20), the time to reperfusion, infarct size, LV dimensions and fractional shortening (%FS) before PCI were similar. Significant correlation was observed between %IL10 and changes in LV dimensions (diastole, r = -0.49, P = 0.01; systole, r = -0.65, P < 0.01) or %FS (r = 0.51, P < 0.01) at 6 months after PCI. Plaque with CD163(+)-macrophages could impair distal flow after primary PCI. However, CD163(+)-macrophages enhance the anti-inflammatory cytokine expression that aids in ventricular functional recovery if distal flow can be achieved by successful reperfusion. PMID:23873589

  4. Unintentional ingestion of cleaners and other substances in an immigrant Mexican population: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, Katie; Tsai, Ray

    2016-04-01

    Paediatric poisoning is a salient issue worldwide and also affects the USA. In past years, ingestion of household cleaners was the second leading cause of unintentional poisonings in children. All children are at risk for ingestions, although immigrant children may be at greater risk. The purpose of this study was to document child ingestion experiences from toxic household substances via semistructured interviews with immigrant Mexican mothers. Participants were recruited from a paediatric primary care practice in Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas (N=35). Eighteen of 35 respondents (51%) reported that their child, nephew/niece or a friend's child had accidentally ingested a cleaning solution, gasoline or herbal remedy. Of those ingestions, 12 were reportedly from an alternative container, such as a juice box or soda bottle. Improper storage was the primary reason for ingestion. Culturally appropriate home visits and interventions are needed to better prevent ingestion in young children. PMID:25782982

  5. Intracellular scFvs against the viral E6 oncoprotein provoke apoptosis in human papillomavirus-positive cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, Magali; Boulade-Ladame, Charlotte; Mailly, Laurent; Weiss, Etienne; Orfanoudakis, Georges; Deryckere, Francois . E-mail: francois.deryckere@esbs.u-strasbg.fr

    2007-09-21

    The E6 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (16E6) is involved in the tumorigenesis of human cervical cells by targeting numerous cellular proteins. We have designed a strategy for neutralizing 16E6 based on the intracellular expression of single-chain Fv antibodies (scFvs) specific to 16E6. Recombinant adenovirus vectors were constructed to allow expression of two 16E6-binding scFvs and one 16E6-non-binding scFv in HPV16-positive and -negative cells. Expression of the scFvs provoked two types of effects: (i) inhibition of proliferation of all cell lines tested, this aspecific toxicity being likely due to the aggregation of unfolded scFvs; and (ii) apoptosis observed only in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines after expression of 16E6-binding scFvs, this specific effect being proportional to the intracellular solubility of the scFvs. These data demonstrate the feasibility of intracellular immunization with anti-16E6 scFvs and highlight the importance of the solubility of the intracellular antibodies.

  6. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.

    PubMed

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD. PMID:26600287

  7. High fat diet-induced TGF-β/Gbb signaling provokes insulin resistance through the tribbles expression.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Hyun; Kang, Moonyoung; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Yu, Kweon

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance are hallmarks of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes, which is often caused by a high-fat diet (HFD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HFD-induced insulin resistance have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we established a Drosophila model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of HFD-induced diabetes. HFD model flies recapitulate mammalian diabetic phenotypes including elevated triglyceride and circulating glucose levels, as well as insulin resistance. Expression of glass bottom boat (gbb), a Drosophila homolog of mammalian transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), is elevated under HFD conditions. Furthermore, overexpression of gbb in the fat body produced obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes similar to those of HFD-fed flies, whereas inhibition of Gbb signaling significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic phenotypes. We also discovered that tribbles, a negative regulator of AKT, is a target gene of Gbb signaling in the fat body. Overexpression of tribbles in flies in the fat body phenocopied the metabolic defects associated with HFD conditions or Gbb overexpression, whereas tribbles knockdown rescued these metabolic phenotypes. These results indicate that HFD-induced TGF-β/Gbb signaling provokes insulin resistance by increasing tribbles expression. PMID:27484164

  8. Nitric oxide release by hemocytes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk was provoked by interleukin-2 but not by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Cao, Asunción; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martinez, Juan Ignacio

    2004-03-01

    As other marine and land mollusks, mussels have special cells in charge of the immune function called hemocytes. The activation of these cells leads to a series of events that end up in phagocytosis and in secretion of digestive enzymes that eliminate the pathogen. The production of nitric oxide is among the early activation processes. Contrary to what happens in cells of vertebrates and of other species of mollusks, in hemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis, LPS did not induce secretion of NO to the medium. However, human IL-2 provoked an important increase in NO production. The maximal synthesis of NO was detected after the hemocytes were incubated with the cytokine for 24h. In both stimulated and non-stimulated cells, Western blotting showed the presence of a protein of 130kDa, recognized by anti-mouse iNOS. Therefore, the higher production of NO can only be explained as a direct action of some effector upon the nitric oxide synthetase. NO production decreased by the action of H-89, a powerful inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). This suggests the involvement of PKA in the pathway of NO synthesis. PMID:14687917

  9. Attachment, Sexual Assertiveness, and Sexual Outcomes in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Bianca; Bergeron, Sophie; Brassard, Audrey; Bélanger, Claude; Steben, Marc; Lambert, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent women's sexual pain disorder, which is associated with sexual function difficulties. Attachment theory has been used to understand adult sexual outcomes, providing a useful framework for examining sexual adaptation in couples confronted with PVD. Research to date indicates that anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions correlate with worse sexual outcomes in community and clinical samples. The present study examined the association between attachment, pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction in a sample of 101 couples in which the women presented with PVD. The actor-partner interdependence model was used in order to investigate both actor and partner effects. This study also examined the role of sexual assertiveness as a mediator of these associations via structural equation modeling. Women completed measures of pain intensity and both members of the couple completed measures of romantic attachment, sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and satisfaction. Results indicated that attachment dimensions did not predict pain intensity. Both anxious and avoidant attachment were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. Only attachment avoidance predicted lower sexual function in women. Partner effects indicated that higher sexual assertiveness in women predicted higher sexual satisfaction in men. Finally, women's sexual assertiveness was found to be a significant mediator of the relationship between their attachment dimensions, sexual function, and satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of examining how anxious and avoidant attachment may lead to difficulties in sexual assertiveness and to less satisfying sexual interactions in couples where women suffer from PVD. PMID:24777439

  10. High fat diet-induced TGF-β/Gbb signaling provokes insulin resistance through the tribbles expression

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Hyun; Kang, Moonyoung; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Yu, Kweon

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance are hallmarks of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes, which is often caused by a high-fat diet (HFD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HFD-induced insulin resistance have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we established a Drosophila model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of HFD-induced diabetes. HFD model flies recapitulate mammalian diabetic phenotypes including elevated triglyceride and circulating glucose levels, as well as insulin resistance. Expression of glass bottom boat (gbb), a Drosophila homolog of mammalian transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), is elevated under HFD conditions. Furthermore, overexpression of gbb in the fat body produced obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes similar to those of HFD-fed flies, whereas inhibition of Gbb signaling significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic phenotypes. We also discovered that tribbles, a negative regulator of AKT, is a target gene of Gbb signaling in the fat body. Overexpression of tribbles in flies in the fat body phenocopied the metabolic defects associated with HFD conditions or Gbb overexpression, whereas tribbles knockdown rescued these metabolic phenotypes. These results indicate that HFD-induced TGF-β/Gbb signaling provokes insulin resistance by increasing tribbles expression. PMID:27484164

  11. Elevated expression of NEU1 sialidase in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis provokes pulmonary collagen deposition, lymphocytosis, and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Luzina, Irina G; Lockatell, Virginia; Hyun, Sang W; Kopach, Pavel; Kang, Phillip H; Noor, Zahid; Liu, Anguo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Lee, Chunsik; Miranda-Ribera, Alba; Todd, Nevins W; Goldblum, Simeon E; Atamas, Sergei P

    2016-05-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) poses challenges to understanding its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms and the development of better therapies. Previous studies suggest a pathophysiological role for neuraminidase 1 (NEU1), an enzyme that removes terminal sialic acid from glycoproteins. We observed increased NEU1 expression in epithelial and endothelial cells, as well as fibroblasts, in the lungs of patients with IPF compared with healthy control lungs. Recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of NEU1 to cultured primary human cells elicited profound changes in cellular phenotypes. Small airway epithelial cell migration was impaired in wounding assays, whereas, in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, NEU1 overexpression strongly impacted global gene expression, increased T cell adhesion to endothelial monolayers, and disrupted endothelial capillary-like tube formation. NEU1 overexpression in fibroblasts provoked increased levels of collagen types I and III, substantial changes in global gene expression, and accelerated degradation of matrix metalloproteinase-14. Intratracheal instillation of NEU1 encoding, but not control adenovirus, induced lymphocyte accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and lung tissues and elevations of pulmonary transforming growth factor-β and collagen. The lymphocytes were predominantly T cells, with CD8(+) cells exceeding CD4(+) cells by nearly twofold. These combined data indicate that elevated NEU1 expression alters functional activities of distinct lung cell types in vitro and recapitulates lymphocytic infiltration and collagen accumulation in vivo, consistent with mechanisms implicated in lung fibrosis. PMID:26993524

  12. Teratocarcinomas Arising from Allogeneic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Tissue Constructs Provoked Host Immune Rejection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ai; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Kawamura, Takuji; Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Ito, Emiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Masuda, Shigeo; Toda, Koichi; Hatazawa, Jun; Morii, Eiichi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissue constructs is a promising regenerative treatment for cardiac failure: however, its tumourigenic potential is concerning. We hypothesised that the tumourigenic potential may be eliminated by the host immune response after allogeneic cell transplantation. Scaffold-free iPSC-derived cardaic tissue sheets of C57BL/6 mouse origin were transplanted into the cardiac surface of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice and allogeneic BALB/c mice with or without tacrolimus injection. Syngeneic mice and tacrolimus-injected immunosuppressed allogeneic mice formed teratocarcinomas with identical phenotypes, characteristic, and time courses, as assessed by imaging tools including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In contrast, temporarily immunosuppressed allogeneic mice, following cessation of tacrolimus injection displayed diminished progression of the teratocarcinoma, accompanied by an accumulation of CD4/CD8-positive T cells, and finally achieved complete elimination of the teratocarcinoma. Our results indicated that malignant teratocarcinomas arising from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissue constructs provoked T cell-related host immune rejection to arrest tumour growth in murine allogeneic transplantation models. PMID:26763872

  13. Accumulation of uroporphyrin does not provoke further inhibition of liver uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria.

    PubMed

    Adjarov, D G; Elder, G H

    1986-01-01

    The inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Uro-D) is the basic pathogenetic mechanism in porphyria caused by hexachlorobenzene (HCB). This study aimed to establish whether hepatic accumulation of uroporphyrin in this porphyria could provoke a further decrease of Uro-D activity. Male C57Bl/6 mice were treated for 8 weeks with a diet containing 0.02% HCB. In some of them the deposition of liver porphyrins was additionally increased by intraperitoneal application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Uro-D activity was determined by measuring unconverted substrate uroporphyrinogen after its oxidation to uroporphyrin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The value of endogenously formed uroporphyrin was also obtained from the sample by subtraction, using a blank assay. HCB treatment resulted in reduced activity of hepatic Uro-D, but this activity was not significantly less in animals loaded with ALA than in non-loaded mice. Uroporphyrin deposition tended to decrease 6 weeks after withdrawal of HCB, but the activity of Uro-D was still markedly inhibited. There was no evidence that the accumulation of uroporphyrin promoted a supplementary decrease of Uro-D activity in HCB porphyria. PMID:3596742

  14. Caffeine provokes adverse interactions with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and related psychostimulants: mechanisms and mediators.

    PubMed

    Vanattou-Saïfoudine, N; McNamara, R; Harkin, A

    2012-11-01

    Concomitant consumption of caffeine with recreational psychostimulant drugs of abuse can provoke severe acute adverse reactions in addition to longer term consequences. The mechanisms by which caffeine increases the toxicity of psychostimulants include changes in body temperature regulation, cardiotoxicity and lowering of the seizure threshold. Caffeine also influences the stimulatory, discriminative and reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs. In this review, we consider our current understanding of such caffeine-related drug interactions, placing a particular emphasis on an adverse interaction between caffeine and the substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy'), which has been most recently described and characterized. Co-administration of caffeine profoundly enhances the acute toxicity of MDMA in rats, as manifested by high core body temperature, tachycardia and increased mortality. In addition, co-administration of caffeine enhances the long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. Observations to date support an interactive model of drug-induced toxicity comprising MDMA-related enhancement of dopamine release coupled to a caffeine-mediated antagonism of adenosine receptors in addition to inhibition of PDE. These experiments are reviewed together with reports of caffeine-related drug interactions with cocaine, d-amphetamine and ephedrine where similar mechanisms are implicated. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will guide appropriate intervention strategies for the management of severe reactions and potential for increased drug-related toxicity, resulting from concomitant caffeine consumption. PMID:22671762

  15. Caffeine provokes adverse interactions with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) and related psychostimulants: mechanisms and mediators

    PubMed Central

    Vanattou-Saïfoudine, N; McNamara, R; Harkin, A

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant consumption of caffeine with recreational psychostimulant drugs of abuse can provoke severe acute adverse reactions in addition to longer term consequences. The mechanisms by which caffeine increases the toxicity of psychostimulants include changes in body temperature regulation, cardiotoxicity and lowering of the seizure threshold. Caffeine also influences the stimulatory, discriminative and reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs. In this review, we consider our current understanding of such caffeine-related drug interactions, placing a particular emphasis on an adverse interaction between caffeine and the substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’), which has been most recently described and characterized. Co-administration of caffeine profoundly enhances the acute toxicity of MDMA in rats, as manifested by high core body temperature, tachycardia and increased mortality. In addition, co-administration of caffeine enhances the long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. Observations to date support an interactive model of drug-induced toxicity comprising MDMA-related enhancement of dopamine release coupled to a caffeine-mediated antagonism of adenosine receptors in addition to inhibition of PDE. These experiments are reviewed together with reports of caffeine-related drug interactions with cocaine, d-amphetamine and ephedrine where similar mechanisms are implicated. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will guide appropriate intervention strategies for the management of severe reactions and potential for increased drug-related toxicity, resulting from concomitant caffeine consumption. PMID:22671762

  16. RAE wranglings provoke debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, Joanna; Bradley, Donal; Knight, Peter; McGrath, Ronan

    2009-02-01

    Your news story "Top physics departments tumble in new RAE review" (January p8) reveals a lack of understanding of the figures presented by the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise to evaluate university departments in the UK.

  17. A multidisciplinary optimization method for designing boundary layer ingesting inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, David Leonard

    2001-07-01

    The Blended-Wing-Body is a conceptual aircraft design with rear-mounted, over-wing engines. Two types of engine installations have been considered for this aircraft. One installation is quite conventional with podded engines mounted on pylons. The other installation has partially buried engines with boundary layer ingesting inlets. Although ingesting the low-momentum flow in a boundary layer can improve propulsive efficiency, poor inlet performance can offset and even overwhelm this potential advantage. For both designs, the tight coupling between the aircraft aerodynamics and the propulsion system poses a difficult design integration problem. This dissertation presents a design method that solves the problem using multidisciplinary optimization. A Navier-Stokes flow solver, an engine analysis method, and a nonlinear optimizer are combined into a design tool that correctly addresses the tight coupling of the problem. The method is first applied to a model 2D problem to expedite development and thoroughly test the scheme. The low computational cost of the 2D method allows for several inlet installations to be optimized and analyzed. The method is then upgraded by using a validated 3D Navier-Stokes solver. The two candidate engine installations are analyzed and optimized using this inlet design method. The method is shown to be quite effective at integrating the propulsion and aerodynamic systems of the Blend-Wing-Body for both engine installations by improving overall performance and satisfying any specified design constraints. By comparing the two optimized designs, the potential advantages of ingesting boundary layer flow for this aircraft are demonstrated.

  18. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Costill, D L; Dalsky, G P; Fink, W J

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to assess the effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and performance during prolonged exercise, nine competitive cyclists (two females and seven males) exercised until exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer at 80% of Vo2 max. One trial was performed an hour after ingesting decaffeinated coffee (Trial D), while a second trial (C) required that each subject consume coffee containing 330 mg of caffeine 60 min before the exercise. Following the ingestion of caffeine (Trial C), the subjects were able to perform an average of 90.2 (SE +/- 7.2) min of cycling as compared to an average of 75.5 (SE +/- 5.1) min in the D Trial. Measurements of plasma free fatty acids, glycerol and respiratory exchange ratios evidenced a greater rate of lipid metabolism during the caffeine trial as compared to the decaffeinated exercise treatment. Calculations of carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism from respiratory exchange data revealed that the subjects oxidized roughly 240 g of CHO in both trials. Fat oxidation, however, was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) during the C Trial (118 g or 1.31 g/min) than in the D Trial (57 g or 0.75 g/min). On the average the participants rated (Perceived Exertion Scale) their effort during the C Trial to be significantly (P less than 0.05) easier than the demands of the D treatment. Thus, the enhanced endurance performance observed in the C Trial was likely the combined effects of caffeine on lipolysis and its positive influence on nerve impulse transmission. PMID:723503

  19. Further clinical observations on the pulmonary effects of paraquat ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Higenbottam, T; Crome, P; Parkinson, C; Nunn, J

    1979-01-01

    Five patients are reported who developed evidence of acute lung damage after proved ingestion of paraquat. In two the lung changes resolved; in one an aspiration pneumonia occurred, which was successfully treated, while two developed fatal pulmonary oedema. These pulmonary complications after paraquat intoxication appear more common than the progressive pulmonary fibrosis previously described. It is suggested that acute pulmonary oedema is a response to large doses, usually of Gramoxone, that subclinical lung changes result from small doses, usually of Weedol, and that pulmonary fibrosis occurs after intermediate doses. Preliminary data on plasma paraquat concentrations suggest that these are of value in prognosis. Images PMID:483182

  20. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice. PMID:24060140

  1. Salicylate toxicity from ingestion of traditional massage oil

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Rajesh Kumar; Sinnathamby, Vellan

    2012-01-01

    A 16-month-old child developed a brief generalised tonic–clonic fitting episode and vomiting at home, after accidental ingestion of traditional massage oil. As the patient presented with clinical features of salicylate toxicity, appropriate management was instituted. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for multiorgan support. The child was discharged well 1 week after the incident. Methyl-salicylate is a common component of massage oils which are used for topical treatment of joint and muscular pains. However, these massage oils may be toxic when taken orally. Early recognition of the salicylate toxicity is very important in producing a good patient outcome. PMID:22922924

  2. Acute anuric renal failure following jering bean ingestion.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jin Shyan; Ong, Teng-Aik; Chua, Hock-Hin; Tan, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Djenkol beans or jering (Pithecellobium jeringa) is a traditional delicacy consumed by the local population in Malaysia. Jering poisoning or djenkolism is characterized by spasmodic pain, urinary obstruction and acute renal failure. The underlying pathology is an obstructive nephropathy, which is usually responsive to aggressive hydration and diuretic therapy. We present a case of djenkolism following ingestion of jering. The patient required urgent bilateral ureteric stenting following the failure of conservative therapy. Healthcare providers need to recognize djenkolism as a cause of acute renal failure and the public educated on this potential health hazard. PMID:17337378

  3. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    PubMed

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur. PMID:7302525

  4. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum from surreptitious ingestion of a rodenticide.

    PubMed

    Soubiron, L; Hantson, P; Michaux, I; Lambert, M; Mahieu, P; Pringot, J

    2000-12-01

    Superwarfarins have progressively replaced warfarin as rodenticides as they are more potent and have a longer anticoagulant activity. Human exposure may be complicated by spontaneous haemorrhage in various sites. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who was admitted with spontaneous haemoperitoneum and intramural haematoma along the small intestine. After the evidence of a deficit of vitamin K1-dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X), the patient admitted that she was chronically ingesting difenacoum. She was successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K1. Follow-up was not accepted. PMID:11764142

  5. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion*

    PubMed Central

    Thurlow, John S.; Little, Dustin J.; Baker, Thomas P.; Yuan, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ∼5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose chronic exposure. This case represents possible sequelae of chronic potassium chlorate ingestion. PMID:26064493

  6. Predictability of outcome of caustic ingestion by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ezer, Semire Serin; Ince, Emine; Hicsonmez, Akgun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the necessity of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) to predict the outcome of caustic ingestion in children. METHODS: The study included 206 children who underwent EGD because of ingestion of caustic substances between January 2005 and August 2010. Retrospective analysis of data of the patients was performed. RESULTS: The male/female ratio was 1.6 and mean age was 38.1 ± 28.8 mo. The caustic substances were acidic in 72 (34.9%) cases, alkaline in 56 (27.2%), liquid household bleach in 62 (30.1%), and unknown in 16 (7.8%). Fifty-seven (27.7%) patients were symptom-free. Significant clinical findings were observed in 149 (72.3%) patients. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings of esophageal injury were grade 0 in 86 (41.7%) patients, grade 1 in 49 (23.8%), grade 2a in 42 (20.4%), grade 2b in 28 (13.6%), and grade 3a in 1 (0.5%) patient. 35 patients with grade 2a, 2b, and 3a injuries underwent esophageal dilation at second week of ingestion. Esophageal stricture, which necessitated a regular dilation program developed in 13 of the aforementioned 35 patients. There is no statistically significant difference in the rate of development of esophageal stricture between the patients who ingested acidic (15.3%) and alkaline (8.9%) substances (P = 0.32). Severe gastric injury was detected in 38 (18.5%) patients. The rate of development of gastric injury was significantly higher in the acidic group (14%) than in the alkaline group (2.9%) (P = 0.001). Out of 149 patients with clinical findings, 49 (32.9%) patients had no esophageal injury and 117 (78.5%) patients had no gastric lesion. Esophageal and severe gastric injuries were detected in 20 (35.1%) and 8 (14%) of patients with no clinical findings respectively. Pyloric stenosis developed in 6 patients. Pyloric obstruction improved with balloon dilation in 2 patients. Mean hospitalization time were 1.2 ± 0.5 d for grade 0 and 2.3 ± 5 d for grade 1 and 6.3 ± 6.2 d for grade 2a and 15.8 ± 18.6 d for grade 2

  7. Intra-Peritoneal Administration of Mitochondrial DNA Provokes Acute Lung Injury and Systemic Inflammation via Toll-Like Receptor 9.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lemeng; Deng, Songyun; Zhao, Shuangping; Ai, Yuhang; Zhang, Lina; Pan, Pinhua; Su, Xiaoli; Tan, Hongyi; Wu, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of sepsis is complex. Mitochondrial dysfunction, which is responsible for energy metabolism, intrinsic apoptotic pathway, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammatory responses, is closely related with severe sepsis induced death. Mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) contain un-methylated cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG) motifs, which exhibit immune stimulatory capacities. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of mtDNA release on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI) and systemic inflammation. Following LPS injection, plasma mtDNA copies peak at 8 h. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, mtDNA in toll like receptor 4 knockout (TLR4 KO) mice were significantly decreased. MtDNA intra-peritoneal administration causes apparent ALI as demonstrated by increased lung injury score, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total protein and wet/dry (W/D) ratio; mtDNA injection also directly provokes systemic inflammation, as demonstrated by increased IL-1β, IL-6, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) level; while nuclear DNA (nDNA) could not induce apparent ALI and systemic inflammation. However, compared with WT mice, TLR4 KO could not protect from mtDNA induced ALI and systemic inflammation. Specific TLR9 inhibitor, ODN 2088 pretreatment can significantly attenuate mtDNA induced ALI and systemic inflammation, as demonstrated by improved lung injury score, decreased lung wet/dry ratio, BALF total protein concentration, and decreased systemic level of IL-1β, IL-6 and HMGB1. MtDNA administration activates the expression of p-P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in lung tissue and specific TLR9 inhibitor pretreatment can attenuate this activation. Thus, LPS-induced mtDNA release occurs in a TLR4-dependent manner, and mtDNA causes acute lung injury and systemic inflammation in a TLR9-dependent and TLR4-independent manner. PMID:27589725

  8. Clenbuterol activates the central IL-1 system via the β2-adrenoceptor without provoking inflammatory response related behaviours in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Karen M; Griffin, Éadaoin W; Ryan, Katie J; Tanveer, Riffat; Vanattou-Saifoudine, Natacha; McNamee, Eoin N; Fallon, Emer; Heffernan, Sheena; Harkin, Andrew; Connor, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    The long-acting, highly lipophilic, β2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol may represent a suitable therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation as it drives an anti-inflammatory response within the CNS. However, clenbuterol is also known to increase the expression of IL-1β in the brain, a potent neuromodulator that plays a role in provoking sickness related symptoms including anxiety and depression-related behaviours. Here we demonstrate that, compared to the immunological stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250μg/kg), clenbuterol (0.5mg/kg) selectively up-regulates expression of the central IL-1 system resulting in a mild stress-like response which is accompanied by a reduction in locomotor activity and food consumption in rats. We provide further evidence that clenbuterol-induced activation of the central IL-1 system occurs in a controlled and selective manner in tandem with its negative regulators IL-1ra and IL-1RII. Furthermore, we demonstrate that peripheral β2-adrenoceptors mediate the suppression of locomotor activity and food consumption induced by clenbuterol and that these effects are not linked to the central induction of IL-1β. Moreover, despite increasing central IL-1β expression, chronic administration of clenbuterol (0.03mg/kg; twice daily for 21days) fails to induce anxiety or depressive-like behaviour in rats in contrast to reports of the ability of exogenously administered IL-1 to induce these symptoms in rodents. Overall, our findings suggest that clenbuterol or other selective β2-adrenoceptor agonists could have the potential to combat neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative disorders without inducing unwanted symptoms of depression and anxiety. PMID:26928198

  9. Evidence that 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate provokes fibrillation in perfused rat hearts via voltage-independent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peipei; Umeda, Patrick K; Sharifov, Oleg F; Halloran, Brian A; Tabengwa, Edlue; Grenett, Hernan E; Urthaler, Ferdinand; Wolkowicz, Paul E

    2012-04-15

    We tested whether 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) induces arrhythmia in perfused rat hearts and whether this arrhythmia might result from the activation of voltage-independent calcium channels. Rat hearts were Langendorff perfused and beat under sinus rhythm. An isovolumic balloon inserted into the left ventricle was used to record mechanical function while bipolar electrograms were recorded from electrodes sutured to the base and the apex of hearts. Western and immunofluorescence analyses were performed on rat left ventricular protein extracts and left ventricular frozen sections, respectively. Rat ventricular myocytes express Orai 1 and Orai 3, and ventricle also contains the Orai regulator Stim1. Rat hearts (n=5) perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) alone maintained sinus rhythm at 4.8 ± 0.1 Hz and stable mechanical function. By contrast, perfusing hearts (n=5) with (KH+22 μM 2-APB) provoked a period of tachycardic ectopy at rates of up to 10.8 ± 0.2 Hz. As perfusion with (KH+22 μM 2-APB) continued, the rate of spontaneous ventricular depolarization increased to 21.8 ± 1.2 Hz and became disorganized. Heart mechanical function collapsed as developed pressure decreased from 87 ± 8.8 to 3.5 ± 1.9 mm Hg. Flow rate did not change between normal (16.6 ± 0.9 ml/min) and fibrillating (17.4 ± 0.8 ml/min) hearts. The addition of 20 μM 1-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl) propoxy]ethyl-1H-imidazole (SKF-96365) to (KH+22 μM 2-APB) perfusates (n=4) restored sinus rhythm and heart mechanical output. These data indicate that activating myocardial voltage-independent calcium channels, possibly the Orais, may be a novel cause of ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:22366212

  10. EXPERIENCES OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) INGESTION: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Harris, Shana L.; Dyer, Jo E.

    2008-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a significant new drug of abuse added to the United States Controlled Substance Act in 2000. The majority of the published literature on GHB consists of clinical case reports, mainly from emergency departments, and a collection of laboratory-based studies, focused mainly on anesthesia. While comments about the various experiences and behaviors of human users are often included in such studies or reports, these aspects of GHB are only just beginning to be systematically investigated or detailed. Reported here are data from a qualitative study using focus group methods on the consumption habits, experiences, and beliefs of GHB users. A total of 51 people, 30 men and 21 women, mean age of 31.1±7.6 years (range 18 – 52 years), who report having used GHB for an average of 4.3±2.5 years (range 1–11 years), were interviewed in 10 separate groups held in 2004. This paper discusses broadly the general experience of the GHB ‘high,’ major perceived benefits including sexual responses to the drug, perceived risks and dangers of ingestion, co-ingestion, and various contexts of use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB. PMID:17703706

  11. A case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, You Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Ma, Jeong Eun; Lee, Gi Dong; Cho, Yu Ji; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deok; Hwang, Young Sil; Jeong, Yi Yeong

    2010-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction, often with an explosive onset; the symptoms range from mild flushing to upper respiratory obstruction, with or without vascular collapse. Foods are common offending allergens and remain the leading cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most surveys. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant native to the Andes region, where its root is cultivated and consumed mainly as food. Unlike most edible roots, yacon contains large amounts of ructooligosaccharides. Traditionally, yacon tubers have been used as a source of natural sweetener and syrup for people suffering from various disorders. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed syncope and generalized urticaria after ingesting yacon roots. The patient had positive skin prick and intradermal tests to yacon extract. An open food challenge test was performed to confirm food anaphylaxis and was positive 10 minutes after the consumption of yacon roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon roots. PMID:20358031

  12. A Case of Anaphylaxis After the Ingestion of Yacon

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, You Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Ma, Jeong Eun; Lee, Gi Dong; Cho, Yu Ji; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deok; Hwang, Young Sil

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction, often with an explosive onset; the symptoms range from mild flushing to upper respiratory obstruction, with or without vascular collapse. Foods are common offending allergens and remain the leading cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most surveys. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant native to the Andes region, where its root is cultivated and consumed mainly as food. Unlike most edible roots, yacon contains large amounts of ructooligosaccharides. Traditionally, yacon tubers have been used as a source of natural sweetener and syrup for people suffering from various disorders. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed syncope and generalized urticaria after ingesting yacon roots. The patient had positive skin prick and intradermal tests to yacon extract. An open food challenge test was performed to confirm food anaphylaxis and was positive 10 minutes after the consumption of yacon roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon roots. PMID:20358031

  13. Tracheoesophageal fistula following disc battery ingestion and foreign body impaction

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Seyyedi, Javad; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh; Razavi, Sajad; Talebian, Mahshid

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ingestion of foreign bodies may result in the formation of a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), which causes severe morbidity in children. We describe four cases of TEF, who underwent emergent surgery for repair. Case presentation: In this report, we present about four patients aged between 9 months to 2.5 years, who referred due to disc battery ingestion. There were two boys and two girls. The common symptoms were cough, cyanosis, and dysphagia, choking and vomiting. The diagnosis was performed through an x-ray, barium swallow and CT Scan. All batteries were impacted in the esophagus, two in upper, one in the middle, and one in lower esophagus position. All disc batteries were removed endoscopically, but had tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). All the patients underwent TEF repaired surgically. There was no morbidity in four patients, but one patient developed moderate esophageal stenosis, which was repaired by staged dilatation. There was no mortality in our cases. Conclusion: Long-term impaction of foreign bodies may result in tracheoesophageal fistula. This complication may be seen earlier with alkaline disc batteries. Removal of these foreign bodies should be followed carefully for the diagnosis and treatment of these fistulas. PMID:24551442

  14. Laryngeal oedema caused by accidental ingestion of Oil of Wintergreen.

    PubMed

    Botma, M; Colquhoun-Flannery, W; Leighton, S

    2001-05-11

    Oil of Wintergreen (methyl salicylate) is a common ingredient for liniments, ointments and essential oils used in self-treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Its pleasant smell also encourages its use to flavour confectionery. The toxic potential of this preparation is not always fully appreciated by the general public and physicians. To appreciate the danger of this oil it can be compared to aspirin tablets (325 mg dose): one teaspoon (5 ml) of Oil of Wintergreen is equivalent to approximately 7000 mg of salicylate or 21.7 adult aspirin tablets. Ingestion of as little as 4 ml in a child can be fatal. Prevention of accidental ingestion of methyl salicylate containing products can be achieved by keeping the products out of reach of children, using child resistant bottles, restricting the size of the openings of the bottles, appropriate labeling on products and reducing the salicylate content. Immediate action should be taken to treat a patient with accidental poisoning and hospitalisation is needed for monitoring and treatment. The danger of this product should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. We present a case of Oil of Wintergreen poisoning with development of laryngeal oedema as a complication, general information and management issues will also be discussed. PMID:11335011

  15. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species. PMID:25986654

  16. Radiation dose assessment from ingestion pathway in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.R.A.F.; Abulfaraj, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Levels of radioactivities in foodstuffs in the local market have been measured for the period from November 1987 until end of June 1988. Out of the 674 samples analyzed there were 83 milk powder, 85 infant milk powder, 54 infant cereals, 89 meat, 16 lentils, 14 wheat, and 26 macaroni samples. The average radioactivity concentration of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, in these samples in Bq/kg were 19, 13, 18, 6, 10, 25 and 13 respectively. The rest adults and infant foodstuffs had negligible radioactivity levels. The calculated annual doses from ingestion pathway due to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs for adults were 3.13 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv while for one year old infant they were 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv respectively. The estimated accumulated dose for 50 years from {sup 90}Sr due to one year food ingestion for adults and one year old infants were 3.76 {times} 3.76 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 5.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv respectively.

  17. Postmortem changes of ingested thinner components in tissues.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Nagata, T; Kato, K; Kudo, K; Imamura, T

    1991-06-01

    Postmortem changes of thinner components in body tissues were examined in rats, orally given 1 ml of standard thinner solution, which was prepared by mixing toluene, ethyl acetate and isobutanol in the proportion of 8:1:1. Analysis was made by gas chromatography combined with the head space method. Three thinner components and ethanol, a metabolite of ethyl acetate, were detected in the gastric contents of all rats up until 48 hours after death. An increase in the concentration of toluene was found in the blood, lung, kidney, liver, brain and abdominal muscle with the lapse of time. On the other hand, no changes were observed in the thigh muscle throughout the 48-hour period. Isobutanol showed a similar increasing pattern to toluene, with little or no changes in the brain or in the thigh muscle. Ethyl acetate was not detected in any tissues throughout the study but it was found in the gastric contents. The results indicate that every thinner component ingested, gradually diffuses into the surrounding tissues through the stomach wall after death, and that only muscle tissue remote from the abdominal cavity, together with the gastric contents, should be analyzed for a correct diagnosis of thinner ingestion. PMID:1920928

  18. Ontogeny of glucose inhibition of independent ingestion in preweanling rats.

    PubMed

    Phifer, C B; Browde, J A; Hall, W G

    1986-11-01

    Rat pups that have been maternally and nutritionally deprived will vigorously ingest diet infused directly into the mouth. The development of nutritive controls in this form of ingestion was examined by administering nutritive and non-nutritive gastric preloads to 6- and 15-day-old pups. In 6 day-old pups, nutritive gastric preloads (0.6 M glucose in distilled H2O or saline) and vehicle preloads were followed by similar intakes; only the change in hydrational state caused by distilled H2O loads appeared to affect intake. By 15 days of age, intake following nutritive preloads was less than intake following non-nutritive preloads. Also, at 15 days, stomach volume at the termination of intake was less following nutritive preloads. In a separate experiment with 6-day-old pups, gastric preloads of an alternative energy source, the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate, also failed to inhibit intake when given at a dose that did not cause excessive gastric distension. These results indicate that a nutritive control of intake termination in rats is not present at 6 days of age but develops by 15 days of age. PMID:3801929

  19. [Case of alkaline esophagitis due to sodium hypochlorite ingestion].

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Toru; Yoshioka, Hayato; Kanemura, Takashi; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Hasegawa, Eijyu; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi

    2010-12-01

    The severity of alkaline esophagitis due to sodium hypochlorite ingestion is variable and the findings of endoscope within 48 hours of ingestion are reported to be associated with its prognosis. We report a good recovery case of grade 2B of alkaline esophagitis, which was treated with close observation. The patient was 59-year old man. He was found lying on the bed by his wife, after drinking bactericidal agents (Jianok) and kitchen cleaner (Magiclean) for suicide attempt. After his trachea was intubated, he underwent upper gastrointestinal scope, which displayed circumferential ulcers at the lower esophagus. He was diagnosed as having a Grade 2B alkaline esophagitis, which was associated with a higher probability of stricture or perforation. On the 14th day of the admission, the 2nd endoscope was performed and no esophageal strictures were detected. He was extubated and started oral feeding on the 15th day. After that, his hospital course was uneventful and was discharged on the 18th day. 6 months have passed since he left hospital. No esophageal strictures were detected so far. PMID:21268820

  20. Case of multiple organ failure due to benzine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Syuji; Namiki, Mizuho; Harada, Tomoyuki; Takeda, Munekazu; Moroi, Ryuichi; Yaguchi, Arino

    2013-09-01

    A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our ICU for acute respiratory failure due to benzine ingestion. On arrival at the hospital, the patient's consciousness level was GCS 3 and her SpO2 was 89% when receiving oxygen at 10 L/min. She was immediately intubated and placed on a ventilator. Chest X-ray and CT scanning showed a wide infiltrative pulmonary shadow bilaterally, and a diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was made. Subsequently, she became anuric and required haemodiafiltration on the 2nd day. Complications such as prolonged circulatory failure, liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were then observed, and plasma exchange therapy was initiated. The patient's condition improved and a complete recovery ensued. The patient remained suicidal and was moved to the psychiatric ward for psychiatric support. Benzine is purified oil containing aliphatic hydrocarbons and is liquid at room temperature. In this case, the patient had already ARDS that required immediate intubation on arrival at the hospital. On this basis, aspiration of benzine into the lungs was considered to have occurred concomitantly with its ingestion, which therefore led to the complication of chemical pneumonitis in addition to that of circulatory shock, acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction and DIC. PMID:24224388

  1. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  2. HINCOF-1: a Code for Hail Ingestion in Engine Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalaswamy, N.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major concerns during hail ingestion into an engine is the resulting amount and space- and time-wise distribution of hail at the engine face for a given geometry of inlet and set of atmospheric and flight conditions. The appearance of hail in the capture streamtube is invariably random in space and time, with respect to size and momentum. During the motion of a hailstone through an inlet, a hailstone undergoes several processes, namely impact with other hailstones and material surfaces of the inlet and spinner, rolling and rebound following impact; heat and mass transfer; phase change; and shattering, the latter three due to friction and impact. Taking all of these factors into account, a numerical code, designated HINCOF-I, has been developed for determining the motion hailstones from the atmosphere, through an inlet, and up to the engine face. The numerical procedure is based on the Monte-Carlo method. The report presents a description of the code, along with several illustrative cases. The code can be utilized to relate the spinner geometry - conical or, more effective, elliptical - to the possible diversion of hail at the engine face into the bypass stream. The code is also useful for assessing the influence of various hail characteristics on the ingestion and distribution of hailstones over the engine face.

  3. Endoscopic pyloroplasty for severe gastric outlet obstruction due to alkali ingestion in a child.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Aldaghi, Mitra; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    A common belief is that alkali ingestion causes severe esophageal damage and limited gastric injury due to the buffering action of acid. Gastric injury has been observed in patients who ingested alkali. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) secondary to caustic ingestion occurs due to fibrosis after resolution of the acute injury and inflammation, most commonly 6 to 12 weeks after initial ingestion. The traditional treatment for GOO related to ingestion of corrosive agents is surgery. Experience with endoscopic balloon dilation of corrosive-induced GOO is limited in children. This is the first report of endoscopic pyloroplasty in a child with GOO due to caustic alkalis ingestion that was treated with balloon dilation (using TTS balloon ranging from 6-15 mm) in Iran. Four dilation sessions were required for symptomatic relief of dysphagia. After one year of follow up, weight gain was normal. PMID:26744617

  4. Endoscopic pyloroplasty for severe gastric outlet obstruction due to alkali ingestion in a child

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Aldaghi, Mitra; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    A common belief is that alkali ingestion causes severe esophageal damage and limited gastric injury due to the buffering action of acid. Gastric injury has been observed in patients who ingested alkali. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) secondary to caustic ingestion occurs due to fibrosis after resolution of the acute injury and inflammation, most commonly 6 to 12 weeks after initial ingestion. The traditional treatment for GOO related to ingestion of corrosive agents is surgery. Experience with endoscopic balloon dilation of corrosive-induced GOO is limited in children. This is the first report of endoscopic pyloroplasty in a child with GOO due to caustic alkalis ingestion that was treated with balloon dilation (using TTS balloon ranging from 6-15 mm) in Iran. Four dilation sessions were required for symptomatic relief of dysphagia. After one year of follow up, weight gain was normal. PMID:26744617

  5. Micropinocytic Ingestion of Glycosylated Albumin by Isolated Microvessels: Possible Role in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Microangiopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Stuart K.; Devenny, James J.; Bitensky, Mark W.

    1981-04-01

    Microvessels isolated from rat epididymal fat exhibit differential vesicular ingestion rates for unmodified and nonenzymatically glycosylated rat albumin. While unmodified rat albumin is excluded from ingestion by endothelial micropinocytic vesicles, glycosylated albumin is avidly taken up by endocytosis. Interaction of albumin and glycosylated albumin with endothelium was studied with a double-label fluorescence assay of micropinocytosis. When glycosylated albumin was present at a concentration of 6% with respect to total albumin (the level found in ``non diabetic'' serum), only glycosylated albumin was ingested. At higher concentrations of glycosylated albumin (those found in diabetic serum), both albumin and glycosylated albumin are ingested. Glycosylation of endothelial membrane components results in stimulated ingestion of glycosylated albumin, persistent exclusion of unmodified albumin, and unaltered micropinocytic ingestion of native ferritin. These results indicate that nonenzymatic glycosylation of serum albumin may result in rapid vesicle-mediated extravasation of albumin. Chronic microvascular leakage of glycosylated albumin could contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.

  6. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. PMID:27058965

  7. The effects of grit supplementation and feed type on steel-shot ingestion in mallards.

    PubMed

    Mateo, R; Guitart, R

    2000-04-28

    Lead poisoning by shot-pellet ingestion is an important cause of death in waterfowl from wetlands that have high densities of lead-shot pellets and low availabilities of grit in their sediments. To evaluate grit supplementation when mixed with baited grain as a method of reducing shot ingestion in waterfowl, 24 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were kept in captivity to study the relationship between steel-shot, grit and grain ingestion in four experiments. Steel-shot ingestion was more related to seeking grit than to feeding on grain, and it did not differ between two types of grain offered (rice or sorghum). Grit ingestion increased with grit supplementation and shot ingestion was only slightly reduced. Calcareous grit used in the experiments had a shorter half-life (1.4 days) in the gizzard than values reported for siliceous grit (3.1 days). PMID:10760404

  8. Rebound severe methemoglobinemia from ingestion of a nitroethane artificial-fingernail remover.

    PubMed

    Osterhoudt, K C; Wiley, C C; Dudley, R; Sheen, S; Henretig, F M

    1995-05-01

    We describe life-threatening methemoglobinemia in a child who ingested a nitroethane artificial-fingernail remover initially mistaken to be an acetone-based polish remover. Nitroethane-induced methemoglobinemia may be delayed and recurrent; patients ingesting this substance may warrant close observation for at least 24 hours. Care givers are cautioned to determine the precise substance involved in ingestions of potentially toxic fingernail products. PMID:7752015

  9. Renal failure and corrosive airway and gastrointestinal injury after ingestion of diluted diquat solution.

    PubMed

    Tanen, D A; Curry, S C; Laney, R F

    1999-10-01

    A 66-year-old man ingested 200 mL of Dexol Industries Weed and Grass Killer Concentrate (Torrance, CA), which contains 1.84% diquat dibromide, a herbicide structurally similar to paraquat. He remained asymptomatic for 8 hours, and then a sore throat and vomiting developed. Twenty hours after ingestion, esophagitis, mucositis, epiglottitis, and acute renal failure developed, from which he slowly recovered. This is the first report of systemic diquat toxicity from ingestion of a diluted diquat solution. PMID:10499956

  10. Drug Ingestions in Children 10-14 Years Old: An Old Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Wendy; Gittelman, Michael; Farris, Sarah; Frey, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    To determine changes in rates of drug ingestions in 10-14 year old children in our country, a retrospective chart review of 10-14 year olds hospitalized for drug ingestion between 1993-1995 and 2000-2004 was performed. Odds ratios and Chi-square were used for analyses. From 1993-1995 there were 92.8 ingestions/100,000 children/year; from 2000-2004…

  11. Lead concentrations in livers of Maryland waterfowl with and without ingested lead shot present in gizzards

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, P.F.; Stotts, V.D.; Oderwald, R.G.; Dietrick, T.J.; Kendall, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    The significance of lead poisoning in waterfowl caused by ingestion of spent lead shot has long been recognized, as has the adverse impact on waterfowl populations. The present report is concerned with comparison of liver lead concentrations in 14 species of waterfowl with and without ingested lead shot present in their gizzards. The data presented indicate that higher concentrations of lead are found in those waterfowl with ingested lead shot and that analysis of liver lead concentrations reveals that substantial numbers of waterfowl have high concentrations, indicative of recent acute dosing, without presence of ingested lead shot in gizzards.

  12. Toxicity from ingestion of Jatropha curcas ('saboo dum') seeds in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Chomchai, Chulathida; Kriengsunthornkij, Worapan; Sirisamut, Thanakorn; Nimsomboon, Thanapon; Rungrueng, Wuttichet; Silpasupagornwong, Uraiwan

    2011-07-01

    Jatropha curcas is widely cultivated in Thailand, the seeds of which yield high quality oil used for biodiesel production. Toxicity due to ingestion of Jatropha curcas has become more common among children due to the close proximity between cultivation and residential areas. We report 10 calls made over a 40-month period to the Siriraj Poison Control Center involving 75 children ages 2-14 years who experienced toxicity after ingesting various amounts of Jatropha beans. The amounts ingested, presenting symptoms, pertinent laboratory findings and their collective dispositions are reported. A brief review of recent published literature on toxicity due to ingestion of Jatropha curcas was also done. PMID:22299477

  13. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other related conditions by provoking a mild infection to be controlled by the immune system itself.

    PubMed

    Halabe Bucay, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    When rheumatoid arthritis presents, the immune system overcompensates and acts attacking the joints and the body in general, the same thing occurs with other autoimmune diseases; the immunological mechanisms that manifest in these diseases have been identified, but there is still no explanation as to why this occurs. This article will present a hypothesis that is based on provoking a mild infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and other related autoimmune diseases, an infection that does not result in serious consequences to the health of the patients, but does generate an immunological response, in this manner, the immune system itself, which is overcompensating, will fight the provoked infection instead of causing damage to the body itself. PMID:17280795

  14. Acute Stimulant Ingestion and Neurocognitive Performance in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Concussion management has become an area of great concern in athletics, and neurocognitive tests, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), are commonly used as management tools. Given the restrictive nature of current management plans, anecdotal concerns have been raised about athletes trying to cheat the assessments and return to participation sooner. Stimulants have been shown to improve neurocognitive measures similar to those used in ImPACT. Therefore, they could possibly improve performance during baseline and postinjury testing. Objective: To examine the effects of a supplement containing stimulants on ImPACT performance. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 5 men (age = 20.6 ± 1.5 years, height = 176.3 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 76.9 ± 18.6 kg) and 7 women (age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, height = 162.9 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 60.9 ± 8.2 kg) with no histories of physician-diagnosed head injury, learning disability, or attention-deficit disorder. Intervention(s): Participants were assessed under supplement (5.5 g of Jacked 3D, which contains caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine), placebo, and control conditions separated by 1 week. Main Outcome Measure(s): I compared ImPACT composite scores for verbal and visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control, and a cognitive-efficiency index under each of the 3 conditions and assessed them 30 minutes after ingestion. Results: I observed a difference when comparing reaction times, as the participants reacted faster during the supplement condition (0.53 ± 0.03 seconds) than during the placebo (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) and control (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) conditions (F2,22 = 4.31, P = .03). A difference also was observed for the cognitive-efficiency index, as participants scored higher during the supplement condition (0.49 ± 0.09) than during the placebo (0.41 ± 0.10) and control (0.41 ± 0.12) conditions (F2,22 = 4

  15. Visceral Hypersensitivity Is Provoked by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-Induced Ileitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manoj K.; Wan, Juan; Janyaro, Habibullah; Tahir, Adnan H.; Cui, Luying; Ding, Ming-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD), a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS)-induced ileitis rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48), an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24), and Saline (n = 24), respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR) to 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD) at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6), and dorsal root ganglia (T11) for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05) VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05) in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats. Conclusion: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  16. Calculations of hot gas ingestion for a STOVL aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricker, David M.; Holdeman, James D.; Vanka, Surya P.

    1992-01-01

    Hot gas ingestion problems for Short Take-Off, Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft are typically approached with empirical methods and experience. In this study, the hot gas environment around a STOVL aircraft was modeled as multiple jets in crossflow with inlet suction. The flow field was calculated with a Navier-Stokes, Reynolds-averaged, turbulent, 3D computational fluid dynamics code using a multigrid technique. A simple model of a STOVL aircraft with four choked jets at 1000 K was studied at various heights, headwind speeds, and thrust splay angles in a modest parametric study. Scientific visualization of the computed flow field shows a pair of vortices in front of the inlet. This and other qualitative aspects of the flow field agree well with experimental data.

  17. A case of carotenemia associated with ingestion of nutrient supplements.

    PubMed

    Takita, Yuko; Ichimiya, Makoto; Hamamoto, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masahiko

    2006-02-01

    Carotenemia is characterized by an abnormal yellowish orange pigmentation of the skin, most prominently seen on the palms and soles. Although it is associated with several disease such as diabetes, hypothyroidism and anorexia nervosa, it is caused by excessive intake of carotene-rich food such as oranges and carrots in most cases. Herein, we describe an interesting case of carotenemia in a 66-year-old female secondary to increased ingestion of oral supplements of carotene in order to improve hemorrhage in the eyeground. There could be an increasing trend of intake of commercial nutrient supplements in which case it is necessary to remind ourselves that commercial nutrient supplements could cause various skin disorders as side-effects. PMID:16556283

  18. Acute renal failure and intravascular hemolysis following henna ingestion.

    PubMed

    Qurashi, Hala E A; Qumqumji, Abbas A A; Zacharia, Yasir

    2013-05-01

    The powder of henna plant (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) is extensively used as a decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a hair dye. Most reports of henna toxicity have been attributed to adding a synthetic dye para-phenylenediamine (PPD). PPD is marketed as black henna added to natural henna to accentuate the dark color and shorten the application time. PPD toxicity is well known and extensively reported in medical literature. We report a case of a young Saudi male who presented with characteristic features of acute renal failure and intravascular hemolysis following ingestion of henna mixture. Management of PPD poisoning is only supportive and helpful only if instituted early. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion, as the clinical features are quite distinctive. PMID:23640630

  19. [Acute liver failure after ingestion of death cap mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Anna-Maria; Kabar, Iyad; Mitchell, Todd; Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available. We report on three patients who suffered from amatoxin mushroom poisoning after ingestion of green death cap mushrooms. Based on the pathophysiology of amatoxin poisoning, we discuss a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:27359312

  20. Acute cholinergic syndrome following ingestion of contaminated herbal extract.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, M-J; Yen, Z-S; Chen, S-C; Fang, C-C

    2008-11-01

    Herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular and increasingly used in the USA. Herbs are from natural plants and therefore often considered to be harmless compared with western medicines. Nevertheless, as the use of herbal remedies has risen, so has the incidence of acute and chronic herbal intoxication. The case history is presented of a 68-year-old man who presented with an acute cholinergic syndrome soon after ingesting a herbal preparation containing Flemingia macrophylla and ginseng. His red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity dropped to 50% of the normal reference range. He was treated successfully with atropine and supportive care. It was thought that contamination with pesticides, such as organophosphate residue, was the probable cause. This case highlights the need to be more aware of the possibility of acute pesticide intoxication in herbal users, even when only small amounts are consumed. PMID:18955628

  1. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted. PMID:26403162

  2. Acute respiratory failure due to Nicotiana glauca ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ntelios, D; Kargakis, M; Topalis, T; Drouzas, A; Potolidis, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: A variety of organisms produce potent toxins that impact human health through compromising respiratory function. Case report: We describe a rare case of abrupt respiratory failure afterNicotiana glaucaingestion in a previously healthy sixty years old female patient. She presented complaining for gait instability and malaise after ingestion of cooked leaves of the wild plant and two hours after the onset she developed respiratory failurefor which she was intubated and mechanically ventilated for two days. The patient fully recovered and was discharged from the hospital. Conclusion: Anabasine, the plant’s main active ingredient, can cause severe systemic intoxication due to its nicotinic receptor agonist action with respiratory muscle paralysis being the main effect. PMID:24376330

  3. [Methaemoglobinaemia induced by ingestion of alkyl nitrite, "poppers"].

    PubMed

    Kragsfeldt, Celina Thelberg; Nissen, Christoffer B; Brandt, Frans

    2016-08-22

    We present a case report of an 18-year-old male who was referred to the emergency department with evidence of methaemoglobinaemia. He presented with classic symptoms with peripheral cyanosis and hypoxia. Arterial blood gas showed a methaemoglobin level of 36%. This was caused by ingestion of alkyl nitrate, a widespread party drug called "poppers". When inhaled it causes euphoria, reduced pain and relaxation of the anal sphincter, but oral use may induce life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia. The treatment of choice is the antidote methylene blue. After treatment the patient regained full recovery and was discharged on the following day. We discuss classic symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of intoxication with methylene blue. PMID:27549005

  4. Effects of ethanol ingestion on sperm monosaccharides and fertility.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, V; Aruldhas, M M; Srinivasan, N; Govindarajulu, P; Balasubramanian, K

    1999-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is often associated with reproductive disorders. Sperm monosaccharides play an indispensable role in sperm-egg interactions and fertilization. Ethanol (3 g/kg body weight as 25%, v/v) was given by gastric intubation twice daily for 30 days while in another group, rats which had been treated with ethanol were withdrawn from treatment for a further period of 30 days, in order to assess the reversibility of the ethanol-induced effects. Epididymal ethanol content, sperm monosaccharides and the fertility of ethanol treated and ethanol withdrawn rats were assessed. Ethanol ingestion caused a significant decrease in sperm monosaccharides suggesting defective glycosylation of sperm surface proteins. Sperm monosaccharides and fertility were returned to normal following the withdrawal of ethanol. Ethanol-induced changes in sperm monosaccharides may be one of the reasons for the reduced fertility of ethanol treated rats. PMID:10092946

  5. Would decreased aluminum ingestion reduce the incidence of Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, D R; Kruck, T P; Lukiw, W J; Krishnan, S S

    1991-01-01

    Although the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown there is mounting evidence that implicates aluminum as a toxic environmental factor of considerable importance. Four independent lines of evidence--laboratory studies of the effects of intracerebral aluminum on the cognitive and memory performance of animals, biochemical studies, epidemiologic studies and the slowing of the progress of the disease with the use of an agent that removes aluminum from the body--now support the concept that aluminum is one of the pathogenic factors in AD. The evidence warrants serious consideration of reducing human exposure to aluminum. We hypothesize that a public health effort to restrict human ingestion of aluminum would reduce the incidence of this common chronic illness in the elderly. PMID:1822096

  6. Hypercalcemia in a Dog with Chronic Ingestion of Maxacalcitol Ointment.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Tohyama, Nobuo; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Morishita, Keitaro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A miniature dachshund male with severe azotemia of unknown cause was referred. Serum biochemistry revealed severe azotemia and hypercalcemia, but serum intact parathormone and parathormone-related protein were normal. Although the owner reported that the dog had never ingested any drugs or supplements, it was revealed that the owner's son used antipsoriatic ointment, maxacalcitol, which contained an active vitamin D3 analogue, daily and the dog often ate the son's dander and licked his skin, especially after he applied the maxacalcitol ointment. After the dog was insulated from the maxacalcitol ointment and the son as much as possible, the hypercalcemia and azotemia improved gradually and had mostly resolved at 3 mo. The dog has been generally free of clinical signs without any treatment for over 2 yr. PMID:27259026

  7. Boundary-layer-ingesting inlet flow control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R. (Inventor); Allan, Brian G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for reducing distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane of a boundary-layer-ingesting inlet using a combination of active and passive flow control devices is disclosed. Active flow control jets and vortex generating vanes are used in combination to reduce distortion across a range of inlet operating conditions. Together, the vortex generating vanes can reduce most of the inlet distortion and the active flow control jets can be used at a significantly reduced control jet mass flow rate to make sure the inlet distortion stays low as the inlet mass flow rate varies. Overall inlet distortion, measured and described as average SAE circumferential distortion descriptor, was maintained at a value of 0.02 or less. Advantageous arrangements and orientations of the active flow control jets and the vortex generating vanes were developed using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel experimentations.

  8. [Systemic reaction after pine processionary caterpillar ingestion. Conservative management?].

    PubMed

    Casado Verrier, Esther; Carro Rodríguez, Miguel A; de la Parte Cancho, María; Piñeiro Pérez, Roi

    2016-06-01

    The larval form of the moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, known as pine processionary caterpillar, is one of the main forest pests in southern Europe. Often, these caterpillars cause local reactions in humans, due to their microscopic stinging hairs. Most symptoms affect skin, in form of acute urticaria. Systemic reactions are rare. An eleven month old infant with a systemic reaction after ingestion of a pine processionary caterpillar is presented. The boy reached the Emergency Room with orofacial edema, drooling and urticaria. Drug treatment was enough to resolve the symptoms. The patient did not present airway commitment, nor anaphylaxis data at any moment, so more aggressive actions, such as endotracheal intubation, endoscopy or laryngoscopy, were rejected. PMID:27164346

  9. Alcohol sensory processing and its relevance for ingestion.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Castro, Norma; Feretic, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol possesses complex sensory attributes that are first detected by the body via sensory receptors and afferent fibers that promptly transmit signals to brain areas involved in mediating ingestive motivation, reinforcement, and addictive behavior. Given that the chemosensory cues accompanying alcohol consumption are among the most intimate, consistent, and immediate predictors of alcohol's postabsorptive effects, with experience these stimuli also gain powerful associative incentive value to elicit craving and related physiologic changes, maintenance of ongoing alcohol use, and reinstatement of drug seeking after periods of abstinence. Despite the above, preclinical research has traditionally dichotomized alcohol's taste and postingestive influences as independent regulators of motivation to drink. The present review summarizes current evidence regarding alcohol's ability to directly activate peripheral and central oral chemosensory circuits, relevance for intake of the drug, and provides a framework for moving beyond a dissociation between the sensory and postabsorptive effects of alcohol to understand their neurobiological integration and significance for alcohol addiction. PMID:25304192

  10. Selection of Models for Ingestion Pathway and Relocation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    The area in which intermediate phase protective actions (such as food interdiction and relocation) may be needed following postulated accidents at three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be determined by modeling. The criteria used to select dispersion/deposition models are presented. Several models are considered, including ARAC, MACCS, HOTSPOT, WINDS (coupled with PUFF-PLUME), and UFOTRI. Although ARAC and WINDS are expected to provide more accurate modeling of atmospheric transport following an actual release, analyses consistent with regulatory guidance for planning purposes may be accomplished with comparatively simple dispersion models such as HOTSPOT and UFOTRI. A recommendation is made to use HOTSPOT for non-tritium facilities and UFOTRI for tritium facilities. The most recent Food and Drug Administration Derived Intervention Levels (August 1998) are adopted as evaluation guidelines for ingestion pathways.

  11. Selection of Models for Ingestion Pathway and Relocation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1999-02-01

    The area in which intermediate phase protective actions (such as food interdiction and relocation) may be needed following postulated accidents at three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be determined by modeling. The criteria used to select dispersion/deposition models are presented. Several models are considered, including ARAC, MACCS, HOTSPOT, WINDS (coupled with PUFF-PLUME), and UFOTRI. Although ARAC and WINDS are expected to provide more accurate modeling of atmospheric transport following an actual release, analyses consistent with regulatory guidance for planning purposes may be accomplished with comparatively simple dispersion models such as HOTSPOT and UFOTRI. A recommendation is made to use HOTSPOT for non-tritium facilities and UFOTRI for tritium facilities. The most recent Food and Drug Administration Derived Intervention Levels (August 1998) are adopted as evaluation guidelines for ingestion pathways.

  12. Co-ingestion of herbal medicines and warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay; Ernst, Edzard; Ewings, Paul; Myers, Patrick; Smith, Calli

    2004-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of patients use herbal remedies with a potential to interact with prescribed drugs. Such interactions can be dangerous, particularly if the therapeutic window of the prescribed drug is small, as with warfarin. Aims: Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of the use of herbal medicines by patients taking warfarin (co-ingestion). Design of study: Postal questionnaire. Setting: General practices in the South West of England. Method: Thirty-five general practices in Devon and Somerset identified 2600 patients taking warfarin and sent postal questionnaires to them. Results: One thousand, three hundred and sixty usable responses were received (response rate = 54.2%). One or more of the specified herbal remedies thought to interact with warfarin were taken by 8.8% of all patients. Complementary or homeopathic treatments not specified in the survey questionnaire were taken by 14.3% of responders. Overall, 19.2% of responders were taking one or more such medicines. The use of herbal medicines had not been discussed with a conventional healthcare professional by 92.2% of patients. Twenty-eight point three per cent of responders thought that herbal medicines might or definitely could interfere with other drugs prescribed by their doctor, however, patients taking any non-prescribed medication were less likely to believe this (χ2 = 20, degrees of freedom = 1, P<0.001). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of patients taking warfarin in southwest England self-medicate with both herbal medicines that are thought to interact with warfarin and with others of unknown effect, usually without informing their healthcare team. Patients have a responsibility to mention such non-prescribed medication to their general practitioners, and general practitioners also have a responsibility to ask whether such co-ingestion is occurring. PMID:15186565

  13. Does acute caffeine ingestion alter brain metabolism in young adults?

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pekar, James J; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-04-15

    Caffeine, as the most commonly used stimulant drug, improves vigilance and, in some cases, cognition. However, the exact effect of caffeine on brain activity has not been fully elucidated. Because caffeine has a pronounced vascular effect which is independent of any neural effects, many hemodynamics-based methods such as fMRI cannot be readily applied without a proper calibration. The scope of the present work is two-fold. In Study 1, we used a recently developed MRI technique to examine the time-dependent changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) following the ingestion of 200mg caffeine. It was found that, despite a pronounced decrease in CBF (p<0.001), global CMRO2 did not change significantly. Instead, the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was significantly elevated (p=0.002) to fully compensate for the reduced blood supply. Using the whole-brain finding as a reference, we aim to investigate whether there are any regional differences in the brain's response to caffeine. Therefore, in Study 2, we examined regional heterogeneities in CBF changes following the same amount of caffeine ingestion. We found that posterior brain regions such as posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal regions manifested a slower CBF reduction, whereas anterior brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial frontal cortex showed a faster rate of decline. These findings have a few possible explanations. One is that caffeine may result in a region-dependent increase or decrease in brain activity, resulting in an unaltered average brain metabolic rate. The other is that caffeine's effect on vasculature may be region-specific. Plausibility of these explanations is discussed in the context of spatial distribution of the adenosine receptors. PMID:25644657

  14. Does acute caffeine ingestion alter brain metabolism in young adults?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pekar, James J.; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine, as the most commonly used stimulant drug, improves vigilance and, in some cases, cognition. However, the exact effect of caffeine on brain activity has not been fully elucidated. Because caffeine has a pronounced vascular effect which is independent of any neural effects, many hemodynamics-based methods such as fMRI cannot be readily applied without a proper calibration. The scope of the present work is two-fold. In Study 1, we used a recently developed MRI technique to examine the time-dependent changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) following the ingestion of 200mg caffeine. It was found that, despite a pronounced decrease in CBF (p<0.001), global CMRO2 did not change significantly. Instead, the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was significantly elevated (p=0.002) to fully compensate for the reduced blood supply. Using the whole-brain finding as a reference, we aim to investigate whether there are any regional differences in the brain’s response to caffeine. Therefore, in Study 2, we examined regional heterogeneities in CBF changes following the same amount of caffeine ingestion. We found that posterior brain regions such as posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal regions manifested a slower CBF reduction, whereas anterior brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial frontal cortex showed a faster rate of decline. These findings have a few possible explanations. One is that caffeine may result in a region-dependent increase or decrease in brain activity, resulting in an unaltered average brain metabolic rate. The other is that caffeine’s effect on vasculature may be region-specific. Plausibility of these explanations is discussed in the context of spatial distribution of the adenosine receptors. PMID:25644657

  15. Influences of casein hydrolysate ingestion on cerebral activity, autonomic nerve activity, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hirohiko; Iwamoto, Mario; Washida, Kenji; Sekine, Kazunori; Takase, Mitsunori; Park, Bum-Jin; Morikawa, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influences of the oral ingestion of casein hydrolysate from bovine milk at rest physiologically and psychologically. Eleven male university students were given a casein hydrolysate drink (H) or a maltitol drink as a control (C) in a crossover study. Just before and one hour after ingestion of each drink, the total-hemoglobin (tHb) concentrations at ten points of the prefrontal cortex to evaluate cerebral activity, and heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate autonomic nerve activity through spectral analysis were measured as physiological indicators. The Japanese version of the State--Trait Anxiety Inventory--state anxiety (STAI-s) score was also used, as a psychological indicator. In comparison between H and C ingestion, a significant difference is observed only in tHb concentrations at one of ten points. At this point, the change in tHb concentration was lower after H ingestion compared to C ingestion. And in comparison between before and after ingestion of each drink, a significant increase in tHb concentration at two points after C ingestion, a significant increase in parasympathetic activity and decrease in sympathetic activity after H ingestion, and a significant decrease in STAI-s score in H ingestion were observed. These results suggest that ingestion of the casein hydrolysate may keep prefrontal cortex activity stable while maltitol ingestion partially increases the activity. Moreover, there is a possibility that casein hydrolysate might decrease sympathetic activity, increase parasympathetic activity, and lower anxiety. We conclude that the bovine milk casein hydrolysate may have more relaxing effects than maltitol. PMID:20558968

  16. Sediment ingestion rates in waterfowl (Anatidae) and their use in environmental risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Perry, Matthew C.; Osenton, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    When waterfowl (Anatidae) ingest sediment as they feed, they are exposed to the environmental contaminants in those sediments. The rate of ingestion may be key to assessing environmental risk. Rates of sediment ingestion were estimated as from <2% to 22% in 16 species of waterfowl collected in the northeastern United States. The piscivorous red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) ingested sediment at the lowest rate and the benthos-feeding canvasback (Aythya valisineria) at the highest rate. Sediment ingestion rates were related to diet and to the sediments where waterfowl fed. Waterfowl ingested the least sediment from hard-bottomed habitats with fast-moving water and ingested the most sediment from soft-bottomed areas with slow-moving water. Understanding the greater hazards from contaminants associated with low-flow habitats may help in prioritizing sites to be remediated. The tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus), which ingests sediment at an estimated 8.4% of its diet, dry weight, is suggested as a potential generic model for use in environmental risk assessments designed to protect waterfowl.

  17. REDUCTION OF INGESTION EXPOSURE TO TRIHALOMETHANES DUE TO VOLATILIZATION. (R825362)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ingestion of tap water is one of the principal exposure
    pathways for disinfection byproducts (DBPs). One major
    class of DBPs, trihalomethanes (THM), are highly volatile,
    and volatilization will tend to lower ingestion exposures.
    This study quantifies volatilization...

  18. Sediment ingestion rates in waterfowl (Anatidae) and their use in environmental risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    When waterfowl (Anatidae) ingest sediment as they feed, they are exposed to the environmental contaminants in those sediments. The rate of ingestion may be key to assessing environmental risk. Rates of sediment ingestion were estimated as from ,2% to 22% in 16 species of waterfowl collected in the northeastern United States. The piscivorous red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) ingested sediment at the lowest rate and the benthos-feeding canvasback (Aythya valisineria) at the highest rate. Sediment ingestion rates were related to diet and to the sediments where waterfowl fed. Waterfowl ingested the least sediment from hard-bottomed habitats with fast-moving water and ingested the most sediment from soft-bottomed areas with slow-moving water. Understanding the greater hazards from contaminants associated with lowflow habitats may help in prioritizing sites to be remediated. The tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus), which ingests sediment at an estimated 8.4% of its diet, dry weight, is suggested as a potential generic model for use in environmental risk assessments designed to protect waterfowl.

  19. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  20. Review of Ingested and Aspirated Foreign Bodies in Children and Their Clinical Significance for Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Pugmire, Brian S; Lim, Ruth; Avery, Laura L

    2015-01-01

    Ingested and aspirated foreign bodies are a common occurrence in children and are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of ingested and aspirated foreign bodies in children and can be crucial to guiding the clinical management of these patients. Prompt identification and localization of ingested foreign bodies is essential to determining the appropriate treatment, as several types of commonly ingested foreign bodies require urgent removal and others can be managed conservatively. In particular, disk batteries impacted in the esophagus carry a high risk of esophageal injury or perforation; multiple ingested magnets can become attracted to each other across bowel walls and cause bowel perforation and fistula formation; and sharp objects commonly cause complications as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, these ingested foreign bodies warrant aggressive clinical management and therefore radiologists must be familiar with their imaging appearances and clinical implications. Prompt recognition of secondary radiographic signs of foreign-body aspiration is also crucial, as clinical symptoms can sometimes be nonspecific and most aspirated foreign bodies are radiolucent. Overall, radiography is the most important modality in the evaluation of ingested or aspirated foreign bodies; however, fluoroscopy and computed tomography play an ancillary role in complicated cases. It is essential that every radiologist who interprets imaging examinations of children be aware of the imaging appearances of commonly ingested and aspirated foreign bodies and their clinical significance. PMID:26295734

  1. Acute fatal pericardial effusion induced by accidental ingestion of cigarette butts in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A dog was referred for collapse and tachypnea after ingesting cigarette butts. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography indicated pericardial effusion, and an electrocardiogram showed tachycardia, variable QRS complexes, and ventricular premature complexes. This is the first description of fatal pericardial effusion associated with cigarette butt ingestion in a veterinary patient. PMID:26834265

  2. A prospective study of epidemiological risk factors for ingestion of fish bones in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Arulanandam, Shalini; De, Soumen Das; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ingestion of fish bones is a common clinical complaint among adult patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and behavioural risk factors for fish bone ingestion. METHODS Between 2009 and 2010, a physician-administered questionnaire was administered to 112 consecutive patients who presented to the emergency department of an adult tertiary hospital with the complaint of fish bone ingestion. RESULTS The wearing of dentures, the use of utensils to eat fish and the practice of deboning fish in one’s mouth were found to be associated with an increased risk of fish bone ingestion. CONCLUSION To prevent the occurrence of fish bone ingestion and its possible complications, at-risk populations should be advised on the precautions to take when eating boned fish. PMID:26106240

  3. Marine debris ingestion and Thayer's law - The importance of plastic color.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robson G; Andrades, Ryan; Fardim, Lorena M; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2016-07-01

    In recent years marine plastic pollution has gained considerable attention as a significant threat to marine animals. Despite the abundant literature related to marine debris ingestion, only a few studies attempted to understand the factors involved in debris ingestion. Plastic ingestion is commonly attributed to visual similarities of plastic fragments to animal's prey items, such as plastic bags and jellyfish. However, this simple explanation is not always coherent with the variety of debris items ingested and with the species' main prey items. We assess differences in the conspicuousness of plastic debris related to their color using Thayer's law to infer the likelihood that visual foragers detect plastic fragments. We hypothesize that marine animals that perceive floating plastic from below should preferentially ingest dark plastic fragments, whereas animals that perceive floating plastic from above should select for paler plastic fragments. PMID:27131818

  4. Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Christoph D; Löder, Martin G J; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lang, Thomas; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Janke, Michael; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-15

    Plastic ingestion by marine biota has been reported for a variety of different taxa. In this study, we investigated 290 gastrointestinal tracts of demersal (cod, dab and flounder) and pelagic fish species (herring and mackerel) from the North and Baltic Sea for the occurrence of plastic ingestion. In 5.5% of all investigated fishes, plastic particles were detected, with 74% of all particles being in the microplastic (<5mm) size range. The polymer types of all found particles were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Almost 40% of the particles consisted of polyethylene (PE). In 3.4% of the demersal and 10.7% of the pelagic individuals, plastic ingestion was recorded, showing a significantly higher ingestion frequency in the pelagic feeders. The condition factor K was calculated to test differences in the fitness status between individuals with and without ingested plastic, but no direct effect was detected. PMID:26621577

  5. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  6. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias.

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Karima; Ounissi, Mondher; Brahmi, Nozha; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Abdellah, Taieb Ben; El Younsi, Fethi; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2013-05-01

    Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six months following the

  7. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  8. Effects of ethanol ingestion on maternal and fetal glucose homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.K.

    1984-08-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in the offspring of rats fed liqiud diet containing ethanol during gestation (EF group). Weight-matched control dams were given liquid diet either by the pair-fed technique (PF group) or ad libitum (AF group). EF and PF dams showed reduced food consumption and attenuated gain in body weight during the gestation period compared with the AF group. Blood glucose, liver glycogen, and plasma insulin levels were significantly reduced in EF and PF dams. Ethanol ingestion resulted in a significant decrease in litter survival and fetal body weight. At term, EF pups on average showed a 30% decrease in blood glucose levels and 40% decrease in plasma insulin levels compared with AF pups. One hour after birth, EF pups exhibited a marked increase in blood sugar level compared with either control group. Fetal hyperinsulinemia disappeared shortly after delivery in control pups, as expected; however, in EF pups, the fall in plasma insulin level was gradual. Fetal and neonatal plasma glucagon levels were not altered by ethanol exposure in utero. Blood glucose levels remained significantly low at 2 days of age in EF pups, but reached near control values at 4 days of age. Plasma insulin and glucagon were nearly equal in EF and control pups at 2 and 4 days of age. These results show aberrations in blood glucose, plasma insulin, and liver glycogen levels in offspring exposed to ethanol in utero.

  9. Macrophage mitochondrial and stress response to ingestion of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina; Souza, Ana Camila Oliveira; Derengowski, Lorena da Silveira; de Leon-Rodriguez, Carlos; Wang, Bo; Leon-Rivera, Rosiris; Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti; Gonçalves, Teresa; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Human infection with Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn), a common fungal pathogen follows deposition of yeast spores in the lung alveoli. The subsequent host-pathogen interaction can result in either eradication, latency or extra-pulmonary dissemination. Successful control of Cn infection is dependent on host macrophages but macrophages display little ability to kill Cn in vitro. Recently, we reported that ingestion of Cn by mouse macrophages induces early cell cycle progression followed by mitotic arrest, an event that almost certainly reflects host cell damage. The goal of the present work was to understand macrophage pathways affected by Cn toxicity. Infection of macrophages by Cn was associated with alterations in protein translation rate and activation of several stress pathways such as Hypoxia Inducing Factor-1α (HIF-1α), Receptor-interacting Protein 1 (RIP1) and Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF). Concomitantly we observed mitochondrial depolarization in infected macrophages, an observation that was replicated in vivo. We also observed differences in the stress pathways activated depending on macrophage cell type, consistent with the non-specific nature of Cn virulence known to infect phylogenetically distant hosts. Our results indicate that Cn infection impairs multiple host cellular functions and undermines the health of these critical phagocytic cells, which can potentially interfere with their ability to clear this fungal pathogen. PMID:25646306

  10. Effect of chronic hyperghrelinemia on ingestive action of ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Qi, Xiang; Reed, Jason; Ceci, Jeff; Wang, Hui-Qun; Wang, Guiyun; Englander, Ella W; Greeley, George H

    2006-03-01

    The stomach hormone ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Systemic administration of ghrelin will cause elevations in growth hormone (GH) secretion, food intake, adiposity, and body growth. Ghrelin also affects insulin secretion, gastric acid secretion, and gastric motility. Several reports indicate that repeated or continuous activation of GHS-R by exogenous GHSs or ghrelin results in a diminished GH secretory response. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the acute stimulation of food intake by exogenous ghrelin is altered by chronic hyperghrelinemia in transgenic mice that overexpress the human ghrelin gene. The present findings show that the orexigenic action of exogenous ghrelin is not diminished by a chronic hyperghrelinemia and indicate that the food ingestive pathway of the GHS-R is not susceptible to desensitization. In contrast, the epididymal fat pad growth response, like the GH response, to exogenous ghrelin is blunted in ghrelin transgenic mice with chronic hyperghrelinemia. PMID:16210421

  11. Influence of ingested ethanol on Photofrin clearance in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, Donna; Fink, Louis; Stone, Angie; Flock, Stephen T.

    1993-06-01

    A series of experiments have been undertaken to ascertain the influence of dietary additives on the clearance of Photofrin. Post-treatment cutaneous photosensitivity continues to be a significant side effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in humans. Cutaneous photosensitivity in humans is evidenced by erythema and edema in exposed areas. Murine models were chosen to investigate the differences in cutaneous photosensitivity as measured by footpad thickness in the presence or absence of dietary additives. Additionally, radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells were implanted into the subcutaneous space on the dorsal aspect of the foot. In this case, the effect of PDT on tumor growth kinetics was assumed to be proportional to Photofrin concentration. Photofrin concentrations in tumors were measured by HPLC. Serum levels for dietary additives were obtained where analytical methods were available. Ingested ethanol increased the clearance rate of Photofrin as demonstrated by measurements of Photofrin tumor concentration and by failure of RIF tumor to respond to PDT in groups treated with ethanol compared to controls.

  12. Ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls.

    PubMed

    Filho, A Eustáquio; Carvalho, G G P; Pires, A J V; Silva, R R; Santos, P E F; Murta, R M; Pereira, F M

    2014-02-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls. We used thirty-four lambs in their growing phase, aged an average of three months, with mean initial live weight of 17.8±5.2 kg. They were allotted in a completely randomized design with 24 animals kept in individual stalls and 10 animals confined as a group. The experiment lasted for a total of 74 days, and the first 14 days were dedicated to the animals' adaption to the management, facilities and diets. The data collection period lasted 60 days, divided into three 20-d periods for the behavior evaluation. The animals were subjected to five days of visual observation during the experiment period, by the quantification of 24 h a day, with evaluations on the 15th day of each period and an interim evaluation consisting of two consecutive days on the 30th and 31st day of the experiment. The animals confined as a group consumed less (p<0.05) fiber. However, the animals confined individually spent less (p<0.05) time on feeding, rumination and chewing activities and longer in idleness. Therefore, the lower capacity of lambs confined in groups to select their food negatively affects their feeding behavior. PMID:25049953

  13. Neural network interactions and ingestive behavior control during anorexia.

    PubMed

    Watts, Alan G; Salter, Dawna S; Neuner, Christina M

    2007-07-24

    Many models have been proposed over the years to explain how motivated feeding behavior is controlled. One of the most compelling is based on the original concepts of Eliot Stellar whereby sets of interosensory and exterosensory inputs converge on a hypothalamic control network that can either stimulate or inhibit feeding. These inputs arise from information originating in the blood, the viscera, and the telencephalon. In this manner the relative strengths of the hypothalamic stimulatory and inhibitory networks at a particular time dictates how an animal feeds. Anorexia occurs when the balance within the networks consistently favors the restraint of feeding. This article discusses experimental evidence supporting a model whereby the increases in plasma osmolality that result from drinking hypertonic saline activate pathways projecting to neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). These neurons constitute the hypothalamic controller for ingestive behavior, and receive a set of afferent inputs from regions of the brain that process sensory information that is critical for different aspects of feeding. Important sets of inputs arise in the arcuate nucleus, the hindbrain, and in the telencephalon. Anorexia is generated in dehydrated animals by way of osmosensitive projections to the behavior control neurons in the PVH and LHA, rather than by actions on their afferent inputs. PMID:17531275

  14. Bornean orangutan geophagy: analysis of ingested and control soils.

    PubMed

    Mahaney, William C; Hancock, Ronald G V; Aufreiter, Susan; Milner, Michael W; Voros, Joan

    2016-02-01

    Geophagy among orangutans is the most poorly documented in contrast to the knowledge of soil-eating practices of other great ape species. Observations of soil consumption by orangutans in the Sungai Wain Forest Preserve (Wanariset) of Borneo are presented, along with physico-mineral-chemical analyses of the ingested soil in an effort to understand what might stimulate the activity. The consumed soils are: light colored, not excessively weathered by normal standards, higher in the clay size fraction relative to controls, and are comprised of a mix of clay minerals without any specificity of 1:1, 2:1 and/or 2:1:1 (Si:Al) species. The geophagic soils contain chlorides below detection limits, effectively eliminating salt as a stimulus. Soil chemical and geochemical analyses confirm that orangutans prefer soils with pH levels near or above 4.0, while controls are consistently lower (pH = 3.5-4.0), a considerable difference in acidity for at least four out of six soils consumed. Geochemical analysis shows Al, Fe and K are high in the consumed vs control samples; higher Al follows from higher clay percentages in the consumed earth. Iron and K may play physiological roles, but Fe is mostly in the ferrous form (Fe(+2)) and may not be readily taken up by the animals. The preferential choice of consumed samples, with pH above 4.0 and higher clay contents, may promote a more beneficial intestinal environment. PMID:25600229

  15. Ingestive Behavior of Lambs Confined in Individual and Group Stalls

    PubMed Central

    Filho, A. Eustáquio; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Santos, P. E. F.; Murta, R. M.; Pereira, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls. We used thirty-four lambs in their growing phase, aged an average of three months, with mean initial live weight of 17.8±5.2 kg. They were allotted in a completely randomized design with 24 animals kept in individual stalls and 10 animals confined as a group. The experiment lasted for a total of 74 days, and the first 14 days were dedicated to the animals’ adaption to the management, facilities and diets. The data collection period lasted 60 days, divided into three 20-d periods for the behavior evaluation. The animals were subjected to five days of visual observation during the experiment period, by the quantification of 24 h a day, with evaluations on the 15th day of each period and an interim evaluation consisting of two consecutive days on the 30th and 31st day of the experiment. The animals confined as a group consumed less (p<0.05) fiber. However, the animals confined individually spent less (p<0.05) time on feeding, rumination and chewing activities and longer in idleness. Therefore, the lower capacity of lambs confined in groups to select their food negatively affects their feeding behavior. PMID:25049953

  16. Numerical Investigation of a Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Fredericks, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a numerical assessment of the performance of fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion techniques was conducted. This study is an initial investigation into coupling the aerodynamics of the fuselage with a BLI propulsion system to determine if there is sufficient potential to warrant further investigation of this concept. Numerical simulations of flow around baseline, Boundary Layer Controlled (BLC), and propelled boundary layer controlled airships were performed. Computed results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data and previous numerical studies. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on four BLI configurations. The two design variables selected for the parametric study of the new configurations were the inlet area and the inlet to exit area ratio. Current results show that BLI propulsors may offer power savings of up to 85% over the baseline configuration. These interim results include the simplifying assumption that inlet ram drag is negligible and therefore likely overstate the reduction in power. It has been found that inlet ram drag is not negligible and should be included in future analysis.

  17. Chronic alcohol ingestion changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium.

    PubMed

    Downs, Charles A; Trac, David; Brewer, Elizabeth M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2013-01-01

    Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC). The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox) may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM) function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk. PMID:23509726

  18. A Digital Preservation Ingest Parsing Agent for Complex Data Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Don F.

    2006-01-05

    Digital preservation systems are being researched and studied in academia and government-funded efforts all over the world. However, the actual release of a proven production system is still yet to happen. Some efforts have broken ground and present great potential, but major roadblocks still exist. One such obstacle is the complex data object, similar to what is produced by the DOE2000 Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN). This research effort will focus on determining a methodology for extracting a complex data object from the ELN, and transforming that into a standard digital preservation ingest file. This standard file type will be based on the Library of Congress Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard (METS) . A METS file serves as a Submission Information Package (SIP) as defined by the Open Archive Information System (OAIS). In addition to the content information, a complete set of Preservation Description Information (PDI) for the content conformation needs to be collected as well in order to create an Archival Information Package (AIP) which will be used for preservation.

  19. Ghrelin: A link between memory and ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ted M; Suarez, Andrea N; Kanoski, Scott E

    2016-08-01

    Feeding is a highly complex behavior that is influenced by learned associations between external and internal cues. The type of excessive feeding behavior contributing to obesity onset and metabolic deficit may be based, in part, on conditioned appetitive and ingestive behaviors that occur in response to environmental and/or interoceptive cues associated with palatable food. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the neurobiology underlying learned aspects of feeding behavior. The stomach-derived "hunger" hormone, ghrelin, stimulates appetite and food intake and may function as an important biological substrate linking mnemonic processes with feeding control. The current review highlights data supporting a role for ghrelin in mediating the cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie conditioned feeding behavior. We discuss the role of learning and memory on food intake control (with a particular focus on hippocampal-dependent memory processes) and provide an overview of conditioned cephalic endocrine responses. A neurobiological framework is provided through which conditioned cephalic ghrelin secretion signals in neurons in the hippocampus, which then engage orexigenic neural circuitry in the lateral hypothalamus to express learned feeding behavior. PMID:27072509

  20. Primary photosensitization related to ingestion of alfalfa silage by cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; George, L W; Oslund, K L; Galey, F D; Stannard, A W; Koch, L M

    1996-11-01

    A herd of 650 Holstein cows was examined for skin disease. Approximately 400 of the lactating adults were affected, but heifers, calves, and nonlactating cows were clinically normal. The condition was characteristic of primary photosensitization. Milk production of the affected cows was normal. Affected cows did not appear to be ill, and none of the cows was icteric. Three of 7 cows had high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, but in the other 4 cows, activity was within the reference range. Serum activities of other hepatic enzymes were within reference ranges in the 7 cows that were examined. Hepatic biopsy specimens from 3 cows were normal. Specimens from 4 other cows had changes that ranged from minimal to mild, chronic, lymphoplasmacytic periportal hepatitis to acute, random, necrotizing hepatitis. Development of photosensitivity was related to ingestion of alfalfa silage. Acetone extracts of the alfalfa silage, but not of other feedstuffs, were found to inhibit growth of Candida albicans under ultraviolet light. Cows experimentally fed a diet composed exclusively of the alfalfa silage developed skin lesions after 6 days, but did not have detectable serum concentrations of phylloerythrin. PMID:8899027

  1. Experimental assessment of helicopter rotor turbulence ingestion noise in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the accuracy of a theory for non-isotropic turbulence ingestion. In order to generate non-isotropic turbulence in a controlled environment, a scale model rotor in a closed chamber was used so that the turbulence generated by the rotor was reingested by the recirculating flow. Simultaneous measurements of turbulence inflow properties and far field acoustics were acquired. Measurements confirmed that the inflow turbulence was highly non-isotropic. The measured aerodynamic properties were used as inputs for the noise prediction procedure. The general agreement between the non-isotropic noise prediction procedure and the experiment was good, although the procedure generally overpredicts the quasi-tonal low to mid range frequencies and underpredicts the higher broadband signals. The predicted sound power level as a function of polar angle was in close agreement with measurements, except near the rotor plane, which is not modeled by the present analysis. It is determined that the most sensitive parameter influencing the predicted noise was the turbulence intensity.

  2. Requirements for ingestion of Chlamydia psittaci by mouse fibroblasts (L cells).

    PubMed

    Byrne, G I

    1976-09-01

    Ingestion of 14C-amino acid-labeled Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) by mouse fibroblasts (L cells) was inhibited when the host cells were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in Earle salts containing 10 mug of crystalline trypsin per ml. Tryptic digestion also inhibited the ingestion of 1-mum polystrene latex beads. Trypsin-treated L cells almost completely recovered their ability to ingest chlamydiae after 4 h at 37 degrees C in medium 199 with 5% fetal calf serum. Cycloheximide (10 mug/ml) blocked this recovery. Heating 14C-amino acid-labeled C. psittaci for 3 min at 60 degrees C inhibited its ingestion by L cells, whereas inactivating it with ultraviolet light was without effect on the ingestion rate. These results show that efficient ingestion of C. psittaci by L cells involves trypsin-labile sites on the host and heat-sensitive sites on the parasite. The failure of excess unlabeled infectious C. psittaci to promote the ingestion of 14C-labeled heat-inactivated chlamydiae suggests that direct interaction between these two sites must occur for uptake to proceed normally. PMID:965090

  3. Requirements for ingestion of Chlamydia psittaci by mouse fibroblasts (L cells).

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, G I

    1976-01-01

    Ingestion of 14C-amino acid-labeled Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) by mouse fibroblasts (L cells) was inhibited when the host cells were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in Earle salts containing 10 mug of crystalline trypsin per ml. Tryptic digestion also inhibited the ingestion of 1-mum polystrene latex beads. Trypsin-treated L cells almost completely recovered their ability to ingest chlamydiae after 4 h at 37 degrees C in medium 199 with 5% fetal calf serum. Cycloheximide (10 mug/ml) blocked this recovery. Heating 14C-amino acid-labeled C. psittaci for 3 min at 60 degrees C inhibited its ingestion by L cells, whereas inactivating it with ultraviolet light was without effect on the ingestion rate. These results show that efficient ingestion of C. psittaci by L cells involves trypsin-labile sites on the host and heat-sensitive sites on the parasite. The failure of excess unlabeled infectious C. psittaci to promote the ingestion of 14C-labeled heat-inactivated chlamydiae suggests that direct interaction between these two sites must occur for uptake to proceed normally. PMID:965090

  4. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  5. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G.; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  6. Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Kevin D; Elliott, Tabatha A; Cree, Melanie G; Aarsland, Asle A; Sanford, Arthur P; Wolfe, Robert R

    2007-01-01

    Timing of nutrient ingestion has been demonstrated to influence the anabolic response of muscle following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that net amino acid uptake was greater when free essential amino acids plus carbohydrates were ingested before resistance exercise rather than following exercise. However, it is unclear if ingestion of whole proteins before exercise would stimulate a superior response compared with following exercise. This study was designed to examine the response of muscle protein balance to ingestion of whey proteins both before and following resistance exercise. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. A solution of whey proteins was consumed either immediately before exercise (PRE; n = 8) or immediately following exercise (POST; n = 9). Each subject performed 10 sets of 8 repetitions of leg extension exercise. Phenylalanine concentrations were measured in femoral arteriovenous samples to determine balance across the leg. Arterial amino acid concentrations were elevated by approximately 50%, and net amino acid balance switched from negative to positive following ingestion of proteins at either time. Amino acid uptake was not significantly different between PRE and POST when calculated from the beginning of exercise (67 +/- 22 and 27 +/- 10 for PRE and POST, respectively) or from the ingestion of each drink (60 +/- 17 and 63 +/- 15 for PRE and POST, respectively). Thus the response of net muscle protein balance to timing of intact protein ingestion does not respond as does that of the combination of free amino acids and carbohydrate. PMID:16896166

  7. Changes in human gut microbiota influenced by probiotic fermented milk ingestion.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Choi, Jung-Hye; Hur, Hor-Gil; Sadowsky, Michael J; Ahn, Young-Tae; Huh, Chul-Sung; Kim, Geun-Bae; Cha, Chang-Jun

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effect of consuming probiotic fermented milk (PFM) on the microbial community structure in the human intestinal tract by using high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing. Six healthy adults ingested 2 servings of PFM daily for 3 wk, and their fecal microbiota were analyzed before and after 3 wk of PFM ingestion period and for another 3 wk following the termination of PFM ingestion (the noningestion period). Fecal microbial communities were characterized by sequencing of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. All subjects showed a similar pattern of microbiota at the phylum level, where the relative abundance of Bacteriodetes species increased during the PFM ingestion period and decreased during the noningestion period. The increase in Bacteroidetes was found to be due to an increase in members of the families Bacteroidaceae or Prevotellaceae. In contrast to PFM-induced adaptation at the phylum level, the taxonomic composition at the genus level showed a considerable alteration in fecal microbiota induced by PFM ingestion. As revealed by analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTU), the numbers of shared OTU were low among the 3 different treatments (before, during, and after PFM ingestion), but the abundance of the shared OTU was relatively high, indicating that the majority (>77.8%) of total microbiota was maintained by shared OTU during PFM ingestion and after its termination. Our results suggest that PFM consumption could alter microbial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of adult humans while maintaining the stability of microbiota. PMID:25864056

  8. Pediatric zolpidem ingestion demonstrating zero-order kinetics treated with flumazenil.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Stephen L; Negus, Elezer; Carstairs, Shaun D

    2013-11-01

    Zolpidem is a widely prescribed anti-insomnia agent. Although most pediatric zolpidem ingestions are benign, large ingestions can cause significant central nervous system (CNS) depression. Flumazenil has been reported to reverse the CNS effects of zolpidem. We describe a case of a large pediatric zolpidem ingestion resulting in profound CNS depression that responded to flumazenil administration. Serial zolpidem serum levels confirmed the ingestion. A 10-year-old boy with trisomy 21 presented to the emergency department 1 hour after he was found sedate with several zolpidem 5-mg tablets in his mouth. Seventeen tables (85 mg) were unaccounted for from a prescription bottle. He became unarousable approximately 2 hours after his ingestion. Flumazenil 0.2 mg intravenously was given with rapid return to his baseline mental status. He became resedate 1 hour later but was arousable. Sixteen hours after his presentation, he was asymptomatic. Serial zolpidem serum levels were obtained, showed an initial level of 310 ng/mL, and demonstrated zero-order kinetics. Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine, which binds to the benzodiazepine receptor. It is rapidly absorbed and has a short-half life. Unintentional pediatric ingestions of zolpidem are typically well tolerated. However, this case demonstrates that large ingestions may cause significant and prolonged CNS depression. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, has been described to reverse the effects of zolpidem in adult ingestions. There are few published reports describing flumazenil use in pediatric ingestion patients. This case suggests that flumazenil may be an effective treatment for zolpidem-induced CNS depression in the pediatric patient. PMID:24196090

  9. Management of ingested foreign bodies in children: a clinical report of the NASPGHAN Endoscopy Committee.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Robert E; Lerner, Diana G; Lin, Tom; Manfredi, Michael; Shah, Manoj; Stephen, Thomas C; Gibbons, Troy E; Pall, Harpreet; Sahn, Ben; McOmber, Mark; Zacur, George; Friedlander, Joel; Quiros, Antonio J; Fishman, Douglas S; Mamula, Petar

    2015-04-01

    Foreign body ingestions in children are some of the most challenging clinical scenarios facing pediatric gastroenterologists. Determining the indications and timing for intervention requires assessment of patient size, type of object ingested, location, clinical symptoms, time since ingestion, and myriad other factors. Often the easiest and least anxiety-producing decision is the one to proceed to endoscopic removal, instead of observation alone. Because of variability in pediatric patient size, there are less firm guidelines available to determine which type of object will safely pass, as opposed to the clearer guidelines in the adult population. In addition, the imprecise nature of the histories often leaves the clinician to question the timing and nature of the ingestion. Furthermore, changes in the types of ingestions encountered, specifically button batteries and high-powered magnet ingestions, create an even greater potential for severe morbidity and mortality among children. As a result, clinical guidelines regarding management of these ingestions in children remain varied and sporadic, with little in the way of prospective data to guide their development. An expert panel of pediatric endoscopists was convened and produced the present article that outlines practical clinical approaches to the pediatric patient with a variety of foreign body ingestions. This guideline is intended as an educational tool that may help inform pediatric endoscopists in managing foreign body ingestions in children. Medical decision making, however, remains a complex process requiring integration of clinical data beyond the scope of these guidelines. These guidelines should therefore not be considered to be a rule or to be establishing a legal standard of care. Caregivers may well choose a course of action outside of those represented in these guidelines because of specific patient circumstances. Furthermore, additional clinical studies may be necessary to clarify aspects based on

  10. Protein Ingestion Induces Muscle Insulin Resistance Independent of Leucine-Mediated mTOR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I.; Yoshino, Jun; Stromsdorfer, Kelly L.; Klein, Seth J.; Magkos, Faidon; Reeds, Dominic N.; Klein, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, and intravenous amino acid infusion blunts insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We tested the hypothesis that protein ingestion impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling, which can inhibit AKT. We measured glucose disposal and muscle p-mTORSer2448, p-AKTSer473, and p-AKTThr308 in 22 women during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with and without concomitant ingestion of whey protein (0.6 g/kg fat-free mass; n = 11) or leucine that matched the amount given with whey protein (n = 11). Both whey protein and leucine ingestion raised plasma leucine concentration by approximately twofold and muscle p-mTORSer2448 by ∼30% above the values observed in the control (no amino acid ingestion) studies; p-AKTSer473 and p-AKTThr308 were not affected by whey protein or leucine ingestion. Whey protein ingestion decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal (median 38.8 [quartiles 30.8, 61.8] vs. 51.9 [41.0, 77.3] µmol glucose/µU insulin · mL−1 · min−1; P < 0.01), whereas ingestion of leucine did not (52.3 [43.3, 65.4] vs. 52.3 [43.9, 73.2]). These results indicate that 1) protein ingestion causes insulin resistance and could be an important regulator of postprandial glucose homeostasis and 2) the insulin-desensitizing effect of protein ingestion is not due to inhibition of AKT by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling. PMID:25475435

  11. [Ingestion and digestion of seven species of microalgae by larvae of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae)].

    PubMed

    Patiño Súarez, V; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    The potential nutritional value of seven microalgal diets as measured by their ingestibility and digestibility to queen conch Strombus gigas larvae was tested with 30 day old larvae reared at 28 degrees C and fed at 1000 cells x ml(-1). The algae were Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Isochrysis aff. galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas coccoides, Chaetoceros sp. and Thalassiosira fluviatilis. Ingestion and digestion were measured by the four nutritional stages studied with epifluorescence microscopy with live larvae. Temporal and absolute indices showed that larvae fed Chaetoceros sp. and T. fluviatilis had lower ingestion and digestion levels. The other algae are recommend to feed S. gigas larvae. PMID:15266796

  12. Small bowel obstruction 5 years following the ingestion of serrated scissors

    PubMed Central

    Limb, Richard; Karam, Edward; Lingam, Krishna M.

    2016-01-01

    Ingested foreign bodies are common in the cohort of psychiatric patients, however clinical quiescence in this group is rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old female with emotionally unstable personality disorder (borderline type) presenting with partial intestinal obstruction 5 years after the known ingestion of serrated metallic scissors. In the asymptomatic interim a conservative approach of tracking the blades radiologically was taken. Following discussion, we conclude the following: early surgical intervention is encouraged if natural passage does not occur within 3 days following ingestion, and that any concurrent surgical needs should be addressed at this time. PMID:27190200

  13. Small bowel obstruction 5 years following the ingestion of serrated scissors.

    PubMed

    Limb, Richard; Karam, Edward; Lingam, Krishna M

    2016-01-01

    Ingested foreign bodies are common in the cohort of psychiatric patients, however clinical quiescence in this group is rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old female with emotionally unstable personality disorder (borderline type) presenting with partial intestinal obstruction 5 years after the known ingestion of serrated metallic scissors. In the asymptomatic interim a conservative approach of tracking the blades radiologically was taken. Following discussion, we conclude the following: early surgical intervention is encouraged if natural passage does not occur within 3 days following ingestion, and that any concurrent surgical needs should be addressed at this time. PMID:27190200

  14. Understanding the Control of Ingestive Behavior in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark E.; Moore, Carla J.; Ethun, Kelly F.; Johnson, Zachary P.

    2014-01-01

    Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily be addressed. The availability of these captive populations has lead to the use of selected species to understand appetite control or metabolic physiology in humans. Recognizing the difficulty of quantitating food intake in free ranging groups, the use of captive, singly-housed animals provided a distinct advantage though, at the same time, produced a different social ecology from the animals’ natural habitat. However, with the recent application of novel technologies to quantitate caloric intake and energy expenditure in free feeding, socially-housed monkeys permits prospective studies that can accurately define how food intake changes in response to any number of interventions in the context of a social environment. This review provides an overview of studies examining food intake using captive nonhuman primates organized into three areas: a) neurochemical regulation of food intake in nonhuman primates; b) whether exposure to specific diets during key developmental periods program differences in diet preferences or changes the expression of feeding related neuropeptides; and c) how psychosocial factors influence appetite regulation. Because feeding patterns are driven by more than just satiety and orexigenic signals, appreciating how the social context influences pattern of feeding in nonhuman primates may be quite informative for understanding the biological complexity of feeding in humans. PMID:24727080

  15. Active Flow Control on a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Owens, Lewis R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Allan, Brian G.; Schuster, Ernest P.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as means to improve overall system performance for Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI inlet and lays the groundwork for higher-fidelity systems studies. The results of the system study show that BLI provides a significant improvement in vehicle performance if the inlet distortion can be controlled, thus encouraging the pursuit of active flow control (AFC) as a BLI enabling technology. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet distortion was assessed using a 6% scale model of a 30% BLI offset, diffusing inlet. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel with a model inlet designed specifically for this type of testing. High mass flow pulsing actuators provided the active flow control. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion was determined by 120 total pressure measurements located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum freestream Mach number of 0.15 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the pulsed actuation can reduce distortion from 29% to 4.6% as measured by the circumferential distortion descriptor DC60 using less than 1% of inlet mass flow. Closed loop control of the actuation was also demonstrated using a sidewall surface static pressure as the response sensor.

  16. Effects of lectin ingestion on animal growth and internal organs.

    PubMed

    Pusztai, A

    1998-01-01

    Lectins are essential and omnipresent plant constituents. As many foods are of plant origin, the daily ingestion of lectins by both humans and animals is appreciable. For example, in an ad hoc survey, 53 edible plants were shown to contain lectins and approx 30% of fresh and processed food regularly consumed by humans had significant hemagglutinating activity (1). The situation is potentially even more acute in animal nutrition because animal diet is less diverse than that of humans, and in most instances foodstuffs are not thoroughly heat-treated. This is particularly significant in the light of our finding a correlation between lectin activity and antinutritional effects (2). As in evolution, the mammalian gut has been regularly exposed to lectins, they must have played an important part in the development of the digestive system. Although based on experience, most overtly toxic plants have been eliminated from the diet, many plants with appreciable lectin content are still consumed because it has not been easy to relate growth retardation and antinutritional, mild allergic or other subclinical symptoms to the food consumed or a particular component of it. As some lectins are at least partially heat stable and most survive the passage through the gut in functionally and immunologically intact form, their interaction with the gut surface epithelium (3) can damage the gut at high dietary intakes and this may lead to digestive disorders/diseases in some instances. However, it is not generally appreciated that not all lectins are antinutrients and indeed some may have beneficial effects and be of potential value in nutritional practice. Accordingly, it is of considerable importance to establish whether a lectin has deleterious or potentially beneficial effects for mammals. Unfortunately at present there are no adequate in vitro methods to do this reliably and it is usually necessary to carry out in vivo animal feeding studies, despite their relatively cumbersome

  17. Time course of saliva and serum melatonin levels after ingestion of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, S; Tsuchiya, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Kotorii, T; Uchimura, N; Sakamoto, T; Yamada, S

    1998-04-01

    Salival and serum melatonin levels after melatonin ingestion were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ingestion of 3 mg melatonin caused a marked increase in serum melatonin (3561+/-1201 pg/mL) within 20 min, followed by a gradual decrease, but the level still remained higher than the basal level at 240 min after the ingestion. The saliva melatonin 60 min after the ingestion showed the highest level (1177+/-403 pg/mL) which was one-third of the plasma level. The saliva melatonin level was highly correlated with the serum level throughout the experimental period (r=0.82, P=0.0001). These data indicate that the measurement of saliva melatonin level may be a suitable indicator for the melatonin secretion into general circulation. PMID:9628188

  18. Device Data Ingestion for Industrial Big Data Platforms with a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cun; Shao, Qingshi; Sun, Jiao; Liu, Shijun; Pan, Li; Wu, Lei; Yang, Chenglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite having played a significant role in the Industry 4.0 era, the Internet of Things is currently faced with the challenge of how to ingest large-scale heterogeneous and multi-type device data. In response to this problem we present a heterogeneous device data ingestion model for an industrial big data platform. The model includes device templates and four strategies for data synchronization, data slicing, data splitting and data indexing, respectively. We can ingest device data from multiple sources with this heterogeneous device data ingestion model, which has been verified on our industrial big data platform. In addition, we present a case study on device data-based scenario analysis of industrial big data. PMID:26927121

  19. A case of hypercalcemia and gastric necrosis from hot pack ingestion.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Pradeep; Spiller, Henry A; Bosse, George M

    2010-06-01

    Hot packs (instant hot compresses) are frequently used to relieve pain. We report a patient who had significant complications from ingestion of a hot pack containing calcium salts. A 35-year-old male swallowed three hot packs, and developed hematemesis, severe abdominal pain, and hypercalcemia (21.1 mg/dl). He developed diffuse gastric necrosis requiring gastrectomy and colonic interposition. Hypercalcemia was treated with intravenous fluids, pamidronate, and calcitonin. A Medline search revealed no prior report on hot pack ingestion though ingestion of calcium salts has been reported. Hot packs can potentially cause significant injury both from an exothermic reaction and hypercalcemia. Ingestions of calcium salts can result in necrosis of the stomach. Management includes aggressive treatment of hypercalcemia, supportive care and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. PMID:20376594

  20. Device Data Ingestion for Industrial Big Data Platforms with a Case Study †

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cun; Shao, Qingshi; Sun, Jiao; Liu, Shijun; Pan, Li; Wu, Lei; Yang, Chenglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite having played a significant role in the Industry 4.0 era, the Internet of Things is currently faced with the challenge of how to ingest large-scale heterogeneous and multi-type device data. In response to this problem we present a heterogeneous device data ingestion model for an industrial big data platform. The model includes device templates and four strategies for data synchronization, data slicing, data splitting and data indexing, respectively. We can ingest device data from multiple sources with this heterogeneous device data ingestion model, which has been verified on our industrial big data platform. In addition, we present a case study on device data-based scenario analysis of industrial big data. PMID:26927121

  1. Noise of a model helicopter rotor due to ingestion of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterson, R. W.; Amiet, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of a model helicoper rotor due to ingestion of turbulence was conducted. Experiments were performed with a 0.76 m dia, articulated model rotor for a range of inflow turbulence and rotor operating conditions. Inflow turbulence levels varied from approximately 2 to 19 percent and tip Mach number was varied from 0.3 to 0.52. Test conditions included ingestion of a atmospheric turbulence in outdoor hover as well as ingestion of grid generated isotropic turbulence in the wind tunnel airstream. In wind tunnel testing, both forward flight and vertical ascent (climb) were simulated. Far field noise spectra and directivity were measured in addition to incident turbulence intensities, length scales, and spectra. Results indicate that ingestion of atmospheric turbulence is the dominant helicopter rotor hover noise mechanism at the moderate to high frequencies which determine perceived noise level.

  2. Facial Muscle Coordination in Monkeys During Rhythmic Facial Expressions and Ingestive Movements

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Stephen V.; Lanzilotto, Marco; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the origins of communication signals generally, and primate orofacial communication signals in particular, suggest that these signals derive by ritualization of noncommunicative behaviors, notably including ingestive behaviors such as chewing and nursing. These theories are appealing in part because of the prominent periodicities in both types of behavior. Despite their intuitive appeal, however, there are little or no data with which to evaluate these theories because the coordination of muscles innervated by the facial nucleus has not been carefully compared between communicative and ingestive movements. Such data are especially crucial for reconciling neurophysiological assumptions regarding facial motor control in communication and ingestion. We here address this gap by contrasting the coordination of facial muscles during different types of rhythmic orofacial behavior in macaque monkeys, finding that the perioral muscles innervated by the facial nucleus are rhythmically coordinated during lipsmacks and that this coordination appears distinct from that observed during ingestion. PMID:22553017

  3. Plastic debris ingested by deep-water fish of the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulou, Aikaterini; Mytilineou, Chryssi; Smith, Christopher J.; Papadopoulou, Konstantia N.

    2013-04-01

    Debris has been recognized as a global environmental problem including within deep habitats. From 26 fish species (1504 specimens) caught in the Eastern Ionian Sea during deep-water long-line surveys, plastic debris was found in 24 individuals of Galeus melastomus (3.2%) and single individuals of Pteroplatytrygon violacea, Squalus blainville, Etmopterus spinax, and Pagellus bogaraveo. The occurrence of debris among their food was infrequent. Ingested debris included primarily plastics (86.5%) and to a lesser extent pieces of metal and wood. Among ingested plastics, fragments of hard plastic material constituted the highest proportion (56.0%), followed by plastic bag fragments (22.0%), fragments of fishing gears (19.0%) and textile fibers (3.0%). Among the species with ingested debris, G. melastomus swallowed all debris categories; P. violacea and S. blainville ingested plastic bag fragments, whereas pieces of hard plastics were found in E. spinax and P. bogaraveo.

  4. Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Steen, David A.; Hopkins, Brittney C.; Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0–33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group. PMID:24621919

  5. Excessive zinc ingestion: A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression

    SciTech Connect

    Broun, E.R.; Greist, A.; Tricot, G.; Hoffman, R. )

    1990-09-19

    Two patients with sideroblastic anemia secondary to zinc-induced copper deficiency absorbed excess zinc secondary to oral ingestion. The source of excess zinc was a zinc supplement in one case; in the other, ingested coins. In each case, the sideroblastic anemia was corrected promptly after removal of the source of excess zinc. These two cases emphasize the importance of recognizing this clinical entity, since the myelodysplastic features are completely reversible.

  6. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Qamar A; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study and turtle species. There is no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris. PMID:26365568

  7. Cerebral arterial gas embolism after pre-flight ingestion of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Ben L; Gault, Alan; Gawthrope, Ian C

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is a feared complication of ambient depressurisation and can also be a complication of hydrogen peroxide ingestion. We present an unusual case of CAGE in a 57-year-old woman exposed to both of these risk factors. We describe her subsequent successful treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, despite a 72-hour delay in initial presentation and diagnosis, and discuss the safety of aero-medical transfer following hydrogen peroxide ingestions. PMID:27335000

  8. Acute responses of regional vascular conductance to oral ingestion of fructose in healthy young humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, it was reported in healthy young subjects that fructose containing drinks increased blood pressure acutely, without any apparent change in total vascular conductance (TVC). However, because it is well known that the splanchnic vasculature is dilated by oral fructose ingestion, it is assumed to be the concomitant vasoconstriction in other peripheral region(s) that is responsible for this finding. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute response of regional VC to oral fructose ingestion in young healthy humans. Results In 12 healthy young subjects, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, cardiac output, and blood flow (BF) in the superior mesenteric (SMA), brachial (BA), and popliteal (PA) arteries, in addition to forearm skin BF, were measured continuously for 2 h after ingestion of 400 ml fructose solution (containing 50 g fructose). Regional VC was calculated as BF/MAP. MAP increased for 120 min after fructose ingestion without any change in TVC. While VC in the SMA was elevated after ingestion, VC in BA and PA and forearm skin decreased. Conclusions While TVC was apparently unchanged during the 2 h after fructose ingestion, there were coincident changes in regional VCs in the peripheral circulation, but no net change in TVC. PMID:24887175

  9. [Importance of adult protein ingestion on the mating success of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann males (Diptera: Tephritidae)].

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and field cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the first four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the field cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the first four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and field cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the first 12 days. PMID:20498961

  10. Utilizing an Ingestible Biosensor to Assess Real-Time Medication Adherence.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peter R; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose; Buffkin, Eric; Darling, Chad; Rosen, Rochelle K; Horvath, Keith J; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Robbins, Gregory K; Hibberd, Patricia L; Boyer, Edward W

    2015-12-01

    Medication adherence monitoring has relied largely on indirect measures of pill ingestion including patient self-report, pharmacy refills, electronically triggered pill bottles, and pill counts. Our objective is to describe an ingestible biosensor system comprising a radio-frequency identification (RFID)-tagged gelatin capsule. Once the capsule dissolves in the stomach, the RFID tag activates to transmit a unique signal to a relay device which transmits a time-stamped message to a cloud-based server that functions as a direct measure of medication adherence. We describe a constellation of mobile technologies that provide real-time direct measures of medication adherence. Optimizing connectivity, relay design, and interactivity with users are important in obtaining maximal acceptability. Potential concerns including gut retention of metallic components of the ingestible biosensor and drug dissolution within a gelatin capsule should be considered. An ingestible biosensor incorporated into a medication management system has the potential to improve medication compliance with real-time monitoring of ingestion and prompt early behavioral intervention. Integration of ingestible biosensors for multiple disease states may provide toxicologists with salient data early in the care of poisoned patients in the future. Further research on device design and interventions to improve adherence is needed and will shape the evolving world of medication adherence. PMID:26245878

  11. Streamlining Metadata Ingest and Discovery Using ECHO's REST-based API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, R.; Baynes, K.; Pilone, D.

    2012-12-01

    Enabling user access to Earth science data is a primary goal of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information Systems (EOSDIS) programs. NASA's Earth Observing System ClearingHOuse (ECHO) acts as the core metadata repository for EOSDIS's data centers, providing a centralized mechanism for metadata and data discovery and retrieval. ECHO has recently made strides to restructure its API; allowing data partners to streamline and synchronize their metadata ingest using RESTful web services. ECHO's legacy ingest process involves data uploads via FTP with asynchronous result reporting. Data centers provide single xml files or compressed data (zip) files that are unpacked, indexed and stored in ECHO data tables for future search and retrieval. Any problems related to metadata validation and ingest are reported after batch processing of discrete jobs have been completed. With ECHO's new REST-based web services, data providers will receive immediate feedback about the status of their ingested data and can ensure that their data exports are successful as soon as the data is posted to our repository. This presentation will introduce ECHO's potential new and existing data partners to the process of implementing data ingest via its RESTful web services API, providing real-world examples of end-to-end metadata management. Examples of ECHO's support of multi-format metadata ingest using both ECHO10 and ISO 19115 metadata formats will be showcased. This presentation will also pay special attention to tuning a provider's metadata, making it more easily searched and accessed via ECHO's various interfaces.

  12. Taste responses of cortical neurons in freely ingesting rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Matsuo, R; Kiyomitsu, Y; Kitamura, R

    1989-06-01

    1. Activities of 35 taste-responsive neurons in the cortical gustatory area were recorded with chronically implanted fine wires in freely ingesting Wistar rats. Quantitative analyses were performed on responses to distilled water, food solution, and four taste stimuli: sucrose, NaCl, HCl, and quinine hydrochloride. 2. Taste-responsive neurons were classified into type-1 and type-2 groups according to the response patterns to licking of the six taste stimuli. Type-1 neurons (n = 29) responded in excitatory or inhibitory directions to one or more of the taste stimuli. Type-2 neurons (n = 6) showed responses in different directions depending upon palatability of the liquids to rats: neurons showing excitatory (or inhibitory) responses to palatable stimuli exhibited inhibitory (or excitatory) responses to unpalatable stimuli. 3. Correlation coefficients of responses to pairs of stimuli across neurons suggested that palatable stimuli (water, food solution, sucrose, and NaCl) and unpalatable stimuli (HCl and quinine) elicited reciprocal (excitatory vs. inhibitory) responses in type-2 neurons, whereas type-1 neurons showed positively correlated responses to specific combinations of stimuli such as food solution and NaCl, sucrose and HCl, NaCl and quinine, and HCl and quinine. 4. A tendency toward equalization of effectiveness in eliciting responses among the four basic taste stimuli was detected on the cortex. The ratios of mean evoked responses in 29 type-1 neurons in comparison with spontaneous rate (4.4 spikes/s) were 1.7, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.9 for sucrose, NaCl, HCl, and quinine, respectively. 5. The breadth of responsiveness to the four basic taste stimuli was quantified by means of the entropy measure introduced by Smith and Travers (33). The mean entropy value was 0.540 for 29 type-1 neurons, which was similar to 0.588 previously reported for rat chorda tympani fibers, suggesting that breadth of tuning is not more narrowly tuned in a higher level of the gustatory

  13. A short-term ingestion of fructo-oligosaccharides increases immunoglobulin A and mucin concentrations in the rat cecum, but the effects are attenuated with the prolonged ingestion.

    PubMed

    Komura, Mika; Fukuta, Tomonori; Genda, Tomomi; Hino, Shingo; Aoe, Seiichiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Morita, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on IgA and mucin secretion in the rat cecum after different ingestion periods. Rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing FOS for 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk. FOS ingestion greatly increased IgA and mucin concentrations at 1 and 2 wk, but the effects were disappeared or attenuated at 4 and 8 wk. After 1 wk, FOS induced higher lactobacilli and lactate concentrations and lower cecal pH in the cecum, but the alterations were moderated with the prolonged ingestion accompanying with increasing short-chain fatty acid concentrations. At 1 and 2 wk, FOS increased IgA plasma cells and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor expression in the cecal mucosa and strongly depressed fecal mucinase activities related to the lower cecal pH. These findings may explain the FOS-induced early elevation of IgA and mucin. Clearly, FOS effects on IgA and mucin secretion considerably differ depending on the ingestion period. PMID:25209509

  14. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING INGESTION EXPOSURE ESTIMATING INGESTION EXPOSURE, THE INDIRECT METHOD OF EXPOSURE ESTIMATION (IIT-A-7.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken for calculating ingestion exposure using the indirect method of exposure estimation. This SOP uses This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropriate QA/QC procedures by the University ...

  15. Loss and Gain of Elicitor Function of Soybean Mosaic Virus G7 Provoking Rsv1-Mediated Lethal Systemic Hypersensitive Response Maps to P3

    PubMed Central

    Hajimorad, M. R.; Eggenberger, A. L.; Hill, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    Rsv1, a single dominant resistance gene in soybean PI 96983 (Rsv1), confers extreme resistance against all known American strains of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), except G7 and G7d. SMV-G7 provokes a lethal systemic hypersensitive response (LSHR), whereas SMV-G7d, an experimentally evolved variant of SMV-G7, induces systemic mosaic. To identify the elicitor of Rsv1-mediated LSHR, chimeras were constructed by exchanging fragments between the molecularly cloned SMV-G7 (pSMV-G7) and SMV-G7d (pSMV-G7d), and their elicitor functions were assessed on PI 96983 (Rsv1). pSMV-G7-derived chimeras containing only P3 of SMV-G7d lost the elicitor function, while the reciprocal chimera of pSMV-G7d gained the function. The P3 regions of the two viruses differ by six nucleotides, of which two are translationally silent. The four amino acid differences are located at positions 823, 915, 953, and 1112 of the precursor polypeptide. Analyses of the site-directed point mutants of both the viruses revealed that nucleotide substitutions leading to translationally silent mutations as well as reciprocal amino acid substitution at position 915 did not influence the loss or gain of the elicitor function. pSMV-G7-derived mutants with amino acid substitutions at any of the other three positions lost the ability to provoke LSHR but induced SHR instead. Two concomitant amino acid substitutions at positions 823 (V to M) and 953 (K to E) abolished pSMV-G7 elicitor function, provoking Rsv1-mediated SHR. Conversely, pSMV-G7d gained the elicitor function of Rsv1-mediated LSHR by a single amino acid substitution at position 823 (M to V), and mutants with amino acid substitutions at position 953 or 1112 induced SHR instead of mosaic. Taken together, the data suggest that strain-specific P3 of SMV is the elicitor of Rsv1-mediated LSHR. PMID:15613348

  16. Plasma and Electrolyte Changes in Exercising Humans After Ingestion of Multiple Boluses of Pickle Juice

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, Michael A.; Miller, Kevin C.; Deal, James E.; Garden-Robinson, Julie A.; Rhee, Yeong S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Twenty-five percent of athletic trainers administer pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Anecdotally, some clinicians provide multiple boluses of PJ during exercise but warn that repeated ingestion of PJ may cause hyperkalemia. To our knowledge, no researchers have examined the effect of ingesting multiple boluses of PJ on the same day or the effect of ingestion during exercise. Objective: To determine the short-term effects of ingesting a single bolus or multiple boluses of PJ on plasma variables and to characterize changes in plasma variables when individuals ingest PJ and resume exercise. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nine euhydrated men (age = 23 ± 4 years, height = 180.9 ± 5.8 cm, mass = 80.7 ± 13.8 kg, urine specific gravity = 1.009 ± 0.005). Intervention(s): On 3 days, participants rested for 30 minutes, and then a blood sample was collected. Participants ingested 0 or 1 bolus (1 mL·kg−1 body weight) of PJ, donned sweat suits, biked vigorously for 30 minutes (approximate temperature = 37°C, relative humidity = 18%), and had a blood sample collected. They either rested for 60 seconds (0- and 1-bolus conditions) or ingested a second 1 mL·kg−1 body weight bolus of PJ (2-bolus condition). They resumed exercise for another 35 minutes. A third blood sample was collected, and they exited the environmental chamber and rested for 60 minutes (approximate temperature = 21°C, relative humidity = 18%). Blood samples were collected at 30 and 60 minutes postexercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, plasma osmolality, and changes in plasma volume. Results: The number of PJ boluses ingested did not affect plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, plasma osmolality, or changes in plasma volume over time. The plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, and plasma osmolality did not exceed 144.6 mEq·L−1 (144.6 mmol

  17. Pre-cooling with intermittent ice ingestion lowers the core temperature in a hot environment as compared with the ingestion of a single bolus.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takashi; Ogaki, Tetsuro

    2016-07-01

    The timing in which ice is ingested may be important for optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion has not been studied in resting participants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion on rectal temperature (Tre) and rating of perceptual sensation in a hot environment. Seven males ingested 1.25gkg(-1) of crushed ice (ICE1.25: 0.5°C) or cold water (CON: 4°C) every 5min for 30min, or were given 7.5gkgBM(-1) of crushed ice (ICE7.5) to consume for 30min in a hot environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity). The participants then remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, Tre, body mass and urine specific gravity were measured. Rating of thermal sensation was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. ICE1.25 continued to decrease Tre until approximately 50min, and resulted in a greater reduction in Tre (-0.56±0.20°C) than ICE7.5 (-0.41±0.14°C). Tre was reduced from 40 to 75min by ICE1.25, which is a significant reduction in comparison to ICE7.5 (p<.05). Mean RTS with ICE1.25 at 50-65min was significantly lower than that with ICE7.5 (p<.05). These results suggest that pre-cooling with intermittent ice ingestion is a more effective strategy both for lowering the Tre and for the rating of thermal sensation. PMID:27264882

  18. Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of extended release gabapentin in provoked vestibulodynia and biological correlates of response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Candace S; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie; Bachmann, Gloria A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to establish evidence-based management protocols for provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a chronic vulvar pain condition affecting approximately 14 million women in the U.S. We describe the rationale and design of an NIH funded multicenter clinical trial utilizing an extended release formulation of gabapentin (G-ER), an intervention that preliminary data suggest may be efficacious for this condition. Objectives 1) to determine if pain from tampon insertion (primary outcome measure) is lower in PVD patients when treated with G-ER compared to when treated with placebo and 2) to determine if G-ER reduces vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia, vaginal muscle pain to palpation, the number and intensity of somatic tenderpoints, spontaneous and provoked pain to intradermal capsaicin with an accompanying increase in cardiac beat-to-beat variability and to identify mechanistically-based PVD subtypes. Additional outcomes include subject reported intercourse pain and summative 24-hour pain. Methods This 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study will enroll 120 women 18 years and older who report tenderness localized to the vulvar vestibule, pain with tampon insertion, and, when sexually active, insertional dyspareunia. Electronically entered daily diaries will be used to determine if pain is lower in PVD subjects when treated with G-ER (up to 3000 mg/d) compared to when treated with placebo. Psychophysiological measures will be obtained at baseline and after 2 weeks at the maximum tolerated dose. Conclusion We will conduct the first multicenter RCT to confirm efficacy of an agent that is currently used in clinical practice for treating PVD. PMID:23816491

  19. Successful treatment of rare-earth magnet ingestion via minimally invasive techniques: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kosut, Jessica S; Johnson, Sidney M; King, Jeremy L; Garnett, Gwendolyn; Woo, Russell K

    2013-04-01

    Cases of rare-earth magnet ingestions have been increasingly reported in the literature. However, these descriptions have focused on the severity of the injuries, rather than the clinical presentation and/or therapeutic approach. We report a series of eight children, ranging in age from 2 to 10 years, who ingested powerful rare-earth magnets. The rare-earth magnets were marketed in 2009 under the trade name Buckyballs(®) (Maxfield & Oberton, New York, NY). They are about 5 mm in size, spherical, and brightly colored, making them appealing for young children to play with and place in their mouths. Three children presented within hours of ingestion, and the magnets were successfully removed via endoscopy in two, whereas the third child required laparoscopy. No fistulas were found in these children. A fourth child presented 2 days after ingestion with evidence of bowel wall erosion, but without fistula formation; the magnets were removed via laparoscopy. A fifth child ingested nine magnets in a ring formation, which were removed via colonoscopy without evidence of injury or fistula formation. The three remaining children presented late (5-8 days after ingestion) and were found to have associated fistulas. They were treated successfully with a combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy with fluoroscopy. None of the children in our series required an open surgical procedure. All children were discharged home without complications. This case series highlights the potential dangers of rare-earth magnet ingestion in children. Our experience suggests that prompt intervention using minimally invasive approaches can lead to successful outcomes. PMID:23573888

  20. Zolpidem Ingestion, Automatisms, and Sleep Driving: A Clinical and Legal Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Poceta, J. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe zolpidem-associated complex behaviors, including both daytime automatisms and sleep-related parasomnias. Methods: A case series of eight clinical patients and six legal defendants is presented. Patients presented to the author after an episode of confusion, amnesia, or somnambulism. Legal defendants were being prosecuted for driving under the influence, and the author reviewed the cases as expert witness for the defense. Potential predisposing factors including comorbidities, social situation, physician instruction, concomitant medications, and patterns of medication management were considered. Results: Patients and defendants exhibited abnormal behavior characterized by poor motor control and confusion. Although remaining apparently interactive with the environment, all reported amnesia for 3 to 5 hours. In some cases, the episodes began during daytime wakefulness because of accidental or purposeful ingestion of the zolpidem and are considered automatisms. Other cases began after ingestion of zolpidem at the time of going to bed and are considered parasomnias. Risk factors for both wake and sleep-related automatic complex behaviors include the concomitant ingestion of other sedating drugs, a higher dose of zolpidem, a history of parasomnia, ingestion at times other than bedtime or when sleep is unlikely, poor management of pill bottles, and living alone. In addition, similar size and shape of two medications contributed to accidental ingestion in at least one case. Conclusions: Sleep driving and other complex behaviors can occur after zolpidem ingestion. Physicians should assess patients for potential risk factors and inquire about parasomnias. Serious legal and medical complications can occur as a result of these forms of automatic complex behaviors. Citation: Poceta JS. Zolpidem ingestion, automatisms, and sleep driving: a clinical and legal case series. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):632-638. PMID:22171202

  1. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3 yr, BMI = 25.5 ± 1.7 kg·m-2) were studied on two occasions in a double-blind design following ingestion of either placebo or 10 mg of purified capsinoids at rest, after 90 min of cycling at 55% VO2 peak, and for 30 min into recovery. Subjects ingested the capsules 30 min prior to exercise. Results At rest, following ingestion of capsinoids, we observed increases in VO2 and plasma norepinephrine levels, and decreases in concentrations of serum free fatty acids, plasma glycerol and the respiratory exchange ratio (all P < 0.05). At exercise onset, we observed a blunted accumulation of blood lactate with capsinoid ingestion vs. placebo (P < 0.05). There were no other significant differences between the conditions during or post-exercise. Conclusion The ingestion of 10 mg of capsinoids increased adrenergic activity, energy expenditure, and resulted in a shift in substrate utilization toward lipid at rest but had little effect during exercise or recovery. The changes we observed confirm previous data on the thermogenic and metabolic effects of capsinoids at rest and further promote its potential role as an adjunct weight loss aid, in addition to diet and exercise. PMID:20682072

  2. Controlled ingestion of kaolinite (5%) modulates enteric nitrergic innervation in rats.

    PubMed

    Voinot, Florian; Fischer, Caroline; Schmidt, Camille; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence; Angel, Fabielle

    2014-08-01

    We have previously shown that kaolinite slowed down gastric emptying and intestinal transit and induced changes in enteric mechanical activities. As gastric emptying and intestinal transit have been shown to be regulated by nitric oxide (NO), the effect of an imposed ingestion of kaolinite on enteric nitrergic innervation was determined. Kaolinite has also been shown to increase plasmatic levels of leptin. Therefore, the responses of enteric neurons in the presence of leptin after kaolinite ingestion were determined, and a possible role of nitrergic neurons was evaluated in rats using organ bath technique. Our results showed that kaolinite modulates activities of enteric nerves at 14 days of ingestion. Exogenous l-NNA produced a decrease in nerve stimulation (NS)-induced relaxation in both jejunum and colon of control groups. At 14 days of kaolinite ingestion, this effect of l-NNA was significantly reduced only in the jejunum. Although l-NNA did not affect NS-induced contraction in jejunum and colon of control animals, it increased the amplitude of the NS-induced contraction in the colon of rats at 14 days of kaolinite ingestion. Leptin inhibitory effects on ENS in the jejunum were also altered at 14 days of ingestion. These differences were masked in the presence of l-NNA. Our data give evidence that changes in mechanical activities induced by kaolinite might be due to alterations in inhibitory (nitrergic and/or other) innervation at 14 days of kaolinite ingestion and to modifications of leptin effects on the responses to intramural nerve stimulation. PMID:23799940

  3. Electrolyte and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Mustard, and Deionized Water Ingestion in Dehydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Some athletes ingest pickle juice (PJ) or mustard to treat exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs). Clinicians warn against this because they are concerned it will exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause hyperkalemia. Few researchers have examined plasma responses after PJ or mustard ingestion in dehydrated, exercised individuals. Objective: To determine if ingesting PJ, mustard, or deionized water (DIW) while hypohydrated affects plasma sodium (Na+) concentration ([Na+]p), plasma potassium (K+) concentration ([K+]p), plasma osmolality (OSMp), or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na+ content. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 9 physically active, nonacclimated individuals (age = 25 ± 2 years, height = 175.5 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 13.8 kg). Intervention(s): Participants exercised vigorously for 2 hours (temperature = 37°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 24% ± 4%). After a 30-minute rest, a baseline blood sample was collected, and they ingested 1 mL/kg body mass of PJ or DIW. For the mustard trial, participants ingested a mass of mustard containing a similar amount of Na+ as for the PJ trial. Postingestion blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were [Na+]p, [K+]p, OSMp, and percentage change in plasma Na+ content and plasma volume. Results: Participants became 2.9% ± 0.6% hypohydrated and lost 96.8 ± 27.1 mmol (conventional unit = 96.8 ± 27.1 mEq) of Na+, 8.4 ± 2 mmol (conventional unit = 8.4 ± 2 mEq) of K+, and 2.03 ± 0.44 L of fluid due to exercise-induced sweating. They ingested approximately 79 mL of PJ or DIW or 135.24 ± 22.8 g of mustard. Despite ingesting approximately 1.5 g of Na+ in the PJ and mustard trials, no changes occurred within 60 minutes postingestion for [Na+]p, [K+]p, OSMp, or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na+ content (P > .05). Conclusions: Ingesting a small bolus of PJ or large

  4. Ingestion of crude oil: effects on digesta retention times and nutrient uptake in captive river otters.

    PubMed

    Ormseth, O A; Ben-David, M

    2000-09-01

    Studies following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska indicated that river otters (Lontra canadensis) from oiled regions displayed symptoms of degraded health, including reduced body weight. We examined the fate of ingested oil in the digestive tract and its effects on gut function in captive river otters. Fifteen wild-caught males were assigned to three groups, two of which were given weathered crude oil in food (i.e., control, 5 ppm day(-1), and 50 ppm day(-1)) under controlled conditions at the Alaska Sealife Center. Using glass beads as non-specific digesta markers and stable isotope analysis, we determined the effects of ingested oil on retention time and nutrient uptake. Our data indicated that oil ingestion reduced marker retention time when we controlled for activity and meal size. Fecal isotope ratios suggested that absorption of lipids in the oiled otters might have been affected by reduced retention time of food. In addition, a dilution model indicated that as much as 80% of ingested oil was not absorbed in high-dose animals. Thus, while the ingestion of large quantities of weathered crude oil appears to reduce absorption of oil hydrocarbons and may alleviate systemic effects, it may concurrently affect body condition by impacting digestive function. PMID:11083525

  5. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area. PMID:24844938

  6. Development of a probabilistic timing model for the ingestion of tap water.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-01-01

    A contamination event in a water distribution system can result in adverse health impacts to individuals consuming contaminated water from the system. Assessing impacts to such consumers requires accounting for the timing of exposures of individuals to tap-water contaminants that have time-varying concentrations. Here we present a probabilistic model for the timing of ingestion of tap water that we developed for use in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Threat Ensemble Vulnerability Assessment and Sensor Placement Tool, which is designed to perform consequence assessments for contamination events in water distribution systems. We also present a statistical analysis of the timing of ingestion activity using data collected by the American Time Use Survey. The results of the analysis provide the basis for our model, which accounts for individual variability in ingestion timing and provides a series of potential ingestion times for tap water. It can be combined with a model for ingestion volume to perform exposure assessments and applied in cases for which the use of characteristics typical of the United States is appropriate.

  7. Ingestion of Rhus chicken causing systemic contact dermatitis in a Korean patient.

    PubMed

    Yoo, K H; Seo, S J; Li, K; Hong, C K

    2010-10-01

    Rhus chicken is a common traditional remedy used to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food in Korea. Unfortunately, systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) due to the ingestion of Rhus occasionally occurs. In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings were reviewed and analysed for 30 Korean patients with SCD developing after ingestion of Rhus chicken. Summer was found to be the commonest period for hospital visits because of this condition. The mean period of incubation for SCD, was 4 ± 1.5 days. The commonest skin features were generalized maculopapular eruptions. Of the 30 patients, 10 had a known history of allergy to Rhus chicken. Many of the patients developed neutrophilia and leucocytosis. All the patients responded well to standard treatments. The commonest reason for their ingestion of Rhus chicken was indigestion. We conclude that SCD often occurs in Koreans after ingestion of Rhus chicken. Patients should be educated about the harmful effects of Rhus chicken and advised not to ingest it. PMID:20456389

  8. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

  9. Morning melatonin ingestion and diurnal variation of short-term maximal performances in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ghattassi, K; Hammouda, O; Graja, A; Boudhina, N; Chtourou, H; Hadhri, S; Driss, T; Souissi, N

    2016-03-01

    Aim Very few studies have investigated the temporal specificity of melatonin (MEL) ingestion upon short-term maximal athletic performances. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of morning MEL ingestion on cognitive and physical performances measured in the afternoon. Methods Twelve soccer players from a Tunisian squad (17.9 ± 1.3 years, 1.74 ± 0.06 m and 62.0 ± 8.8 kg) participated in the present study. They performed two testing sessions at 08:00 h, 12:00 h and 16:00 h after either MEL (5mg) or placebo (PLA) ingestion, in a randomized order. During each period, the participants performed the following cognitive and physical tests: reaction time and vigilance tests, medicine-ball throw (MBT), five jumps, handgrip strength (HG), and agility tests. Results cognitive and physical performances were significantly higher at 16:00 h compared to 08:00 h during the two conditions (p < 0.05). Moreover, performances of MBT and HG were lower in the morning with MEL in comparison to PLA (p < 0.05). However, MEL ingestion did not affect physical and cognitive performances measured at 12:00 h and 16:00 h. Conclusion morning MEL ingestion has no unfavourable effect on afternoon physical and cognitive performances in soccer players. PMID:27030631

  10. Further study on fallout sup 3 H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Katsumata, T.; Itoh, M.; Ueno, K.; Sakanoue, M. )

    1989-10-01

    To study fallout {sup 3}H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food-group samples were collected from Akita City in northern Japan during early summer and late autumn in 1986. Furthermore, total diet samples which are duplicate composite food samples consumed by five or six persons for a period of 1 d were also obtained in Akita City. The {sup 3}H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. Seasonal changes of {sup 3}H concentration in the food samples and the total diet samples were not found clearly. The average {sup 3}H concentration in the free water including tap water was 1.6 Bq L-1. The mean ratio of specific activity of tissue-bound {sup 3}H to that of {sup 3}H in free water was found to be 1.2. The average total {sup 3}H ingestion was estimated to be 4.0 Bq d-1, while the proportion of tissue-bound form {sup 3}H ingestion to total {sup 3}H ingestion was 11%. Cereal was the greatest contributing food group to ingestion of tissue-bound {sup 3}H. These findings were consistent with our previous results for food samples collected in 1985.

  11. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  12. Agile based "Semi-"Automated Data ingest process : ORNL DAAC example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Beaty, T.; Cook, R. B.; Devarakonda, R.; Hook, L.; Wei, Y.; Wright, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC archives and publishes data and information relevant to biogeochemical, ecological, and environmental processes. The data archived at the ORNL DAAC must be well formatted, self-descriptive, and documented, as well as referenced in a peer-reviewed publication. The ORNL DAAC ingest team curates diverse data sets from multiple data providers simultaneously. To streamline the ingest process, the data set submission process at the ORNL DAAC has been recently updated to use an agile process and a semi-automated workflow system has been developed to provide a consistent data provider experience and to create a uniform data product. The goals of semi-automated agile ingest process are to: 1.Provide the ability to track a data set from acceptance to publication 2. Automate steps that can be automated to improve efficiencies and reduce redundancy 3.Update legacy ingest infrastructure 4.Provide a centralized system to manage the various aspects of ingest. This talk will cover the agile methodology, workflow, and tools developed through this system.

  13. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-18

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

  14. Absorption of metals in mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) after ingesting nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Shane P; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; Cairns, Stuart C

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has alluded to the potential of metals being absorbed by fish after ingesting fishing hooks, which may have adverse effects on fish health and the organisms that consume them. Subsequently, this study aimed to quantify the potential of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) to absorb metals during the decay of ingested nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks. Twenty-five treatment fish were allowed to ingest nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks during angling and then monitored with 25 controls (untreated fish) for up to 42 days for hook ejection and mortality. Blood, liver and muscle samples were collected from treatment, control and 14 wild-caught individuals to determine the concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel. The results showed that increased oxidation influenced hook ejection, and that hook-ingested fish had significantly elevated concentrations of nickel in their liver and blood, but not muscle. This research has shown that there is an avenue for metal absorption from ingested hooks. PMID:25016938

  15. Monitoring the ingestion of anti-tuberculosis drugs by simple non-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Sirgel, F A; Maritz, J S; Venter, A; Langdon, G; Smith, P J; Donald, P R

    2006-01-13

    This investigation retrospectively assessed inexpensive non-invasive qualitative methods to monitor the ingestion of anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and rifapentine. Results showed that commercial test strips detected the isoniazid metabolites isonicotinic acid and isonicotinylglycine as efficiently as the isonicotinic acid method in 150 urine samples. The presence of rifamycins in urine samples (n=1085) was detected by microbiological assay techniques and the sensitivity compared to the n-butanol extraction colour test in 91 of these specimens. The proportions detected by the two methods were significantly different and the sensitivity of the n-butanol procedure was only 63.8% (95% CL 51.2-76.4%) as compared to that of the superior microbiological method. Final validation (n=691) showed that qualitative assays measure isoniazid and rifamycin ingestion with an efficiency similar to high-performance liquid chromatography. The qualitative procedures may therefore be valuable in clinical trials and in tuberculosis clinics to confirm drug ingestion. PMID:16303269

  16. Design of a instrumentation module for monitoring ingestive behavior in laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Juan M; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and objective tools for monitoring of ingestive behavior (MIB) is one of the most important needs facing studies of obesity and eating disorders. This paper presents the design of an instrumentation module for non-invasive monitoring of food ingestion in laboratory studies. The system can capture signals from a variety of sensors that characterize ingestion process (such as acoustical and other swallowing sensors, strain sensor for chewing detection and self-report buttons). In addition to the sensors, the data collection system integrates time-synchronous video footage that can be used for annotation of subject's activity. Both data and video are simultaneously and synchronously acquired and stored by a LabVIEW-based interface specifically developed for this application. This instrumentation module improves a previously developed system by eliminating the post-processing stage of data synchronization and by reducing the risks of operator's error. PMID:22254698

  17. Effects of lead shot ingestion on free-ranging mourning doves

    SciTech Connect

    Carrington, M.E.; Mirarchi, R.E. )

    1989-08-01

    Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) may develop Pb toxicosis from ingesting spent Pb shot from hunted fields in which they feed. One to 6.5 percent of the dove population may ingest Pb shot based on analysis of gizzard contents. No Pb shot toxicity studies have been conducted on free-ranging mourning doves. Mortality data for Pb-dosed, free-ranging doves would help determine the actual effects of Pb shot ingestion on the mourning dove population. Causes of death of Pb-treated doves also could help to estimate exposure of predators and scavengers to secondary Pb toxicosis. The objectives of this study were to compare mortality and causes of death of free-ranging Pb-treated and untreated mourning doves.

  18. Marine debris ingestion by sea turtles (Testudines) on the Brazilian coast: an underestimated threat?

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Robson Henrique; Lacerda, Pedro Dutra; da Silva Mendes, Sarah; Barbosa, Bruno Corrêa; Paschoalini, Mariana; Prezoto, Fabio; de Sousa, Bernadete Maria

    2015-12-30

    Assessment of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles is important, especially to ensure their survival. From January to December 2011, 23 specimens of five species of sea turtles were found dead or dying after being rehabilitated, along the coast of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To detect the presence of marine debris in the digestive tract of these turtles, we conducted a postmortem examination from the esophagus until the distal portion of the large intestine for each specimen. Of the total number of turtles, 39% had ingested marine debris such as soft plastic, hard plastic, metal, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle caps, human hair, tampons, and latex condoms. Five of the seven sea turtles species are found along the Brazilian coast, where they feed and breed. A large number of animals are exposed to various kinds of threats, including debris ingestion. PMID:26454630

  19. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  20. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. PMID:26827096

  1. Tissue lead concentrations in Japanese quail ingesting lead Pellets or shot with lead pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.J.; Scanlon, P.F.

    1981-05-01

    Data obtained from birds shot by hunters warrant the consideration that shooting with lead pellets may contrbute to the quantity of lead detected in tissues. Information on the effects of shooting avian species with lead shot on tissue concentrations of lead is, therefore, of considerable importance in assessing the value of birds shot by hunters as a source of samples for studying lead contamination. Kendall found that liver and bone lead concentrations of mourning doves were substantially increased after ingestion of a lead shot. Waterfowl shot by hunters and with direct evidence of ingested lead shot had significantly higher liver lead concentrations than did waterfowl without ingested lead shot. As little information on the effects of shooting with lead projectiles on tissue lead concentrations exists, the present study was designed to measure the effects of shooting Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with lead pellets on lead concentrations in livers and in bones).

  2. Effects of ingested crude and dispersed crude oil on thermoregulation in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, B.M.

    1989-02-01

    Thermoregulatory effects of ingested doses of Statfjord A crude oil and of this oil mixed with the dispersant Finasol OSR-5 were studied in adult domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to ambient temperatures of +16 degrees C and -17 degrees C. The data show that ingestion of both the crude and the oil-dispersant mixture resulted in an increased body temperature during exposure to the low ambient temperature (-17 degrees C). Neither contaminant had any effect on body temperature during exposure to +16 degrees C. Ingestion of the contaminants had no effect on metabolic heat production at either ambient temperature. The breast skin temperature of the ducks in both contaminated groups was significantly decreased when the ducks were exposed to the low ambient temperature. This indicates that the increase in body temperature observed in the contaminated ducks at the low ambient temperature is due to an increase in peripheral vasoconstriction.

  3. Effect of sodium and calcium ingestion on thermoregulation during exercise in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Morse, J. T.; Van Beaumont, W.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.; Mangseth, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of hypertonic sodium and calcium ingestion on body temperature during exercise in cool and hot environments are investigated. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, sweat rates and arm and leg total blood flows were measured in men during periods of rest, submaximal exercise and recovery at temperatures of 26.5 C and 39.4 C after ingestion of NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. In both environments, higher rectal temperatures are observed after hypertonic sodium ingestion, which is also associated with attenuated blood flow in the extremities, lower sweat rates and slightly higher skin temperature in the heat, indicating significant thermoregulatory responses. Hypertonic calcium and isotonic sodium cause no temperature change, although calcium caused a reduction of blood flow in the extremities.

  4. Impacts of plastic ingestion on post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; Cole, Georgina; Spiby, Kevin; Nel, Ronel; Osborne, Alexis; Perold, Vonica

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-four of 40 (60%) loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta post-hatchlings (carapace<9cm) that died within 2months of stranding on southern Cape beaches in April 2015 contained ingested anthropogenic debris. Plastic comprised of 99% of debris: 77% hard plastic fragments, 10% flexible packaging and 8% fibres; industrial pellets comprised only 3%, compared to ~70% in 1968-1973, when 12% of stranded post-hatchlings contained plastics. Turtles selected for white (38%) and blue (19%) items, but translucent items (23%) were under-represented compared to beach mesodebris. Ingested loads did not decrease up to 52days in captivity, indicating long retention times. Plastic killed 11 turtles by blocking their digestive tracts or bladders, and contributed to the deaths of five other turtles. Our results indicate that the amount and diversity of plastic ingested by post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa have increased over the last four decades, and now kill some turtles. PMID:27087353

  5. Comparing plastic ingestion in juvenile and adult stranded short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Heidi; Schuyler, Qamar A; Townsend, Kathy A; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2014-01-15

    Numerous species of seabirds have been shown to ingest anthropogenic debris, but few studies have compared ingestion rates between adults and juveniles of the same species. We investigated marine debris ingestion by short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) obtained through two stranding events on North Stradbroke Island, Australia in 2010 (n=102; adult) and 2012 (n=27; juveniles). Necropsies were conducted and solid contents found in guts were categorized into type and color. Over 67% of birds ingested anthropogenic debris: 399 pieces of debris were identified. We found no significant relationship between body condition of birds which had ingested anthropogenic debris and those that had not. Juvenile birds were more likely to ingest debris than were adult birds and juveniles ingested significantly more pieces of debris than did adults. Male and female birds ingested similar amounts and weights of debris. To determine if P. tenuirostris actively selects for certain types of debris, we compared ingested debris to samples obtained from boat-based tows. Significant differences were found, suggesting that the birds select for hard plastic, rubber and balloons. PMID:24295596

  6. Foreign Body Ingestion in Children: Should Button Batteries in the Stomach Be Urgently Removed?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Jee Hoo; Lee, Jung Hwa; Eun, Baik-Lin; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Foreign body (FB) ingestion is common in children, and button battery (BB) ingestion has been increasing in recent years. This study was to identify factors related to outcomes of FB ingestion, particularly BBs in the stomach. We evaluated whether the current recommendations are appropriate and aimed to suggest indications for endoscopic removal of BB in the stomach in young children. Methods We investigated patient age, shape, size, location of FBs, spontaneous passage time and resulting complications among 76 children. We observed types, size, location of BB and outcomes, and analyzed their associations with complications. Results Coins and BB were the two most common FBs. Their shapes and sizes were not associated with the spontaneous passage time. Size, spontaneous passage time, and age were also not associated with any specific complications. For BB ingestion, all 5 cases with lithium batteries (≥1.5 cm, 3 V) presented moderate to major complications in the esophagus and stomach without any symptoms, even when the batteries were in the stomach and beyond the duodenum, while no complications were noted in 7 cases with alkaline batteries (<1.5 cm, 1.5 V) (p=0.001). All endoscopies were conducted within 24 hours after ingestion. Conclusion The type and voltage of the battery should be considered when determining whether endoscopy is required to remove a BB in the stomach. For lithium battery ingestion in young children, urgent endoscopic removal might be important in order to prevent complications, even if the child is asymptomatic and the battery is smaller than 2 cm. PMID:27066446

  7. High endogenous salivary amylase activity is associated with improved glycemic homeostasis following starch ingestion in adults.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Abigail L; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-05-01

    In the current study, we determined whether increased digestion of starch by high salivary amylase concentrations predicted postprandial blood glucose following starch ingestion. Healthy, nonobese individuals were prescreened for salivary amylase activity and classified as high (HA) or low amylase (LA) if their activity levels per minute fell 1 SD higher or lower than the group mean, respectively. Fasting HA (n = 7) and LA (n = 7) individuals participated in 2 sessions during which they ingested either a starch (experimental) or glucose solution (control) on separate days. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the participants drank each solution. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as diploid AMY1 gene copy number. HA individuals had significantly more AMY1 gene copies within their genomes than did the LA individuals. We found that following starch ingestion, HA individuals had significantly lower postprandial blood glucose concentrations at 45, 60, and 75 min, as well as significantly lower AUC and peak blood glucose concentrations than the LA individuals. Plasma insulin concentrations in the HA group were significantly higher than baseline early in the testing session, whereas insulin concentrations in the LA group did not increase at this time. Following ingestion of the glucose solution, however, blood glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the groups. These observations are interpreted to suggest that HA individuals may be better adapted to ingest starches, whereas LA individuals may be at greater risk for insulin resistance and diabetes if chronically ingesting starch-rich diets. PMID:22492122

  8. Non-fatal asphyxiation and foreign body ingestion in children 0-14 years.

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, A. E.; Ozanne-Smith, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency and nature of non-fatal asphyxiation and foreign body ingestion injuries among children in the state of Victoria, Australia, and to identify possible areas for prevention. METHODS: For children under 15 years, all Victorian public hospital admissions, July 1987 to June 1995, due to asphyxiation or 'foreign body entering through other orifice' (which includes ingestions), were reviewed. Emergency department presentations due to asphyxiation and foreign body ingestion provided information on circumstances of, and the type of foreign bodies involved in the injuries. RESULTS: The childhood average annual admission rate for asphyxiation was 15.1 per 100,000. Food related asphyxiation peaked in infants under 1 year, and declined to low levels by 3 years. The main foods involved were nuts, carrot, apple, and candy. The rate of non-food related asphyxiation was relatively constant to 3 years of age and then declined by 6 years. Mechanical suffocation was less common. The annual admission rate for 'foreign body entering through other orifice' was 31.7 per 100,000. These injuries peaked in 2-3 year olds then gradually declined. About 80% of these foreign body admissions were ingestions, with coins being the major object ingested. Admission rates for these causes remained constant over the eight years. Asphyxiation resulted in a higher proportion admitted and longer hospital stays. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of suffocation and strangulation needs to focus on a safe sleeping environment and avoidance of ropes and cords, while foreign body asphyxiation and ingestion needs a focus on education of parents and child carers regarding age, appropriate food, risk of play with coins, and other small items. Legislation for toy small parts could be extended to those used by children up to the age of 5 years, and to other products marketed for children. Design changes and warning labels also have a place in prevention. PMID:9338828

  9. Water and carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise increase maximal neuromuscular power.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, R G; Switzer, T W; Hodgkinson, B J; Lee, S H; Martin, J C; Coyle, E F

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the individual and combined effects of water and carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged cycling on maximal neuromuscular power (P(max)), thermoregulation, cardiovascular function, and metabolism. Eight endurance-trained cyclists exercised for 122 min at 62% maximal oxygen uptake in a 35 degrees C environment (50% relative humidity, 2 m/s fan speed). P(max) was measured in triplicate during 6-min periods beginning at 26, 56, 86, and 116 min. On four different occasions, immediately before and during exercise, subjects ingested 1) 3.28 +/- 0.21 liters of water with no carbohydrate (W); 2) 3.39 +/- 0.23 liters of a solution containing 204 +/- 14 g of carbohydrate (W+C); 3) 204 +/- 14 g of carbohydrate in only 0.49 +/- 0.03 liter of solution (C); and 4) 0. 37 +/- 0.02 liter of water with no carbohydrate (placebo; Pl). These treatments were randomized, disguised, and presented double blind. At 26 min of exercise, P(max) was similar in all trials. From 26 to 116 min, P(max) declined 15.2 +/- 3.3 and 14.5 +/- 2.1% during C and Pl, respectively; 10.4 +/- 1.9% during W (W > C, W > Pl; P < 0.05); and 7.4 +/- 2.2% during W+C (W+C > W, W+C > C, and W+C > Pl; P < 0. 05). As an interesting secondary findings, we also observed that carbohydrate ingestion increased heat production, final core temperature, and whole body sweating rate. We conclude that, during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in a warm environment, ingestion of W attenuates the decline in P(max). Furthermore, ingestion of W+C attenuates the decline in maximal power more than does W alone, and ingestion of C alone does not attenuate the decline in P(max) compared with Pl. PMID:10658044

  10. Evaluation of Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlets With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Morehouse, Melissa B.

    2003-01-01

    A new high Reynolds number test capability for boundary layer ingesting inlets has been developed for the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Using this new capability, an experimental investigation of four S-duct inlet configurations with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion (nominal boundary layer thickness of about 40% of inlet height) was conducted at realistic operating conditions (high subsonic Mach numbers and full-scale Reynolds numbers). The objectives of this investigation were to 1) develop a new high Reynolds number, boundary-layer ingesting inlet test capability, 2) evaluate the performance of several boundary layer ingesting S-duct inlets, 3) provide a database for CFD tool validation, and 4) provide a baseline inlet for future inlet flow-control studies. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on duct exit diameter) from 5.1 million to a fullscale value of 13.9 million, and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.39 to 1.58 depending on Mach number. Results of this investigation indicate that inlet pressure recovery generally decreased and inlet distortion generally increased with increasing Mach number. Except at low Mach numbers, increasing inlet mass-flow increased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Increasing the amount of boundary layer ingestion (by decreasing inlet throat height and increasing inlet throat width) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Finally, increasing Reynolds number had almost no effect on inlet distortion but increased inlet recovery by about one-half percent at a Mach number near cruise.

  11. Ingestion of a moderately high caffeine dose before exercise increases postexercise energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Ortega, Juan F; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesus; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Caffeine is an ergogenic aid widely used before and during prolonged exercise. Due to its prolonged biological half-life caffeine effects could remain after exercise. We aimed to investigate the metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular postexercise responses to preexercise graded caffeine ingestion. Twelve aerobically trained subjects (mean VO₂max = 54 ± 7 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹) cycled for 60-min at 75% VO₂max after ingesting placebo (0 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight) or 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ on five occasions. During the 3 hr postexercise, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose, lactate, and fatty acids were analyzed. None of these variables were statistically affected by preexercise caffeine ingestion between 0.5 and 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹. However, ingestion of 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ of caffeine raised postexercise energy expenditure 15% above placebo (233 ± 58 vs. 202 ± 49 kcal/3 hr; p < .05). Ventilation and tidal volume were elevated after the 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ caffeine dose above placebo (9.2 ± 2.5 L · min⁻¹ and 0.67 ± 0.29 L · breath⁻¹ vs. 7.8 ± 1.5 L · min⁻¹ and 0.56 ± 0.20 L · breath⁻¹, respectively; p < .05). Ventilation correlated with tidal volume (r = .45; p < .05) and energy expenditure (r = .72; p < .05). In summary, preexercise ingestion of ergogenic caffeine doses do not alter postexercise cardiovascular responses. However, ingestion of 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ of caffeine raises 3-hr postexercise energy expenditure (i.e., 31 kcal) likely through increased energy cost of ventilation. PMID:24901809

  12. Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Jeukendrup, Asker E; Raben, Anne; Gijsen, Annemie; Stegen, Jos H C H; Brouns, Fred; Saris, Wim H M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50% maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4% glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22% glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Fast, 73-74 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Lo-Glu and 117–119 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100% in all trials. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible. PMID:10050023

  13. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  14. Effects of ingesting [13C]glucose early or late into cold exposure on substrate utilization

    PubMed Central

    Blondin, Denis P.; Péronnet, François

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors limiting the oxidation of exogenous glucose during cold exposure may be the delay in establishing a shivering steady state (∼60 min), reducing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Therefore, using indirect calorimetry and isotopic methodologies in non-cold-acclimatized men, the main purpose of this study was to determine whether ingesting glucose at a moment coinciding with the maximal shivering intensity could increase the utilization rate of the ingested glucose. 13C-enriched glucose was ingested (800 mg/min) from the onset (G0) or after 60 min (G60) of cold exposure when the thermogenic rate was stabilized to low-intensity shivering (∼2.5 times resting metabolic rate). For the same quantity of glucose ingested, the oxidation rate of exogenous glucose was 35% higher in G60 (159 ± 17 vs. 118 ± 17 mg/min in G0) between minutes 60 and 90. By the end of cold exposure, exogenous glucose oxidation was significantly greater in G0, reaching 231 ± 14 mg/min, ∼15% higher than the only rates previously reported. This considerably reduced the utilization of endogenous reserves over time and compared with the G60 condition. This study also demonstrates a fall in muscle glycogen utilization, when glucose was ingested from the onset of cold exposure (from ∼150 to ∼75 mg/min). Together, these findings indicate the importance of ingesting glucose immediately on exposure to a cold condition, relying on shivering thermogenesis and sustaining that consumption for as long as possible. This substrate not only provides an auxiliary fuel source for shivering thermogenesis, but, more importantly, preserves the limited endogenous glucose reserves. PMID:20651221

  15. In vivo intracerebral administration of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid provokes oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in striatum and cerebellum of adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Mateus Struecker; João Ribeiro, César Augusto; Seminotti, Bianca; Teixeira Ribeiro, Rafael; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Coelho, Daniella de Moura; de Oliveira, Francine Hehn; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Wajner, Moacir

    2015-06-01

    Patients affected by L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) are biochemically characterized by elevated L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L-2-HG) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine due to a blockage in the conversion of L-2-HG to α-ketoglutaric acid. Neurological symptoms associated with basal ganglia and cerebelar abnormalities whose pathophysiology is still unknown are typical of this neurometabolic disorder. In the present study we evaluated the early effects (30min after injection) of an acute in vivo intrastriatal and intracerebellar L-2-HG administration on redox homeostasis in rat striatum and cerebellum, respectively. Histological analyses of these brain structures were also carried out 7 days after L-2-HG treatment (long-term effects). L-2-HG significantly decreased the concentrations of reduced (GSH) and total glutathione (tGS), as well as of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase (GR) activities, but did not change the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in striatum. Furthermore, the concentrations of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, were increased, whereas carbonyl formation and nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not altered by L-2-HG injection. It was also found that the melatonin, ascorbic acid plus α-tocopherol, and creatine totally prevented most of these effects, whereas N-acetylcysteine, the noncompetitive glutamate NMDA antagonist MK-801, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME were not able to normalize the redox alterations elicited by L-2-HG in striatum. L-2-HG intracerebellar injection similarly provoked a decrease of antioxidant defenses (GSH, tGS, GPx, and GR) and an increase of the concentrations of GSSG, MDA, and H2O2 in cerebellum. These results strongly indicate that the major accumulating metabolite in L-2-HGA induce oxidative stress by decreasing the antioxidant defenses and

  16. Laryngeal impaction of an archwire segment after accidental ingestion during orthodontic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Umesan, Uday Kumar; Ahmad, Wizziyiane; Balakrishnan, Priya

    2012-08-01

    Orthodontic archwires or fractured appliances that are accidentally swallowed can become lodged in the airway or gastrointestinal tract. Inadvertent ingestion or aspiration of an appliance or archwire piece during orthodontic appliance adjustment is a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including possible death from asphyxiation. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a piece of orthodontic archwire that became impacted in the larynx; it was subsequently retrieved. Some potential complications are discussed, along with suggested precautions to prevent such mishaps when using fixed appliances. PMID:22858337

  17. Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Muriel; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T

    2015-06-01

    The human gut contains a highly diverse microbial community that is essentially an open ecosystem, despite being deeply embedded within the human body. Food-associated fermentative bacteria, including probiotics, are major sources of ingested bacteria that may temporarily complement resident microbial communities, thus forming part of our transient microbiome. Here, we review data on the fate and activity of ingested bacteria and, in particular, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their impact on the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiome with a focus on data from clinical studies. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms involved and the potential impact on the host's health. PMID:25840765

  18. A near fatal case of high dose peppermint oil ingestion- Lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumya S; Pandey, Chandrakant; Roy, Debashis

    2012-11-01

    Peppermint oil is easily available as a constituent of medicines. A near fatal case due to ingestion of toxic dose of oral peppermint oil is being reported. The patient came in a comatosed state and was in shock. She was managed with mechanical ventilation and ionotropes. Her vital parameters reached normal within 8 hours and became conscious by 24 hours. The side effects of peppermint oil are considered to be mild but this case report warns that ingestion of oral toxic doses of peppermint oil could be dangerous. PMID:23325948

  19. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE CAPABILITIES FOR CONDUCTING INGESTION PATHWAY CONSEQUENCE ASSESSMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C

    2007-12-11

    Potential airborne releases of radioactivity from facilities operated for the U. S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site could pose significant consequences to the public through the ingestion pathway. The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a suite of technologies needed to conduct assessments of ingestion dose during emergency response, enabling emergency manager at SRS to develop initial protective action recommendation for state agencies early in the response and to make informed decisions on activation of additional Federal assets that would be needed to support long-term monitoring and assessment activities.

  20. Severe metabolic acidosis and "muti" (traditional herbal medicine) ingestion in young children.

    PubMed

    Nkrumah, F K; Nathoo, K J; Gomo, Z A; Pirie, D J

    1990-01-01

    Twenty infants and young children admitted with severe metabolic acidosis and a positive history of 'muti' ingestion were investigated. All had accompanying gastroenteritis and significant dehydration. Biochemical data was diagnostic of high anion/gap metabolic acidosis in the majority (70 per cent). Further biochemical data indicated that lactic acidosis and pre-renal azotaemia resulting from severe hypovolaemia were likely causes of the high anion GAP metabolic acidosis. There was no evidence to suggest that the ingested muti per se was associated directly with the acidosis or acute renal failure seen in these children. PMID:2397494

  1. Relative source contributions of diet and air to ingested asbestos exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, J N

    1983-01-01

    Reliable assessments of the relative contributions of diet (food, beverages, and orally administered drugs) and air (inhaled fibers) to total ingested asbestos exposure are not feasible due to the paucity of quantitative data on the subject. Instead, scenarios for both modes of exposure were developed from the limited information available to give crude estimates of ingestion of asbestos from these routes. They suggest that such sources are potentially significant relative to the contribution of asbestos exposure derived from drinking water. Research recommendations are discussed. PMID:6662081

  2. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion: A Case of High Osmolal Gap Metabolic Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Courtney A; Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  3. Heavy metal concentrations of duck tissues in relation to ingestion of spent shot

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.L.; Fisher, F.M. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl from dissolution of ingested lead shot has been recognized as a major problem in wildlife management for almost a century. However, lead shot also contains considerable amounts of other metals. The aims of this study were to determine if any of the additional components of lead or steel shot were accumulated upon shot ingestion as indicated by their concentrations in bones and features, and to determine the feasibility of heavy metal analysis of feathers to assess exposure to spent shot.

  4. Unintentional ingestion of brimonidine antiglaucoma drops: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique; Skvirsky, David Oldak; Cisneros, Beatriz Guzmán

    2007-09-01

    A previously healthy, 1-year 7-month-old boy was brought to the emergency department after having unintentionally ingested topical brimonidine antiglaucoma drops. He was pale and lethargic and had brief periods of apnea and bradycardia. Activated charcoal was administered, and supportive measures were initiated, achieving complete resolution of the symptoms 4 hours after admission. Brimonidine poisoning is very rare, and a high index of suspicion is necessary to identify its signs and symptoms in the pediatric emergency department. To our knowledge, only 1 case of brimonidine poisoning after oral ingestion of this topical drug has been previously reported in the literature. PMID:17876259

  5. Carboxy-THC in Washed Hair: Still the Reliable Indicator of Marijuana Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Hill, Virginia A; Schaffer, Michael I; Stowe, G Neil

    2016-06-01

    The presence of the metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (C-THC) in hair is generally accepted as the definitive proof of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ingestion. During hair analysis, the removal of any potential C-THC external contamination that could result from marijuana smoke or close personal contact via a wash procedure is critical. Here, we performed a series of experiments to demonstrate that C-THC is the reliable indicator of marijuana ingestion when paired with the correct washing procedure to remove potential external contamination. PMID:27185816

  6. Self harm through foreign bodies ingestion – a rare cause of digestive perforation

    PubMed Central

    Petrea, S; Brezean, I

    2014-01-01

    Self-harm is a rare pathology, often seen in psychiatric patients but more frequently in the penitentiary environment. Of the many possible forms of self-harm, foreign bodies (FB) ingestion is by far the most usual in the Romanian prison environment. Our paper aims to present the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects arising as a consequence of digestive tract perforations consequent upon foreign bodies ingestion; we analyze a number of 45 cases which occurred over a 7-year period (2003-2010) in Rahova Penitentiary Hospital. We also examined the surgical particularities of case resolution. Abbreviations: FB – foreign bodies, EEA – end-to-end anastomosis PMID:24653761

  7. Self harm through foreign bodies ingestion – rare cause of digestive perforation

    PubMed Central

    Petrea, S; Brezean, I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-harm is a rare pathology, often seen in psychiatric patients but more frequently in the penitentiary environment. Of the many possible forms of self-harm, foreign bodies (FB) ingestion is by far the most usual in the Romanian prison environment. The paper aims to present the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects arising as a consequence of the digestive tract perforations consequent upon foreign bodies ingestion; a number of 45 cases which occurred over a 7-year period (2003-2010) in "Rahova" Penitentiary Hospital, were analyzed. We also examined the surgical particularities of case resolution. Abbreviations: FB = foreign bodies, EEA = end-to-end anastomosis PMID:25408734

  8. Effects of lead shot ingestion on selected cells of the mallard immune system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The immunologic effects of lead were measured in game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that ingested lead shot while foraging naturally, mallards intubated with lead shot, and unexposed controls. Circulating white blood cells (WBC) declined significantly in male mallards exposed to lead by either natural ingestion or intubation, but not females. Spleen plaque-forming cell (SPFC) counts were significantly lower in mallards intubated with lead pellets compared to controls. Declines in WBC and SPFC means with increasing tissue lead concentrations provide further evidence that lead exposure reduced immunologic cell numbers. Hormonal activity and diet may have influenced the immunologic effects of lead exposure in this study.

  9. Estimating baseline risks from biouptake and food ingestion at a contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Woytowich, K.; Blunt, D.; Picel, M.

    1993-11-01

    Biouptake of contaminants and subsequent human exposure via food ingestion represents a public concern at many contaminated sites. Site-specific measurements from plant and animal studies are usually quite limited, so this exposure pathway is often modeled to assess the potential for adverse health effects. A modeling tool was applied to evaluate baseline risks at a contaminated site in Missouri, and the results were used to confirm that ingestion of fish and game animals from the site area do not pose a human health threat. Results were also used to support the development of cleanup criteria for site soil.

  10. Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

  11. Disease-Related Differences in Resting State Networks: A Comparison between Localized Provoked Vulvodynia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpana; Rapkin, Andrea J.; Gill, Zafar; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Fling, Connor; Stains, Jean; Masghati, Salome; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A.; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Localized provoked vulvodynia (LPVD) affects approximately 16% of the female population, but biological mechanisms underlying symptoms remain unknown. Like in other, often comorbid chronic pain disorders, altered sensory processing and modulation of pain, including central sensitization, dysregulation of endogenous pain modulatory systems, and attentional enhancement of pain perception have been implicated. The aim of this study was to test whether regions of interest showing differences in LPVD compared to healthy controls (HCs) in structural and evoked-pain neuroimaging studies, also show alterations in during rest compared to HCs and a chronic pain control group (irritable bowel syndrome, IBS). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during resting state in 87 age-matched premenopausal females (29 LPVD, 29 HCs, 29 IBS). Group independent component analysis and general linear models were applied to investigate group differences in the intrinsic connectivity of regions comprising sensorimotor, salience, and default mode resting state networks. LPVD subjects showed substantial alterations in the intrinsic connectivity of these networks compared to HCs and IBS. The intrinsic connectivity of many of the regions showing group differences during rest were moderately associated with clinical symptom reports in LPVD. Findings were robust to controlling for affect and medication usage. The current findings indicate LPVD subjects have alterations in the intrinsic connectivity of regions comprising the sensorimotor, salience, and default mode networks. Although shared brain mechanisms between different chronic pain disorders have been postulated, the current findings suggest some alterations in functional connectivity may show disease specificity. PMID:25735001

  12. Tris-(2,3-Dibromopropyl) Isocyanurate, a New Emerging Pollutant, Impairs Cognition and Provokes Depression-Like Behaviors in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liang; Hu, Zhengping; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Haibo; Dong, Zhaoju; Jiang, Wanglin; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Ning; Mi, Wei; Wang, Wenyan; Hu, Xihou

    2015-01-01

    Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TDBP-TAZTO), an emerging brominated flame retardant, possesses the characteristics of candidate persistent organic pollutants and has displayed toxicity to fish and rodents. TDBP-TAZTO can pass through the blood brain barrier and accumulate in brain. However, the neurotoxicity of TDBP-TAZTO has not yet studied in rodents. We hypothesize that TDBP-TAZTO could induce the neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurons. The male adult rats were exposed to TDBP-TAZTO of 5 and 50 mg/kg by gavage, daily for 6 months. TDBP-TAZTO resulted in cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors, which may be related with TDBP-TAZTO-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivation, upregulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, overexpression of pro-apoptotic proteins, downexpression of neurogenesis-related proteins in hippocampus, and hippocampal neurons damage in DG, CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings suggested that TDBP-TAZTO induces significant hippocampal neurotoxicity, which provokes cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors in adult rats. Therefore, this research will contribute to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of TDBP-TAZTO in human. PMID:26458255

  13. Get Provoked: Applying Tilden's Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    This address given to the Division of Interpretation, Yellowstone National Park, Interpretive Training, June 1993, examines successes and failures in interpretive programs for adults and children in light of Tilden's principles. (LZ)

  14. Parasitoid secretions provoke ant warfare.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J A; Knapp, J J; Akino, T; Gerty, S; Wakamura, S; Simcox, D J; Wardlaw, J C; Elmes, G W

    2002-05-30

    Insect social parasites are extreme specialists that typically use mimicry or stealth to enter ant colonies to exploit the rich, but fiercely protected, resources within their nests. Here we show how a parasitic wasp (parasitoid) contrives to reach its host, itself an endangered species of social parasite that lives inside the brood chambers of ant nests, by releasing semiochemicals to induce in-fighting between worker ants, locking the colony in combat and leaving it underprotected. Four of these chemicals are new to biology and have the potential to control pest species by inducing different agonistic behaviours in ants. PMID:12037556

  15. The Accuracy of Self-Reported Drug Ingestion Histories In Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Andrew A.; Heard, Kennon J.; Hoppe, Jason A.; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Inaccuracies in self-reports may lead to duplication of therapy, failure to appreciate non-compliance leading to exacerbation of chronic medical conditions, or inaccurate research conclusions. Our objective is to determine the accuracy of self-reported drug ingestion histories in patients presenting to an urban academic emergency department (ED). We conducted a prospective cohort study in ED patients presenting for pain or nausea. We obtained a structured drug ingestion history including all prescription drugs, OTC drugs, and illicit drugs for the 48 hours prior to ED presentation. We obtained urine comprehensive drug screens (CDS) and determined self-report/CDS concordance. Fifty-five patients were enrolled. Self-reported drug ingestion histories were poor in these patients; only 17 (30.9%) of histories were concordant with the CDS. For the individual drug classes, prescription drug-CDS was concordant in 32 (58.2%), OTC-CDS was concordant in 33 (60%), and illicit drug-CDS was concordant in 45 (81.8%) of subjects. No demographic factors predicted an accurate self-reported drug history. Sixteen patients had drugs detected by CDS that were unreported by history. Nine of these 16 included an unreported opioid. In conclusion, self-reported drug ingestion histories are often inaccurate and resources are needed to confirm compliance and ensure unreported drugs are not overlooked. PMID:25052325

  16. Effects of Sugar Ingestion on the Classroom and Playgroup Behavior of Attention Deficit Disordered Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milich, Richards; Pelham, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys fasted overnight and then received a drink containing sucrose or a placebo of comparable sweetness for four days. Examination of classroom behavior, academic productivity and accuracy, noncompliance with adult requests and peer interactions offered no support for the contention that sugar ingestion adversely…

  17. Effectiveness of emetics to study plastic ingestion by Leach's Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa).

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Lavers, Jennifer L

    2013-05-15

    Most plastic ingestion studies rely on dissection of dead birds, which are found opportunistically, and may be biased. We used Leach's Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) in Newfoundland to study the effect of dose volume, and the efficacy of emesis using syrup of ipecac as an emetic. Ipecac is a safe method of non-lethally sampling stomach contents, and recovered all ingested plastic. Almost half the storm-petrels sampled had ingested plastic, ranging from 0 to 17 pieces, and weighing 0.2-16.9 mg. Using the Ecological Quality Objective for Northern Fulmars, adjusted for storm-petrels smaller size, 43% exceeded the threshold of 0.0077 g of plastic. Many adult seabirds offload plastic to their offspring, so storm-petrel chicks likely experience a higher plastic burden than their parents. The ability to study plastic ingestion non-lethally allows researchers to move from opportunistic and haphazard sampling to hypothesis-driven studies on a wider range of taxa and age classes. PMID:23507234

  18. Environmental temperature affects the dynamics of ingestion in the nectivorous ant Camponotus mus.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Josens, Roxana

    2014-12-01

    Environmental temperature influences physiology and behavior in animals in general and is particularly determinant in ectotherms. Not least because temperature defines metabolism and body temperature, muscle activity in insects also strongly depends on this factor. Here, we analyzed how environmental temperature influences the dynamics of ingestion due to its effect on the sucking pump muscles in the nectivorous ants Camponotus mus. Feeding behavior and sucking pump activity during sucrose solution ingestion were first recorded in a natural environment in an urban setting throughout the day and in different seasons. Then, controlled temperature experiments were performed in the laboratory. In both situations, feeding time decreased and pumping frequency increased with temperature. However, different pumping frequencies under a same temperature were also observed in different seasons. Besides, in the laboratory, the volume of solution ingested increased with temperature. Consequently, intake rate increased when temperature rose. This change was exclusively promoted by a variation in the pumping frequency while volume taken in per pump contraction was not affected by temperature. In summary, environmental temperature modified the dynamics of ingestion and feeding behavior by directly affecting pumping frequency. PMID:25285641

  19. Renal failure in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) following ingestion of oxalate containing plants

    PubMed Central

    Holowaychuk, Marie K.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs. PMID:16933558

  20. Effect of Caffeine Ingestion on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, N. K.; Crowell, D.

    1985-01-01

    Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion were used to measure the effect of caffeine ingestion on active college students. The results do not support the general use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid for either males or females, although caffeine may have that effect on specific individuals. (Author/MT)

  1. Ingested foreign bodies and societal wealth: three year observational study of swallowed coins

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, H; Biller, J A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between coins ingested by children and the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Design Observational study. Main outcome measures Total value of coins ingested and number of incidents of coins versus other objects swallowed, measured before and after the stock market crash of October 2008. Results Eighteen objects, including 11 coins, were ingested (NASDAQ (numismatic and sundry detritus acquired) composite of 18). The total value of the 11 coins swallowed was $1.03 (FTSE 100 (fraction of the US$ or 100 cents) index of 103). The pecuniary extraction ratio (PE ratio) was 0.57 (9/16). Comparing values for a period before and after October 2008, the mean monthly NASDAQ composite (0.41 (SD 0.67) v 0.5 (0.85), P=0.75), FTSE 100 index in cents (2.3 (6.8) v 3.1 (7.8), P=0.77), and PE ratio (0.54 (0.52) v 0.66 (0.29), P=0.50) did not change. The mean end-of-month closing value of the Dow Jones, however, decreased significantly (12 537 (841.4) v 8388 (699.8), P<0.001) Conclusion There was no detectable difference in the total value of coins ingested, or ratio of coins to other objects swallowed, before or after a massive stock market crash. PMID:19965938

  2. Toxicities associated with NBOMe ingestion, a novel class of potent hallucinogens: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Joji; Dekker, Michael A.; Valenti, Erin S.; Arbelo Cruz, Fabiola A.; Correa, Ady M.; Poklis, Justin L.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    Objective A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged as drugs of abuse. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of published reports of toxicities associated with NBOMe ingestion. Methods We searched the PubMed for relevant English language citations that described adverse effects from analytically confirmed human NBOMe ingestion. Demographic and clinical data were extracted. Results Ten citations met criteria for inclusion, representing 20 individual patients. 25I-NBOMe was the most common analog identified, followed by 25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe. Fatalities were reported in 3 (15%) cases. Seven (35%) were discharged after a period of observation, while 8 (40.0%) required admission to an intensive care unit. The most common adverse effects were agitation (85.0%), tachycardia (85.0%), and hypertension (65.0%). Seizures were reported in 8 (40.0%) patients. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated creatine kinase (45.0%), leukocytosis (25.0%), and hyperglycemia (20.0%). Conclusion NBOMe ingestion is associated with severe adverse effects. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of hallucinogens. PMID:25659919

  3. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  4. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed “microplastic,” have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the “rafting assemblage,” are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem. PMID:24167779

  5. ASSESSMENT OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING RISK TO BIRDS FROM INGESTION OF CONTAMINATED GRIT PARTICLES (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates approaches for estimating the probability of ingestion by birds of contaminated particles such as pesticide granules or lead particles (i.e. shot or bullet fragments). In addition, it presents an approach for using this information to estimate the risk of mo...

  6. In Vitro Evaluation Mimics Influences of Winter Cold Water Ingestion on Ruminal Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of cold feed and water may suddenly reduce ruminal temperature, which could result in decreased microbial activity and diet digestibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between critical rumen in vitro incubation temperature and activity of ruminal microorga...

  7. Carbohydrate ingestion and glycogen utilization in different muscle fibre types in man.

    PubMed Central

    Tsintzas, O K; Williams, C; Boobis, L; Greenhaff, P

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on muscle glycogen utilization during exercise was examined on seven male subjects completing two 60 min treadmill runs at 70% maximum oxygen uptake (VO2,max), 1 week apart. On each occasion the subjects consumed either water or a 5.5% CHO-electrolyte solution immediately before and during exercise. Muscle samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis by needle biopsy before and immediately after exercise. Venous blood samples were also collected from an ante-cubital vein at rest and at 10, 20, 40 and 60 min into the run. 2. Higher blood glucose concentrations (P < 0.01) were observed throughout the run during the CHO trial compared with the water trial. Serum insulin concentration was only higher after 20 min of exercise (P < 0.01). 3. A 28% reduction in mixed glycogen utilization was observed as a result of CHO ingestion when compared with water ingestion (108.7 +/- 16.3 vs. 150.9 +/- 19.9 mmol (kg dry matter)-1, respectively; P < 0.01). 4. The ingestion of the CHO solution resulted in sparing of glycogen in type I (slow twitch) fibres only (38 +/- 7% degradation of glycogen as opposed to 66 +/- 3% during the water trial; P = 0.01). PMID:8583408

  8. A Community Prevention Model to Prevent Children from Inhaling and Ingesting Harmful Legal Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, K. W.; Grube, J. W.; Ogilvie, K. A.; Collins, D.; Courser, M.; Dirks, L. G.; Ogilvie, D.; Driscoll, D.

    2012-01-01

    Children's misuse of harmful legal products (HLPs), including inhaling or ingesting everyday household products, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, constitutes a serious health problem for American society. This article presents a community prevention model (CPM) focusing on this problem among pre and early adolescents. The model,…

  9. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-05-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  10. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  11. ESTIMATING CHILDREN'S DERMAL AND NON-DIETARY INGESTION EXPOSURE AND DOSE WITH EPA'S SHEDS MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based stochastic model (SHEDS) has been developed to estimate pesticide exposure and dose to children via dermal residue contact and non-dietary ingestion. Time-location-activity data are sampled from national survey results to generate a population of simulated ch...

  12. SPECIAL REPORT ON INGESTED INORGANIC ARSENIC: SKIN CANCER; NUTRITIONAL ESSENTIALITY (SAB REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technical panel of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum has studied three special issues regarding certain health effects, particularly skin cancer, associated with arsenic ingestion: (1) the validity of the Taiwan study and its use for dose-response assessment in the U.S. population, (...

  13. A Community Prevention Intervention to Reduce Youth from Inhaling and Ingesting Harmful Legal Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton; Courser, Matthew; Holder, Harold; Miller, Brenda; Ogilvie, Kristen; Moore, Roland; Collins, David; Saltz, Bob; Ogilvie, Diane; Saylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Youth use of harmful legal products, including inhaling or ingesting everyday household products, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, constitutes a growing health problem for American society. As such, a single targeted approach to preventing such a drug problem in a community is unlikely to be sufficient to reduce use and abuse at the…

  14. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of an H-Separations Coil and Tube Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-08-04

    The food ingestion consequences of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-2.35, are evaluated for H-Separations. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet.

  15. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  16. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. 201.306 Section 201.306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium...

  17. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. 201.306 Section 201.306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium...

  18. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. 201.306 Section 201.306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. 201.306 Section 201.306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium...

  20. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. 201.306 Section 201.306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN DIETARY INGESTION EXPOSURES TO WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS VIA FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this research is to estimate the magnitude of exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water via their ingestion after uptake into food during cooking. It has been shown in our laboratory that foods can become contaminated with chemicals in ...

  2. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  3. Tracheoesophageal fistula in adults due to corrosive ingestion: challenges in management.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vikas; Kurdia, Kailash C; Sharma, Anil; Mishra, Anand K; Yadav, Thakur D; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    Esophagorespiratory fistula in adults as a result of corrosive ingestion is a rare occurrence and is a difficult problem to manage. Three young (15-19 years) patients (2F, 1M) out of 115 (incidence 2.6%) of corrosive ingestion who had tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) were reviewed retrospectively. After initial management, enteral route of nutrition was established. Based on the extent of concomitant esophageal stricture, the fistulae were classified as: type I (short) and type II (long segment). Fistula was repaired through thoracotomy and formation of a neomembranous trachea. Esophageal stricture could be managed either short-segment resection (type I) or resection and replacement (type II). The etiology was aluminum phosphide in two and caustic soda in one. All the patients were operated beyond 9 weeks of ingestion. Tracheal defect was 5, 9 and 30 mm. Fistula could be repaired by neomembranous trachea in all the patients and defect reinforced with pleural flap in two and intercostal muscle flap in one patient. Two patients required colon interposition, while one could be managed with short-segment resection. All the patients are well at follow-up. TEF due to corrosive ingestion is a rare entity in adults. Formation of a neomembranous trachea is feasible in all patients. Management of esophageal stricture depends upon the pattern of involvement of the esophagus. PMID:25894506

  4. Ingested human insulin inhibits the mosquito NF-¿B-dependent immune response to Plasmodium falciparum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We showed previously that ingested human insulin activates the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Anopheles stephensi and increases the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum. In other organisms insulin can alter immune responsiveness through regulation of NF-kB transcription fa...

  5. Anaphylaxis to the ingestion and inhalation of Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) and Zophobas morio (superworm).

    PubMed

    Freye, H B; Esch, R E; Litwin, C M; Sorkin, L

    1996-01-01

    It has been well documented, worldwide, that inhalation and/or contact with airborne particulate insect products has resulted in sensitivity to insect proteins and is manifested by such common entities as dermatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and asthma. However, the deliberate ingestion of a variety of insects (undertaken to prove their edibility and nutrient value) resulted in subsequent sensitization of some individuals. Such an outcome has not previously been reported in the literature. The objective was to document the anaphylactic reaction to the purposeful ingestion of mealworm in an individual known to be sensitized to the inhalation of beetle larvae. We used the occasion of the Centennial Celebration of The New York Entomological Society to expose members and guests of the Society to the ingestion of various insects. The subjects of the study consisted of: 1) Three members were adversely affected; 2) One individual with Baker's asthma; and 3) A number of controls with no known hypersensitivity to insect products. The investigation was undertaken by food challenges, inhalation challenges, skin testing to the individual insect allergens, a) Tenebrio molitor (TM), b) Zophobas morio (ZM), c) Blattella germanica (BG), skin testing to common indoors and outdoor allergens, and direct bind ELISA and ELISA inhibition. One individual manifesting hypersensitivity both by ingestion and inhalation to mealworm was identified. This sensitivity was documented clinically as well as by objective testing. PMID:8871741

  6. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  7. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of gluc...

  8. Polyacrylamide gel ingestion leading to fatal intestinal obstruction in two birds in a zoological collection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christine L; Bischoff, Karyn L; Hoff, Brent

    2009-12-01

    Two birds from a zoological collection suffered fatal intestinal obstruction after each ingested single particles of polyacrylamide gel. Polyacrylamide gel, used in soils for gardening and agriculture, exists as small granules in the dehydrated state but expands markedly upon exposure to water. Polyacrylamide gel might, therefore, be an unrecognized hazard for captive and wild birds and other small animals if consumed. PMID:20235459

  9. The Link between Food Ingested and Problem Behavior: Fact or Fallacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescara-Kovach, Lisa A.; Alexander, Kristi

    1994-01-01

    Past and current research on the effects of foods ingested and food allergies on hyperactivity and other behavior problems are examined in this article. It is argued that evidence supporting a link between diet and behavior is lacking. Methods for correcting widespread public misconceptions on this subject are also discussed. (Author/PB)

  10. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental...

  11. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    PubMed

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. PMID:25256299

  12. Evaluation of the impact of polyethylene microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mazurais, D; Ernande, B; Quazuguel, P; Severe, A; Huelvan, C; Madec, L; Mouchel, O; Soudant, P; Robbens, J; Huvet, A; Zambonino-Infante, J

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics are present in marine habitats worldwide and may be ingested by low trophic organisms such as fish larvae, with uncertain physiological consequences. The present study aims at assessing the impact of polyethylene (PE 10-45 μM) microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Fish were fed an inert diet including 0, 10(4) and 10(5) fluorescent microbeads per gram from 7 until 43 days post-hatching (dph). Microbeads were detected in the gastrointestinal tract in all fish fed diet incorporating PE. Our data revealed an efficient elimination of PE beads from the gut since no fluorescent was observed in the larvae after 48 h depuration. While the mortality rate increased significantly with the amount of microbeads scored per larvae at 14 and 20 dph, only ingestion of the highest concentration slightly impacted mortality rates. Larval growth and inflammatory response through Interleukine-1-beta (IL-1β) gene expression were not found to be affected while cytochrome-P450-1A1 (cyp1a1) expression level was significantly positively correlated with the number of microbeads scored per larva at 20 dph. Overall, these results suggest that ingestion of PE microbeads had limited impact on sea bass larvae possibly due to their high potential of egestion. PMID:26412109

  13. FATE OF BACILLUS SPHAERICUS 2362 SPORES FOLLOWING INGESTION BY NONTARGET INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elimination of Bacillus sphaericus spores ingested by midge larvae, snails and oysters was most rapid among midge larvae. pores remained in oysters up to 21 days and in snails up to 49 days. Viable spores were recovered in snail and oyster feces for these same periods. here was n...

  14. Cut endotracheal tube for endoscopic removal of an ingested push-through pack

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Yuki; Suzuki, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female presented to our clinic after accidentally ingesting a push-through pack (PTP). After determining that the PTP was present in the stomach, we successfully and safely removed it endoscopically by using a handmade endoscopic hood fashioned from a cut endotracheal tube. Foreign body ingestion is a common clinical problem, and most ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously. However, the ingestion of sharp objects, such as PTPs, increases the risk of complications, and urgent endoscopy is recommended to remove such objects. Previous studies have reported the use of other devices, both commercial and handmade, for the safe endoscopic removal of foreign bodies. The novel design of our handmade hood for the removal of the PTP, which was fashioned from a cut endotracheal tube, was beneficial in terms of maintaining a wide visual field, patient safety and tolerance, and easy preparation compared to previously reported commercial and handmade devices. It may be a viable and safe device for the retrieval of PTPs and other sharp foreign bodies. PMID:27433294

  15. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental ingestion... statements be used on the label of all drug products....

  16. The accuracy of self-reported drug ingestion histories in emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Monte, Andrew A; Heard, Kennon J; Hoppe, Jason A; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Inaccuracies in self-reports may lead to duplication of therapy, failure to appreciate non-compliance leading to exacerbation of chronic medical conditions, or inaccurate research conclusions. Our objective is to determine the accuracy of self-reported drug ingestion histories in patients presenting to an urban academic emergency department (ED). We conducted a prospective cohort study in ED patients presenting for pain or nausea. We obtained a structured drug ingestion history including all prescription drugs, over-the-counter medication (OTC) drugs, and illicit drugs for the 48 hours prior to ED presentation. We obtained urine comprehensive drug screens (CDS) and determined self-report/CDS concordance. Fifty-five patients were enrolled. Self-reported drug ingestion histories were poor in these patients; only 17 (30.9%) of histories were concordant with the CDS. For the individual drug classes, prescription drug-CDS was concordant in 32 (58.2%), OTC-CDS was concordant in 33 (60%), and illicit drug-CDS was concordant in 45 (81.8%) of subjects. No demographic factors predicted an accurate self-reported drug history. Sixteen patients had drugs detected by CDS that were unreported by history. Nine of these 16 included an unreported opioid. In conclusion, self-reported drug ingestion histories are often inaccurate and resources are needed to confirm compliance and ensure unreported drugs are not overlooked. PMID:25052325

  17. EFFECTS OF INGESTED ARSENIC ON DNA AND CHROMOSOME IN HUMAN EXFOLIATED EPITHELIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Ingested Arsenic on DNA and Chromosome in Human Exfoliated Epithelia

    Judy L. Mumford, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    Arsenic...

  18. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  19. [Case of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by short-neck clam ingestion].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Aoki, Takeshi; Shibata, Rumiko; Ichikawa, Kunio

    2010-12-01

    A 6-year-old boy was referred for evaluation because he had several vomiting episodes, from the age of 2 years, following short-neck clam ingestion. He tested negative for short-neck clam-specific IgE just before visiting our hospital, and he was not allergic to other foods or shellfish. The patient had low levels of short-neck clam-specific IgE (1.04 UA/ml), and the skin prick test was positive for short-neck clam (4 mm). The lymphocyte stimulation test was positive (5305 counts per min (cpm), stimulation index (SI) =1211%) and the patch test was positive for short-neck clam ingestion. An oral challenge test with boiled short-neck clam induced abdominal pain and vomiting 2 h after ingestion, and the patient presented with increased peripheral leukocytes after 6 h. He was therefore diagnosed with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) due to short-neck clam ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of FPIES induced by the intake of shellfish. PMID:21212729

  20. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  1. Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar. Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina. PMID:21616509

  2. Hypercortisolemia alters muscle protein anabolism following ingestion of essential amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Creson, Daniel L.; Sanford, Arthur P.; Wolf, Steven E.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Ferrando, Arny A.

    2003-01-01

    Debilitating injury is accompanied by hypercortisolemia, muscle wasting, and disruption of the normal anabolic response to food. We sought to determine whether acute hypercortisolemia alters muscle protein metabolism following ingestion of a potent anabolic stimulus: essential amino acids (EAA). A 27-h infusion (80 microg. kg(-1). h(-1)) of hydrocortisone sodium succinate mimicked cortisol (C) levels accompanying severe injury (>30 microg/dl), (C + AA; n = 6). The control group (AA) received intravenous saline (n = 6). Femoral arteriovenous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained during a primed (2.0 micromol/kg) constant infusion (0.05 micromol. kg(-1). min(-1)) of l-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine before and after ingestion of 15 g of EAA. Hypercortisolemia [36.5 +/- 2.1 (C + AA) vs. 9.0 +/- 1.0 microg/dl (AA)] increased postabsorptive arterial, venous, and muscle intracellular phenylalanine concentrations. Hypercortisolemia also increased postabsorptive and post-EAA insulin concentrations. Net protein balance was blunted (40% lower) following EAA ingestion but remained positive for a greater period of time (60 vs. 180 min) in the C + AA group. Thus, although differences in protein metabolism were evident, EAA ingestion improved muscle protein anabolism during acute hypercortisolemia and may help minimize muscle loss following debilitating injury.

  3. Dioxin in soil: bioavailability after ingestion by rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, E.E.; Lucier, G.W.; Rumbaugh, R.C.; Albro, P.W.; Harvan, D.J.; Hass, J.R.; Harris, M.W.

    1984-03-09

    Soil environmentally contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was given by gavage to guinea pigs and rats. The development of a characteristic clinicopathologic syndrome in guinea pigs, the induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in rats, and the presence of TCDD in the livers of both species show that TCDD in soil exhibits high biological availability after ingestion.

  4. Morbidity and Mortality of Caustic Ingestion in Rural Children: Experience in a New Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpe, E. E.; Ette, V.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Inspite of the fact that accidental caustic ingestion is an entirely easily preventable problem, it has however persisted in rural Nigerian communities because the commonly implicated agent which is caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) is sold in open markets without restrictive legislations. This study aims to identify the perpetuating factors of paediatric caustic ingestion and recommend preventive measures. Method. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of our paediatric patients who presented following caustic ingestion between November 2006 and November 2010 was made for demography, socioeconomic status of parent(s), caustic substance ingested with amount (where known), circumstance of ingestion, means of oesophageal evaluation, treatment and outcome. Results. There were 16 paediatric cases of caustic ingestion during the study period with age ranging from 1 to 18 years with mode in the 1–3 years group and male : female ratio 4.3 : 1. In 100% of the cases, the caustic ingestion was accidental, while caustic soda was the agent in 93.7%, and 87.5% of the parents were into local soap and detergent production. In all patients, the oesophagus was evaluated with late barium swallow/meal and oesophagoscopy before treatment. Conclusion. Caustic ingestion among rural children in Nigeria can be prevented. PMID:22778986

  5. Role of ingestion route in the perfluoroalkyl substance bioaccumulation by Chironomus plumosus larvae in sediments amended with carbonaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yawei; Xia, Xinghui; Zhao, Xiuli; Dong, Haiyang; Zhu, Baotong; Xia, Na; Dong, Jianwei

    2016-01-25

    The role of ingestion route in the bioaccumulation of six types of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) by Chironomus plumosus larvae in sediments amended with four types of carbonaceous materials (CMs) was studied. The results showed that the body burden of PFASs decreased in the presence of CMs at mass ratios of 0.2-2%, regardless of ingestion. PFASs accumulated by the larvae with ingestion exposure were higher than those without ingestion, and the role of ingestion route was altered in the presence of CMs. The contribution of ingestion route to PFAS bioaccumulation was 2.7-31.6% without CMs, and it increased to more than 61.4% in the presence of fullerene at mass ratios of 0.2-2%. The enhancement of the ingestion route contribution caused by CMs is due to the fact that the CMs can be ingested and CM-associated PFASs can be partly desorbed in larvae. The maximum desorption efficiency of perfluorooctanoic acid was 20.8% from fullerene by the larval digestive juice. This study suggests that CM-associated PFASs could be accumulated partly by organisms, and the ecological risk of PFASs might increase in some cases with the presence of CMs. This should be considered when applying CMs in PFAS and other hydrophobic organic compound pollution remediation. PMID:26489915

  6. 76 FR 25696 - Guidance for Industry on Dosage Delivery Devices for Orally Ingested OTC Liquid Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... with which they are included. In the Federal Register of November 5, 2009 (74 FR 57319), FDA announced... Ingested OTC Liquid Drug Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... entitled ``Dosage Delivery Devices for Orally Ingested OTC Liquid Drug Products.'' This document...

  7. Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children: Two case reports and a review of clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Al-Binali, Ali M; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A; Al-Barki, Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

  8. Ad Libitum Fluid Intake and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Hypertonic Saline, or Deionized Water Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Scott; Miller, Kevin C.; Albrecht, Jay; Garden-Robinson, Julie; Blodgett-Salafia, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adding sodium (Na+) to drinks improves rehydration and ad libitum fluid consumption. Clinicians (∼25%) use pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Scientists warn against PJ ingestion, fearing it will cause rapid plasma volume restoration and thereby decrease thirst and delay rehydration. Advice about drinking PJ has been developed but never tested. Objective: To determine if drinking small volumes of PJ, hypertonic saline (HS), or deionized water (DIW) affects ad libitum DIW ingestion, plasma variables, or perceptual indicators. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen, euhydrated (urine specific gravity ≤ 1.01) men (age = 22 ± 2 years, height = 178 ± 6 cm, mass = 82.9 ± 8.4 kg). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 testing days (≥72 hours between days). After a 30-minute rest, a blood sample was collected. Participants completed 60 minutes of hard exercise (temperature = 36 ± 2°C, relative humidity = 16 ± 1%). Postexercise, they rested for 30 minutes; had a blood sample collected; rated thirst, fullness, and nausea; and ingested 83 ± 8 mL of PJ, HS, or DIW. They rated drink palatability (100-mm visual analog scale) and were allowed to drink DIW ad libitum for 60 minutes. Blood samples and thirst, fullness, and nausea ratings (100-mm visual analog scales) were collected at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes posttreatment drink ingestion. Main Outcome Measure(s): Ad libitum DIW volume, percentage change in plasma volume, plasma osmolality (OSMp,) plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]p), and thirst, fullness, nausea, and palatability ratings. Results: Participants consumed more DIW ad libitum after HS (708.03 ± 371.03 mL) than after DIW (532.99 ± 337.14 mL, P < .05). Ad libitum DIW ingested after PJ (700.35 ± 366.15 mL) was similar to that after HS and DIW (P > .05). Plasma sodium concentration, OSMp, percentage change in plasma volume, thirst, fullness, and nausea did not differ among treatment drinks

  9. Toxicity of ingested crude petroleum oil to marine birds: pathology and pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to identify toxic effects of ingested Prudhoe Bay crude oil in nestling herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica). Wild-caught birds were brought to the laboratory, maintained on a marine diet and given oral doses of oil. Initial results identified anemia as a toxic effect of oil ingestion and subsequent experiments focussed on the erythron as a target tissue. Hemolytic anemia with Heinz bodies in red blood cells ocurred in gulls and puffins that ingested greater than or equal to 10 ml oil per kg per day for 4-5 days. Anemia developed precipitously as a hemolytic crisis. Structural lesions in red cells included Heinz body formation, anisocytosis, severe distortions of cell shape, plasma membrane crenulation, mineralization of mitochondria, formation of abnormal cytoplasmic vesicles, and both abnormally high and abnormally low cytoplasmic density. These data permitted correlative evaluation of ultrastructural and biochemical changes in red cells experiencing oxidant stress due to oil ingestion. Several other lesions occurred on both oil-dosed and control birds but were significantly more prevalent in the former. These lesions were focal adrenal necrosis, depletion of adrenal lipid, depletion of lymphocytes in thymus and bursa of Fabricius, and virus infection of the bursa of Fabricius. These latter lesions suggested immunosuppression in oil-dosed birds. In a pilot study, oral doses of disulfiram prevented the usual induction of hepatic mixed-function oxidases caused by ingestion of oil by gulls, and also prevented development of Heinz bodies and of increased GSH in red cells of gulls given large oral doses of oil.

  10. Toxic but Drank: Gustatory Aversive Compounds Induce Post-ingestional Malaise in Harnessed Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Ayestaran, Ainara

    2010-01-01

    Background Deterrent substances produced by plants are relevant due to their potential toxicity. The fact that most of these substances have an unpalatable taste for humans and other mammals contrasts with the fact that honeybees do not reject them in the range of concentrations in which these compounds are present in flower nectars. Here we asked whether honeybees detect and ingest deterrent substances and whether these substances are really toxic to them. Results We show that pairing aversive substances with an odor retards learning of this odor when it is subsequently paired with sucrose. Harnessed honeybees in the laboratory ingest without reluctance a considerable volume (20 µl) of various aversive substances, even if some of them induce significant post-ingestional mortality. These substances do not seem, therefore, to be unpalatable to harnessed bees but induce a malaise-like state that in some cases results in death. Consistently with this finding, bees learning that one odor is associated with sugar, and experiencing in a subsequent phase that the sugar was paired with 20 µl of an aversive substance (devaluation phase), respond less than control bees to the odor and the sugar. Such stimulus devaluation can be accounted for by the malaise-like state induced by the aversive substances. Conclusion Our results indicate that substances that taste bitter to humans as well as concentrated saline solutions base their aversive effect on the physiological consequences that their ingestion generates in harnessed bees rather than on an unpalatable taste. This conclusion is only valid for harnessed bees in the laboratory as freely-moving bees might react differently to aversive compounds could actively reject aversive substances. Our results open a new possibility to study conditioned taste aversion based on post-ingestional malaise and thus broaden the spectrum of aversive learning protocols available in honeybees. PMID:21060877

  11. Metabolic fate of fructose ingested with and without glucose in a mixed meal.

    PubMed

    Theytaz, Fanny; de Giorgi, Sara; Hodson, Leanne; Stefanoni, Nathalie; Rey, Valentine; Schneiter, Philippe; Giusti, Vittorio; Tappy, Luc

    2014-07-01

    Ingestion of pure fructose stimulates de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. This may however not be relevant to typical nutritional situations, where fructose is invariably ingested with glucose. We therefore assessed the metabolic fate of fructose incorporated in a mixed meal without or with glucose in eight healthy volunteers. Each participant was studied over six hours after the ingestion of liquid meals containing either 13C-labelled fructose, unlabeled glucose, lipids and protein (Fr + G) or 13C-labelled fructose, lipids and protein, but without glucose (Fr), or protein and lipids alone (ProLip). After Fr + G, plasma 13C-glucose production accounted for 19.0% ± 1.5% and 13CO2 production for 32.2% ± 1.3% of 13C-fructose carbons. After Fr, 13C-glucose production (26.5% ± 1.4%) and 13CO2 production (36.6% ± 1.9%) were higher (p < 0.05) than with Fr + G. 13C-lactate concentration and very low density lipoprotein VLDL 13C-palmitate concentrations increased to the same extent with Fr + G and Fr, while chylomicron 13C-palmitate tended to increase more with Fr + G. These data indicate that gluconeogenesis, lactic acid production and both intestinal and hepatic de novo lipogenesis contributed to the disposal of fructose carbons ingested together with a mixed meal. Co-ingestion of glucose decreased fructose oxidation and gluconeogenesis and tended to increase 13C-pamitate concentration in gut-derived chylomicrons, but not in hepatic-borne VLDL-triacylglycerol (TG). This trial was approved by clinicaltrial. gov. Identifier is NCT01792089. PMID:25029210

  12. Evaluation of Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlets with Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Morehouse, Melissa B.

    2003-01-01

    A new high Reynolds number test capability for boundary layer ingesting inlets has been developed for the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Using this new capability, an experimental investigation of four S-duct inlet configurations with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion (nominal boundary layer thickness of about 40% of inlet height) was conducted at realistic operating conditions (high subsonic Mach numbers and full-scale Reynolds numbers). The objectives of this investigation were to 1) provide a database for CFD tool validation on boundary layer ingesting inlets operating at realistic conditions and 2) provide a baseline inlet for future inlet flow-control studies. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on duct exit diameter) from 5.1 million to a full-scale value of 13.9 million, and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.39 to 1.58 depending on Mach number. Results of this investigation indicate that inlet pressure recovery generally decreased and inlet distortion generally increased with increasing Mach number. Except at low Mach numbers, increasing inlet mass-flow increased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Increasing the amount of boundary layer ingestion (by decreasing inlet throat height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted (adverse) profile decreased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Finally, increasing Reynolds number had almost no effect on inlet distortion but increased inlet recovery by about one-half percent at a Mach number near cruise.

  13. Clinical Spectrum and Management of Caustic Ingestion: A Case Series Presenting Three Opposing Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vezakis, Antonios I.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Sakellariou, Vasileios; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Gkiokas, Georgios; Polydorou, Andreas A.; Fragulidis, Georgios P.

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: Fenale, 77 • Female, 46 • Female, 33 Final Diagnosis: Caustic injury Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgery Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Ingestion of caustic substances is a medical emergency in both the adult and pediatric population and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The extent of injuries after ingestion of caustic substances depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. Acutely, caustic substances may cause massive hemorrhage and gastrointestinal tract perforation; the most markedly affected cases require urgent surgical treatment. Patients surviving the initial event may present with aorto-enteric or gastrocolic fistulae, esophageal strictures, dysphagia, and increased risk of esophageal cancer as long term sequelae. Case Report: The features of three cases of caustic ingestion are reported to demonstrate significantly different complaints presented at the emergency department. Two patients had free gastric perforation, one at presentation, and one delayed. The third patient presented with late severe strictures of the esophagus and pylorus. The outcomes of the three patients are discussed in detail along with the most current management strategies. Conclusions: Among adults, ingestion of caustic substances is usually associated with more severe lesions due to the increased amount of ingested substance, as compared with pediatric patients. The most serious presentation is that of visceral perforation, most commonly of the stomach and rarely of the esophagus. Management involves urgent resuscitation with correction of fluid and electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities and immediate surgical exploration in those patients with signs of perforation. Once the perioperative period is managed successfully, the long-term results can be satisfactory. Managing of strictures or else reconstructive procedures must be well timed to

  14. Thyrotoxicosis after a massive levothyroxine ingestion in a 3-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Hays, Hannah L; Jolliff, Heath A; Casavant, Marcel J

    2013-11-01

    Most children with exploratory levothyroxine ingestions remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor effects, and most patients can be managed in the home or with supportive care in the hospital. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl who was found after a witnessed massive ingestion of levothyroxine. The patient was initially seen in an emergency department and discharged in stable condition, only to return 4 days after ingestion with thyrotoxicosis, hypertension, tachycardia, 24 hours of persistent vomiting, and clinical and laboratory evidence of dehydration. On the day of hospital admission, her thyroid-stimulating hormone was 0.018 µIU/mL (reference range, 0.6-4.5 µIU/mL); free T4 (tetraiodothyronine) was greater than 6.0 ng/dL (reference range, 0.7-2.1 ng/dL); and T3 (triiodothyronine) total was 494 ng/dL (reference range, 100-200 ng/dL). During a 3-day hospital admission, she was managed with supportive care, including intravenous fluid rehydration and antiemetics, and was ultimately discharged in good condition. The patient was followed up until 2 months after ingestion and remained asymptomatic. Although most exploratory levothyroxine ingestions suffer little to no clinical effects, serious symptoms can occur. Because serious symptoms can occur in a delayed fashion, it is important for clinicians to give proper anticipatory guidance regarding home symptom monitoring, follow-up, and reasons to return to the emergency department when patients present for medical evaluation. PMID:24196094

  15. Rates of ingestion and their variability between individual calanoid copepods: Direct observations

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Lewis, K.D.; Bundy, M.H. |; Metz, C.

    1995-12-01

    The goals of this study were to determine rates of ingestion and fecal pellet release, and their variability, for individual planktonic copepods over extended periods of time (>20 min). Ingestions and rejections of individual cells of the diatom Thalassiosira eccentrica by a adult females of the calanoid Paracalanus aculeatus were directly quantified by observing individual copepods continuously at cell concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Average ingestion rates increased with increasing food concentration, but were not significantly different between 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1} (9.8 and 32.7 {mu}g Cl{sup {minus}1}) of T.eccentrica. Rates of cell rejections were low and similar at 0.1 and 0.3. but were significantly higher at 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. The coefficients of variation for average ingestion rates of individual copepods hardly differed between food concentrations, ranging from 17 to 22%, and were close to those for average fecal pellet release intervals which ranged from 15 to 21%. A comparison between individuals at each food concentration found no significant differences at 1.0; at 0.1 and 0.3 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}, respectively, ingestion rates of four out of five females did not differ significantly from each other. Average intervals between fecal pellet releases were similar at 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Fecal pellet release intervals between individuals were significantly different at each food concentration; these significant differences were attributed to rather narrow ranges of pellet release intervals of each individual female. Potential sources/causes of variability in the sizes and rates of copepods in the ocean are evaluated.

  16. Clinical Spectrum and Management of Caustic Ingestion: A Case Series Presenting Three Opposing Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vezakis, Antonios I; Pantiora, Eirini V; Kontis, Elissaios A; Sakellariou, Vasileios; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Gkiokas, Georgios; Polydorou, Andreas A; Fragulidis, Georgios P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ingestion of caustic substances is a medical emergency in both the adult and pediatric population and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The extent of injuries after ingestion of caustic substances depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. Acutely, caustic substances may cause massive hemorrhage and gastrointestinal tract perforation; the most markedly affected cases require urgent surgical treatment. Patients surviving the initial event may present with aorto-enteric or gastrocolic fistulae, esophageal strictures, dysphagia, and increased risk of esophageal cancer as long term sequelae. CASE REPORT The features of three cases of caustic ingestion are reported to demonstrate significantly different complaints presented at the emergency department. Two patients had free gastric perforation, one at presentation, and one delayed. The third patient presented with late severe strictures of the esophagus and pylorus. The outcomes of the three patients are discussed in detail along with the most current management strategies. CONCLUSIONS Among adults, ingestion of caustic substances is usually associated with more severe lesions due to the increased amount of ingested substance, as compared with pediatric patients. The most serious presentation is that of visceral perforation, most commonly of the stomach and rarely of the esophagus. Management involves urgent resuscitation with correction of fluid and electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities and immediate surgical exploration in those patients with signs of perforation. Once the perioperative period is managed successfully, the long-term results can be satisfactory. Managing of strictures or else reconstructive procedures must be well timed to allow for psychological and nutritional rehabilitation. PMID:27197994

  17. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

    2014-02-01

    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  18. Glucagon and insulin responses after ingestion of different amounts of intact and hydrolysed proteins.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Mandy; Saris, Wim H M; van Baak, Marleen A

    2008-07-01

    Ingestion of dietary protein is known to induce both insulin and glucagon secretion. These responses may be affected by the dose and the form (intact or hydrolysed) in which protein is ingested. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different amounts of intact protein and protein hydrolysate of a vegetable (soya) and animal (whey) protein on insulin and glucagon responses and to study the effect of increasing protein loads for both intact protein and protein hydrolysate in man. The study employed a repeated-measures design with Latin-square randomisation and single-blind trials. Twelve healthy non-obese males ingested three doses (0.3, 0.4 and 0.6 g/kg body weight) of intact soya protein (SPI) and soya protein hydrolysate (SPH). Another group of twelve healthy male subjects ingested three doses (0.3, 0.4 and 0.6 g/kg body weight) of intact whey protein (WPI) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Blood was sampled before (t = 0) and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after protein ingestion for insulin, glucagon and glucose determination. SPI induced a higher total area under the curve for insulin and glucagon than SPH while no difference between WPI and WPH was found. Insulin and glucagon responses increased with increasing protein load for SPI, SPH, WPI and WPH, but the effect was more pronounced for glucagon. A higher dose of protein or its hydrolysate will result in a lower insulin:glucagon ratio, an important parameter for the control of postprandial substrate metabolism. In conclusion, insulin and glucagon responses were protein and hydrolysate specific. PMID:18167171

  19. Ingested soluble CD14 from milk is transferred intact into the blood of newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Tonya L.; Spencer, William J.; Davis, Laura D. R.; Harrold, JoAnn; Mack, David R.; Altosaar, Illimar

    2016-01-01

    Background Milk contains immunological constituents that comprise an edible immune system conveyed from mother to newborn. Soluble Cluster of Differentiation 14 (sCD14) is a protein found in significant quantities in human milk (~8–29 μg/ml). At a tenfold lower concentration in the blood (~3 μg/ml), the most notable role of sCD14 is to sequester lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria from immune cells. Methods To explore the pharmacodynamics of this milk protein and its biological fate, the biodistribution of radiolabeled sCD14 (14C, 125I) was monitored in 10 d old rat pups. Results Up to 3.4 ± 2.2% of the radiolabeled-sCD14 administered was observed, intact, in the pup blood for up to 8 h post-ingestion. Additionally, 30.3 ± 13.0% of the radiolabeled-sCD14 administered was observed degraded in the stomach at 8 h post-ingestion. A reservoir of intact, administered sCD14 (3.2 ± 0.3%), however, remained in the stomach at 8 h post-ingestion. Intact sCD14 was observed in the small intestine at 5.5 ± 1.6% of the dose fed at 8h post-ingestion. Conclusions The presence of intact sCD14 in the blood and gastrointestinal tract of newborns post-ingestion has implications in the development of allergies, obesity and other inflammation-related pathogeneses later in life. PMID:24232637

  20. Estimation of radionuclide ingestion: Lessons from dose reconstruction for fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, D.D.; Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1994-09-01

    The United States conducted atmospheric testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1963. In 1979 the U.S. Department of Energy established the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project to compile a data base related to health effects from nuclear testing and to reconstruct doses to public residing off of the Nevada Test Site. This project is the most comprehensive dose reconstruction project to date, and, since similar assessments are currently underway at several other locations within and outside the U.S., lessons from ORERP can be valuable. A major component of dose reconstruction is estimation of dose from radionuclide ingestion. The PATHWAY food-chain model was developed to estimate the amount of radionuclides ingested. For agricultural components of the human diet, PATHWAY predicts radionuclide concentrations and quantities ingested. To improve accuracy and model credibility, four components of model analysis were conducted: estimation of uncertainty in model predictions, estimation of sensitivity of model predictions to input parameters, and testing of model predictions against independent data (validation), and comparing predictions from PATHWAY with those from other models. These results identified strengths and weaknesses in the model and aided in establishing the confidence associated with model prediction, which is a critical component risk assessment and dose reconstruction. For fallout from the Nevada Test Site, by far, the largest internal doses were received by the thyroid. However, the predicted number of fatal cancers from ingestion dose was generally much smaller than the number predicted from external dose. The number of fatal cancers predicted from ingestion dose was also orders of magnitude below the normal projected cancer rate. Several lessons were learned during the study that are relevant to other dose reconstruction efforts.