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1

Effects of Cultivar, Fruit Number and Reflected Photosynthetically Active Radiation on Fragaria x ananassa Productivity and Fruit Ellagic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Concentrations  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims A number of strawberry varieties were surveyed for their total ellagic acid concentration, and attempts were made to determine if ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations of two strawberry cultivars could be increased by polythene reflective mulches. • Methods After adjusting crop yields and cultivation using polythene mulches with two different PAR reflective capacities, field- and polytunnel-grown strawberries were analysed for ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations by HPLC. Comparative measurements of yield and fruit quality were determined along with plant developmental changes. • Key Results Ellagic acid concentration varied widely with strawberry cultivar (60–341?µg g?1 frozen weight), as did the ratio of conjugated ellagic acid?:?free ellagic acid. Also, there was significant year-to-year variation in total ellagic acid concentration with some cultivars. Mulches with different reflective capacities impacted on strawberry production; highly reflective mulches significantly increased growth and yield, the latter due to increases in fruit size and number. • Conclusions Highly reflective mulches significantly increased total concentrations of ellagic acid and ascorbic acid relative to control in fruit of different cultivars. The potential of agronomic practices to enhance the concentration and amounts of these important dietary bioactive compounds is discussed. PMID:16423867

ATKINSON, C. J.; DODDS, P. A. A.; FORD, Y. Y.; LE MIERE, J.; TAYLOR, J. M.; BLAKE, P. S.; PAUL, N.

2006-01-01

2

Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

2014-06-01

3

Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 ?g/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 ?g/mL; 63 ?M) and UA (IC50=9.0 ?g/mL; 39 ?M) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

2010-01-01

4

Effects of Cultivar, Fruit Number and Reflected Photosynthetically Active Radiation on Fragaria · ananassa Productivity and Fruit Ellagic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims A number of strawberry varieties were surveyed for their total ellagic acid concentration, and attempts were made to determine if ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations of two strawberry cultivars could be increased by polythene reflective mulches. ? Methods After adjusting crop yields and cultivation using polythene mulches with two different PAR reflective capacities, field- and

C. J. ATKINSON; P. A. A. DODDS; Y. Y. FORD; J. LE MIERE; J. M. TAYLOR; P. S. BLAKE; N. PAUL

2006-01-01

5

Analysis of ellagitannins and conjugates of ellagic acid and quercetin in raspberry fruits by LC-MSn.  

PubMed

The use of gradient reversed phase HPLC with diode array and MS(n) detection for the analysis of ellagitannins, ellagic acid conjugates and quercetin conjugates in raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) is described. MS(n) is a particularly powerful tool for the analysis of trace levels of natural products in impure extracts as interpretation of fragmentation patterns, coupled in some instances with knowledge of HPLC retention properties, can facilitate the partial identification of components when reference compounds are unavailable. PMID:12943785

Mullen, William; Yokota, Takao; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

2003-09-01

6

Ellagic acid protects Lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced acute hepatic injury in mice.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in certain fruits, nuts and vegetables, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and antioxidant activities. However, the effects of ellagic acid on acute hepatic injury have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ellagic acid on Lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced acute hepatic injury in mice. The results showed that LPS/GalN increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, TNF-? level, serum ALT and AST levels and TNF-? level. However, these changes were attenuated by ellagic acid. Western blot analysis showed that ellagic acid inhibited LPS/GalN-induced NF-?B activation. Furthermore, ellagic acid induced the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1. In conclusion, our results showed that ellagic acid protected against LPS/GalN-induced liver injury by enhancing the antioxidative defense system and reducing inflammatory response. PMID:25038320

Gu, Lei; Deng, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hui; Sun, Long-Ci; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Hong

2014-10-01

7

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ellagic Acid on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Acid in Mice  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar edema and uncontrolled neutrophil migration to the lung, and no specific therapy is still available. Ellagic acid, a compound present in several fruits and medicinal plants, has shown anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental disease models. We used the nonlethal acid aspiration model of ALI in mice to determine whether preventive or therapeutic administration of ellagic acid (10?mg/kg; oral route) could interfere with the development or establishment of ALI inflammation. Dexamethasone (1?mg/kg; subcutaneous route) was used as a positive control. In both preventive and therapeutic treatments, ellagic acid reduced the vascular permeability changes and neutrophil recruitment to the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and to lung compared to the vehicle. In addition, the ellagic acid accelerated the resolution for lung neutrophilia. Moreover, ellagic acid reduced the COX-2-induced exacerbation of inflammation. These results were similar to the dexamethasone. However, while the anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone treatment were due to the reduced activation of NF-?B and AP-1, the ellagic acid treatment led to reduced BALF levels of IL-6 and increased levels of IL-10. In addition, dexamethasone treatment reduced IL-1?. Together, these findings identify ellagic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI-associated inflammation. PMID:23533300

Cornelio Favarin, Daniely; Martins Teixeira, Maxelle; Lemos de Andrade, Edneia; de Freitas Alves, Claudiney; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Arterio Sorgi, Carlos; Paula Rogerio, Alexandre

2013-01-01

8

Spectrofluorimetric determination of ellagic acid in brandy.  

PubMed

Two spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the rapid determination of ellagic acid. The first method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and borax in methanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 456nm with excitation at 383nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 2.5×10(-8) to 7.5×10(-7)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 4×10(-9)molL(-1). The second method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and boric acid in ethanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 447nm with excitation at 387nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 1.25×10(-7) to 1.00×10(-6)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 7×10(-9)molL(-1). The methods were successfully applied for the determination of ellagic acid in brandy samples. The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC method. PMID:22953802

Sádecká, Jana; Tóthová, Jana

2012-12-01

9

Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

2003-06-01

10

Ellagic acid enhances morphine analgesia and attenuates the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.  

PubMed

According to our previous study, ellagic acid has both dose-related central and peripheral antinociceptive effect through the opioidergic and l-arginine-NO-cGMP-ATP sensitive K(+) channel pathways. In the present study, the systemic antinociceptive effects of ellagic acid in animal models of pain, and functional interactions between ellagic acid and morphine in terms of analgesia, tolerance and dependence were investigated. Ellagic acid (1-30mg/kg; i.p.) showed significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Intraperitoneal ellagic acid acutely interacted with morphine analgesia in a synergistic manner in this assay. Ellagic acid (1-10mg/kg; i.p.) also exerted analgesic activity in the hot-plate test. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1mg/kg; i.p.) significantly reversed ellagic acid, morphine as well as ellagic acid-morphine combination-induced antinociceptin in these two tests. More importantly, when co-administered with morphine, ellagic acid (1-10mg/kg) effectively blocked the development of tolerance to morphine analgesia in the hot-plate test. Likewise, ellagic acid dose-dependently prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs including jumping and weight loss. Ellagic acid treatment (1-30mg/kg; i.p.) had no significant effect on the locomotion activity of animals using open-field task. Therefore, these results showed that ellagic acid has notable systemic antinociceptive activity for both tonic and phasic pain models. Altogether, ellagic acid might be used in pain relief alone or in combination with opioid drugs because of enhancing morphine analgesia and preventing morphine-induced tolerance to analgesia and dependence. PMID:25179576

Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

2014-10-15

11

Involvement of the GABAergic system in the anxiolytic-like effect of the flavonoid ellagic acid in mice.  

PubMed

Anxiolytic-like effects of dietary flavonoids are relatively well known. Ellagic acid is a naturally occurring flavonoid compound which is abundant in many plants and fruits. The present study was designed to investigate the antianxiety-like effect of ellagic acid in mice using an elevated plus-maze test. The involvement of the GABAergic and serotonergic systems in the antianxiety-like activity of ellagic acid was also studied. Our results showed that ellagic acid treatment (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), produced a significant increase in the percentage of time spent and entry into the open arms, with a profile comparable to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Unlike diazepam, the anxiolytic doses of ellagic acid did not prolong the duration of sodium thiopental-induced loss of righting reflex, indicating that this flavonoid is non-hypnotic. The anxiolytic effect observed with ellagic acid treatment (25 mg/kg, p.o.) was antagonized by pretreatment with picrotoxin (a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and flumazenil (a benzodiazepine site antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) but not with p-chlorophenylalanine (a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) and pindolol (a ?-adrenoceptors blocker/5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Taken together, the data demonstrated that acute and chronic administration of ellagic acid to mice has produced antianxiety-like effect when tested in the elevated plus-maze. The experiments with different receptor blockers suggest an involvement of GABAergic system in the anxiolytic action of this bioflavonoid. However, this action is not seems to be mediated through serotonergic system. PMID:23603526

Girish, Chandrashekaran; Raj, Vishnu; Arya, Jayasree; Balakrishnan, Sadasivam

2013-06-15

12

Antimutagenic Effect of Ellagic Acid and its Effect on the Immune Response in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠMERÁK P., ŠESTÁKOVÁ H., POLÍVKOVÁ Z., BÁRTA I., TUREK B., BÁRTOVÁ J., LANGOVÁ M., AND?L M. (2002): Antimutagenic effect of ellagic acid and its effect on the immune response in mice. Czech J. Food Sci., 20: 181-191. Using the Ames bacterial mutagenicity test and an in vivo micronucleus test, we investigated the antigenotoxic effect of ellagic acid on the genotoxicity

IVO BÁRTA; BOHUMIL TUREK; MARTINA LANGOVÁ

13

Method Development and Validation for Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distributions of Ellagic Acid Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).  

PubMed

Ellagic acid is a dietary polyphenol found in numerous fruits and vegetables, possessing several health benefits such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-atherosclerotic biological properties. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ellagic acid in rats. A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine the ellagic acid in plasma and tissue samples was developed and validated. The separation was achieved using reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and the mass spectrometric detection was achieved using heated electrospray ionization (negative mode) and multiple ion monitoring (m/z 301/229). A sample cleanup with a solid phase extraction (SPE) step prior to the UPLC-MS/MS analysis was also developed. The SPE and UPLC-MS/MS method established here was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic profiles and tissue distribution of ellagic acid. After oral administration dosing at 50 mg/kg, plasma levels of ellagic acid peaked at about 0.5 h, with Cmax value of 93.6 ng/mL, and the results showed that the ellagic acid was poorly absorbed after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic profile of ellagic acid fitted to a two-compartment model with t1/2? 0.25 h and t1/2? 6.86 h, respectively. Following oral administration, ellagic acid was detected in all examined tissues including kidney, liver, heart, lung and brain et al., and the highest levels were found in kidney and liver. PMID:25412040

Yan, Linlin; Yin, Peipei; Ma, Chao; Liu, Yujun

2014-01-01

14

Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes  

PubMed Central

DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on >95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG) and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17ß-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 ?M) than that for 8-oxodG (100 ?M). In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6) were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm) and dehydrated berries (5% w/w) with varying ellagic acid contents – blueberry (low), strawberry (medium) and red raspberry (high), for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%). However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001) and 48% (p < 0.01), respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3–8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA), DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5) and DNA ligase III (DNL3). These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair. PMID:19325752

Aiyer, Harini S.; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Stoyanova, Radka; Caprio, Gerard D.; Clapper, Margie L.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2008-01-01

15

Ability of ellagic acid to alleviate osmotic stress on chickpea seedlings.  

PubMed

Seed germination and growth of seedlings are critical phases of plant life that are adversely affected by various environmental cues. Water availability is one of the main factors that limit the productivity of many crops. This study was conducted to assess the changes in the sensitivity of chickpea seedlings to osmotic stress by prior treatment of chickpea seeds with a low concentration (50 ppm) of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid was isolated and purified from Padina boryana Thivy by chromatographic techniques. After ellagic acid treatment, seeds were germinated for 10 days under different osmotic potentials (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions. Ellagic acid treatment accelerated the germination and seedling growth of chickpea under osmotic stress conditions. Consistent with the accelerated growth, ellagic acid-treated seedlings also showed a significant increase in the total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) as well as an increase in the compatible solutes (proline and glycine betaine) content. Additionally, treated seedlings revealed lower lipid peroxidation levels (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL) and H2O2. Flavonoid and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR)] and enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway [phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS)] all showed a remarkable increase with ellagic acid pretreatment compared to untreated seedlings especially under mild osmotic stress values (-0.2 and -0.4 MPa). These results suggested that treatment with ellagic acid could confer an increased tolerance of chickpea seedlings to osmotic stress, through reducing levels of H2O2 and increasing antioxidant capacity. PMID:23938205

Abu El-Soud, Walid; Hegab, Momtaz Mohamed; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Asard, Han

2013-10-01

16

Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (C(14)H(6)O(8)), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0×10(-10) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1); and the detection limits are 3.2×10(-10) mol L(-1) and 5.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex. PMID:21239219

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

2011-03-01

17

Efficacy of ellagic acid and sildenafil in diabetes-induced sexual dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes induced sexual dysfunction is a leading cause of male sexual disorder and an early indicator of cardiovascular complication. Reactive oxygen species generated in body during diabetes is a main causative factor for erectile dysfunction, a sexual dysfunction. Adjuvant antioxidant therapy along with phosphodiesterases type 5 enzyme inhibitor (PDE5i) is more effective than PDE5i alone. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate efficacy of ellagic acid a known antioxidant and sildenafil in diabetes induced erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced in male rats and rats were treated with ellagic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of ellagic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and sildenafil (5 mg/kg, p.o.), a PDE5i for 28 days. Sexual function was observed in diabetic rat and compared with those of treatment group and normal rats. Effect of ellagic acid was studied on advanced glycation end products (AGE) and isolated rat corpus cavernosum in vitro. Results: Sexual function of diabetic rats was found to be reduced and ellegic acid treatment could preserve sexual function of diabetic rats to some extent. Ellagic acid + sildenafil treatment was more efficient in management of diabetes induced sexual dysfunction. Ellagic acid inhibited (AGE) in vitro implying its role in reducing oxidative stress in diabetes. The polyphenol could not increase sexual function in normal rats and relax isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle significantly. Conclusion: The study proves usefulness of adjuvant antioxidant therapy in the management of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:25298678

Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Vishwanath, Manikanta; Gangadarappa, Suma Kallahalli; Razdan, Rema; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin

2014-01-01

18

Ellagic acid effects on the carcinogenicity, DNA-binding and metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA).  

PubMed

Naturally-occurring components of the human food supply have recently received attention as possible agents for cancer chemoprevention. The plant phenol ellagic acid has been reported to be an effective inhibitor of carcinogen metabolism and certain chemically-induced tumors. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of ellagic acid in inhibiting DMBA metabolism, DNA-binding and the initiation of DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in rat mammary tissue. Mammary epithelial cell aggregates were isolated from rats fed control and ellagic acid (0.4 and 0.8%) containing diets. When incubated with DMBA, aggregates from ellagic acid-fed rats exhibited a significant but modest inhibition of DMBA metabolism and DNA-binding. An inhibition of DMBA-DNA binding and DMBA metabolism in secondary cultures of mammary epithelial cells also was detected only when ellagic acid was added at 150 molar excess compared to DMBA. The feeding of ellagic acid (0.8%) to rats for 28 days prior to the administration of DMBA resulted in a 21% reduction in mammary tumor incidence at 21 weeks which was, however, not statistically significant. Together, these results indicate that, in contrast to its effects with other carcinogens in other tissues, ellagic acid is not a potent inhibitor of DMBA metabolism, DNA-binding and carcinogenicity with rat mammary tissue. PMID:2519851

Singletary, K; Liao, C H

1989-01-01

19

Biological Significance of Urolithins, the Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derived Metabolites: The Evidence So Far  

PubMed Central

The health benefits attributed to pomegranate have been associated with its high content in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins. This is also the case for other ellagitannin-containing fruits and nuts including strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, walnuts, and muscadine grapes. The bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid is however very low. These molecules suffer extensive metabolism by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that are much better absorbed. Urolithins circulate in plasma as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates at concentrations in the range of 0.2–20??M. It is therefore conceivable that the health effects of ellagitannin-containing products can be associated with these gut-produced urolithins, and thus the evaluation of the biological effects of these metabolites is essential. Recent research, mostly based on in vitro testing, has shown preliminary evidence of the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiglycative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of urolithins, supporting their potential contribution to the health effects attributed to pomegranate and ellagitannin-rich foods. The number of in vivo studies is still limited, but they show preventive effects of urolithins on gut and systemic inflammation that encourage further research. Both in vivo and mechanistic studies are necessary to clarify the health effects of these metabolites. Attention should be paid when designing these mechanistic studies in order to use the physiologically relevant metabolites (urolithins in gut models and their conjugated derivatives in systemic models) at concentrations that can be reached in vivo. PMID:23781257

Espin, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; Garcia-Conesa, Maria Teresa; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco

2013-01-01

20

Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Improve Response to Antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBiofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives

Cassandra L. Quave; Miriam Estévez-Carmona; Cesar M. Compadre; Gerren Hobby; Howard Hendrickson; Karen E. Beenken; Mark S. Smeltzer

2012-01-01

21

Ellagic acid--a novel organic electrode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid, a naturally occurring polyphenol, extracted from pomegranate husk, is found to be a very good organic electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high reversible capacities of ~450 and 200 mA h g(-1) at C/10 and C/2.5 discharge rates, respectively; ex situ NMR studies reveal possible lithiation-delithiation modes at different stages of the charge-discharge process. PMID:23841110

Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Harish, M N K; Sampath, S

2013-08-21

22

Comparative Study of Electrocoagulation and Electrooxidation Processes for the Degradation of Ellagic Acid From Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of electrocoagulation and electrooxidation processes for the degradation of ellagic acid from aqueous solution was carried out. For the electrocoagulation process, metallic iron was used as electrodes whereas graphite and RuO2\\/IrO2\\/TaO2 coated titanium electrodes were used for the electrooxidation processes. The effect of the process variables such as initial pH, concentration of the supporting electrolyte, applied current

M. Muthukumar; M. Govindaraj; A. Muthusamy; G. Bhaskar Raju

2010-01-01

23

Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species.  

PubMed

Ellagitannin and ellagic acid metabolism to urolithins in the gut shows a large human interindividual variability and this has been associated with differences in the colon microbiota. In the present study we describe the isolation of one urolithin-producing strain from the human faeces of a healthy volunteer and the ellagic acid transformation to different urolithin metabolites by two species of intestinal bacteria. The isolate belongs to a new species described as Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, sp. nov. The type strain of the Gordonibacter genus, Gordonibacter pamelaeae DSM 19378(T), was also demonstrated to produce urolithins. Both human intestinal bacteria grew similarly in the presence and absence of ellagic acid at 30 ?M concentration. Ellagic acid catabolism and urolithin formation occurred during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-MS analyses showed the sequential production of pentahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-5), tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-6) and trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C), while dihydroxy-urolithins (urolithin A and isourolithin A), and monohydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not produced in pure cultures. Consequently, either other bacteria from the gut or the physiological conditions found in vivo are necessary for completing metabolism until the final urolithins (dihydroxy and monohydroxy urolithins) are produced. This is the first time that the urolithin production capacity of pure strains has been demonstrated. The identification of the urolithin-producing bacteria is a relevant outcome as urolithin implication in health (cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties) has been supported by different bioassays and urolithins can be used in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study represents an initial work that opens interesting possibilities of describing enzymatic activities involved in urolithin production that can help in understanding both the human interindividual differences in polyphenol metabolism, the microbial pathways involved, and the role of polyphenols in human health. The presence of urolithin producing bacteria can indirectly affect the health benefits of ellagitannin consumption. PMID:24909569

Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

2014-08-01

24

Ellagic acid inhibits PKC signaling by improving antioxidant defense system in murine T cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Antioxidants protect the cells from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS during cellular metabolism is balanced by their removal by antioxidants. Any condition leading to increased levels of ROS results in oxidative stress, which participates in multistage carcinogenesis by causing oxidative DNA damage, mutations in the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Antioxidant defense system is required to overcome the process of carcinogenesis generated by ROS. Antioxidant enzymes are major contributors to endogenous antioxidant defense system. Protein kinase C (PKC) is generally involved in cell proliferation and its over expression leads to abnormal tumor growth. Out of three classes of PKC, classical PKC is mainly involved in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Classical PKC initiates signaling pathway and leads to activation of a number of downstream protein via activation of NF-?B. Therefore any agent which can promotes the endogenous antioxidant defense system should be able to down regulate PKC and NF-?B activation and thus may be useful in reducing cancer progression. To investigate this hypothesis we have tested the effect of antioxidant ellagic acid on antioxidant enzymes and PKC signaling in Dalton's lymphoma bearing (DL) mice. DL mice were treated with three different doses of ellagic acid. The treatment significantly increases the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes and down regulates the expression of classical isozymes of PKC as well as the activation of NF-?B, indicating that ellagic acid improves antioxidant defense system and PKC signaling via NF-?B which may contribute to its cancer preventive role. PMID:24574001

Mishra, Sudha; Vinayak, Manjula

2014-07-01

25

Luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid are natural products that inhibit prostate cancer metastasis.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second cause of cancer deaths in men in the USA. When the cancer recurs, early stages can be controlled with hormone ablation therapy to delay the rate of cancer progression but, over time, the cancer overcomes its hormone dependence, becomes highly aggressive and metastasizes. Clinical trials have shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) inhibits PCa progression. We have previously shown that the PJ components luteolin (L), ellagic acid (E) and punicic acid (P) together inhibit growth of hormone-dependent and -independent PCa cells and inhibit their migration and chemotaxis towards CXCL12, a chemokine that is important in PCa metastasis. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that L+E+P inhibit PCa metastasis in vivo. To test this possibility, we used a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model in which luciferase-expressing human PCa cells were injected subcutaneously near the prostate. Tumor progression was monitored with bioluminescence imaging weekly. We found that L+E+P inhibits PC-3M-luc primary tumor growth, inhibits the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis for metastasis and none of the tumors metastasized. In addition, L+E+P significantly inhibits growth and metastasis of highly invasive Pten (-/-) ;K-ras (G12D) prostate tumors. Furthermore, L+E+P inhibits angiogenesis in vivo, prevents human endothelial cell (EC) tube formation in culture and disrupts preformed EC tubes, indicating inhibition of EC adhesion to each other. L+E+P also inhibits the angiogenic factors interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor as well as their induced signaling pathways in ECs. In conclusion, these results show that L+E+P inhibits PCa progression and metastasis. PMID:25023990

Wang, Lei; Li, Wenfang; Lin, Muqing; Garcia, Monika; Mulholland, David; Lilly, Michael; Martins-Green, Manuela

2014-10-01

26

Punicalagin and Ellagic Acid Demonstrate Antimutagenic Activity and Inhibition of Benzo[a]pyrene Induced DNA Adducts  

PubMed Central

Punicalagin (PC) is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA) are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97%) at 40??M by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50–500??M) exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer. PMID:24949451

Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Aqil, Farrukh

2014-01-01

27

Punicalagin and ellagic acid demonstrate antimutagenic activity and inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene induced DNA adducts.  

PubMed

Punicalagin (PC) is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA) are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97%) at 40 ? M by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50-500 ? M) exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer. PMID:24949451

Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Gupta, Ramesh C; Aqil, Farrukh

2014-01-01

28

Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.  

PubMed

The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, astragalin 6?-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 ?M), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6?-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 ?M) and isoquercitrin 6?-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 ?M), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, and astragalin 6?-gallate as active principles. PMID:24293032

Nugroho, Agung; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Choi, Moo-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee-Juhn

2014-07-01

29

Ellagic acid induces apoptosis in TSGH8301 human bladder cancer cells through the endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of ellagic acid on the growth inhibition of TSGH8301 human bladder cancer cells in vitro, cells were incubated with various doses of ellagic acid for different time periods. The phase-contrast microscope was used for examining and photographing the morphological changes in TSGH8301 cells. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the percentage of viable cells, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic cells, ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), Ca(2+) , caspase-9 and -3 activities in TSGH8301 cells after exposure to ellagic acid. Western blotting was used to examine the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis associated proteins levels. Results indicated that ellagic acid induced morphological changes, decreased the percentage of viable cells through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis, and also showed that ellagic acid promoted ROS and Ca(2+) productions and decreased the level of ??m and promoted activities of caspase-9 and -3. The induction of apoptosis also confirmed by annexin V staining, comet assay, DAPI staining and DNA gel electrophoresis showed that ellagic acid induced apoptosis and DNA damage in TSGH8301 cells. Western blotting assay showed that ellagic acid promoted p21, p53 and decreased CDC2 and WEE1 for leading to G0/G1 phase arrest and promoting BAD expression, AIF and Endo G, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and -3 for leading to apoptosis in TSGH8301 cells. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that ellagic acid induced cytotoxic effects for causing a decrease in the percentage of viable cells via G0/G1 phase arrest and induction of apoptosis in TSGH8301 cells. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 1262-1274, 2014. PMID:23554011

Ho, Chin-Chih; Huang, An-Cheng; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Huang, Yi-Ping; Huang, Hui-Ying; Kuo, Jehn-Hwa; Liao, Wen-Yen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

2014-11-01

30

Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway  

SciTech Connect

Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

Ou, Hsiu-Chung [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Jane [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shin-Da [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Yang [Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Tsan-Hung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Kun-Ling [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Cheng [Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng, E-mail: whhsheu@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Technology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-10-15

31

Ellagic acid promoted biomimetic synthesis of shape-controlled silver nanochains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, was utilized for the biomimetic synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles, which over a period of time formed extended branched nanochains of hexagonal-shaped silver nanoparticles. It was found that EA not only has the capability of reducing silver ions, resulting in the formation of Ag nanoparticles, due to its extended polyphenolic system, but also appears to recognize and affect the Ag nanocrystal growth on the (111) face, leading to the formation of hexagon-shaped Ag nanocrystals. Initially, various Ag nanocrystal shapes were observed; however, over a longer period of time, a majority of hexagonal-shaped nanocrystals were formed. Although the exact mechanism of formation of the nanocrystals is not known, it appears that EA attaches to the silver nuclei, leading to lower surface energy of the (111) face. Further, the nanocrystals fuse together, forming interfaces among the aggregates, and, with time, those interfaces become lesser, and the nanoparticles merge together and share the same single crystallographic orientation, which leads to the formation of long elongated chains of hexagonal nanoparticles. This biomimetic approach may be developed as a green synthetic method to prepare building blocks with tunable properties for the development of nanodevices. Further, we explored the antibacterial properties and found that the tandem of EA-Ag nanochains substantially enhanced the antibacterial properties of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria compared to silver nanoparticles or EA alone. Additionally, the materials were also utilized for imaging of mammalian NRK (normal rat kidney) cells.

Barnaby, Stacey N.; Yu, Samantha M.; Fath, Karl R.; Tsiola, Areti; Khalpari, Omid; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

2011-06-01

32

Ellagic acid induces a dose- and time-dependent depolarization of mitochondria and activation of caspase-9 and -3 in human neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The polyphenol ellagic acid is found in many natural food sources and has been proposed as a candidate compound for clinical applications due to its anti-oxidative capacity and as a potential anti-tumorigenic compound. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity to and possible apoptosis mechanism induced by ellagic acid in neuronal tumor cells. As a model the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was used. The methods applied were bright field and phase contrast microscopy, XTT- and LDH-assays, western blot, and flow cytometric analysis of DNA degradation and mitochondrial membrane potential. Ellagic acid treatment was found to induce a reduction in cell number preceded by alterations of the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and -3, DNA-fragmentation and cell death by apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death studied was not due to anoikis since it was significant in the adherent fraction of the cells. We conclude that ellagic acid induces dose- and time-dependent apoptosis, at least partly by the mitochondrial pathway, in an embryonal neuronal tumor cell system. This finding is in agreement with previously reported data on adult carcinoma cells thus suggesting a more general effect of ellagic acid on tumor cells. PMID:24051122

Alfredsson, Christina Fjæraa; Ding, Menglei; Liang, Qiu-Li; Sundström, Birgitta E; Nånberg, Eewa

2014-02-01

33

MicroRNA 'signature' during estrogen-mediated mammary carcinogenesis and its reversal by ellagic acid intervention  

PubMed Central

Dysregulated miRNA expression has been associated with the development and progression of cancers, including breast cancer. The role of estrogen (E2) in regulation of cell proliferation and breast carcinogenesis is well-known. Recent reports have associated several miRNAs with estrogen receptors in breast cancers. Investigation of the regulatory role of miRNAs is critical for understanding the effect of E2 in human breast cancer, as well as for developing strategies for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study we used the well-established ACI rat model that develops mammary tumors upon E2 exposure and identified a ‘signature’ of 33 significantly modulated miRNAs during the process of mammary tumorigenesis. Several of these miRNAs were altered as early as 3 weeks after initial E2 treatment and their modulation persisted throughout the mammary carcinogenesis process, suggesting that these molecular changes are early events. Furthermore, ellagic acid, which inhibited E2-induced mammary tumorigenesis in our previous study, reversed the dysregulation of miR-375, miR-206, miR-182, miR-122, miR- 127 and miR-183 detected with E2 treatment and modulated their target proteins (ER?, cyclin D1, RASD1, FoxO3a, FoxO1, cyclin G1, Bcl-w and Bcl-2). This is the first systematic study examining the changes in miRNA expression associated with E2 treatment in ACI rats as early as 3 week until tumor time point. The effect of a chemopreventive agent, ellagic acid in reversing miRNAs modulated during E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis was also established. These observations provide mechanistic insights into the new molecular events behind the chemoprevention action of ellagic acid in and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:23791885

Munagala, Radha; Aqil, Farrukh; Vadhanam, Manick V; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2013-01-01

34

Antitumor effect and mechanism of an ellagic acid derivative on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line  

PubMed Central

In the present study, to identify the effective components of Chinese traditional herbs, Euphorbia hylonoma Hand.-Mazz. (Euphorbiaceae), a folk herb that has been used among the Qinling mountain area for hundreds of years, was investigated. 3,3?-Di-O-methyl ellagic acid-4?-O-?-d-xylopyranoside (JNE2), an ellagic acid derivative, was isolated from the acetone extract of the herb and its antitumor activity against human hepatoma HepG2 cells was detected in vitro. The results showed that JNE2 inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and blocked the cell cycle at the G1/S phase. A high dosage of JNE2 induced apoptosis of the tumor cells, but no significant differences were identified between the treatment groups. The invasiveness of HepG2 cells was also inhibited by JNE2. The mechanism of the antitumor effect of JNE2 at the molecular level was presumed to be due to the upregulation of the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and the downregulation of the protein expression of Bcl-2 and CCND1. The results suggested that JNE2 is a potential antitumor agent that merits further investigation. PMID:24396481

ZHANG, HUI; GUO, ZENG-JUN; XU, WEN-MING; YOU, XIAO-JUAN; HAN, LING; HAN, YAN-XIA; DAI, LIU-JIANG

2014-01-01

35

Protective Effect of Ellagic Acid on Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis via Toll-Like Receptor and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Nuclear Factor ?B Signaling Pathways.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) is present in certain fruits and nuts, including raspberries, pomegranates, and walnuts, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to examine the protective effect of EA on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms in mice. Mice were orally administered EA at different doses before the intravenous delivery of Con A; the different experimental groups were as follows: (i) vehicle control, (ii) Con A alone without EA, (iii) EA at 50 mg/kg, (iv) EA at 100 mg/kg, and (v) EA at 200 mg/kg. We found that EA pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of plasma aminotransferase and liver necrosis in Con A-induced hepatitis. Also, EA significantly decreased the expression levels of the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 mRNA and protein in liver tissues. Further, EA decreased the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38. EA-treated groups showed suppressions of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and I?B-? degradation levels in liver tissues. In addition, EA pretreatment decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1? (IL-1?). These results suggest that EA protects against T-cell-mediated hepatitis through TLR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:25238033

Lee, Jae Hong; Won, Jong Hoon; Choi, Jong Min; Cha, Hye Hyeon; Jang, Yeo Jin; Park, Seohyeon; Kim, Han Gyeol; Kim, Hyung Chul; Kim, Dae Kyong

2014-10-15

36

Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01–0.11??g/mL and 0.03–0.36??g/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19–103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38–0.73% and 0.49–2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r2 values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

2013-01-01

37

Zinc-Chelation Contributes to the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Ellagic Acid on Inhibiting MMP-2 Activity, Cell Migration and Tube Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEllagic acid (EA), a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been demonstrated to exert anti-angiogenic effect but the detailed mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the zinc chelating activity of EA contributed to its anti-angiogenic effect.Methods and Principal FindingsThe matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) activity, a zinc-required reaction, was directly inhibited by EA as examined

Sheng-Teng Huang; Rong-Chi Yang; Hsiao-Ting Wu; Chao-Nin Wang; Jong-Hwei S. Pang; Irina V. Lebedeva

2011-01-01

38

LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS identification and LC-DAD quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in Drosera peltata.  

PubMed

The herb of Drosera peltata, commonly named the shield sundew, is used as an antitussive in phytotherapy, although the plants' composition has not been determined in detail so far. Hence, in this study, we present a validated, sensitive, reliable, and cheap narrow-bore LC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in this herbal drug. In addition, the structures of 13 compounds have been elucidated by LC-MS, LC-NMR, and offline NMR experiments after isolation: herbacetin-3-O-glucoside (1), gossypitrin (2), ellagic acid (3), quercetin-7-O-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), kaempferol-3-O-(6?-O-galloyl)-glucoside (6), herbacetin-7-O-glucoside (7), astragalin (8), gossypetin (9), herbacetin (10), quercetin (11), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (12), and kaempferol (13). Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10 have been identified in D. peltata for the first time, and compounds 1, 4, 6, 7, and 10 have not been detected in any Drosera species before. PMID:23831703

Braunberger, Christina; Zehl, Martin; Conrad, Jürgen; Fischer, Sonja; Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

2013-08-01

39

Protective effect of ellagic acid and pumpkin seed oil against methotrexate-induced small intestine damage in rats.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most serious side effects in the methotrexate (MTX) treatment. This study was designed to investigate whether ellagic acid (EA) and/or pumpkin seed oil (PSO) had a protective effect on MTX-induced small intestine damage. Forty albino rats were randomized into five groups of 8 rats each. Group I served as a normal control group. In Group II, MTX was administered as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Groups III, IV and V were pre-treated respectively with either PSO (40 mg/kg), EA (10 mg/kg) or 0.2% DMSO (vehicle control) orally every day by gavage for 5 days and then they received MTX. All animals were sacrificed 5 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathological examination, estimation of serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level, assay of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and myloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (AD) activities. Administration of EA and/or PSO decreased the intestinal damage, PGE2, MDA and NO levels and MPO, XO and AD activities and increased GSH level. These results suggest that EA and PSO protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and thus have potential as a promising drug in the prevention of undesired side effects of MTX. PMID:22329239

El-Boghdady, Noha A

2011-12-01

40

Ellagic acid & gallic acid from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. inhibit HIV-1 infection through inhibition of HIV-1 protease & reverse transcriptase activity  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used as traditional medicines and are effective in controlling diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV property of the extracts prepared from the leaves and stems of banaba, and further purification and characterization of the active components. Methods: Aqueous and 50 per cent ethanolic extracts were prepared from leaves and stems of banaba and were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV activity using in vitro reporter gene based assays. Further, three compounds were isolated from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract of banaba leaves using silica gel column chromatography and characterization done by HPLC, NMR and MS analysis. To delineate the mode of action of the active compounds, reverse transcriptase assay and protease assay were performed using commercially available kits. Results: All the extracts showed a dose dependent inhibition of HIV-1-infection in TZM-bl and CEM-GFP cell lines with a maximum from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract from leaves (IC50= 1 to 25 ?g/ml). This observation was confirmed by the virus load (p24) estimation in infected CEM-GFP cells when treated with the extracts. Gallic acid showed an inhibition in reverse transcriptase whereas ellagic acid inhibited the HIV-1 protease activity. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a novel anti-HIV activity of banaba. The active components responsible for anti-HIV activity were gallic acid and ellagic acid, through inhibition of reverse transcriptase and HIV protease, respectively and hence could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:23640562

Nutan; Modi, Manoj; Goel, Tanvi; Das, Tiyasa; Malik, Shweta; Suri, Samiksha; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Sharad Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh; Malhotra, Swadesh; Gupta, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

41

Tolerance and efficacy of a product containing ellagic and salicylic acids in reducing hyperpigmentation and dark spots in comparison with 4% hydroquinone.  

PubMed

Hydroquinone (HQ) is the benchmark prescription agent for skin lightening. However, HQ use is recently banned in Europe and in parts of Asia because of potential long-term consequences, including carcinogenesis when orally consumed. This has resulted in development of alternative skin-lightening agents with comparable efficacy to HQ, but better safety profiles. This study examined the skin-lightening ability of a topical product containing 0.5% ellagic acid and 0.1% salicylic acid and compared its efficacy with that of a prescription generic 4% HQ product. Fifty-four multiethnic subjects were randomly assigned to use the topical test formulation or generic 4% HQ twice daily for 12 weeks to evaluate product tolerability and efficacy. Under the conditions of this double-blinded clinical study, the test product demonstrated comparable tolerance and efficacy to that of a benchmark product 4% HQ, as assessed by clinical grading, physical measurement of spot size using image analysis, and questionnaire response analysis. This study suggests that this new product provided comparable skin depigmentation benefit to the benchmark product. In addition, the product appears to have better esthetics (texture, pleasantness to use, skin feel) than the 4% HQ product. PMID:23377328

Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Oresajo, Christian

2013-01-01

42

Evolution of ellagitannin content and profile during fruit ripening in Fragaria spp.  

PubMed

Ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates are polyphenols present in the human diet, in particular strawberries (Fragaria spp.). The first aim of this study was isolation and structural characterization of casuarictin and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3'-O-?-rhamnopyranoside, which were found to be abundant in Fragaria spp., along with agrimoniin. The second aim was accurate profiling and quantification of 26 ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates in six Fragaria x ananassa cultivars and two Fragaria vesca species. The third aim was to describe the ellagitannins behavior during fruit ripening from the green stage to over-ripeness. It was shown that there are major qualitative and quantitative differences in the amount and profile of ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates between Fragaria spp. Genotype is a major factor in defining ellagitannin concentration and patterns between strawberries, and variable behavior of the genotypes was observed, in the context of a significant drop in ellagitannins during ripening. PMID:23992396

Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Guella, Graziano; Palmieri, Luisa; Martinatti, Paolo; Pojer, Elisa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska

2013-09-11

43

Gene expression, cell cycle arrest and MAPK signalling regulation in Caco-2 cells exposed to ellagic acid and its metabolites, urolithins.  

PubMed

Novel gene expression profiles and cellular functions modulated in Caco-2 cells in response to the dietary polyphenol, ellagic acid (EA), and its colonic metabolites, urolithin-A (3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d] pyran-6-one) and urolithin-B (3-hydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d] pyran-6-one) have been identified. Exposure of cells to EA and urolithins arrested cell growth at the S- and G(2)/M-phases. Transcriptional profiling using microarray and functional analysis revealed changes in the expression levels of MAPK signalling genes such as, growth factor receptors (FGFR2, EGFR), oncogenes (K-Ras, c-Myc), and tumour suppressors (DUSP6, Fos) and of genes involved in cell cycle (CCNB1, CCNB1IP1). Results suggest that EA and urolithin-A and -B, at concentrations achievable in the lumen from the diet, might contribute to colon cancer prevention by modulating the expression of multiple genes in epithelial cells lining the colon. Some of these genes are involved in key cellular processes associated with cancer development and are currently being investigated as potential chemopreventive targets. PMID:19437480

González-Sarrías, Antonio; Espín, Juan-Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

2009-06-01

44

Antiproliferative and apoptotic-inducing potential of ellagic acid against 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced colon tumorigenesis in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Colon cancer remains one of the major worldwide causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in Western countries and is increasingly common in Asia. Ellagic acid (EA), a major component of polyphenol possesses attractive remedial features. The aim of this study is to divulge the potential effect of EA during 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in male Wistar albino rats. The rats were segregated into four groups: group I, control rats; group II, rats received EA (60 mg/kg b.wt./day, orally); rats in group III, induced with DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt.) subcutaneously for 15 weeks; DMH-induced group IV rats were initiated with EA treatment. Colon of the rats treated with DMH exhibited higher glycoconjugates and proliferation index such as elevated expressions of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteins (MMP-2 and -9), and mast cells. DMH induction also increased phase I-metabolizing enzymes with simultaneous decrease in the phase II detoxifying enzymes. In contrast, dietary administration of EA significantly (p < 0.05) down regulated the proliferation index and restored back the levels of biotransformation enzymes. The carcinogenic insult also altered the expression of pro-apoptotic protein p53, whereas dietary EA administration significantly (p < 0.01) up regulates p53 expression to further induce apoptotic pathway. Ultrastructural changes in colon were also in accord with the above aberrations. Overall findings suggested that the suppression of colon cancer by EA in vivo involves inhibition of cell proliferation, activation of apoptosis, and efficient detoxification. PMID:24281858

Umesalma, Syed; Nagendraprabhu, Ponnuraj; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

2014-03-01

45

Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

2000-01-01

46

Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid on fruit in 'Jiefangzhong' loquat  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on fruit quality of 'Jiefangzhong' loquat were studied. NAA at different concentrations was sprayed at the full-bloom stage and young fruit stage, respectively. The results showed that the fruit quality was improved by spraying 20 mg\\/l naphthaleneacetic acid at full-bloom stage, and there was no significant effect on fruit quality when treated with

J. Wu; S. Lin

47

Pineapple organic acid metabolism and accumulation during fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental changes in pineapple (Ananas Comosus (L.) Merrill) fruit acidity was determined for a ‘Smooth Cayenne’ high acid clone PRI#36-21 and a low acid clone PRI#63-555. The high acid clone gradually increased in fruit acidity from 1.4meq\\/100ml 6 weeks from flowering, and peaked a week before harvest at ca 10meq\\/100ml. In contrast, the low acid clone increased in acidity 6

Parson Saradhuldhat; Robert E. Paull

2007-01-01

48

Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit  

SciTech Connect

Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

Robbins, C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Mulcahy, F. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Somayajula, K. (Coca-Cola Co., Atlanta, GA); Edenborn, H.M.

2006-10-01

49

Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

2009-01-01

50

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

51

Phenotypic and fine genetic characterization of the D locus controlling fruit acidity in peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acidity is an essential component of the organoleptic quality of fleshy fruits. However, in these fruits, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that control fruit acidity remain unclear. In peach the D locus controls fruit acidity; low-acidity is determined by the dominant allele. Using a peach progeny of 208 F2 trees, the D locus was mapped to the proximal end

Karima Boudehri; Abdelhafid Bendahmane; Gaëlle Cardinet; Christelle Troadec; Annick Moing; Elisabeth Dirlewanger

2009-01-01

52

Furfural Production from Fruit Shells by Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentosans are hydrolyzed to pentoses by dilute mineral acid hydrolysis. The main source of pentosans is hemicelluloses. Furfural can be produced by the acid hydrolysis of pentosan from fruit shells such as hazelnut, sunflower, walnut, and almond of agricultural wastes. Further dehydration reactions of the pentoses yield furfural. The hydrolysis of each shell sample was carried out in dilute sulfuric

Ayhan Demirbas

2006-01-01

53

Regulation of Growth and Fruit Maturation with 2-Chloroethanephosphonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE new growth regulator, 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid (CEP), is active in forcing flowering of pineapple1, as a fruit ripening agent2, for promoting petiole and fruit abscission3 and inducing swelling of pea stems4. (CEP had been released as G-996 in a formulation identified as Amchem 66-329. Previous published reports have referred to it with these designations.) It has been suggested that the

L. J. Edgerton; G. D. Blanpied

1968-01-01

54

Multisensory flavor perception: Assessing the influence of fruit acids and color cues on the perception of fruit-flavored beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study designed to investigate the influence of fruit acids (in particular, citric and malic acid) on people’s perception of the identity and the intensity of a variety of different fruit-flavored solutions. Participants had to identify the flavor of fruit-flavored drinks that were colored yellow, grey, orange, red, or else were presented as colorless solutions. The participants also

Massimiliano Zampini; Emma Wantling; Nicola Phillips; Charles Spence

2008-01-01

55

Effect of Calcium Nitrate and Boric Acid Sprays on Fruit Set, Yield and Fruit Quality of cv. Amhat Date Palm  

E-print Network

Abstract: The objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of spraying boric acid and/or calcium nitrate on fruit set, yield and fruit of cv. Amhat date palm. The present study was carried out during 2011/2012 growing seasons. Palms were sprayed with boric acid at 250 and 500 ppm and calcium nitrate at 1 and 2 % as individual application or in a combination between boric acid and calcium nitrate concentrations treatments. In general, results indicated that spraying date palm inflorescence with both boric acid and/or calcium nitrate had a significant effect on fruit set, yield and fruit physical and chemical characteristics of Amhat date palm. The superior treatment concerning yield and fruit quality was spraying boric acid at 500 ppm combined with calcium nitrate at 2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate metabolism [12]. Calcium is conceder as one of the most Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is concerned as important minerals determining the quality of fruit since it one of the important crops in arid and semi-arid regions of is required for cell elongation and cell division [13]. Till the world. Date palm is one of the ancient domestic fruit now, a little attention have been paid towards nutrient

S. M. A. Sarrwy; E. G. Gadalla; E. A. M. Mostafa

56

Phenolic acids and flavonoids of fig fruit ( Ficus carica L.) in the northern Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste, colour and nutritional properties of fruit. We have tried to evaluate the phenolic profile of fig fruit, since only limited information on that topic is available in the literature. With the HPLC-PDA system, we have identified the following phenolics: gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid,

Robert Veberic; Mateja Colaric; Franci Stampar

2008-01-01

57

Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.  

PubMed

The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-10-15

58

Purification, characterization and kinetic properties of pepper fruit acidic peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soluble acidic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was purified about 300-fold from the pericarp of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by chromatography in columns of Sephadex G-100, Q-Sepharose and Superose 12 PC 3.2\\/30. The purified enzyme has a pI of 3.8 and a Mr, determined by gel filtration, of 50 k. The enzyme was stable in

Federico Pomar; M. Angeles Bernal; José Díaz; Fuencisla Merino

1997-01-01

59

Purification and characterization of banana fruit acid phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acid phosphatase (APase, EC 3.1.3.2) from ripened banana (Musa cavendishii L. cv. Cavendish) fruit has been purified 1,876-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP)-hydrolyzing specific activity of 745 µmol Pi produced (mg protein)-1 min-1. Non-denaturing PAGE of the final preparation resolved a single protein-staining band that co-migrated with APase activity. SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration demonstrated that

William L. Turner; William C. Plaxton

2001-01-01

60

Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sanchez-Sevilla, Jose F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

2011-01-01

61

Amino acid sequence of a carboxypeptidase inhibitor from tomato fruit.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of a 37 residue carboxypeptidase inhibitor from tomato fruit has been determined. The amino terminus was shown to be 2-oxopyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid by digestion of reduced and S-carboxymethylated inhibitor with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase. The remainder of the sequence was assigned by analysis of peptides which had been generated by specific cleavage at the Asp4-Pro5 bond under acid conditions and by treatment with trypsin. The amino acid sequence of this inhibitor is identical with that of an analogous inhibitor from potatoes in 26 positions, and two of the replacements are highly conservative. The identification of the nonconservative replacements has been used to better define regions of the inhibitor which are not believed to contribute significantly to the free energy of association of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. PMID:7236596

Hass, G M; Hermodson, M A

1981-04-14

62

Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Fruit Set and Berry Enlargement in Seedless Grapes of Vitis vinifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH an increased set of fruit as a result of gibberellic acid or related compounds has been observed in tomatoes1, there are insufficient data concerning the effect of this chemical on enlargement of fruit in any plant.

Robert J. Weaver

1958-01-01

63

Suppression of Monilinia fructicolacutinase production by peach fruit surface phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are major phenolic acids in the epidermis and subtending cell layers of peach fruit (Prunus persica). Their concentrations are especially high in peach genotypes with a high level of resistance to the brown rot fungus,Monilinia fructicola, and decline as fruit mature with a corresponding increase in disease susceptibility. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid at concentrations up

R. M. Bostock; S. M. Wilcox; G. Wang; J. E. Adaskaveg

1999-01-01

64

Differential effects of abscisic acid and ethylene on the fruit maturation of Litchi chinensis Sonn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two litchi cultivars, a well-coloured ‘Nuomici’ and a poorly coloured ‘Feizixiao’, were used to investigate changes in endogenous\\u000a abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and ethylene production during fruit maturation and to test the effects of exogenous growth\\u000a regulators on litchi fruit maturation. Abscisic acid concentration in both the aril and pericarp increased with fruit maturation.\\u000a Transfusion of ABA into the fruit

Huicong Wang; Huibai Huang; Xuming Huang

2007-01-01

65

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

66

Analysis of the apple fruit acid\\/low-acid trait by SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to find out the genetic characteristics of malic acid in the course of apple genomic research and breeding.\\u000a In this study, the SSR marker linked to the acid\\/low-acid trait in apple fruit was identified from 140 SSR primer pairs, using\\u000a 91 F1 population hybrids from the intra-specific cross between apple cultivar ‘Dongguang’ and ‘Fuji’ as the experimental

Yuxin Yao; Heng Zhai; Lingling Zhao; Kai Yi; Zhi Liu; Ye Song

2008-01-01

67

Ascorbic acid metabolism during bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit development.  

PubMed

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) possesses a high antioxidant capacity in berries due to the presence of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid (AsA). Accumulation of AsA and the expression of the genes encoding the enzymes of the main AsA biosynthetic route and of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as well as the activities of the enzymes involved in AsA oxidation and recycling were investigated for the first time during the development and ripening of bilberry fruit. The results showed that the AsA level remained relatively stable during fruit maturation. The expression of the genes encoding the key enzymes in the AsA main biosynthetic route showed consistent trends with each other as well as with AsA levels, especially during the first stages of fruit ripening. The expression of genes and activities of the enzyme involved in the AsA oxidation and recycling route showed more prominent developmental stage-dependent changes during the ripening process. Different patterns of activity were found among the studied enzymes and the results were, for some enzymes, in accordance with AsA levels. In fully ripe berries, both AsA content and gene expression were significantly higher in skin than in pulp. PMID:22608079

Cocetta, Giacomo; Karppinen, Katja; Suokas, Marko; Hohtola, Anja; Häggman, Hely; Spinardi, Anna; Mignani, Ilaria; Jaakola, Laura

2012-07-15

68

Candidate Genes and Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Fruit Ascorbic Acid Content in Three Tomato Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh fruit and vegetables are a major source of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an important antioxidant for the human diet and also for plants. Ascorbic acid content in fruit exhibits a quantitative inheritance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ascorbic acid content have been mapped in three tomato populations derived from crosses between cultivated tomato varieties (Solanum lycopersicum accessions) and three

Rebecca Stevens; Michel Buret; Philippe Duffe; C. Garchery; P. Baldet; C. Rothan; M. Causse

2007-01-01

69

Effect of oxalic acid on control of postharvest browning of litchi fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, cv. Huaizhi, was treated with 2 and 4mM oxalic acid and stored at room temperature to investigate the effect of oxalic acid on pericarp browning. The results showed that the pericarp browning indices of the fruit, treated with both oxalic acid concentrations, were significantly lower than that of the control, due to increase of membrane

Xiaolin Zheng; Shiping Tian

2006-01-01

70

Localization of 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acids in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

We previously reported that the two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonists, 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acids (oxo-ODAs), were found in the tomato fruit. However, their localization remains unknown. Herein, we showed that oxo-ODAs localize primarily in the fruit peel and their amount increases after the homogenization of the tomato fruit. PMID:25060034

Takahashi, Haruya; Kamakari, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mohri, Shinsuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Matsumura, Yasuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Kawada, Teruo

2014-10-01

71

Browning control, shelf life extension and quality maintenance of frozen litchi fruit by hydrochloric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi fruit can be stored at ?18 °C without obvious adverse effects on the aril, but the pericarp darkens and browns when they are frozen or thawed. Experiments were conducted to test effects of hydrochloric acid on browning inhibition of litchi fruit pericarp for displacement of sulphur application. Litchi fruit were soaked in 0.5%, 1% and 2% HCl for 2–10

Yueming Jiang; Yuebiao Li; Jianrong Li

2004-01-01

72

The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.  

PubMed

Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

2014-01-01

73

Effect of Abscisic Acid on Banana Fruit Ripening in Relation to the Role of Ethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in banana fruit ripening was examined with the ethylene binding inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene\\u000a (1-MCP). ABA (0, 10?5, 10?4, or 10?3 mol\\/L) was applied by vacuum infiltration into fruit. 1-MCP (1 ?L\\/L) was applied by injecting a measured volume of stock\\u000a gas into sealed glass jars containing fruit. Fruit ripening, as judged by ethylene evolution and

Yueming Jiang; Daryl C. Joyce; Andrew J. Macnish

2000-01-01

74

Sugar Content, Acidity and Effect on Plaque pH of Fruit Juices, Fruit Drinks, Carbonated Beverages and Sport Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of fructose, glucose and sucrose, the pH and the titratable amount of acid were analyzed in the following groups of soft drinks (8–11 samples per group): (1) fruit juices, (2) fruit drinks, (3) carbonated beverages and (4) sport drinks. Moreover, the effect of representative products on pH changes of dental plaque was studied in two groups of teenagers

D. Birkhed

1984-01-01

75

Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation.\\u000a The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial\\u000a aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase\\u000a causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that

Asfaw Degu; Bayissa Hatew; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Ludmila Shlizerman; Naftali Zur; Ehud Katz; Alisdair R. Fernie; Eduardo Blumwald; Avi Sadka

2011-01-01

76

The Intehaction of Aqueous Solutions of Chlorine with Malic Acid, Tartaric Acid, and Various Fruit Juices: A Source of Mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, arid L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. Diethyl ether extraction followed by GC\\/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones and chloral hydrate) are present as major products in some of these samples. A number of fruit juices (orange, grape,

Tak-Lung Chang; Robert P. Streicher; Hans Zimmer; J. W. Munch

1988-01-01

77

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel  

E-print Network

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis; Accepted in revised form 1 April 2008) Summary Pectin was extracted from passion fruit peel using three different acids (citric, hydrochloric or nitric) at different temperatures (40­90 °C), pH (1

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

78

Effect of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) on the fruit ripening characters of rabbiteye blueberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) application on rabbiteye blueberry fruit quality during the growth period was investigated. Ethephon treatment stimulated the decrement of titratable acidity, anthocyanin accumulation and fruit softening 4 days after treatment and the promoting effects continued through the investigation period. The ripening promotion effect of ethephon on total soluble solids content was observed only 8 days after

Takuya Ban; Mihoko Kugishima; Tsuneo Ogata; Shuji Shiozaki; Shosaku Horiuchi; Hisafumi Ueda

2007-01-01

79

The salicylic acid-induced protection of non-climacteric unripe pepper fruit against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is similar to the resistance of ripe fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides deleteriously affects unripe pepper fruit, but not ripe fruit. Here, we show that the induction of local acquired resistance\\u000a (LAR) by salicylic acid (SA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, or benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester\\u000a pretreatment protects unripe pepper fruit against the fungus, while jasmonic acid (JA) does not. The SA-mediated LAR in the\\u000a unripe fruit inhibited the fungal

Sanghyeob Lee; Jong-Chan Hong; Woong Bae Jeon; Young-Soo Chung; Soonkee Sung; Doil Choi; Young Hee Joung; Boung-Jun Oh

2009-01-01

80

A New Hydroxy-acid in the Peel of Apple Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the examination of paper chromatograms of extracts from whole mature Edward VII apples, a faint acid spot appeared which did not correspond in position with any of the usual fruit acids. On chromatograms of extracts of peel tissue only, the unknown acid appeared to be present in an amount approximately one-quarter that of the malic acid present (the chief

A. C. Hulme

1953-01-01

81

Effect of salicylic acid (SA) on delaying fruit senescence of Huang Kum pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was undertaken to explore the effect of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations on regulating fruit\\u000a senescence of Huang Kum pear. Through dipping fruits and fruit discs for a series of hours in SA solution, enzyme activities\\u000a and physiological characteristics of Huang Kum pear were determined. The results revealed that SA enhanced the activity of\\u000a superoxide dismutase (SOD)

Hassan Imran; Yuxing Zhang; Guoqiang Du; Guoying Wang; Jianghong Zhang

2007-01-01

82

Effect of salicylic acid treatment on alleviating postharvest chilling injury of ‘Qingnai’ plum fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on chilling injury, disease incidence, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, respiration rate and ethylene production, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and polyamine (PA) content of ‘Qingnai’ plum fruit were examined. Chilling injury, disease incidence, electrolyte leakage, MDA content, respiration and ethylene production of control fruit increased after about 15–30days cold storage.

Zisheng Luo; Chun Chen; Jing Xie

2011-01-01

83

Organic acid, phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of fruit flesh and seed of Viburnum opulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viburnum opulus L., belonging to the plant family of Caprifoliaceae, is known as “gilaburu” in Turkey and “Guelder rose” in Europe. Fruits and fruit juice of V. opulus began to be sold in the markets of Turkey recently. Due to the lack of information in the literature, major organic acids, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC),

M. Cam; Y. Hisil; A. Kuscu

2007-01-01

84

Developmental changes in pulp organic acid concentration and activities of acid-metabolising enzymes during the fruit development of two loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cultivars differing in fruit acidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in organic acid concentration and related enzyme activities in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) pulp were studied, using low-acid ‘Changhong 3’ and high-acid ‘Jiefangzhong’ cultivars. Both titratable acidity (TA) and malic acid concentration increased during the early stages of fruit development and decreased at the later stages. The difference in TA between the two cultivars could be explained by the

Fa-Xing Chen; Xing-Hui Liu; Li-Song Chen

2009-01-01

85

Alleviation of postharvest chilling injury of tomato fruit by salicylic acid treatment.  

PubMed

Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit. PMID:25328231

Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi

2014-10-01

86

Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. PMID:21128945

Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

2011-03-01

87

Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives.  

PubMed

Fruits of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid esters, in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid, are usually predominant in solanaceous fruits and tubers. Two closely related caffeoylquinic acid derivatives with longer C(18) HPLC retention times than those of monocaffeoylquinic acids are minor constituents in cultivated eggplant fruit. In a prior study, the two compounds were tentatively identified as 3-O-acetyl- and 4-O-acetyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acids and composed ?2% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruit of most S. melongena accessions. It was recently found that the pair of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives can compose 15-25% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruits of S. incanum and wild S. melongena. This facilitated C(18) HPLC isolation and structural elucidation using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-ToF-MS. The isomeric compounds were identified as 3-O-malonyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (isomer 1) and 4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-5-O-malonylquinic acid (isomer 2). Both exhibited free radical scavenging activity, albeit about 4-fold lower than that of the flavonol quercetin dihydrate. By contrast, the iron chelation activities of isomers 1 and 2, respectively, were about 3- and 6-fold greater than that of quercetin dihydrate. Reports of malonylhydroxycinnamoylquinic acids are rare, and only a few of these compounds have been structurally elucidated using both NMR and MS techniques. To the authors' knowledge, these two malonylcaffeoylquinic acid isomers have not previously been reported. PMID:21800866

Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

2011-09-14

88

Phenotypic and fine genetic characterization of the D locus controlling fruit acidity in peach  

PubMed Central

Background Acidity is an essential component of the organoleptic quality of fleshy fruits. However, in these fruits, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that control fruit acidity remain unclear. In peach the D locus controls fruit acidity; low-acidity is determined by the dominant allele. Using a peach progeny of 208 F2 trees, the D locus was mapped to the proximal end of linkage group 5 and co-localized with major QTLs involved in the control of fruit pH, titratable acidity and organic acid concentration and small QTLs for sugar concentration. To investigate the molecular basis of fruit acidity in peach we initiated the map-based cloning of the D locus. Results In order to generate a high-resolution linkage map in the vicinity of the D locus, 1,024 AFLP primer combinations were screened using DNA of bulked acid and low-acid segregants. We also screened a segregating population of 1,718 individuals for chromosomal recombination events linked to the D locus and identified 308 individuals with recombination events close to D. Using these recombinant individuals we delimited the D locus to a genetic interval of 0.4 cM. We also constructed a peach BAC library of 52,000 clones with a mean insert size of 90 kb. The screening of the BAC library with markers tightly linked to D locus indicated that 1 cM corresponds to 250 kb at the vicinity of the D locus. Conclusion In the present work we presented the first high-resolution genetic map of D locus in peach. We also constructed a peach BAC library of approximately 15× genome equivalent. This fine genetic and physical characterization of the D locus is the first step towards the isolation of the gene(s) underlying fruit acidity in peach. PMID:19445673

2009-01-01

89

Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits  

PubMed Central

The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 ?g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies. PMID:20548930

Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine

2010-01-01

90

The Level of Organic Acids in Some Nigerian Fruits and their Effect on Mineral Availability in Composite Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH, ascorbic, citric and total organic acid content of some local fruits in Nigeria were determined. The mineral content of the fruits, amaranthus vegetable and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were also determined. Orange juice had the highest level of ascorbic acid but low in citric acid while lime juice is very rich in citric acid. Pine apple juice

2003-01-01

91

Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.  

PubMed

Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty acid composition and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit. PMID:24912701

Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-11-15

92

Fruit acids do not enhance sodium lauryl sulphate-induced cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in vivo.  

PubMed

Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit acids and SLS did not enhance cumulative skin irritation. PMID:16040403

Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter

2005-01-01

93

Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species. PMID:24262577

Nawirska-Olsza?ska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

2014-04-01

94

????? gibberellic acid ???????????????? ???????????????????????????? Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Fruit Quality of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus) cv. While aril  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-year old dragon fruit trees cv. Vietnam were treated with GA3 by spraying at 0,10,20 ppm 1 day before blooming and 7 days after blooming. The experiment was conducted at a private orchard in Warin Chamrap district, Ubon Ratchathani province during the period from January to October 2005. The results showed a significant difference in length of fruits, weight of

Ratchadaporn Janthasri; Umaporn Rajun; Satin Pasuvitayakun

95

NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products. PMID:24520932

Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

2014-02-26

96

Effect of gibberellic acid and (2-chloroethane) phosphonic acid on glochid abscission in cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia amyclaea Tenore)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glochids (small spines) of cactus pear negatively affect harvest operations, and the quality and acceptance of this fruit. Different treatments for pre-harvest removal of glochids were evaluated. Gibberellic acid (GA3, 100 ppm) was sprayed over flower buds in six consecutive applications (every 7 days) during their development. Also, solutions of (2-chloroethane) phosphonic acid or ethephon (‘Ethrel’®) at 500, 600, 700,

Joel Corrales-Garc??a; Pablo González-Mart??nez

2001-01-01

97

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY); Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

1983-01-01

98

Linking ascorbic acid production in Ribes nigrum with fruit development and changes in sources and sinks  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Understanding the synthesis of ascorbic acid (l-AsA) in green tissues in model species has advanced considerably; here we focus on its production and accumulation in fruit. In particular, our aim is to understand the links between organs which may be sources of l-AsA (leaves) and those which accumulate it (fruits). The work presented here tests the idea that changes in leaf and fruit number influence the accumulation of l-AsA. The aim was to understand the importance of leaf tissue in the production of l-AsA and to determine how this might provide routes for the manipulation of fruit tissue l-AsA. Methods The experiments used Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant), predominantly in field experiments, where the source–sink relationship was manipulated to alter potential leaf l-AsA production and fruit growth and accumulation of l-AsA. These manipulations included reductions in reproductive capacity, by raceme removal, and the availability of assimilates by leaf removal and branch phloem girdling. Natural variation in fruit growth and fruit abscission is also described as this influences subsequent experimental design and the interpretation of l-AsA data. Key Results Results show that fruit l-AsA concentration is conserved but total yield of l-AsA per plant is dependent on a number of innate factors many of which relate to raceme attributes. Leaf removal and phloem girdling reduced fruit weight, and a combination of both reduced fruit yields further. It appears that around 50 % of assimilates utilized for fruit growth came from apical leaves, while between 20 and 30 % came from raceme leaves, with the remainder from ‘storage’. Conclusions Despite being able to manipulate leaf area and therefore assimilate availability and stored carbohydrates, along with fruit yields, rarely were effects on fruit l-AsA concentration seen, indicating fruit l-AsA production in Ribes was not directly coupled to assimilate supply. There was no supporting evidence that l-AsA production occurred predominantly in green leaf tissue followed by its transfer to developing fruits. It is concluded that l-AsA production occurs predominantly in the fruit of Ribes nigrum. PMID:23419248

Atkinson, Christopher J.; Davies, Michael J.; Taylor, June M.; Longbottom, Helen

2013-01-01

99

Utilisation of fruits waste for citric acid production by solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state fermentation method was used to utilise pineapple, mixed fruit and maosmi waste as substrates for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger DS 1. Experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of methanol at different moisture levels. In the absence of methanol the maximum citric acid was obtained at 60% moisture level whereas in the presence

D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

2003-01-01

100

Effects of acid irrigation and liming on the production of fruit bodies by ectomycorrhizal fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to examine the effects of an increase in acid rain upon community diversity and productivity of the ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Norway spruce stand and the possible amelioratory effects of liming. No obvious adverse effects on either the diversity or productivity were found. Acid irrigation appeared to enhance the fruiting of Russula ochroleuca, as

R. Agerer; A. F. S. Taylor; R. Treu

1998-01-01

101

Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that the block in mitochondrial aconitase activity, inducing acid accumulation, is caused by citramalate. Here, we investigated the effect of citramalate and of another aconitase inhibitor, oxalomalate, on aconitase activity and regulation in callus originated from juice sacs. These compounds significantly increased citrate content and reduced the enzyme's activity, while slightly inducing its protein level. Citramalate inhibited the mitochondrial, but not cytosolic form of the enzyme. Its external application to mandarin fruits resulted in inhibition of aconitase activity, with a transient increase in fruit acidity detected a few weeks later. The endogenous level of citramalate was analyzed in five citrus varieties: its pattern of accumulation challenged the notion of its action as an endogenous inhibitor of mitochondrial aconitase. Metabolite profiling of oxalomalate-treated cells showed significant increases in a few amino acids and organic acids. The activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and aspartate kinase, as well as these of two ?-aminobutyrate (GABA)-shunt enzymes, succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSAD) were significantly induced in oxalomalate-treated cells. It is suggested that the increase in citrate, caused by aconitase inhibition, induces amino acid synthesis and the GABA shunt, in accordance with the suggested fate of citrate during the acid decline stage in citrus fruit. PMID:21528417

Degu, Asfaw; Hatew, Bayissa; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Shlizerman, Ludmila; Zur, Naftali; Katz, Ehud; Fernie, Alisdair R; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2011-09-01

102

Effects of pre-harvest gibberellic acid spraying on gene transcript accumulation during peach fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand early molecular events associated with increase in fruit size and woolliness prevention induced by\\u000a pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) spraying, differential transcript accumulation of genes encoding proteins putatively involved in protein folding and protection,\\u000a cell wall metabolism, and endomembrane transport was studied during fruit development of ‘Chiripá’ peach. Woolliness occurrence\\u000a reached 100% in untreated peach, was reduced

Camila Pegoraro; Fábio Clasen Chaves; Joceani Dal Cero; César Luís Girardi; Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

103

Evaluation of Surface Free Energy of Various Fruit Epicarps Using Acid–Base and Zisman Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface free energy (SFE; ?\\u000a SV) of 16 fruit epicarps present on the Chilean market was calculated by two approaches: the acid–base and Zisman. The results\\u000a show that the fruit epicarps were low surface energy since the magnitude of ?\\u000a SV falls within a narrow range, between 37 and 44 mJ m???2. Zisman approach gave a critical surface tension values, ?\\u000a cr

Patricia Velásquez; Olivier Skurtys; Javier Enrione; Fernando Osorio

104

Postharvest control of Monilinia laxa and Rhizopus stolonifer in stone fruit by peracetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peracetic acid (PAA) treatment of stone fruit (sweet cherry, apricot, peach and nectarine) reduced the incidence of brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa and soft rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer. The efficacy of the treatment depended on the length of time. Fruit, neither wounded nor inoculated and dipped for 1min in a 125mgL?1 PAA solution, showed a significant reduction of

M Mari; R Gregori; I Donati

2004-01-01

105

The effect of gibberellic acid on fruit and seed set in crosses of garden and winter hardy Rosa accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) was studied on a wide range of crosses between various garden roses and two hardy breeding lines. Although there were fewer seeds per fruit, fruit set was higher in most crosses when GA3 was applied to the stigma at the rate of 250 ppm ten days after pollination. However, higher fruit set did not

Ian Ogilvie; Daniel Cloutier; Neville Arnold; Perry Y. Jui

1991-01-01

106

Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.  

PubMed

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

2015-01-15

107

Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C?C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene

Kenji Matsui; Mizuyoshi Shibutani; Toshiharu Hase; Tadahiko Kajiwara

1996-01-01

108

Inheritance and selection of some fruit characters of apple. I. Inheritance of low and high acidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit acidity as such appears to be gouverned by a single major gene, low acidity being a recessive character. The additional genetic variation is explainable by the additive gene action model. This mode of inheritance causes the pH distribution of seedlings in progenies to shift with a higher mid-parent pH towards more low-acid cum sweet (pH = 3.8) and fewer

T. Visser; J. J. Verhaegh

1978-01-01

109

Physicochemical changes in Mazafati date fruits incubated in hot acetic acid for accelerated ripening to prevent diseases and decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed and optimized for the accelerated ripening of date fruits of cultivar ‘Mazafati’ to prevent diseases and decay. The date fruits were incubated in hot acetic acid solution 0.5% at 40+1°C for 72h. During the process some physicochemical changes in the fruits were studied and were found to be comparable with the changes in the fruits that

Asgar Farahnaky; Hassan Afshari-Jouybari

2011-01-01

110

Exogenous gibberellic acid increases the fruit weight of ‘Comte de Paris’ pineapple by enlarging flesh cells without negative effects on fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mainland China, the most popular pineapple cultivar is ‘Comte de Paris’. Gibberellic acids have been widely applied to\\u000a enhance fruit growth in various species. To evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on ‘Comte de Paris’ pineapple production and quality, pineapple fruits were sprayed with GA3 at concentrations of 5, 20, 50, or 100 mg l?1 at both 0 and 15 days

Yun-He LiYong-Jie; Yong-Jie Wu; Bei Wu; Ming-Hong Zou; Zhi Zhang; Guang-Ming Sun

111

Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue  

SciTech Connect

Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

1991-03-01

112

?-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.  

PubMed

The results from this study showed that treatment with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 ?g/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen. PMID:24767023

Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

2014-09-15

113

Fruit acid extracts, a fresh approach to skin renewal.  

PubMed

Synopsis Alpha-hydroxy acids are a common class of naturally occurring chemicals that have become increasingly popular for cosmetic use. Currently alpha-hydroxy acids from both natural and synthetic sources are being used in skincare products. From lactic acid to complex natural blends, several different approaches have been adopted for the use of alpha-hydroxy acids. This paper reviews the history of alpha-hydroxy acids use in cosmetics and gives new data showing the increased rate of cell renewal by topical application. PMID:19250482

Scholz, D; Brooks, G J; Parish, D F; Burmeister, F

1994-12-01

114

Phenolics of Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) fruits: identification of anthocyanins and gallic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

Arbutus unedo L., the strawberry tree (Ericaceae family), is an evergreen shrub or small tree, typical of the Mediterranean fringe and climate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of A. unedo fruits. Seven compounds were purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the MeOH extract followed by HPLC and were characterized as arbutin, beta-D-glucogalline, gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylshikimic acid, and 5-O-galloylshikimic acid, by means of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. Moreover, LC-PDA-MS analysis of the red pigment of A. unedo fruits revealed the presence of three anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside. These pigments were also quantified. PMID:17177565

Pawlowska, Agata Maria; De Leo, Marinella; Braca, Alessandra

2006-12-27

115

Metabolite profiling of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and other dark-colored fruit juices.  

PubMed

Many dark-colored fruit juices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264

Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

2012-08-01

116

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

1983-01-01

117

Accumulation of wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript in tomato fruit is inhibited by salicylic acid and polyamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of wound-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase expression was studied in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Pik-Red). A 70 base oligonucleotide probe homologous to published ACC synthase cDNA sequences was successfully used to identify and analyze regulation of a wound-inducible transcript. The 1.8 kb ACC synthase transcript increased upon wounding the fruit as well as during fruit ripening. Salicylic acid,

Ning Li; Barbara L. Parsons; Derong Liu; Autar K. Mattoo

1992-01-01

118

Physiological and biochemical response of harvested plum fruit to oxalic acid during ripening or shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oxalic acid application on plum fruit (Prunus salicina cv. ‘Damili’) ripening properties during storage or shelf-life was determined. The fruits were dipped for 3min in solutions containing 5mmol\\/L oxalic acid and then were packed into polyethylene bags and stored at 25°C for 12days, or at 2°C for 20days and subsequently at 25°C for 12days. Ethylene production, fruit

Fuwang Wu; Dandan Zhang; Haiyan Zhang; Guoqiang Jiang; Xinguo Su; Hongxia Qu; Yueming Jiang; Xuewu Duan

2011-01-01

119

HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 ?m) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

2014-08-01

120

Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.  

PubMed

Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil(®)-L-Val and Lipodex(®) E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), ?-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (<70 mg/kg DM) of L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, ?-alanine, and in some samples (<20 mg/kg DM) of (S)-?-aminoisobutyric acid and (<10 mg/kg DM) L-allo-isoleucine. In one date fruit, traces of ?-aminoadipic acid could be determined. Enantiomeric analysis of 6 M DCl/D2O hydrolysates of AAs using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of very low amounts of D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Glu, D-Ser and D-Phe (1.2-0.4%, relative to the corresponding L-enantiomers), besides traces (0.2-1%) of other D-AAs. The possible relevance of non-proteinogenic amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed. PMID:24938763

Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

2014-09-01

121

Citric acid esters from fruit of Lonicera caerulea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compound (I) could be formed from the corresponding acid by methylation with diazomethane. The native nature of (I)was confirmed by its isolation from the initial unmethylated fraction after the elimination of citric acid from it with the use of AV-17 ion-exchange resin. The isolation of 7-oxologanin from plants of the genus Lonicera has not been reported previously.

E. V. Anikina; A. L. Vereshchagin; A. I. Syrchina; F. Larin; A. A. Semenov

1988-01-01

122

Use of organic acids and salts to control postharvest diseases of lemon fruits in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest diseases caused by Geotricum candidum (sour rot), Penicillium digitatum (green mould), and P. italicum (blue mould) are the most important negative factors affecting handling and marketing of citrus fruits in Egypt. The effect of organic acids (ascorbic, benzoic, citric and sorbic) as well as organic salts (potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate) were evaluated on the growth of causal agents

Nehal S. El-Mougy; Nadia G. El-Gamal; F. Abd-El-Kareem

2008-01-01

123

Ascorbic acid content in exotic fruits: A contribution to produce quality data for food composition databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble vitamin mainly present in fruits and vegetables. Food Composition Databases (FCDB) provide detailed information on nutritionally important components in foods. However, in some FCDB there is a significant lack of information on vitamin C content. The aim of this study is to produce new data for FCDB by measuring the AA content in 26

Ana Valente; Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque; Ana Sanches-Silva; Helena S. Costa

2011-01-01

124

Physiological and biochemical responses in peach fruit to oxalic acid treatment during storage at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and biochemical responses in peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) cv. ‘Bayuecui’ to two concentrations (1 and 5mM) of oxalic acid treatment were studied during storage at room temperature (25°C). Slower relative leakage rate, higher flesh firmness, lower respiration, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and a

Xiaolin Zheng; Shiping Tian; Xianghong Meng; Boqiang Li

2007-01-01

125

Fruit Acids do not Enhance Sodium Lauryl Sulphate-induced Cumulative Irritant Contact Dermatitis In vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry and the Catering Trade (BGN), Mannheim, Germany Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on 'tandem irritation', a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and

Sibylle Schliemann-Willers; Silke Fuchs; Peter Kleesz; Romano Grieshaber; Peter Elsner

2005-01-01

126

Determination of Tartaric Acid of Fruit Vinegars Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was investigated for the determination of tartaric acid of fruit vinegars. A total of 180 samples were prepared, and 135 samples were selected for the calibration set, whereas the remaining 45 samples for the validation set. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was the calibration method as well as extraction method for latent variables

Fei Liu; Li Wang; Yong He

2008-01-01

127

Evidence for Light-Stimulated Fatty Acid Synthesis in Soybean Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In leaves, the light reactions of photosynthesis support fatty acid synthesis but disagreement exists as to whether this occurs in green oilseeds. To address this question, simultaneous measurements of the rates of CO2 and O2 exchange (CER and OER, respectively) were made in soybean (Glycine max L.) fruits. The imbalance between CER and OER was used to estimate the diverted

Jennifer R. Willms; Christophe Salon; David B. Layzell

1999-01-01

128

Fatty Acid, Tocopherol and Sterol Compositions of Canadian Prairie Fruit Seed Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of four prairie fruits—chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), thorny buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Woods’ rose (Rosa woodsii) and hawthorn (Crataegus × mordenensis)—from Southern Alberta were investigated. The lipid contents of the seeds were found to be 10.4, 11.5, 3.7 and 3.4%, respectively.\\u000a The tested seed lipids contained mainly linoleic acid in the range from 27.9 to 65.6% and oleic acid from 19.7 to

Farooq Anwar; Roman Przybylski; Magdalena Rudzinska; Eliza Gruczynska; John Bain

2008-01-01

129

Controlling grey and blue mould diseases of apple fruits using acetic acid vapours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acetic acid vapours at three application times on grey and blue moulds on the incidence of apple fruits was studied. Acetic acid vapour at 6 µl\\/l caused complete inhibition of linear growth and spore germination of Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium sp. The most effective concentration was AA at 4 µl\\/l, which reduced spore germination and linear growth by more

Yehia Omar Fotouh

2009-01-01

130

Determination of organic acids in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with tandem-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem-mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) with triple quadrupole in selective reaction monitoring mode was developed to determine organic acids (glutamic, tartaric, quinic, malonic, malic, shikimic, ?-ketoglutaric, pyruvic, citric, succinic and fumaric acids) in fruits (melon, grape, peach, orange, lemon) and vegetables (green and red pepper, tomato, lettuce and lamb’s lettuce). The negative ion mode of

Pilar Flores; Pilar Hellín; José Fenoll

131

Effects of acidity of simulated rain on the fruiting of Summerred' apple trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of rain acidity on field-grown Summered apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) under natural conditions were investigated. One group of four trees was exposed to ambient rainfall. Four other groups were covered with rainshields and received water, pH 5.6, 4, and 3, respectively, as simulated rain. Simulated acid rain, particularly at pH 3, adversely affected fruit production in terms

Rinallo

2009-01-01

132

The role of abscisic acid in regulating cucumber fruit development and ripening and its transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a kind of fruit usually harvested at the immature green stage, belongs to non-climacteric fruit. To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) to cucumber fruit development and ripening, variation in ABA level was investigated and a peak in ABA level was found in pulp before fruit get fully ripe. To clarify this point further, exogenous ABA was applied to cucumber fruits at two different development stages. Results showed that ABA application at the turning stage promotes cucumber fruit ripening, while application at the immature green stage had inconspicuous effects. In addition, with the purpose of understanding the transcriptional regulation of ABA, two partial cDNAs of CsNCED1 and CsNCED2 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthetic pathway; one partial cDNA of CsCYP707A1 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA and two partial cDNAs of CsBG1 and CsBG2 for ?-glucosidase (BG) that hydrolyzes ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA were cloned from cucumber. The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of these obtained genes respectively showed high similarities to their homologous genes in other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ABA content may be regulated by its biosynthesis (CsNCEDs), catabolism (CsCYP707A1) and reactivation genes (CsBGs) at the transcriptional level during cucumber fruit development and ripening, in response to ABA application, dehydration and pollination, among which CsNCED1, CsCYP707A1 and CsBG1 were highly expressed in pulp and may play more important roles in regulating ABA metabolism. PMID:23376370

Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai; Dai, Shengjie; Hu, Ying; Sun, Liang; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Sun, Yufei; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Dian; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

2013-03-01

133

PROTECTION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM COPPER(II)–CATALYZED OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION IN THE PRESENCE OF FRUIT ACIDS: CITRIC, OXALIC, TARTARIC, MALIC, MALONIC AND FUMARIC ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid: AA) is sensitive to oxygen and heat, and can be degraded during unsuitable conditions of cooking and preservation methods of food. The nutritional quality of food may be adversely affected due to transition metal?catalyzed oxidative degradation of AA. The effect of Cu(II) complexes formed with protective organic acids widely found in fruits on the autoxidation of

Tu?ba Akb?y?k; ?nci Sönmezo?lu; Kubilay Güçlü; ?zzet Tor; Re?at Apak

2011-01-01

134

Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818 ?g/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2,070 ?g/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1,603 ?g/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10 ?g/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9 ?g/g extracts) and all-trans-?-carotene (4-6 ?g/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry. PMID:25038660

Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

2014-12-15

135

Chlorophenoxyacetic acid and chloropyridylphenylurea accelerate translocation of photoassimilates to parthenocarpic and seeded fruits of muskmelon (Cucumis melo).  

PubMed

We compared the effect of p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (p-CPA) and 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) on parthenocarpic and seeded muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruits in regards to fruit development and the transport of photoassimilates from leaves exposed to ¹?CO? to the developing fruits. Ten days after anthesis (DAA), the fresh weight, total ¹?C-radioactivity and contents of ¹?C-sucrose and ¹?C-fructose were higher in the CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits than in seeded fruits. However, at 35 DAA, fresh weight and sucrose content in mesocarp, placenta and empty seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower than in seeded fruits. Also, total ¹?C-radioactivity and ¹?C-sugar content of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower as well as the translocation rate of ¹?C-photoassimilates into these fruits. Application of p-CPA to the parthenocarpic fruits at 10 and 25 DAA increased fresh weight and sugar content. Moreover, these treatments elevated the total ¹?C-radioactivity, ¹?C-sucrose content and the translocation rate of ¹?C-photoassimilates. The ¹?C-radioactivity along the translocation pathway from leaf to petiole, stem, lateral shoot and peduncle showed a declining pattern but dramatically increased again in the fruits. These results suggest that the fruit's sink strength was regulated by the seed and enhanced by the application of p-CPA. PMID:21168241

Li, Xin-Xian; Kobayashi, Fumiyuki; Ikeura, Hiromi; Hayata, Yasuyoshi

2011-06-15

136

Dynamics of fatty-acid composition of neutral acylglycerols in maturing euonymus fruits.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of neutral acylglycerols (NAGs) composed of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAGs) and 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acDAGs) was determined in the fruit seeds and arils of three Euonymus L. species at three stages of their maturity. The NAG composition comprised 29 FAs, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and ?-linolenic acids being predominant. Noticeable amounts of other FAs, such as lauric, myristic, hexadec-9-enoic, stearic, (Z)-vaccenic, and arachidic acid, etc., could also be present. In the course of maturation, the qualitative composition of major FAs remained nearly unchanged, while the unsaturation index of FAs in seeds and in TAGs, as well as, but to a lesser extent, in arils and in acDAGs, respectively, always decreased. This decline was brought about by a sharp fall of the ?-linolenate level, a decrease of the linoleate content, and a corresponding rise in the oleate content. It is suggested that, in both seeds and arils, both classes of NAGs were formed at the expense of the same FA pool; the quantitative composition of this pool was characteristic of a given fruit part and strongly changed during maturation. The accumulation of TAGs in E. europaeus fruits was accompanied by a conversion of hexadec-9-enoic acid into (Z)-vaccenic acid via the C2 -elongation reaction. PMID:24706628

Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

2014-04-01

137

Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.  

PubMed

In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease. PMID:24562629

Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

2014-06-01

138

Supplemental Foliar Potassium Applications during Muskmelon Fruit Development Can Improve Fruit Quality, Ascorbic Acid, and Beta-carotene Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group)) fruit sugar content is directly related to potassium (K)- mediated phloem transport of sucrose into the fruit. However, during fruit growth and maturation, soil fertilization alone is often inadequate (due to poor root uptake and competitive uptake inhibition from calcium and magnesium) to satisfy the numerous K-dependent processes, such as photosynthesis, phloem transport, and

Gene E. Lester; John L. Jifon; Gordon Rogers

139

Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.  

PubMed

The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8?g/100?g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9?g/100?g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7?g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets. PMID:23539474

Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

2013-12-01

140

Purification, properties and partial amino-acid sequence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase from apple fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme which converts 1-aminocyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) into ethylene, ACC oxidase, has been isolated from apple fruits (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv. Golden Delicious), and for the first time stabilized in vitro by 1,10-phenanthroline and purified 170-fold to homogeneity in a five-step procedure. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured and native proteins have similar molecular weights (approx. 40 kDa) indicating that the

Eve Dupille; César Rombaldi; Jean-Marc Lelièvre; Jean-Claude Cleyet-Marel; Jean-Claude Pech; Alain Latché

1993-01-01

141

Effects of Fermented Fruits on Growth Performance, Shedding of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactic Acid Bacteria and Plasma Cholesterol in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented fruits (FF), a product of fruits undergo a process of fermentation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of FF as additive on production performance, faecal Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts and plasma cholesterol in rats. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley (4 weeks of age) male rats were assigned

2003-01-01

142

Effect of fruit on net acid and urinary calcium excretion in an acute feeding trial of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveConsumption of fruits and vegetables has been implicated in lowering net acid excretion (NAE), but few studies have directly examined NAE and urinary calcium effects. Further, there is no evidence that only fresh fruits and vegetables must be consumed for a beneficial effect on bone.

Janet Amy Bell; Susan Joyce Whiting

2004-01-01

143

Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars  

PubMed Central

Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA) pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate) and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’) or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’), depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1), and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3) correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’), alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may supplement biosynthesis via L-galactose, while in the high-AsA cultivar (‘Santorini’), enhanced AsA recycling activities appear to be responsible for AsA accumulation in the later stages of ripening. Gene expression studies indicate that expression of SlGGP1 and two orthologues of SlMDHAR are closely correlated with totAsA-AsA concentrations during ripening and are potentially good candidates for marker development for breeding and selection. PMID:23245200

2012-01-01

144

Variation in the contents of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and three quercetin glycosides in leaves and fruits of Rowan (Sorbus) species and varieties from collections in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Our research aim was to investigate the quantitative composition of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin in leaves and fruit of introduced rowan plants to Lithuania using a HPLC method. In leaf and fruit samples, quantitative estimation of neochlorogenic acid (in leaf samples 1.11-11.49 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.93-5.43 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (in leaf samples 2.74-21.91 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.55-7.50 mg/g), rutin (in leaf samples 0.03-4.88 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-0.39 mg/g), hyperoside (in leaf samples 0.15-7.44 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-1.19 mg/g) and isoquercitrin (in leaf samples 0.75-5.24 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-0.65 mg/g) was performed. In leaf samples, the total content of identified phenolic compounds ranged from 7.18 to 35.74 mg/g. In fruit, raw material total content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and identified flavonoids varied from 2.24 to 11.19 mg/g. Comparison of raw material samples of Sorbus species according to their quantitative composition of identified phenolic compounds using cluster analysis singularized S. commixta leaf and fruit samples. These contained the highest contents of chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and isoquercitrin, but also the lowest contents of neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The highest contents of neochlorogenic acid were recorded for S. lancifolia leaves, and of rutin for S. anglica leaves. PMID:24079179

Gaivelyte, Kristina; Jakstas, Valdas; Razukas, Almantas; Janulis, Valdimaras

2013-08-01

145

Evidence for 1-(Malonylamino)cyclopropane-1Carboxylic Acid Being the Major Conjugate of Aminocyclopropane-1- Carboxylic Acid in Tomato Fruit1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) fruit discs fed with (2,3-14C)1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) formed 1-malonyl-ACC (MACC) as the major conjugate of ACC in fruit throughout all ripening stages, from immature-green through the red-ripe stage. Another conjugate of ACC, g-glutamyl-ACC (GACC), was formed only in mature-green fruit in an amount about 10% of that of MACC; conjugation of ACC into GACC was not

Galen Peiser; Shang Fa Yang

146

Immunocytolocalization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in tomato and apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcellular localization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACC oxidase), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene, has been studied in ripening fruits of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.). Two types of antibody have been raised against (i) a synthetic peptide derived from the reconstructed pTOM13 clone (pRC13), a tomato cDNA encoding ACC oxidase, and considered as a suitable epitope by

Cesar Rombaldi; Jean-Marc Lelièvre; Alain Latché; Michel Petitprez; Mondher Bouzayen; Jean-Claude Pech

1994-01-01

147

Flowering and fruiting in ‘Patterson’ apricot ( Prunus armeniaca) in response to postharvest application of gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July or August of 1988 and 1989 which was approximately 2 or 6 weeks, respectively, after fruit harvest, cultivar ‘Patterson’ apricot (Prunus armeniaca) trees were sprayed with a single spray of either 10, 50 or 100 p.p.m. gibberellic acid (gibberellin A3, GA). GA sprays of 100 p.p.m. applied in early July reduced flower number per centimeter of limb length

Stephen M. Southwick; James T. Yeager; Hong Zhou

1995-01-01

148

Flavonoids, sugars and fruit acids of alpine bearberry ( Arctostaphylos alpina) from Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine bearberry (Arctostaphylos alpina L.) is a special circumpolar edible berry primarily used for household purposes but with greater potential in commercial applications than utilized thus far. In this study, the flavonoids of alpine bearberry were investigated with HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS, and the sugars and fruit acids as trimethylsilyl derivates with GC-FID. The most abundant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-O-galactoside accounting for

Kaisa Linderborg; Oskar Laaksonen; Heikki Kallio; Baoru Yang

2011-01-01

149

Soluble Solids, Acidity, Canopy Fruit Distribution, and Disease Susceptibility of Selected Grape Cultivars in Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty grapevine genotypes (‘Chancellor’, ‘Delisle’, ‘ES-6–12–28’, ‘ES-4–7–25’, ‘GR-7’, ‘Hibernal’, ‘Sabrevois’, ‘Kay Gray’, ‘Lucie Kuhlmann’, ‘Michurinetz’, ‘Okanagan Riesling’, ‘Prairie Star’, ‘St. Croix’, ‘St. Pepin’, ‘Seyval Noir’, ‘Seyval Blanc’, ‘SV-18–307’, ‘Vandal-Cliche’, ‘Vidal Blanc’, and ‘Siegerrebe’) were evaluated under different winter protection methods in Frelighsburg, Quebec, Canada. The effects of these methods on soluble solids, acidity, fruit canopy distribution, and susceptibility to diseases

Shahrokh Khanizadeh; Djamila Rekika; Laetitia Porgès; Audrey Levasseur; Yvon Groleau; Helen Fisher

2008-01-01

150

New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum.  

PubMed

Fruit of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena, Solanum aethiopicum, and Solanum macrocarpon, and wild relatives including Solanum anguivi and Solanum incanum, have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with potential human health benefits. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. By contrast, fruit from accession PI 319855 in the USDA eggplant core collection, unambiguously identified as Solanum viarum by morphological characters, were found to include several major, closely related hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with much longer C18-HPLC retention times than those of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid and other monocaffeoylquinic acid isomers. Four of these compounds were isolated from methanolic extracts of lyophilized fruit tissues by C18-HPLC, and structurally elucidated using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-TOF-MS. Isomeric compounds 1 and 2 are composed of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid with a malonyl group on the 3- or 4-hydroxyl of quinic acid, respectively, plus a 6-O-sinapoylglucose group 1-O-?-D linked with the 4-hydroxyl on the phenyl ring of the caffeoyl moiety (1?,4?-dihydroxy-3?-carboxyacetoxy- and 1?,3?-dihydroxy-4?-carboxyacetoxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 3 has the same structure as 1 and 2 without malonation of quinic acid (1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 4 differs from 3 by methylation of the carboxyl group on quinic acid (methyl 1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylate). Some features of these four new compounds, such as malonation and the specific linkages between caffeoyl, glucosyl, and sinapoyl moieties, are common in acylated and glycosylated phenylpropanoids, but have not previously been reported in complex derivatives of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. PMID:20886887

Ma, Chunhui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

2010-10-27

151

Fatty acids, sterols, phenols and antioxidant activity of Phoenix theophrasti fruits growing in Crete, Greece.  

PubMed

In the present study we report the chemical composition of the Cretan Phoenix theophrasti Gr. fruits, in comparison with dates, from its close relative Phoenix dactylifera L. for their nutritional value and their potential exploitation as a source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, lipids and polyphenols. The non polar dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) extract of the fruits was analysed by several techniques (TLC, CC, GC and GC-MS) and was found to consist mainly from fatty acids, hydrocarbons and phytosterols. Palmitic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, 12.49% of total saponifiables, while beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, 29.46% of total unsaponifiable lipid fraction. The polar methanolic extract was examined for its total phenolic content, by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, as well as for its antioxidant activity through DPPH assay, in comparison with previous studies on the fruits of several Phoenix dactylifera varieties. This fraction was found to possess strong antioxidant activity despite its lower content of phenolic compounds in comparison with previously studied Phoenix dactylifera specimens. PMID:19030994

Liolios, C C; Sotiroudis, G T; Chinou, I

2009-03-01

152

A novel gene, screened by cDNA-AFLP approach, contributes to lowering the acidity of fruit in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA-AFLP, coupled with bulked segregant analysis (BSA), was used to screen genes expressed differently between low- and high-acid apple fruits from hybrids of ‘Toko’בFuji’ (Malus×domestica Borkh.). Sixty-four combinations of AFLP primers produced 2240 fragments, of which only one showed different expression between low- and high-acid fruits. The specific fragment was cloned and sequenced, and the complete cDNA was achieved by

Yu-Xin Yao; Ming Li; Zhi Liu; Yu-Jin Hao; Heng Zhai

2007-01-01

153

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using  

E-print Network

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology Eloi´sa Rovaris Pinheiro a , Iolanda M to optimize the extraction of pectin with citric acid. The independent variables were citric acid

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

154

The genetic architecture of branched-chain amino acid accumulation in tomato fruits  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of the genetic architecture of fruit metabolic composition have allowed us to identify four strongly conserved co-ordinate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). This study has been extended here to encompass the other 23 enzymes described to be involved in the pathways of BCAA synthesis and degradation. On coarse mapping the chromosomal location of these enzymes, it was possible to define the map position of 24 genes. Of these genes eight co-localized, or mapped close to BCAA QTL including those encoding ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD), and isopropylmalate dehydratase (IPMD). Quantitative evaluation of the expression levels of these genes revealed that the S. pennellii allele of IPMD demonstrated changes in the expression level of this gene, whereas those of KARI and DHAD were invariant across the genotypes. Whilst the antisense inhibition of IPMD resulted in increased BCAA, the antisense inhibition of neither KARI nor DHAD produced a clear effect in fruit BCAA contents. The results are discussed both with respect to the roles of these specific enzymes within plant amino acid metabolism and within the context of current understanding of the regulation of plant branched-chain amino acid metabolism. PMID:21436187

Kochevenko, Andrej; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2011-01-01

155

Circulating salicylic acid and metabolic and inflammatory responses after fruit ingestion.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that fruit ingestion provides measurable amounts of salicylic acid (SA) and produces different metabolic and inflammatory responses compared to mere fruit sugars. In a randomized-crossover study, 26 healthy subjects received a peach shake meal (PSM) (SA: 0,06?±?0,001 mg/100 g) and a mixed sugar meal (MSM), consisting in an aqueous solution with the same sugars found in the peach shake. In order to control for the SA contribution from meals in the previous day, 16 subjects (Group 1) abstained from fruits and vegetables consumption the evening before trials, and 10 subjects (Group 2) maintained their usual diet. Circulating SA, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, and interleukin-6 were determined. Basal SA was lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (0.09?±?0.02 vs. 0.30?±?0.03 ?mol/l, p?acids decreased more (p?fruit intake increases the concentration of SA in vivo, and provides non-nutrients capable to modulate the inflammatory and metabolic responses to carbohydrates. PMID:22392497

Rinelli, Samuele; Spadafranca, Angela; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Cocucci, Maurizio; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto

2012-03-01

156

Effect of Acetic Acid on the Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been established by earlier investigators that acetic acid has a destructive effect on the ascorbic acid in raw cabbage. This effect is somewhat surprising, since the lower the pH in the medium, the more stable is the ascorbic acid and, therefore, one would expect the acetic acid to have a preservative effect on the ascorbic acid in cabbage.

F. Alm

1952-01-01

157

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  

PubMed

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

158

Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from delta-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits  

SciTech Connect

A new pathway for ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) biosynthesis, which utilizes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production to 232% of the control. The C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and radioactivity from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO/sub 2/ but not in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/. However, radioactivity from (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in CO/sub 2/, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ showed any radioactivity when (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA or (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and ACC.

El-Rayes, D.E.D.A.

1987-01-01

159

Identification of bioaccessible and uptaken phenolic compounds from strawberry fruits in in vitro digestion/Caco-2 absorption model.  

PubMed

Strawberry fruits are highly valued for their taste and nutritional value. However, results describing the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds from strawberries are still scarce. In our study, a combined in vitro digestion/Caco-2 absorption model was used to mimic physiological conditions in the gastrointestinal track and identify compounds transported across intestinal epithelium. In the course of digestion, the loss of anthocyanins was noted whilst pelargonidin-3-glucoside remained the most abundant compound, amounting to nearly 12mg per 100g of digested strawberries. Digestion increased the amount of ellagic acid available by nearly 50%, probably due to decomposition of ellagitannins. Only trace amounts of pelargonidin-3-glucoside were found to be absorbed in the intestine model. Dihydrocoumaric acid sulphate and p-coumaric acid were identified as metabolites formed in enterocytes and released at the serosal side of the model. PMID:25306347

Kosi?ska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Diering, Sascha; Prim, Denis; Andlauer, Wilfried

2015-03-01

160

Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).  

PubMed

Sweet melon cultivars contain a low level of organic acids and, therefore, the quality and flavor of sweet melon fruit is determined almost exclusively by fruit sugar content. However, genetic variability for fruit acid levels in the Cucumis melo species exists and sour fruit accessions are characterized by acidic fruit pH of <5, compared to the sweet cultivars that are generally characterized by mature fruit pH values of >6. In this paper, we report results from a mapping population based on recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the non-sour 'Dulce' variety and the sour PI 414323 accession. Results show that a single major QTL for pH co-localizes with major QTLs for the two predominant organic acids in melon fruit, citric and malic, together with an additional metabolite which we identified as uridine. While the acidic recombinants were characterized by higher citric and malic acid levels, the non-acidic recombinants had a higher uridine content than did the acidic recombinants. Additional minor QTLs for pH, citric acid and malic acid were also identified and for these the increased acidity was unexpectedly contributed by the non-sour parent. To test for co-localization of these QTLs with genes encoding organic acid metabolism and transport, we mapped the genes encoding structural enzymes and proteins involved in organic acid metabolism, transport and vacuolar H+ pumps. None of these genes co-localized with the major pH QTL, indicating that the gene determining melon fruit pH is not one of the candidate genes encoding this primary metabolic pathway. Linked markers were tested in two additional inter-varietal populations and shown to be linked to the pH trait. The presence of the same QTL in such diverse segregating populations suggests that the trait is determined throughout the species by variability in the same gene and is indicative of a major role of the evolution of this gene in determining the important domestication trait of fruit acidity within the species. PMID:22406955

Cohen, S; Tzuri, G; Harel-Beja, R; Itkin, M; Portnoy, V; Sa'ar, U; Lev, S; Yeselson, L; Petrikov, M; Rogachev, I; Aharoni, A; Ophir, R; Tadmor, Y; Lewinsohn, E; Burger, Y; Katzir, N; Schaffer, A A

2012-07-01

161

Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds  

PubMed Central

Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2014-01-01

162

Protein glycation inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.  

PubMed

To characterize active principles for prevention and treatment of diabetic complications, the isolation of protein glycation inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus was conducted in vitro using the model systems of hemoglobin-delta-gluconolactone (early stage), bovine serum albumin-methylglyoxal (middle stage), and N(alpha)-acetyl-glycyl-lysine methyl ester-D-ribose (last stage) assays. Nine compounds were isolated from the active ethylacetate fraction of the fruiting body and identified as protocatechuic acid (1), protocatechualdehyde (2), caffeic acid (3), ellagic acid (4), hispidin (5), davallialactone (6), hypholomine B (7), interfungins A (8), and inoscavin A (9) by spectroscopic analyses. At the early stage of protein glycation, compounds 6, 8, and 9 exhibited inhibitory activity on hemoglobin A(1C) formation. For the middle stage, compounds 2, 6, and 9 showed a significant inhibitory effect on methylglyoxal-medicated protein modification and their IC(50) values were 144.28, 213.15, and 158.66 muM, respectively. At the last stage of glycation, compound 8 was found to be a potent inhibitor of the cross-linking of proteins, which was more effective than that of aminoguanidine, a well-known inhibitor for advanced glycation end products. Consequently, compound 8 showed the most potent inhibitory effects at each stage of protein glycation. This mechanism may help to provide a protective effect against hyperglycemia-mediated protein damage. PMID:18827365

Lee, Yeon Sil; Kang, Young-Hee; Jung, Ju-Young; Lee, Sanghyun; Ohuchi, Kazuo; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Kang, Il-Jun; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Lim, Soon Sung

2008-10-01

163

Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.  

PubMed

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

2014-11-01

164

Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit  

PubMed Central

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

2014-01-01

165

Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of decay. In both species the weight loss was not affected by the treatments. These results show that a good control of postharvest decay could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining the effect of a GRAS compound such as AAC with curing. Conversely the results obtained, by applying this control method to the orange variety were not so promising. Further researches are needed to shed light on the different behaviour between the two species. PMID:20222556

Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

2009-01-01

166

The arbuscular mycorrhizal status has an impact on the transcriptome profile and amino acid composition of tomato fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is the most widespread association between plant roots and fungi in natural and agricultural ecosystems. This work investigated the influence of mycorrhization on the economically relevant part of the tomato plant, by analyzing its impact on the physiology of the fruit. To this aim, a combination of phenological observations, transcriptomics (Microarrays and qRT-PCR) and biochemical analyses was used to unravel the changes that occur on fruits from Micro-Tom tomato plants colonized by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. Results Mycorrhization accelerated the flowering and fruit development and increased the fruit yield. Eleven transcripts were differentially regulated in the fruit upon mycorrhization, and the mycorrhiza-responsive genes resulted to be involved in nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in regulation and signal transduction. Mycorrhization has increased the amino acid abundance in the fruit from mycorrhizal plants, with glutamine and asparagine being the most responsive amino acids. Conclusions The obtained results offer novel data on the systemic changes that are induced by the establishment of AM symbiosis in the plant, and confirm the work hypothesis that AM fungi may extend their influence from the root to the fruit. PMID:22452950

2012-01-01

167

Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

2013-11-01

168

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

PubMed

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

169

Influence of 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine hydrochloride and ?-naphthalene acetic acid on fruit retention, quality, evolved ethylene, and respiration in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine hydrochloride (AVG or Aviglycine HCl or ReTain) and ?- naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on fruit retention, fruit quality, eveloved ethylene, and respiration in 'Rome Beauty' and three 'Delicious' apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.) were studied. The experimental trees were treated with either AVG, applied at 120 g a.i. per 935 L. ha-1 or NAA, applied at the

E. Fallahi

170

Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cul- tivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, includ- ing effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net

Erick De la Barrera; Park S. Nobel

2010-01-01

171

Enhancement of Postharvest Disease Resistance in Ya Li Pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri ) Fruit by Salicylic Acid Sprays on the Trees during Fruit Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ya Li pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) trees were sprayed three times with 2.5 mM salicylic acid (SA) around 30, 60 and 90 days after full flowering. The fruit\\u000a were harvested at commercial maturity (about 120 days after full flowering), inoculated with Penicillium expansum, and incubated at 20 °C, 95–100% RH. The results showed that resistance to the pathogen of the

Jiankang Cao; Kaifang Zeng; Weibo Jiang

2006-01-01

172

Sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in wild Chinese sea buckthorn ( Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) with special reference to influence of latitude and altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild berries of Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis were collected from nine natural growth sites in China in three consecutive years in order to get an overall profile of the sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid, and especially of the influence of the latitude and altitude of the growth place on these components. The contents of fructose, glucose, and

Jie Zheng; Heikki Kallio; Kaisa Linderborg; Baoru Yang

2011-01-01

173

Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits  

PubMed Central

Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH? IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 ?g/ml) to inactive (389 ?g/ml). PMID:21340048

Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.

2010-01-01

174

Healing Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistacia atlantica and lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistacia atlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220±20 g) were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%). Group 1 (Asacol), group 2 (base gel) and group 7 (without treatment) were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml) and group 4 (600 mg/ml) received Pistacia atlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel) and group 6 (20% gel) received Pistacia atlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results: All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001). Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54)=76.61, P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the mean±SD score of Asacol treated group (1.57±0.045) was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.62±0.024) and 6 (1.58±0.028). Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis.

Tanideh, Nader; Masoumi, Samira; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Erjaee, Hoda; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Rahimikazerooni, Salar

2014-01-01

175

Metabolic Engineering of Tomato Fruit Organic Acid Content Guided by Biochemical Analysis of an Introgression Line1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Organic acid content is regarded as one of the most important quality traits of fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the complexity of carboxylic acid metabolism and storage means that it is difficult to predict the best way to engineer altered carboxylic acid levels. Here, we used a biochemical analysis of a tomato introgression line with increased levels of fruit citrate and malate at breaker stage to identify a metabolic engineering target that was subsequently tested in transgenic plants. Increased carboxylic acid levels in introgression line 2-5 were not accompanied by changes in the pattern of carbohydrate oxidation by pericarp discs or the catalytic capacity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes measured in isolated mitochondria. However, there was a significant decrease in the maximum catalytic activity of aconitase in total tissue extracts, suggesting that a cytosolic isoform of aconitase was affected. To test the role of cytosolic aconitase in controlling fruit citrate levels, we analyzed fruit of transgenic lines expressing an antisense construct against SlAco3b, one of the two tomato genes encoding aconitase. A green fluorescent protein fusion of SlAco3b was dual targeted to cytosol and mitochondria, while the other aconitase, SlAco3a, was exclusively mitochondrial when transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Both aconitase transcripts were decreased in fruit from transgenic lines, and aconitase activity was reduced by about 30% in the transgenic lines. Other measured enzymes of carboxylic acid metabolism were not significantly altered. Both citrate and malate levels were increased in ripe fruit of the transgenic plants, and as a consequence, total carboxylic acid content was increased by 50% at maturity. PMID:23166354

Morgan, Megan J.; Osorio, Sonia; Gehl, Bernadette; Baxter, Charles J.; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Sweetlove, Lee J.

2013-01-01

176

Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

2014-09-01

177

Linked dominant alleles or inter-locus interaction results in a major shift in pomegranate fruit acidity of ‘Ganesh’ × ‘Kabul Yellow’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Inheritance of fruit acidity in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) was studied in 3 sweet or low acid (‘Ganesh’, ‘Ruby’ and ‘Kabul Yellow’) and 3 sour or high acid (‘Nana’, ‘Daru’ and\\u000a ‘Double Flower’) varieties and their progenies. The F1 and F2 data of ‘Ganesh’ × ‘Nana’ showed that fruit acidity is monogenically controlled and the sour nature is dominant over sweet.\\u000a Further,

S. H. Jalikop

2007-01-01

178

Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4. PMID:23709290

Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

2013-08-01

179

Phytonutrient intakes in relation to European fruit and vegetable consumption patterns observed in different food surveys.  

PubMed

Fruit and vegetables make an important contribution to health, partly due to the composition of phytonutrients, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of fruit and vegetables across different European countries using food consumption data of increasing complexity: food balance sheets (FBS); the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive Database; individual food consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Across Europe, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables ranged from 192 to 824 g/d (FBS data). Based on EFSA data, nine out of fourteen countries consumed < 400 g/d (recommended by the WHO), although even in the highest-consuming countries such as Spain, 36 % did not reach the target intake. In the UK, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables was 310 g/d (NDNS data). Generally, phytonutrient intake increased in accordance with fruit and vegetable intake across all European countries with the exception of lycopene (from tomatoes), which appeared to be higher in some countries that consumed less fruit and vegetables. There were little differences in the average intake of flavanols, flavonols and lycopene in those who did or did not meet the 400 g/d recommendation in the UK. However, average intakes of carotenoid, flavanone, anthocyanidin and ellagic acid were higher in those who consumed >400 g/d of fruit and vegetables compared with those who did not. Overall, intakes of phytonutrients are highly variable, suggesting that while some individuals obtain healthful amounts, there may be others who do not gain all the potential benefits associated with phytonutrients in the diet. PMID:25108299

Tennant, David R; Davidson, Julia; Day, Andrea J

2014-10-01

180

Abscisic Acid Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Strawberry Fruit Ripening1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in fruit development, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking. Here, we report that ABA promotes strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit ripening. Using a newly established Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing technique in strawberry fruit, the expression of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene (FaNCED1), which is key to ABA biosynthesis, was down-regulated, resulting in a significant decrease in ABA levels and uncolored fruits. Interestingly, a similar uncolored phenotype was observed in the transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) fruits, in which the expression of a putative ABA receptor gene encoding the magnesium chelatase H subunit (FaCHLH/ABAR) was down-regulated by virus-induced gene silencing. More importantly, the uncolored phenotype of the FaNCED1-down-regulated RNAi fruits could be rescued by exogenous ABA, but the ABA treatment could not reverse the uncolored phenotype of the FaCHLH/ABAR-down-regulated RNAi fruits. We observed that down-regulation of the FaCHLH/ABAR gene in the RNAi fruit altered both ABA levels and sugar content as well as a set of ABA- and/or sugar-responsive genes. Additionally, we showed that exogenous sugars, particularly sucrose, can significantly promote ripening while stimulating ABA accumulation. These data provide evidence that ABA is a signal molecule that promotes strawberry ripening and that the putative ABA receptor, FaCHLH/ABAR, is a positive regulator of ripening in response to ABA. PMID:21734113

Jia, Hai-Feng; Chai, Ye-Mao; Li, Chun-Li; Lu, Dong; Luo, Jing-Jing; Qin, Ling; Shen, Yuan-Yue

2011-01-01

181

Compositional Variation in Sugars and Organic Acids at Different Maturity Stages in Selected Small Fruits from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Selected soluble sugars and organic acids were analyzed in strawberry, sweet cherry, and mulberry fruits at different ripening stages by HPLC. The amounts of fructose, glucose and sucrose were found to be: strawberry (1.79–2.86, 1.79–2.25 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g FW), sweet cherry (0.76–2.35, 0.22–3.39 and 0.03–0.13 g/100 g) and mulberry (3.07–9.41, 1.53–4.95 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g) at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. The strawberry, sweet cherry and mulberry mainly contained tartaric, citric and ascorbic acids in the range of 16–55, 70–1934 and 11–132 mg/100 g; 2–8, 2–10 and 10–17 mg/100 g; 2–118, 139–987 and 2–305 mg/100 g at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. Fructose and glucose were established to be the major sugars in all the tested fruit while citric and ascorbic acid were the predominant organic acids in strawberry and mulberry while tartaric acid was mainly present in sweet cherry. The tested fruits mostly showed an increase in the concentration of sugars and organic acids with ripening. PMID:22408396

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Boyce, Mary C.; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

182

The biosynthetic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid changes during tomato fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytohormone metabolism during fruit ripening is critical to the controlof this developmental process, yet we know little about pathways for theproduction of many of these signaling compounds. Using stable isotope labelingin both an in vitro aseptic tomato fruit culture systemanddetached greenhouse-grown tomato fruit, we have shown by mass spectral analysisthat tomato uses the tryptophan-independent pathway to produce IAA fromanthranilate or

Ephraim Epstein; Jerry D. Cohen; Janet P. Slovin

2002-01-01

183

Utilization of fluorogenic assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in acidic fruit juice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate interference by acids commonly found in fruit juice in Escherichia coli assays involving the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme reaction. Fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated (P < 0.001) with the volume of fresh citrus juice tested by the lauryl tryptose broth (LST)-MUG assay, and the permissible sample sizes were limited to 0.3 and 0.5 ml for fresh citrus juices with pHs of 3.3 and 3.9, respectively. In addition, false-negative results were visually observed under UV light when the E*Colite assay was used to test large volumes (5 to 10 ml per test) of fresh citrus juice or when the test broth used for the LST-MUG assay was supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acid at 2 to 4 g/liter. These results suggest that the size and pH of acidic samples should be controlled in MUG-based fluorogenic assays. The inhibitory effect on fluorescence was due to high acidity, which reduces fluorescence from 4-methylumbelliferone. Buffering improved the assays. When sodium bicarbonate was incorporated in the enrichment broth at 10 g/liter, the permissible sample sizes for fresh grapefruit juice (pH 3.1) increased from 0.3 to 1 ml for the LST-MUG (with 9.9 ml of broth) assay and from 3 to 10 ml for the E*Colite (with 99 ml of broth) assay. PMID:12495014

Pao, Steven; Davis, Craig L; Friedrich, Loretta M; Parish, Mickey E

2002-12-01

184

Effect of fruit load on 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA), GA and jasmonic acid concentrations in apple buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA), GAs and jasmonic acid (JA) and flower bud formation influenced by fruit load in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) was investigated. The endogenous KODA and JA concentrations in apical buds in plants subjected to flower thinning treatment (FTT), under which all flowers were removed were higher than those in plants subjected to heavy crop treatment

M. Kittikorn; N. Shiraishi; K. Okawa; H. Ohara; M. Yokoyama; O. Ifuku; S. Yoshida; S. Kondo

2010-01-01

185

High-Speed Separation of Oleanolic acid and Ursolic acid from the Fruit of Ligustrum Lucidum ait and Crataegus by Cyclodextrin-Modified Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) technique for determining oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait and Crataegus was developed. The two bio-active components were successfully separated within 4 minutes using a pH 8.5 sodium borate buffer containing 60mM SDS and 2mM ?-CD. The correlation coefficients of the linear calibration graphs for the analyses exceeded

Yanan Hu; Yiming Wang; Guoan Luo; Wei Wei

2000-01-01

186

Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition. PMID:19348424

Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel

2009-05-27

187

Discrimination of fresh fruit juices by a fluorescent sensor array for carboxylic acids based on molecularly imprinted titania.  

PubMed

Design of chemical sensor arrays that can discriminate real-world samples has been highly attractive in recent years. Herein a fluorescent indicator-displacement sensor array for discrimination of fresh fruit juices was developed. By coupling the unique high affinity of titania to electron-donating anions and the cross-reactivity of molecularly imprinted materials to structurally similar species, a small array was fabricated using only one rhodamine-based fluorescent dye and three synthesized materials. Citric, malic, succinic and tartaric acids were chosen as indices. The recognition mechanism was investigated by spectrofluorimetric titration using a non-linear Langmuir-type adsorption model. The proposed method was applied to discriminate thirteen fruit juices through their carboxylic acid contents. Principal component analysis of the data clearly grouped the thirteen juices with the first principal component owning 98.2% of the total variation. The comparison of the sensor array with HPLC determination of the carboxylic acids was finally made. PMID:25038646

Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao

2014-12-15

188

Effect of the maturation process on the phenolic fractions, fatty acids, and antioxidant activity of the Chétoui olive fruit cultivar.  

PubMed

Maturity is one of the most important factors associated with the quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables. This work aims to investigate the effect of the maturation process of the olive fruit on the phenolic fraction and fatty acid of irrigated Chétoui cultivar. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by LC-MS and GC-MS analyses and fatty acids by GC. Oleuropein was the major phenolic compound at all stages of ripeness. Unexpectedly, both phenolic compounds hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein exhibited the same trends during maturation. Indeed, the oleuropein levels decreased during the ripening process and were not inversely correlated with the concentrations of hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was evaluated by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the beta-carotene linoleate model system. The IC 50 and AAC values of the olive extracts decreased from 3.68 to 1.61 microg/mL and from 645 to 431, respectively. There was a correlation between the antioxidant activity and the oleuropein concentration. The fatty acid composition was quantified in olive fruit during maturation and showed that fatty acids were characterized by the highest level of oleic acid, which reached 65.2%. PMID:18257524

Damak, Nahla; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ayadi, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Damak, Mohamed

2008-03-12

189

Calcium partitioning and allocation and blossom-end rot development in tomato plants in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid treatments  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as well as to analyse the effect of changes in Ca2+ partitioning and allocation on fruit susceptibility to the Ca2+ deficiency disorder blossom-end rot (BER) under water stress conditions. Tomato plants of the cultivar Ace 55 (Vf) were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to low Ca2+ conditions during fruit growth and development. Starting 1 day after pollination (DAP), the following treatments were initiated: (i) whole plants were sprayed weekly with deionized water (control) or (ii) with 500mg l?1 ABA; or fruit on each plant were dipped weekly (iii) in deionized water (control) or (iv) in 500mg l?1 ABA. At 15 DAP, BER was completely prevented by whole-plant or fruit-specific ABA treatments, whereas plants or fruit treated with water had 16–19% BER incidence. At 30 DAP, BER was prevented by the whole-plant ABA treatment, whereas fruit dipped in ABA had a 16% and water-treated plants or fruit had a 36–40% incidence of BER. The results showed that spraying the whole plant with ABA increases xylem sap flow and Ca2+ movement into the fruit, resulting in higher fruit tissue and water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations that prevent BER development. Although fruit-specific ABA treatment had no effect on xylem sap flow rates or Ca2+ movement into the fruit, it increased fruit tissue water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations and reduced fruit susceptibility to BER to a lesser extent. PMID:24220654

Tonetto de Freitas, Sergio

2014-01-01

190

Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC. PMID:19679456

Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C

2010-05-01

191

Sugar, Non-volatile and Phenolic Acids Composition of Strawberry Tree ( Arbutus unedo L. var. ellipsoidea ) Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using GC-MS, phenolic and non-volatile acids and soluble sugars were identified and quantified in strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits. The phenolic acids quantified were gallic (10.7 mg\\/g dry weight), gentisic (1.9 mg\\/g), protocatechuic (0.6 mg\\/g), p -hydroxybenzoic (0.3 mg\\/g), vanillic (0.12 mg\\/g) and m -anisic (0.05 mg\\/g). From the group of non-volatile acids, fumaric (1.94 mg\\/g dry weight), lactic

F. A. Ayaz; M. Kucukislamoglu; M. Reunanen

2000-01-01

192

Uptake and desorption of nickel(II) using polymerised tamarind fruit shell with acidic functional groups in aqueous environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption potential of formaldehyde polymerised tamarind fruit shell (FPTFS) containing acidic functional groups for the treatment of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The adsorbent was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Operating parameters affecting Ni(II) adsorption were investigated by the batch technique. Maximum Ni(II) sorption was found to occur at an initial pH of

T. S. Anirudhan; P. G. Radhakrishnan

2010-01-01

193

Caffeic acid as active principle from the fruit of Xanthium strumarium to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The antihyperglycemic effect of caffeic acid, one of the phenolic compounds contained in the fruit of Xanthium strumarium, was investigated. After an intravenous injection of caffeic acid into diabetic rats of both streptozotocin-induced and insulin-resistant models, a dose-dependent decrease of plasma glucose was observed. However, a similar effect was not produced in normal rats. An insulin-independent action of caffeic acid can thus be considered. Otherwise, this compound reduced the elevation of plasma glucose level in insulin-resistant rats receiving a glucose challenge test. Also, glucose uptake into the isolated adipocytes was raised by caffeic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. Increase of glucose utilization by caffeic acid seems to be responsible for the lowering of plasma glucose. PMID:10821047

Hsu, F L; Chen, Y C; Cheng, J T

2000-04-01

194

Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit  

SciTech Connect

There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. (USDA, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

195

HIGHLY SELECTIVE FLOW-INJECTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN FRUIT JUICES AND PHARMACEUTICALS USING PYROGALLOL RED-IODATE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid present in pharmaceuticals and fruit juice was rapidly determined by the spectrophotometric method in association with flow injection analysis. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid on the oxidation of pyrogallol red by iodate in sulfuric acid media. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 2.0 × 10 M up to 1.0 ×

Ali A. Ensafi; B. Rezaei; M. Beglari

2002-01-01

196

Effect of blanching, dehydration method and temperature on the ascorbic acid, colour, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit.  

PubMed

Freshly harvested okra fruits were blanched in boiling water (with or without 0.2% sodium metablsulphite salt) and the effect of this treatment, dehydration methods and temperature on certain characteristics of okra investigated. Blanching resulted in the slight decrease in carbohydrate, fat, ash, colour components, ascorbic acid and viscosity. Besides this initial loss, blanching in sulphite solution led to the retention of more of the colour components and ascorbic acid during dehydration. All dehydrated okra samples had higher contents of carbohydrate, fat and ash but lesser contents of protein and ascorbic acid than fresh okra. Fresh okra fruits, on the other hand, had higher content of the colour pigments and were more viscous than all dehydrated products. Samples blanched prior to dehydration retained more of the colour components but were less viscous than unblanched samples. Vacuum dehydrated samples retained more ascorbic acid, colour pigment and mucilage at each of the dehydration temperatures than those from a hot air oven. High dehydration temperatures had negative effect on the colour, ascorbic acid and viscosity of okra. PMID:9713583

Inyang, U E; Ike, C I

1998-03-01

197

Effect of acidic solutions and acidic prochloraz on the control of postharvest decay caused by Alternaria alternata in mango and persimmon fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of treatments with hydrochloric acid (HCl), alone or in combination with prochloraz, in controlling quiescent infections of Alternaria alternata that cause alternaria rot in mango and persimmon fruit during storage, were compared. Spore germination and germ-tube elongation of A. alternata in vitro were inhibited by 95 and 65%, respectively, by exposure to 1.25mM HCl, and fungal germination was

D. Prusky; I. Kobiler; M. Akerman; I. Miyara

2006-01-01

198

Acetaldehyde Stimulation of Net Gluconeogenic Carbon Movement from Applied Malic Acid in Tomato Fruit Pericarp Tissue 12  

PubMed Central

Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) (O Paz, HW Janes, BA Prevost, C Frenkel [1982] J Food Sci 47: 270-274) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied i-[U-14C]malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. The label from malate was recovered in respiratory CO2, in other organic acids, in ethanol insoluble material, and an appreciable amount in the ethanol soluble sugar fraction. In Rutgers tomatoes, the label recovery in the sugar fraction and an attendant label reduction in the organic acids fraction intensified with fruit ripening. In both Rutgers and in the nonripening tomato rin, these processes were markedly stimulated by 4000 ppm acetaldehyde. The onset of label apportioning from malic acids to sugars coincided with decreased levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the gluconeogenesis inhibitor. In acetaldehyde-treated tissues, with enhanced label mobilization, this decline reached one-half to one third of the initial fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. Application of 30 micromolar fructose-2,6-biphosphate or 2,5-anhydro-d-mannitol in turn led to a precipitous reduction in the label flow to sugars presumably due to inhibition of fructose-1,6-biphosphatase by the compounds. We conclude that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification. PMID:16668078

Halinska, Anna; Frenkel, Chaim

1991-01-01

199

Hormonal regulation of flowering and fruit development: Effect of gibberellic acid and ethrel on fruit setting and development of Momordica charantia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit setting and development in a monoecious cucurbit,Momordica charantia L. could be regulated by the external application of gibberellin (GA3) and ethrel. Both GA3 and ethrel in lower concentrations promoted female flower production as well as fruit setting and development. Both growth\\u000a regulators improved the quality of theMomordica fruit by increasing length, breath and biomass of the fruits as well

S. Banerjee; P. S. Basu

1992-01-01

200

Effect of gibberellic acid on ripening of strawberry fruits ( Fragaria annanassa Duch.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of GA3 on postharvest ripening in strawberry fruit was evaluated through different biochemical parameters. Strawberry slices at\\u000a different ripening stages were incubated with GA3. A significant decrease on respiratory activity depending on GA3 concentration was obtained. Also GA3 was applied to whole and deachened fruit at white and green ripening stages. Our results show that GA3 has an inhibitory

G. A. Martínez; A. R. Chaves; M. C. Añón

1994-01-01

201

Voltammetric iodometric titration of ascorbic acid with dead-stop end-point detection in fresh vegetables and fruit samples.  

PubMed

The present work describes a method for determining ascorbic acid, which combines iodometry with a voltammetric technique to detect the end point of the titration. In addition, the validity of the method applied to natural vegetable or fruit samples was assessed. The results were compared with those obtained by an accurate method such as HPLC using UV detection. Similar values of ascorbic acid for different natural samples were obtained by means of this approach (p > 0.05). The limit of quantification was 0.1 mg. This technique presents the advantage of other electroanalytical methods such as avoiding filtration or ultracentrifugation steps, with the additional benefit of using the platinum electrodes, which are routinely used in the laboratory. These facts allow a rapid and efficient quantification of ascorbic acid with very low cost of reagents and equipment. PMID:10898627

Verdini, R A; Lagier, C M

2000-07-01

202

Separation, characterization, and quantitation of phenolic acids in a little-known blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit by HPLC-MS.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the qualitative and quantitative determination of free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound phenolic acids in the blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit. A method for the determination of the profile of phenolic acids of four different phenolic fractions in the fruit was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Thirteen compounds (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, syringic, sinapic, salicylic, and trans-cinnamic acids) were identified and quantified in the berry. These experimental results showed that the predominant phenolic acid in the fruit of V. arctostaphylos is caffeic acid in free and insoluble ester-bound forms and p-coumaric acid in soluble ester and glycoside forms. Seven phenolic acids were identified as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (HBAs) and four as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAs). Total content of HBAs and HCAs in the four phenolic fractions constituted 30.1 and 69.9% of the free, 27.9 and 72.1% of the ester, 24.7 and 75.3% of the glycoside, and 51.7 and 48.3% of the ester-bound forms, respectively. Total phenolics as the sum of individual phenolic acids identified is 698.5 ng/g of fresh weight (fw) for the free, 3399.2 ng/g of fw for the ester, 3522.1 ng/g of fw for the glycoside, and 3671.6 ng/g of fw for the ester-bound phenolic fractions. The present results were compared with reported levels of phenolic acids in the fruits of different Vaccinium species. These data suggest that the fruit can be considered as a potentially good dietary source of phenolic acids. PMID:16218652

Ayaz, Faik A; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Gruz, Jiri; Novak, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav

2005-10-19

203

Changes in the abscisic acid levels and related gene expression during fruit development and ripening in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural plant hormone playing an important role in many physiological processes including fruit ripening and is also recently found to be potential for biomedical applications. This study was aimed to measure ABA levels and its biosynthesis in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which is one of the best sources of anthocyanins. Five ABA biosynthetic genes were isolated from bilberry and their expression profiles were studied in bilberry tissues, particularly during berry development. The level of ABA highly increased at the onset of bilberry fruit ripening, at the stage when expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (VmCHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (VmANS), also increased. In fully ripe berries and leaves, ABA levels were lower but none was detected in bilberry stem or rhizome. The expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VmNCED1) and putative neoxanthin synthase (VmNSY) was high in berry tissues and their expression increased markedly at the onset of berry ripening along with the accumulation of ABA. In contrast, the expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase (VmZEP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (VmSDR/ABA2) and aldehyde oxidase (VmAO) were most highly associated with leaf tissues with no obvious relation to ABA content during berry development. The obtained results indicate that the ABA biosynthesis may play an important role in the regulation of ripening of non-climacteric bilberry fruits through transcriptional regulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes. PMID:23850079

Karppinen, Katja; Hirvelä, Elina; Nevala, Tiina; Sipari, Nina; Suokas, Marko; Jaakola, Laura

2013-11-01

204

Changes in the Level of Peptidase Activities in Pea Ovaries during Senescence and Fruit Set Induced by Gibberellic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The activities and changes in the levels of exopeptidase and endopeptidase activities were characterized in unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska during senescence and early fruit development induced by gibberellic acid (GA3). Two aminopeptidases and one iminopeptidase were electrophoretically separated. These peptidases were sensitive to inhibitors of sulfhydryl proteases. Carboxypeptidase activity was inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride. An azocasein-degrading endopeptidase, sensitive to thiol protease inhibitors, was also found. An increase in the specific activity of aminopeptidase during both fruit development and ovary senescence was observed. In contrast, the specific activity of carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase increased only during senescence of the ovary. Changes in exopeptidase activity in senescing ovaries could be mainly the consequence of a greater stability to proteolysis while the rise in endopeptidase activity appeared to be due to new or increased synthesis of the enzyme. These results suggest that endopeptidase, and not amino or carboxypeptidase, plays a key role in the senescence of pea ovaries and that the changes in unpollinated ovaries leading to ovary senescence or fruit development can be controlled by gibberellins. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667372

Carrasco, Pedro; Carbonell, Juan

1990-01-01

205

Non-extractable procyanidins and lignin are important factors in the bile acid binding and radical scavenging properties of cell wall material in some fruits.  

PubMed

The cell wall components and the food functions of alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) of Chinese quince, quince, hawthorn, apple, pear and blueberry fruits were analyzed. Chinese quince contained characteristically high contents of cellulose, lignin, and non-extractable procyanidins (NEPCs). On the other hand, the quince AIS contained the highest proportion of NEPCs, the highest mean degree of polymerization (mDP), the strongest radical scavenging activity, and strong bile acid binding activity. In fruit AIS, the lignin and NEPC contents both showed positive correlations with the bile acid binding and radical scavenging activities. The value for mDP × NEPC content was a good index for the radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that highly polymerized NEPCs and lignin are important factors of cell wall components of fruits to having a high functionality, and Chinese quince and quince are interesting fruits from this view point. PMID:21243435

Hamauzu, Yasunori; Mizuno, Yukari

2011-03-01

206

Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.  

PubMed

Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

207

Selective suppression of cervical cancer Hela cells by 2- O -?- d -glucopyranosyl- l -ascorbic acid isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine and dietary supplement for centuries. 2-O-?-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2?G), a novel stable vitamin C analog, is one of the main biologically active components of the fruit.\\u000a In this report, we investigated the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of AA-2?G against cancer cells in vitro and identified\\u000a the proteins with significantly differential

Zhiping Zhang; Xiaoming Liu; Tao Wu; Junhong Liu; Xu Zhang; Xueyun Yang; Michael J. Goodheart; John F. Engelhardt; Yujiong Wang

2011-01-01

208

A quick method for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and sorbic acid in fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of quickly determining ascorbic acid and sorbic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection was developed. The choice of background electrolyte, wavelength, injection time and applied voltage were discussed. Ascorbic acid and sorbic acid were well separated in 80mmolL?1 boric acid–5mmolL?1borax (pH = 8.0) in 5min at the detecting wavelength of 270nm. Under the optimum condition, the

Yajun Tang; Mingjia Wu

2005-01-01

209

Polygalacturonase, biomass, and ascospore production by byssochlamys fulva. I. Effects of acids found in fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase, biomass, and ascospore production by four strains of Byssochlamys fulva cultured in laboratory media supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acids was determined over a 20-day incubation period at 30°C. Polygalacturonase activity was higher in tartaric acid media than in malic or citric acid media, with 1 % acid supporting the greatest activity in media initially at pH 4

Stephen L. Rice; Larry R. Beuchat

1978-01-01

210

Cloning and functional analysis of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) genes encoding a key enzyme during abscisic acid biosynthesis from peach and grape fruits.  

PubMed

Ripening and senescence are generally controlled by ethylene in climacteric fruits like peaches, and the ripening process of grape, a non-climacteric fruit, may have some relationship to abscisic acid (ABA) function. In order to better understand the role of ABA in ripening and senescence of these two types of fruits, we cloned the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene that encodes a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis from peaches and grapes using an RT-PCR approach. The NCED gene fragments were cloned from peaches (PpNCED1and PpNCED2, each 740bp) and grapes (VVNCED1, 741bp) using degenerate primers designed based on the conserved amino acids sequence of NCEDs in other plants. PpNCED1 showed 78.54% homology with PpNCED2, 74.90% homology with VVNCED1, and both showed high homology to NCEDs from other plants. The expression patterns of PpNCED1 and VVNCED1 were very similar. Both were highly expressed at the beginning of ripening when ABA content becomes high. The maximum ABA preceded ethylene production in peach fruit. ABA in the grape gradually increased from the beginning of ripening and reached the highest level at 20d before the harvest stage. However, ethylene remained at low levels during the entire process of fruit development, including ripening and senescence. ABA content, and ripening and softening of both types of fruits, were promoted or delayed by exogenous ABA or Fluridone (or NDGA) treatment. The roles of ABA and ethylene in the later ripening of fruit are complex. Based on results obtained in this study, we concluded that PpNCED1 and VVNCED1 initiate ABA biosynthesis at the beginning of fruit ripening, and that ABA accumulation might play a key role in the regulation of ripeness and senescence of both peach and grape fruits. PMID:19307046

Zhang, Mei; Leng, Ping; Zhang, Guanglian; Li, Xiangxin

2009-08-15

211

Suppression of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase, Which Encodes a Key Enzyme in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis, Alters Fruit Texture in Transgenic Tomato1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), ?-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-?-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp). PMID:22108525

Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

2012-01-01

212

Fruits of two seabuckthorn varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of two varieties of Hippophae rhamnoides L. collected in Kyrgyzstan (I) and Uzbekistan (II) were investigated. Differences in their morphological and biochemical properties were demonstrated. Titrable acids, ascorbic acid, and protein dominated in the fruits of I. Pulp oil of II contained more free fatty acids (acid number 2.9 mg KOH) and carotinoids (419.3 mg%). The principal pulp acid

T. V. Chernenko; N. T. Ul’chenko; A. I. Glushenkova

2004-01-01

213

Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) fruits: comparison of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoid profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3'-O-galactoside, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside, quercetin 3'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3'-O-pentosylhexoside, quercetin 3-O-6'malonylglucoside, quercetin 3'-O-malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-6'malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-malonylglucoside, myricetin 3-O-galactoside, and naringenin tri glycoside. This is the first report on extraction of nine additional flavonoids from the ber fruits. In addition, we also compared the impact of three different base hydrolysis techniques namely ultrasonic assisted base hydrolysis (UABH), microwave assisted base hydrolysis (MWABH), and pressurised liquid assisted base hydrolysis (PLABH) for the quantification of total phenolic acids. Nine phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acids, were identified and quantified. The three major phenolic acids identified in all four ber species were p-coumaric acid, vanillin and ferulic acids. Higher amounts (p<0.05) of total phenolic acids in all cultivars were obtained with the PLABH technique as compared to other two procedures (UABH and MWABH). PMID:23561136

Memon, Ayaz Ali; Memon, Najma; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Luthria, Devanand L

2013-08-15

214

Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

PubMed Central

1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild. 2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments. 3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost. PMID:19081752

Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carey, James R.; Zwaan, Bas J.

2008-01-01

215

Interplay between foraging behaviour, adult density and fruit ripeness determines the effectiveness of gibberellic acid and host-marking pheromone in reducing susceptibility of grapefruit to infestation by the Mexican fruit-fly, Anastrepha ludens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of gibberellic acid (GA3) and host-marking pheromone as management tools for control of Mexican fruit-fly (Anastrepha ludens) was evaluated in the field. Varying numbers of GA3-treated and untreated “Ruby Red” grapefruit were hung in branches of field-caged citrus trees and exposed to four different densities of gravid A. ludens females (1, 5, 15 and 30 individuals per cage)

Andrea Birke; Diana Pérez-Staples; Patrick Greany; Martín Aluja

2011-01-01

216

Enhanced expression of avfae1 encoding a long-chain fatty acid elongase during the induction of the antifungal diene in avocado fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preformed (Z,Z)-1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12,15-diene (AFD) is the most active antifungal compound in avocado; it affects the quiescence nature of infection of unripe fruit by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Fatty acid elongase was hypothesized to participate in the biosynthesis of AFD, therefore the enzymatic activity of avocado fatty acid elongase (AVFAE) and the expression pattern of one of the genes encoding this enzyme were

X. Wang; I. Kobiler; A. Lichter; A. Leikin-Frenkel; D. Prusky

2004-01-01

217

Simultaneous Purification of Limonin, Nomilin and Isoobacunoic Acid from Pomelo Fruit (Citrus grandis) Segment Membrane.  

PubMed

A method was established for purification of limonin, nomilin, and isoobacunoic acid simultaneously from segment membranes of pomelo (Citrus Grandis). This method includes 3 steps, removing most impurities by macroporous resin HZ-816, isolating limonin by High Speed Counter Current Chromatography (HSCCC), and isolating nomilin and isoobacunoic acid by semi-preparative HPLC. Naringin was partially purified as a by-product of this process using Sephadex LH-20. All limonoids purified through this method reached 95% purity. The purified limonin, nomilin and isoobacunoic acid were identified according to the retention time of the standard substances using HPLC and characteristic fragment ions of LC-MS/MS. PMID:25212475

Xiang, Yu; Cao, Jinping; Luo, Fenglei; Wang, Dengliang; Chen, Wei; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2014-10-01

218

Identification of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes (XTHs) and their expression in persimmon fruit as influenced by 1-methylcyclopropene and gibberellic acid during storage at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is thought to contribute to fruit softening by degrading xyloglucan that is a predominant hemicellulose in the cell wall. In this study, two full-length XTH genes (DKXTH1 and DKXTH2) were identified from 'Fupingjianshi' persimmon fruit, and the expression level of both XTH genes was investigated during softening for 18-24 d using RT-qPCR. Sequence analysis showed that DKXTH1 and DKXTH2 contained a putative open reading frame of 861 and 876 bp encoding polypeptides of 287 and 292 amino acid residues, respectively, which contained the conserved DEIDFEFLG motif of XTH, a potential N-linked glycosylation signal site. RT-qPCR analysis showed that DKXTH1 and DKXTH2 in untreated fruit had different expression patterns during fruit softening, in which maximum expression occurred on days 3 and 12 of ripening, respectively. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) treatments delayed the softening and ethylene peak of persimmon fruit, as well as suppressed the expression of both XTH genes, especially DKXTH1. These results indicated that the expression of both XTH genes might be ethylene dependent action, and closely related to softening of persimmon in the early (DKXTH1) and later (DKXTH2) ripening stages. PMID:23265513

Zhu, Qinggang; Zhang, Zhengke; Rao, Jingping; Huber, Donald J; Lv, Jingyi; Hou, Yali; Song, Kanghua

2013-05-01

219

Review article Tomato fruit quality in relation  

E-print Network

/ sugar concentration / acid concentration / BER / water status / fruit cracking Résumé ­ Qualité du fruit fruit / concentration en sucres / concentration en acide / nécrose apicale / BER / état hydriqueReview article Tomato fruit quality in relation to water and carbon fluxes Soraya GUICHARDa, Nadia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage. PMID:24914296

Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

2014-01-01

221

The hydroxycinnamic acid content of barley and brewers' spent grain (BSG) and the potential to incorporate phenolic extracts of BSG as antioxidants into fruit beverages.  

PubMed

The hydroxycinnamic acid (HA) content of starting barley for brewers' spent grains (BSG), whole BSG and phenolic extracts from BSG was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and correlated with antioxidant potential. The effect of BSG phenolic extracts on antioxidant activity of fruit beverages was also assessed (using the total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays). The concentration of HA present in barley extract and BSG was in the order of ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (p-CA) derivatives, FA derivatives, p-CA, caffeic acid (CA) and CA derivatives. Results suggested that brewing and roasting decreased the HA content. Antioxidant activity was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with caffeic acid (R(2)=0.8309) and total HA (R(2)=0.3942) concentrations. Addition of extracts to fruit beverages resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in antioxidant activity of cranberry juice, measured by the FRAP assay. In vitro digestion significantly (P<0.05) reduced TPC, DPPH and FRAP activity of the fruit beverages. PMID:23870996

McCarthy, Aoife L; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Neugart, Susanne; Piggott, Charles O; Connolly, Alan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Krumbein, Angelika; Schreiner, Monika; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

2013-12-01

222

An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4–8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1?S-1?-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n?=?34; placebo: n?=?32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets containing preparations of pomegranate fruit extract and rhizome of greater galangal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01357044 PMID:25275520

Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T.; Fedder, Jens

2014-01-01

223

Effect of washing and feedstock size of oil palm empty fruit bunches in acid hydrolysis studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water washing of raw samples was carried out to determine its effect on the acid hydrolysis process used for producing sugars from EFB. The results showed that sugar yield obtained from washed EFB is more reflective of the actual conversion rate compared to unwashed EFB. Sugar yields were 24.6 % for washed samples and 13 % for unwashed samples. Also

C. L. Sia; K. O. Lim; T. T. Teng

2009-01-01

224

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee

1983-01-01

225

Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation  

SciTech Connect

Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

1999-01-01

226

Changes in free amino acid, protein, and flavonoid content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts.  

PubMed

Jujube (Ziziphus jujube) was analyzed at eight stages of ripeness (S1-8) for protein, by HPLC and mass spectroscopy for free amino acids and flavonoids, and by colorimetry for total flavonoids and antioxidative activity. The ripe fruit had lower levels of protein, flavonoids, and antioxidative activity than that of the unripe fruit. Free amino acids levels peaked at S5, due mainly to an increase in free asparagine. Extracts were also tested against four cell lines using the MTT cell viability assay. All growth stages dose-dependently inhibited HeLa cervical cancer cells, whereas the inhibition of Hel299 normal lung and A549 lung cancer cells decreased as the fruit matured and was well correlated with the flavonoid content and antioxidative activity. Chang normal liver cells were inhibited by only the S5 extract. U937 lymphoma cells were unaffected by the extracts. These results show the effect of fruit maturity on nutritional and health-promoting components. PMID:23046062

Choi, Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Nam-Kyung; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

2012-10-17

227

Functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.  

PubMed

We report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) at different maturity stages. The results demonstrated that SA enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against Penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. Based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after SA treatment at earlier (A) and later (B) maturity stage, respectively. Seven antioxidant proteins and three pathogenesis related-proteins were identified at both A and B stages, while five heat shock proteins and four dehydrogenases were only detected at B stage. SA treatment also stimulated higher transcript levels of peroxidase, but repressed that of catalase. Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at later maturity stages. PMID:18924108

Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Qing; Xu, Xiangbin; Meng, Xianghong; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

2008-11-01

228

Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500?gL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100?gL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100?gL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3?gL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

2014-10-31

229

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee

1983-01-01

230

Metabolic profiling of phenolic acids and oxidative stress markers after consumption of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of one-week consumption of 165 g/day fresh blue honeysuckle berries (208 mg/day anthocyanins) in 10 healthy volunteers. At the end of intervention, levels of benzoic (median 1782 vs 4156), protocatechuic (709 vs 2417), vanillic (2779 vs 4753), 3-hydroxycinnamic (143 vs 351), p-coumaric (182 vs 271), isoferulic (805 vs 1570), ferulic (1086 vs 2395), and hippuric (194833 vs 398711 ?g/mg creatinine) acids by LC/MS were significantly increased in the urine. Clinical chemistry safety markers were not altered. Oxidative stress markers, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (0.73 vs 0.88 U/g Hb) and catalase (2.5 vs 2.8 ?kat/g Hb) activities, and erythrocyte/plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (522 vs 612/33 vs 38 ?mol/g Hb/protein) levels were significantly increased, without change in plasma antioxidant status. Nonsignificant changes of advanced oxidation protein products and oxidized LDL were observed. The results provide a solid base for further study of metabolite excretion and antioxidant parameters after ingestion of anthocyanins. PMID:23581742

Heinrich, Jan; Valentová, Kate?ina; Vacek, Jan; Palíková, Irena; Zatloukalová, Martina; Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrbková, Jana; Šimánek, Vilím

2013-05-15

231

Evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of African variety of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam fruit.  

PubMed

Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet that have been credited with chemoprevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the whole ripened fruit of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam, a multipurpose tree growing in West and Central Africa and other countries bordering the Gulf of Guinea, for polyphenol content as well as its antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity. Analysis of the methanol extract of the fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet dual-array detector and mass-selective detector revealed the presence of catechol (9.27 mg/kg), gallate (10.40 mg/kg), methylgallate (0.88 mg/kg), ellagic acid (3.10 mg/kg), quercetin (0.21 mg/kg), and quercetin rhamnoside (0.76 mg/kg). The extract showed very high antioxidant potential (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 14 microL), but a rather weak radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 357 microL), when tested in vitro with the xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine assay model systems, respectively. These results suggest that consumption of D. edulis could contribute to prevention of diseases that are related to oxidative stress. PMID:20041788

Atawodi, S E; Atawodi, J C; Idakwo, P; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Wurtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

2009-12-01

232

Epicuticular changes and storage potential of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] fruit following gibberellic acid preharvest sprays and postharvest heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (L.) cv. Gialla] fruit were treated 10 weeks after the second induced-bloom flush with 10 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) or were heated at 37°C for 30 h under saturated humidity after harvest. The two treatments were also combined before storage at 6°C for 45 days plus 4 additional days at 20°C to simulate a marketing

M. Schirra; G. D’hallewin; P. Inglese; T. La Mantia

1999-01-01

233

Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on sugar accumulation in the flesh tissue of peach fruit at the start of the maturation stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on14C-sorbitol, fructose, and glucose uptakeinto flesh discs, and sorbitol efflux from thediscs, with and without ABA application toexamine the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) onsugar accumulation in peach fruit flesh at thestart of the maturation stage in relation tomembrane transport. Total uptake of14C-sorbitol, fructose, and glucose intoflesh discs was effectively promoted by ABA ata concentration of 10-5M.

Kenji Kobashi; Sumuko Sugaya; Hiroshi Gemma; Shuichi Iwahori

2001-01-01

234

Abscisic acid deficiency in the tomato mutant high-pigment 3 leading to increased plastid number and higher fruit lycopene content.  

PubMed

Carotenoids are present in most tissues of higher plants where they play a variety of essential roles. To study the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis, we have isolated novel mutations in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with altered pigmentation of fruit or flowers. Here we describe the isolation and analysis of a tomato mutant, high-pigment 3 (hp3), that accumulates 30% more carotenoids in the mature fruit. Higher concentrations of carotenoids and chlorophyll were also measured in leaves and the pericarp of green fruit. The mutation in hp3 had occurred in the gene for zeaxanthin epoxidase (Zep), which converts zeaxanthin to violaxanthin. Consequently, leaves of the mutant lack violaxanthin and neoxanthin, and flowers contain only minute quantities of these xanthophylls. The concentration in the hp3 mutant of abscisic acid (ABA), which is derived from xanthophylls, is 75% lower than the normal level, making hp3 an ABA-deficient mutant. The plastid compartment size in fruit cells is at least twofold larger in hp3 plants compared with the wild-type. The transcript level in the green fruit of FtsZ, which encodes a tubulin-like protein involved in plastid division, is 60% higher in hp3 than in the wild-type, suggesting that increased plastid division is responsible for this phenomenon. Elevated fruit pigmentation and plastid compartment size were also observed in the ABA-deficient mutants flacca and sitiens. Taken together, these results suggest that ABA deficiency in the tomato mutant hp3 leads to enlargement of the plastid compartment size, probably by increasing plastid division, thus enabling greater biosynthesis and a higher storage capacity of the pigments. PMID:17988221

Galpaz, Navot; Wang, Qiang; Menda, Naama; Zamir, Dani; Hirschberg, Joseph

2008-03-01

235

Broad-spectrum antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria and their application in fruit models.  

PubMed

A large-scale screen of some 7,000 presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from animal, human, or plant origin, identified 1,149 isolates with inhibitory activity against the food-spoilage mould Penicillium expansum. In excess of 500 LAB isolates were subsequently identified to produce a broad spectrum of activity against P. expansum, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium notatum, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing of 94 broad spectrum isolates revealed that the majority of antifungal producers were strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. The remaining population was composed of Weissella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceous isolates. Characterization of six selected broad-spectrum antifungal LAB isolates revealed that antifungal activity is maximal at a temperature of 30 °C, a pH of 4.0 and is stable across a variety of salt concentrations. The antifungal compound(s) was shown to be neither proteinaceous nor volatile in nature. P. pentosaceous 54 was shown to have protective properties against P. expansum spoilage when applied in pear, plum and grape models, therefore representing an excellent candidate for food-related applications. PMID:23160868

Crowley, Sarah; Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

2013-07-01

236

Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

PubMed

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit grown worldwide with excellent nutritional value and widely attributed health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peels, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidants of mango fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over 1 year to compare the beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the fruit pulp and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. To minimize ripeness variability, only soft fruit (0.5-1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g of pulp puree, and beta-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of puree. The varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2+/-7.8 mg GAE/100 g of puree, whereas the variety Ataulfo contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activities among the five varieties. In contrast, the country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. Ataulfo mangoes contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date. PMID:19919121

Manthey, John A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope

2009-11-25

237

The Occurrence of Abscisic Acid and Abscisyl-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Developing and Mature Citrus Fruit as Determined by Enzyme Immunoassay 1  

PubMed Central

The contents of (+)-cis-abscisic acid (ABA) and alkaline-hydrolyzable ABA-conjugate(s) were analyzed by means of enzyme immunoassay in partially purified extracts of developing and mature sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv Washington navel). A relatively small increase in ABA was observed in the fruit exocarp during the natural color transition from green to orange. At the same time, the ABA-conjugate level increased approximately 12-fold in this tissue. The contents of ABA and ABA-conjugate equaled 15.0 ± 0.7 and 107.8 ± 2.1 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, respectively, in the exocarp at harvest. Other tissues also contained considerable quantities of these compounds. Whereas the highest ABA content was observed in the exocarp, the highest ABA-conjugate content was observed in the central vascular axis of the fruit and equaled 187.0 ± 10.3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight. The only immunoreactive conjugate found in significant quantity in mature fruit was identified as abscisyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (ABA-GE) based on (a) immunological cross-reactivity, (b) thin layer chromatography co-chromatography with authentic standards in two solvent systems, (c) susceptibility to both chemical and enzymic degradation, and (d) mass spectroscopy. PMID:16665032

Harris, Michael J.; Dugger, William M.

1986-01-01

238

Analysis of carbendazim, benomyl, thiophanate methyl and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in fruits and vegetables after supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

Simple methods for the analysis of carbendazim, benomyl and thiophanate methyl in fruits and vegetables and of 2,4-D in citrus fruits are presented. Sample preparation involves supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide and further analysis is performed without any additional clean-up by GC-MS after derivatisation or directly by HPLC-diode array detection. The SFE methods presented are clearly faster and more cost effective than traditional solvent based approaches. The recoveries, detection limits and repeatabilities achieved, meet the needs of tolerance level monitoring of these compounds in fruits and vegetables. PMID:9830710

Anastassiades, M; Schwack, W

1998-10-30

239

Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models  

PubMed Central

Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid. PMID:23248562

Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

2012-01-01

240

Subcritical water extraction of polyphenolic compounds from Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated subcritical water extraction (SWE) of polyphenolic compounds such as gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA), and corilagin (CG) from Terminalia chebula Retz. The effects of extraction temperatures (120–220°C) and water flow rates (2–4ml\\/min) at the pressure of 4MPa were examined on the amounts of compounds extracted. In addition, the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the

Phattarakorn Rangsriwong; Nuchanart Rangkadilok; Jutamaad Satayavivad; Motonobu Goto; Artiwan Shotipruk

2009-01-01

241

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2010-04-01

242

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2013-04-01

243

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2014-04-01

244

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2012-04-01

245

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2011-04-01

246

Bolus consumption of a specifically designed fruit juice rich in anthocyanins and ascorbic acid did not influence markers of antioxidative defense in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Exotic fruits such as açai, camu-camu, and blackberries rich in natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, anthocyanins) are marketed as "functional" foods supporting a pro-/antioxidant balance. Confirming data from human studies are lacking. Within a randomized controlled crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested 400 mL of a blended juice of these fruits or a sugar solution (control). Blood was drawn before and afterward to determine antioxidants in plasma, markers of antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC)] and oxidative stress [isoprostane, DNA strand breaks in leukocytes in vivo], and their resistance versus H?O?-induced strand breaks. Compared with sugar solution, juice consumption increased plasma ascorbic acid and maintained TOSC and partly Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (both P values < 0.05). Strand breaks in vivo increased after ingestion of both beverages (P < 0.001), probably due to postprandial and/or circadian effects. This anthocyanin-rich fruit juice may stabilize the pro-/antioxidant balance in healthy nonsmokers without affecting markers of oxidative stress. PMID:23072538

Ellinger, Sabine; Gordon, André; Kürten, Mira; Jungfer, Elvira; Zimmermann, Benno F; Zur, Berndt; Ellinger, Jörg; Marx, Friedhelm; Stehle, Peter

2012-11-14

247

Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant effects of the natural vitamin C analog 2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid isolated from Goji berry fruit.  

PubMed

2-O-?-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2?G) is a natural derivative of vitamin C (Lascorbic acid, AA) isolated from Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. We evaluated the antioxidant activities of AA-2?G and AA using in vitro and in vivo model systems. In vitro radical scavenging assays demonstrated that AA-?G was capable of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl peroxide and inhibiting H(2)O(2)-induced hemolysis better than AA. AA-2?G and AA had similar hydroxyl radical scavenging capabilities, but AA-2?G was incapable of scavenging superoxide anion radicals, and its capacity to scavenge nitrite (NO(2) (-)) was lower than that of AA. The overall in vitro reduction capability of AA-2?G was also significantly lower than that of AA. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that AA-2?G was capable of protecting the liver against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. These results suggest that AA-2?G is an important antioxidant component of Goji berry fruit, which may share similar but distinct antioxidant mechanistic properties with AA. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanisms of Goji berry fruit pharmacological activities on antiaging and antitumor properties as a traditional medicine and dietary supplement. PMID:21656366

Zhang, Ziping; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Junhong; Hao, Yanfang; Yang, Xueyun; Wang, Yujiong

2011-05-01

248

Molecularly imprinted polymers based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for selective solid-phase extraction of oleanolic acid from the roots of kiwi fruit samples.  

PubMed

This study describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted polymers based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs@MIPs) using oleanolic acid as the template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and divinylbenzene as the cross-linker by heat-induced polymerization. The MWNTs@MIPs were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption process of the MWNTs@MIPs towards oleanolic acid was investigated in detail. The properties of MWNTs@MIPs for solid-phase extraction (SPE) were also evaluated. The results demonstrated the good imprinting effect and the comparable selectivity of MWNTs@MIPs. The optimized molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure was applied to extract oleanolic acid from the extracts of the roots of kiwi fruit samples. The recoveries of spiked oleanolic acid in kiwi fruit samples were in the range of 84-92.6% with relative standard deviations below 5%, and its limit of detection reached 2.56 ?g L(-1). PMID:22967649

Chen, Xing; Zhang, Zhaohui; Yang, Xiao; Li, Jiaxing; Liu, Yunan; Chen, Hongjun; Rao, Wei; Yao, Shouzhuo

2012-09-15

249

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2014-04-01

250

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2011-04-01

251

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2012-04-01

252

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2010-04-01

253

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2013-04-01

254

Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.  

PubMed

In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment. PMID:24662312

Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

2014-05-01

255

Protective effects of an acidic polysaccharide isolated from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum against murine hepatic injury induced by Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum were extracted with chloroform followed by hot water, from which an acidic polysaccharide named GLAa was separated and purified\\u000a using 10% CCl3COOH followed by column chromatography on DE-52 cellulose and Toyopearl HW-65. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed\\u000a that GLAa was composed of Glc, Gal, Man and Fuc (1:0.013:0.009:0.024), in which ?-d-(1?6)-Glc, ?-d-(1?3)-Glc and ?-d-(1?4)-Glc linkages

Hao-Feng Han; Norio Nakamura; Masao Hattori

2006-01-01

256

Comparison of Various Preparation Methods for Determination of Organic Acids in Fruit Vinegars with a Simple Ion-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion-exclusion liquid chromatography with mobile phase 0.005 mol L?1 H2SO4 and step flow rate gradient (0.2 mL min?1 in the first 40 min and 0.5 mL min?1 from 41 to 60 min) was used to determine 20 organic acids simultaneously at 17 °C within 51 min. The peak resolutions (Rs)\\u000a were 0.45?3.02 and separation factors (?) were all higher than 1. Impurities in fruit vinegar executed with direct injection

Jau-Tien Lin; Shih-Chuan Liu; You-Cheng Shen; Deng-Jye Yang

257

Gene Expression and Metabolite Profiling of Developing Highbush Blueberry Fruit Indicates Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Metabolism and Activation of Abscisic Acid Metabolism1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3?-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3?5?-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of blueberry flavonoid biosynthesis. PMID:22086422

Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Zaharia, L. Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P.; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Kennedy, James A.; Constabel, C. Peter

2012-01-01

258

The concentration of some metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) and delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) living near lead and zinc smelter ``Trepça'' in Kosova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu, ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALA-D: EC.4.2.1.24) hemoglobin and protein amount have been determined in three different populations of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) caught at two urban sites (Mitrovica town, which is situated close to smelter of “Trepça” don close and Prishtina the capital of Kosova) and in Luki village as uncontaminated area. The results show that in the fruit fly of Mitrovica the concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn was significantly higher (P<0.00l) in comparison with that on the f-Liit fly of Prishtina and Luki. The concentration of Pb of fruit fly from Mitrovica was 3.1 times higher in comparison with that on fruit fly of Prishtina and 4.9 times higher in comparison with uncontaminated group of fruit fly. The ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited in the homogenate of fruit fly from Mitrovica in comparison with Prishtina and Luki localities (P<0.00l). ALA-D activity was also inhibited in the homogenate of Prishtina fruit fly in comparison with Luki group (P<0.00l). The amount of proteins was significantly lower in Mitrovica fruit fly in comparison with that in control and Prishtina group. The hemoglobin value was relatively unchanged.

Elezaj, I. R.; Letaj, K. Rr.; Selimi, Q. I.; Zhushi-Etemi, F.

2003-05-01

259

Effects of irrigation regimes on fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antifungal properties of volatiles from fruits of Koroneiki cultivar grown under Tunisian conditions.  

PubMed

The olive tree is generally grown under rain-fed conditions. However, since the yield response to irrigation is great, even with low amounts of water, there is increasing interest in irrigated agriculture. The main goal of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes on olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Koroneiki) obtained from an intensively-managed orchard in a semi-arid area with a Mediterranean climate in Tunisia. Different irrigation treatments 50% ETc, 75% ETc and 100% ETc were applied to the olive orchard. Accordingly, the effects of three irrigation regimes on volatile compounds, fatty acid composition and biological activities of Koroneiki cultivar were studied. The total profile of the volatile constituents of all samples revealed the predominance of 3-ethenylpyridine (from 14.9-19.6%), phenylethyl alcool (from 7.8-19.2%) and benzaldehyde (from 9.0 to 13.8%). During watering level treatments studied, the major fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic. Antioxidant activity of the fresh fruit volatiles cultivated at a watering level of 100% ETc was higher than that obtained under 50 and 75% Etc. The results of antifungal activity showed that the fruits volatiles of the three irrigation treatments had varying degrees of growth inhibition against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24511688

Brahmi, Faten; Chehab, Hechmi; Flamini, Guido; Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Mastouri, Maha; Hammami, Mohamed

2013-11-15

260

Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effects and Potential Mechanisms of Action of the Caffeoylquinic Acid-Rich Pandanus tectorius Fruit Extract in Hamsters Fed a High Fat-Diet  

PubMed Central

Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD). The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b) was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-c) and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol) in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPAR? and PPAR?-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPAR? was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPAR? and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities. PMID:23613974

Wu, Haifeng; Sheng, Linghui; Su, Yan; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Tian, Yu; Ji, Yubin; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong

2013-01-01

261

Thermal death rate of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri ATCC 200957 in the presence of organic acids and preservatives in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Heat-resistant molds, including Neosartorya fischeri, are known to spoil thermally processed fruit products. The control measures required for such problems must not cause an appreciable loss of the organoleptic qualities of the final products. In the present study we determined the thermal death rates of ascospores of N. fischeri ATCC 200957 in fruit juices containing organic acids and preservatives. The ascospores were able to survive for more than 6 h of heating at 75 degrees C, 5 h at 80 degrees C, and 3 to 4 h at 85 degrees C in mango or grape juice. Of the four organic acids tested, citric acid exhibited the maximal destruction of ascospores in mango juice at 85 degrees C (1/k = 27.22 min), and tartaric acid the least (1/k = 61.73 min). The effect of common preservatives on the thermal death rates of ascospores at .85 degrees C in mango and grape juices was studied. Almost similar effects on thermal inactivation of ascospores were noted when potassium sorbate (1/k = 29.38 min) or sodium benzoate (1/k = 27.64 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 27.53 min) was used in mango juice. In grape juice, potassium sorbate (1/k = 25.07 min) was more effective than sodium benzoate (1/k = 50.08 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 40.79 min) in inactivation of ascospores of the mold. The thermal death rate (1/k) values in mango and grape juices in the absence of any preservative were 63.51 and 69.27 min respectively. PMID:9798155

Rajashekhara, E; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

1998-10-01

262

The antimicrobial activity of fruits from some cultivar varieties of Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis.  

PubMed

Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid. PMID:25131001

Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Ha?asa, R; G?ód, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orze?, A

2014-10-24

263

Specific Responses of Salmonella enterica to Tomato Varieties and Fruit Ripeness Identified by In Vivo Expression Technology  

E-print Network

fruits contain simple sugars, sugar alcohols, organic and fatty acids,acid upregulates Salmonella promoter adjacent to fadH In red ripe fruit,acid, which is consistent with the reduced accumulation of this compound in mature tomato fruits.

Noel, Jason T.; Arrach, Nabil; Alagely, Ali; McClelland, Michael; Teplitski, Max

2010-01-01

264

Global Analysis of Gene Expression During Development and Ripening of Citrus Fruit Flesh. A Proposed Mechanism for Citric Acid Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarrays of cDNA have been used to examine expression changes of 7000 genes during development and ripening of the fruit flesh of self-incompatible Citrus clementina, a non-climateric species. The data indicated that 2243 putative unigenes showed significant expression changes. Functional classification revealed that genes encoding for regulatory proteins were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated gene clusters. The transcriptomic study together

Manuel Cercós; Guillermo Soler; Domingo J. Iglesias; José Gadea; Javier Forment; Manuel Talón

2006-01-01

265

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

266

Constituents from Piper marginatum fruits.  

PubMed

The hexane extract of the dried fruits of Piper marginatum yielded 1-(1Z-propenyl)-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene, a new natural product, besides 3-farnesyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:12385887

de Oliveira Chaves, M C; de Oliveira Santos, B V

2002-10-01

267

Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amounts of flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (ellagic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids) were analysed in six strawberry cultivars and in the berries of genus Vaccinium (four blueberry cultivars, wild bilberry, wild bog whortleberry). Differences between strawberries from organic vs. conventional cultivation were investigated and the influence of geographical origin on phenolic compounds of strawberries and

Sari H Häkkinen; A. Riitta Törrönen

2000-01-01

268

Salicylic acid, ethephon, and methyl jasmonate enhance ester regeneration in 1-MCP-treated apple fruit after long-term cold storage.  

PubMed

Volatile esters, primarily synthesized in peel tissues, are major aromatic components of apple fruits [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The use of cold storage combined with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment prolongs the life of apples but represses the regeneration of esters during poststorage ripening. In this study, the regeneration of total esters was significantly increased in apple fruits treated with salicylic acid (SA) and Ethephon (ETH) that had been treated once or twice with 1-MCP. However, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment resulted in regeneration of total esters after a single 1-MCP treatment. To determine the mechanism by which SA, ETH, and MeJA regulate ester regeneration, the apple alcohol acyltransferase gene (MdAAT2) was investigated at the mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels. Genes associated with ethylene perception were also investigated by RT-PCR. The results suggest that MdAAT2 controls ester regeneration and that MdETR1 plays a key role in ethylene perception and regulation of downstream MdAAT2 gene expression during poststorage. Ester compounds and concentrations differed in peels treated with different signal molecules, indicating that regulation of the pathway upstream of straight-chain ester biosynthesis depended on the regulation of lipoxygenase (LOX) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity by SA, ETH, and MeJA during poststorage ripening. PMID:16719511

Li, Da-Peng; Xu, Yun-Feng; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Li-Xia; Hu, Xiao-Li; Li, De-Quan; Shu, Huai-Rui

2006-05-31

269

Anti-allodynic and Anti-hyperalgesic effects of an ethanolic extract and xylopic acid from the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica in murine models of neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including headache and neuralgia. An animal model of vincristine-induced sensory neuropathy was developed after repeated intraperitoneal injection in rats and used in the present work to study the effects of the ethanolic extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and its diterpene xylopic acid (XA) in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Vincristine (0.1 mg kg-1 day-1) was administered during two cycles of five consecutive days to induce chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Static tactile anti-allodynic, anti-hyperalgesic, and cold anti-allodynic effects of XAE (30-300 mg kg-1) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1) were assessed using Von Frey filaments of bending forces of 4, 8, and 15 g, the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and cold water (4.5°C), respectively. Results: Administration of vincristine caused the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia with no significant motor deficit, spontaneous pain, and foot deformity. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1) exhibited anti-hyperalgesic, tactile, and cold anti-allodynic properties with XA exhibiting greater potency than XAE. Pregabalin (10-100 mg kg-1) used as control produced similar effect. Conclusion: These findings establish the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of the ethanolic fruit XAE and its major diterpene XA in vincristine-induced neuropathtic pain. PMID:24761123

Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Woode, Eric; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K.M.; Kyekyeku, James Oppong; Adosraku, Reimmel K.

2014-01-01

270

Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.  

PubMed

Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

2007-01-01

271

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

272

Solid-state fermentation for humic acids production by a Trichoderma reesei strain using an oil palm empty fruit bunch as the substrate.  

PubMed

Empty fruit bunch (EFB), an underutilized waste product of oil palm processing, was studied as a substrate for the production of humic acids (HA) by a Trichoderma reesei strain by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in Raimbault columns. HA have attracted the attention of many investigators due to their applications in agriculture, industry, the environment, and biomedicine. Commercial HA are currently chemically extracted from peat and coal, which are nonrenewable carbon sources. Biotechnological processes are important for their sustainable and controlled production, with SSF being especially promising for mimicking the natural habitat of fungi. Trichoderma sporulation and HA production are related, and the results of this study showed that SSF stimulated fast sporulation. The productivity related to HA was much higher than that of the biomass, indicating an efficient utilization of EFB. These findings, added to the low cost of EFB, make SSF an attractive process for HA production. PMID:24343369

Motta, F L; Santana, M H A

2014-02-01

273

Whole slurry fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production not necessitating a detoxification process.  

PubMed

The yield of ethanol from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) was increased on exploiting maleic acid pretreatment combined with fermentation of the pretreated whole slurry. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to expose EFB to a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short time duration (3 min ramping to the set temperature with no holding) in a microwave digester. An enzymatic digestibility of 60.9 % (based on theoretical glucose yield) was exhibited using pretreated and washed EFB after 48 h of hydrolysis. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the whole slurry of pretreated EFB for 48 h resulted in 61.3 % theoretical yield of ethanol based on the initial amount of glucan in untreated EFB. These results indicate that maleic acid is a suitable catalyst not requiring detoxification steps for whole slurry fermentation of EFB for ethanol production, thus improving the process economics. Also, the whole slurry fermentation can significantly increase the biomass utilization by converting sugar from both solid and liquid phases of the pretreated slurry. PMID:23982450

Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2014-04-01

274

Simultaneous quantification of flavonoids and phenolic acids in plant materials by a newly developed isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography approach.  

PubMed

A simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method based on isocratic elution has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin), flavones (luteolin and apigenin), and phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, ellagic, and rosmarinic acids) as important constituents in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants. Analysis was achieved on a C18 column at ambient temperature. The wavelengths used for the detection of flavonols, flavones, and phenolic acids were 370, 350, and 325 nm, respectively. After acid hydrolysis, the flavonoid aglycones were quantified straightforwardly in 20 dry herbal samples. The plants with the highest flavonoids were Rosa damascena, Solidago virgaurea, Ginkgo biloba, and Camellia sinensis. The contents of flavonoids aglycons ranged from 0.54 to 11.10 mg/g, from 0.03 to 14.80 mg/g, from 0.19 to 2.76 mg/g, from 0.15 to 2.36 mg/g, from 0.27 to 2.05 mg/g, and from 0.42 to 1.82 mg/g for quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, luteolin, apigenin, and myricetin in dry plant samples, respectively. PMID:20919719

Haghi, Ghasem; Hatami, Alireza

2010-10-27

275

Deoxycholic acid as an endogenous risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis and effects of gomisin A, a lignan component of Schizandra fruits.  

PubMed

Although hepatocarcinogensis has been reported to be promoted by exogenous administration of bile acids, the relation of endogenous bile acids to hepatocarcinogenesis is not completely understood. This study investigates the relationship between serum concentration of bile acids, the appearance of preneoplastic change, glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci in the liver of male Donryu rats which had been fed 0.06% 3'-methyl-4-dimethylamino-azobenzene (3'-MeDAB), and the effects of gomisin A, previously reported to inhibit the tumor promotion process. During the feeding of 3'-MeDAB for 5 weeks, the concentrations of serum bile acids were found to have increased significantly to several times the levels found at the start of the experiment. The increase of serum bile acids, especially deoxycholic acid (DCA), and the appearance of preneoplastic lesions, the number and area of GST-P-positive foci in the liver, were significantly inhibited by simultaneous oral administration of gomisin A (30 mg/kg). When DCA (100 mg/kg) was orally administered after an initiation by 3'-MeDAB, serum bile acids and preneoplastic changes were significantly increased, these increases were inhibited by combined feeding of 0.03% gomisin A in the diet. There were good correlations between the serum concentration of DCA and the number of GST-P-positive foci in the liver in both experimental protocols. These results confirm that DCA is an endogenous risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis and suggest that anti-promoter effect of gomisin A is based on improving metabolism of bile acids, including DCA. PMID:8687124

Ohtaki, Y; Hida, T; Hiramatsu, K; Kanitani, M; Ohshima, T; Nomura, M; Wakita, H; Aburada, M; Miyamoto, K I

1996-01-01

276

HLB related fruit drop Fall 2013 PGR trials  

E-print Network

for fruit thinning Gibberellic acid � delays peel color change & retains firmness (delays senescenceHLB related fruit drop � Fall 2013 PGR trials L.G. Albrigo Professor Emeritus Citrus Research & Education Center #12;#12;Background � Fruit Drop Fruit drop very high in 2012-13 Weak trees (HLB?) more loss

Florida, University of

277

Unique phenolic carboxylic acids from Sanguisorba minor.  

PubMed

The unique phenolic carboxylic acids, 4,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-5,6-dicarboxylic acid and 2-(4-carboxy-3-methoxystyryl)-2-methoxysuccinic acid were isolated and identified from the whole Sanguisorba minor plant. The known phenolics, gallic acid; ellagic acid; quercetin-3-O-(6"-galloylglucose); beta-glucogallin; 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-glucose; 1-galloyl-2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-alpha-glucose together with its beta-isomer were also characterized. Structures were established by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by NMR and ESI-MS spectral analysis. PMID:12770593

Ayoub, Nahla A

2003-06-01

278

Phenolic compounds, organic acids profiles and antioxidative properties of beefsteak fungus ( Fistulina hepatica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compounds and the organic acids composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC\\/DAD and HPLC\\/UV, respectively. The results showed a profile composed by five phenolic compounds (caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin) and six organic acids (oxalic, aconitic, citric, malic, ascorbic and fumaric acids). The quantification of the identified compounds revealed that

Bárbara Ribeiro; Patrícia Valentão; Paula Baptista; Rosa M. Seabra; Paula B. Andrade

2007-01-01

279

Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

2013-07-01

280

Potentiodynamic studies on anodic dissolution and passivation of tin, indium and tin–indium alloys in some fruit acids solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anodic dissolution and passivation of tin, indium and tin–indium alloys were studied in 0.5M solutions of both malic and citric acids, using potentiodynamic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The E\\/I curves showed that the anodic behavior of all investigated electrodes exhibits active\\/passive transition. The active region of tin involves two anodic peaks

Abdel-Rahman El-Sayed; Hossnia S. Mohran; Hany M. Abd El-Lateef

2009-01-01

281

Simultaneous determination of anthocyanins, coumarins and phenolic acids in fruits, kernels and liqueur of Prunus mahaleb L.  

PubMed

In the fresh tissues of Prunus mahaleb L., three classes of phenolics were characterised: phenolic acid derivatives (main compound being o-coumaric acid glucoside), quercetin glycosides, and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-xylosyl-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside). Coumarin was also identified. The kernels showed a high content of coumarin (0.87 mgg(-1)) which is the main class of metabolites in this sample, but present in pitted berries as well (0.63 mgg(-1)). Flavonoids are mainly concentrated in the skin and pulp (0.55 mgg(-1)). In 'Mirinello di Torremaggiore' liqueur, produced from P. mahaleb L. in accordance with traditional procedures, anthocyanins make up 16.5%, phenolic acids 43.3%, coumarin 36.2% and flavonoids 4% of total compounds. Anthocyanins are the main class in solid residues from liqueur production (70%). These findings point out that solid residues of P. mahaleb can be considered an interesting and innovative source of appreciable amounts of cyanidin glycosides (3.3 mgg(-1)). PMID:22980784

Ieri, Francesca; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

2012-12-15

282

Acid adaptation and temperature effect on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in acidic fruit juice and lactic fermented milk product  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, (ATCC 43889 and ATCC 43895) were acid adapted at pH 5.0 in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 4 h. Commercial products of mango juice (pH 3.2), asparagus juice (pH 3.6), Yakult—a diluted milk fermented drink (pH 3.6), and low-fat yoghurt (pH 3.9) were inoculated with acid-adapted or nonadapted cells of E.

Cheng Hsin-Yi; Cheng-Chun Chou

2001-01-01

283

The caffeoylquinic acid-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract increases insulin sensitivity and regulates hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic db/db mice.  

PubMed

Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are widely distributed in various foods. While some CQAs have been shown to possess antihyperglycemic activities, whether it is beneficial for diabetes patients to ingest CQA-rich foods has still to be known. In this work, the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of CQA-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract (PTF) was investigated in diabetic db/db mice. Treatment with PTF (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased body weight and fasting glucose level, alleviated hyperinsulinism and hyperlipidemia and declined glucose area under the curve in oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test. The elevated levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines and islet hypertrophy in db/db mice were remarkably attenuated by PTF treatment. Biochemical analysis showed that administration of PTF significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt substract of 160 kDa (AS160), and enhanced the expression and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscles. It also increased the activity of hexokinase, decreased the expression of glucose 6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and switched the transcription of several key lipid metabolic genes in the liver, which, in turn, improved hepatic glucose and lipid profiles as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. Overall, the CQA-rich PTF is beneficial for the treatment of diabetes. It may alleviate hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia via activation of AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway in skeletal muscles and inhibition of gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in the liver. PMID:24629909

Wu, Chongming; Zhang, Xiaopo; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Wang, Xiaoliang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong

2014-04-01

284

Effect of alpha-cyclodextrin-cinnamic acid inclusion complexes on populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Cinnamic acid (CA), a naturally occurring organic acid found in fruits and spices, has antimicrobial activity against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, but low aqueous solubility limits its use. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of solubility-enhancing alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complexes against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars suspended in apple cider or orange juice at two different incubation temperatures (4 and 26 degrees Celsius). Two concentrations (400 and 1,000 mg/liter) of alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complex were aseptically added to apple cider inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7 log CFU/ml) and orange juice inoculated with a cocktail of six Salmonella enterica serovars (7 log CFU/ml). Samples were extracted at 0 min, at 2 min, and at 24-h intervals for 7 days, serially diluted in 0.1 % peptone, spread plated in duplicate onto tryptic soy agar, and incubated at 35 degrees Celsius for 24 h. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider were significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) during the 7-day sampling period in all solutions regardless of temperature. Compared with the controls, populations were significantly reduced by the addition of 400 and 1,000 mg/liter inclusion complex, but reductions were not significantly different (P > or = 0.05) between the two treatment groups (400 and 1,000 mg/liter). Salmonella was significantly reduced in all solutions regardless of temperature. There were significant differences between the control and each inclusion complex concentration at 4 and 26 degrees Celsius. Coupled with additional processing steps, alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complexes may provide an alternative to traditional heat processes. PMID:20051210

Truong, Vy T; Boyer, Renee R; McKinney, Julie M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Williams, Robert C

2010-01-01

285

Maturation of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) under Spanish growing conditions and its postharvest performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Changes in fruit colour, acidity, soluble solids content, respiration rate and ethylene production were determined in loquat fruit cv. Algerie, throughout maturation and during postharvest storage at 2ºC. Maturation- associated changes appeared not to be coordinated, since fruit colour progressively increased, but the decline in fruit acidity was initiated latter than the increase in soluble solids content. The

L. González; M. T. Lafuente; L. Zacarías

286

Aqueous thermal degradation of gallic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous thermal degradation experiments show gallic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic carboxylic compound, decomposes rapidly at temperatures between 105° and 150°C, with an activation energy of 22.9 or 27.8 kcal/ mole, depending on pH of the starting solution. Pyrogallol is the primary product identified, indicating degradation via decarboxylation and a carbanion transition state. Relatively rapid degradation of vanillic, phthalic, ellagic and tannic acids has also been observed, suggesting that these and perhaps other aromatic acids could be short-lived in deep formation waters.

Snow Boles, Jennifer; Crerar, David A.; Grissom, Grady; Key, Tonalee C.

1988-02-01

287

Cell Wall Metabolism in Ripening Fruit  

PubMed Central

`Bartlett' pear (Pyrus communis) fruits were picked at the mature, green stage and ripened at 20 C. Fruits at different stages of ripeness (based on flesh firmness) were homogenized, and the sugar and uronic acid contents of cell wall and soluble polysaccharides were determined. Substantial amounts of galacturonic acid and arabinose were lost from the wall fraction as the fruit ripened. Most of this cell wall material was recovered, in an 80% (volume/volume) ethanol-insoluble form, from the soluble fraction of tissue homogenates. Structural analysis of ethanol-precipitable material indicates that it is an acidic (pectic) polymer-bearing side groups containing variously-linked arabinosyl residues. PMID:16661275

Ahmed, Ahmed Elrayah; Labavitch, John M.

1980-01-01

288

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

289

Physiological Responses and Fruit Retention of Carambola Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) Induced by 2,4-D and GA3  

E-print Network

One of the problems in cultivation of carambola fruit is the high of flower and fruit drop during fruit development. To understand these problems and to improve fruit retention, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and total sugar in carambola fruit and leaves were analysed in response to application of gibberellic acid (GA3) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The experiments used 1,5 year old of carambola plants (Averrhoa carambola L. var Dewi) grown in polybag of

Bekti Kurniawati

2009-01-01

290

Star fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carambola or star fruit belongs to the Oxalidaceae family, species Averrhoa carambola. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star (Figure 1). It is believed to have originated in Ceylon and the Moluccas\\u000a but it has been cultivated in southeast Asia and Malaysia for many centuries. It is commonly grown in some provinces in southern\\u000a China, in

Miguel M. Neto; Ruither O. Carolino; Norberto P. Lopes; Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

291

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine Effects on Late-Season Apple Fruit Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) inhibits 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, and thus blocks ethylene synthesis. Preharvest foliar application of AVG to apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit retards several key events of maturation including climacteric ethylene production, starch conversion to sugars, fruit softening, and abscission zone development. Although the impact of AVG on apple fruit maturation is well known, the biochemical basis of these

F. Paul Silverman; Peter D. Petracek; Michael R. Noll; Prem Warrior

2004-01-01

292

Effects of Bloom-Thinning Chemicals on Peach Fruit Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothall, pelargonic acid (Thinex), YI-1066, sulfcarba-mide (Wilthin), ammonium thiosulfate (ATS; Thinset), and Armothin, applied as single airblast sprays to peach trees at full bloom, inhibited fruit set, increased fruit diameter, were not injurious to fruit appearance, and were considered acceptable blossom thinners. Thinning rates of these chemicals usually caused some injury to foliage or flowers, but this was not considered

Ross E. Byers

1999-01-01

293

Jim Kamas, Monte Nesbitt & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists,  

E-print Network

, is characterized by melting flesh fruit with an aromatic quality and a noticeable sugar/acid balance. Com- monJim Kamas, Monte Nesbitt & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension TEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Pears Introduction There are a number of types of pears grown around the world

Mukhtar, Saqib

294

Alteration of the Interconversion of Pyruvate and Malate in the Plastid or Cytosol of Ripening Tomato Fruit Invokes Diverse Consequences on Sugar But Similar Effects on Cellular Organic Acid, Metabolism, and Transitory Starch Accumulation1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening. PMID:23250627

Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, Jose G.; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2013-01-01

295

Molecular regulation of fruit ripening  

PubMed Central

Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2013-01-01

296

Corchorus pascuorum: Transmission of Chemically Induced Fruit Formation with Environmental Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Corchorus pascuorum (Tiliaceae), native to Australia, was grown in the arid region of West Pakistan, it flowered abundantly but produced no fruit. It was induced to form fruit by treatment with 25 percent sucrose solution containing indolebutyric acid (300 parts per million). When plants were raised from the induced fruits, they fruited without any further treatment and retained the

A. S. Islam; R. Mughal

1969-01-01

297

Fruit Preparation Apples Select crisp and firm apples. Wash, peel and core. Slice medium apples  

E-print Network

on top to hold fruit down. Sugar Pack - To prevent darkening, dissolve ½ teaspoon (1500 mg) ascorbic acidFreezing Fruit Fruit Preparation Apples Select crisp and firm apples. Wash, peel and core. Slice, add ½ tsp. (1500 mg) ascorbic acid to each quart of syrup. Start with ½ cup cold syrup in a pint

New Hampshire, University of

298

Influence of Mitochondria Origin on Fruit Quality in a Citrus Cybrid  

E-print Network

on fruit quality was studied during the mature period. Levels of organic acids were slightly higher somatic hybrid; cybrid; sugars; organic acids; carotenoids; fruit quality INTRODUCTION NutritionalInfluence of Mitochondria Origin on Fruit Quality in a Citrus Cybrid JEAN-BAPTISTE BASSENE, LILIANE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 ?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 ?M Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

2015-01-01

300

Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.  

PubMed

Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. PMID:23553505

Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

2013-08-15

301

Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

Füzfai, Zsófia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovács, Etelka; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya

2004-12-15

302

Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Quality of Fruits Pretreated with Ascorbic Acid or SnCl2  

PubMed Central

In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix) solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture) during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g) and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products. PMID:25295275

Argyri, Anthoula A.; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Samaras, Fotios; Mallidis, Constantinos

2014-01-01

303

Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Quality of Fruits Pretreated with Ascorbic Acid or SnCl2.  

PubMed

In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix) solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture) during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g) and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products. PMID:25295275

Argyri, Anthoula A; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Samaras, Fotios; Mallidis, Constantinos; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

2014-01-01

304

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

305

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

2014-08-01

306

Metabolic changes in fruits of the tomato dx mutant.  

PubMed

The tomato DWARF cytochrome P450 protein catalyzes the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxo-castasterone to castasterone. The d(x) mutant does not produce a functional DWARF enzyme, and d(x) shoots display severe symptoms of brassinosteroid-deficiency. However, fruits express the CYP85A3 protein which compensates for the deficiency of the DWARF protein and produce bioactive brassinosteroids. Here, we report on the metabolic characterization of d(x) fruits. Fruit size, fresh weight, and pigment content were not altered. However, d(x) fruits showed reduced dry mass content. Levels of starch and various sugars were reduced, amino acid levels were elevated. BR application to d(x) leaves partially normalized dry mass content, sugar and amino acid levels in d(x) fruits. The data demonstrate that brassinosteroid in shoots is required for fruit development in tomato. PMID:16930643

Lisso, Janina; Altmann, Thomas; Müssig, Carsten

2006-10-01

307

Anthelmintic activity of phenolic acids from the axlewood tree Anogeissus leiocarpus on the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi and drug-resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The effect of three phenols (ellagic, gentisic and gallic acids) from the axlewood tree Anogeissus leiocarpus on Onchocerca ochengi and drug-resistant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism for research on nematode parasites, is investigated. Worms were incubated in different concentrations of phenols and their survival was monitored after 48 h. Among the three acids, ellagic acid strongly affected the survival of O. ochengi microfilariae, O. ochengi adults, a wild-type C. elegans and anthelmintic-resistant strains of C. elegans, namely albendazole (CB3474), levamisole (CB211, ZZ16) and ivermectin (VC722, DA1316), with LC50 values ranging from 0.03 mm to 0.96 mm. These results indicate that the binding of ellagic acid in the worm differs from that of resistant strains of C. elegans. The efficacy of both gallic and gentisic acids was not significantly changed in resistant strains of C. elegans treated with levamisole (ZZ16, LC50= 9.98 mm, with gallic acid), albendazole (CB3474, LC50= 7.81 mm, with gentisic acid) and ivermectin (DA1316, LC50= 10.62 mm, with gentisic acid). The efficacy of these three pure compounds is in accordance with the use of A. leiocarpus from its locality of origin. The in vivo toxicity data reveal that the thresholds are up to 200 times higher than the determined LC50 values. Thus, ellagic acid could be a potential option for the treatment of nematode infections, even in cases of drug resistance towards established anthelmintic drugs. PMID:23768773

Ndjonka, D; Abladam, E D; Djafsia, B; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Achukwi, M D; Liebau, E

2014-12-01

308

Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.  

PubMed

Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2013-12-01

309

Fruit Bio-thinning by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) in Apple cvs. Golden Delicious and Braeburn  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2006 and 2007, fruit thinning effects of three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPB) strains (Bacillus OSU-142, Microbacterium R2 and Bacillus T7) and NAA (10 and 20 ppm) were tested in apple cvs. Golden Delicious and Braeburn in terms of fruit setting, yield, fruit weight, fruit firmness, total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity and shoot length in the province of

Ahmet Esitken; Lutfi Pirlak; Muzaffer Ipek; M. Figen Donmez; Ramazan Cakmakci; Fikrettin Sahin

2009-01-01

310

Proteomic analysis of up-accumulated proteins associated with fruit quality during autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening is a complex phenomenon that makes berries attractive and also determines their nutritional value. Autumn olive ( Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) fruit is a rich source of many human health-related nutrients. The changes in pericarp color are initiated at early developmental stages, coinciding with the fast increase in fruit size. Fruit quality traits with special emphasis on soluble sugars, organic acids, lycopene, and total protein contents were assayed during the fruit ripening. In the fully ripe fruit, glucose and fructose were the principal sugars, malic acid was the most abundant organic acid, and lycopene concentration was extremely high. A proteomic analysis was used to identify up-accumulated proteins induced by the ripening. Among 63 up-accumulated protein spots, 43 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. All 43 proteins were novel for autumn olive, and 8 were first reported in the fruit. Twenty-one proteins of known function were involved in sugar metabolism, citric acid cycle, isoprenoid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and protein hydrolysis. The possible roles of these 21 accumulated proteins in autumn olive fruit quality are discussed. PMID:21175188

Wu, Man-Cheng; Hu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Li; Yang, Ling

2011-01-26

311

Influence of fruit and vegetable juices on the endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline and N-nitrosothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid in humans on controlled diets.  

PubMed

Water, green pepper, pineapple, tomato, strawberry, carrot, and celery juices were made 46 mg/100 ml in ascorbic acid by the addition of distilled water or ascorbate. The ability of each juice to inhibit endogenous formation of N-nitrosoamino acids (NAA) in humans was determined in controlled experiments. Sixteen men consumed a standard diet low in nitrate and ascorbic acid for 18 consecutive days. Nitrate (5.24 mmol) and L-proline (4.35 mmol) were given orally on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 18. On days 3 and 18, L-proline was immediately followed by 100 ml distilled water (positive control). On days 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17, L-proline was immediately followed by 100 ml juice or 46 mg ascorbate in 100 ml distilled water (treatment). Only diet was given in between dosing days to ensure baseline levels of NAA excretion. Urine was collected for 24 h following treatments and analyzed for NAA. Green pepper, pineapple, tomato, strawberry and carrot treatments significantly inhibited N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) formation relative to the positive control. Also, green pepper, pineapple and tomato juices significantly inhibited NPRO formation relative to ascorbic acid alone. Green pepper significantly inhibited N-nitrosothiazolidine-carboxylic acid formation relative to ascorbic acid alone. These data demonstrate that green pepper, tomato, pineapple, strawberry and carrot juice have greater ability to inhibit endogenous nitrosation than would be expected based solely on their ascorbate content. PMID:1473234

Helser, M A; Hotchkiss, J H; Roe, D A

1992-12-01

312

Fruit Quality of New Early Ripening Strawberry Cultivars in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this research fruit quality of seven early ripening strawberry cultivars (Clerry, Maya, Alba, Miss, Camarosa, Queen Elisa and Elsanta) during successive harvesting pe- riods has been investigated. The following quality parameters were determined in the har- vested fruits: dry matter, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, total acidity (TA), TSS\\/TA ratio, re- ducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, total anthocyanins,

Nadica Dobricevic; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Boris Duralija

2008-01-01

313

RESEARCH PAPER Pollen dispersal and fruit production in Vaccinium oxycoccos  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Pollen dispersal and fruit production in Vaccinium oxycoccos and comparison with its pollen quantity, but also quality, e.g. the balance of essential amino acids (Roulston et al. 2000 display; flower colour; fluorescent dye; fruit production; insect pollination; pollen dispersal; spectral

Rasmont, Pierre

314

Effects of Bloom-Thinning Chemicals on Apple Fruit Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

When applied in either single or multiple airblast treatments in bloom, Endothall, pelargonic acid, YI-1066, Wilthin, and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) inhibited fruit set. Treatments made in the later stages of bloom (90% open flowers) caused more fruit russetting or marking, but were more effective than those applied at earlier stages. Chemicals that caused more injury to petals, leaves, and new

Ross E. Byers

1998-01-01

315

Functions of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family in Ganoderma lucidum: an essential role in ganoderic acid biosynthesis regulation, hyphal branching, fruiting body development, and oxidative-stress resistance.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum has drawn worldwide interest with regard to its secondary metabolism and pharmaceutical activity. However, the development of such research has been limited because of a lack of basic biological knowledge. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Nox) have recently been highlighted because of the many important biological roles in plants and animals; however, the exact functions of Nox are still not fully understood in fungi. In this study, we identified two Nox isoforms (NoxA and NoxB) and a regulator, NoxR. RNA interference was used, and silencing of the Nox isoforms and NoxR expression indicated a central role for these genes in hyphal branching, fruiting body development, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ROS resistance and ganoderic acid biosynthesis regulation. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that Nox-generated ROS elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels by activating a plasma membrane Ca(2+) influx pathway, thereby inducing the Ca(2+) signal pathway to regulate ganoderic acid biosynthesis and hyphal branching. Importantly, our results highlight the Nox functions in signal crosstalk between ROS and Ca(2+), and these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify the potential pathway linking ROS networks to calcium signalling in fungi and suggest that plants, animals and fungi share a conserved signal-crosstalk mechanism. PMID:24238263

Mu, Dashuai; Li, Chenyang; Zhang, Xuchen; Li, Xiongbiao; Shi, Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Mingwen

2014-06-01

316

Maturation and Ripening of Fruit of Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. are Accompanied by Increasing Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of oxidative stress during ripening of saskatoon(Amelanchier alnifoliaNutt.) fruit was examined. Lipid peroxidation during fruit development from the mature green to the fully ripe (purple) stage was evidenced by the accumulation of ethane and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Fruit polar lipid and free fatty acid concentrations also declined during ripening. Moreover, the double bond index of fatty acids

SUZY Y ROGIERS; G. N. MOHAN KUMAR; N. RICHARD KNOWLES

1998-01-01

317

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

318

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

Dussert, Stephane; Guerin, Chloe; Andersson, Mariette; Joet, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

2013-01-01

319

Hormonal regulation of ripening in the strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanin accumulation is one measure of ripening in the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit. Neither aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase, nor inhibitors of ethylene action (silver, norbornadiene) affected anthocyanin accumulation in ripening fruit. When the achenes were removed from one half of an unripe fruit there was an accelerated accumulation of anthocyanin and induction of

N. K. Given; M. A. Venis; D. Gierson

1988-01-01

320

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...percent and more than 0 percent fruit or vegetable juice, the common or usual...juice in a blend of two other fruit juices.”) (d) In...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry juice...the juice, then the source fruits or vegetables from which...

2012-04-01

321

Physiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5-chloro-3-  

E-print Network

and Bleecker 2004) and orchid (Van Doorn 2002), although Abbreviations ­ AT, aristolochic acid; FDF, fruitPhysiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5), a plant growth regulator that selectively promotes abscission in mature citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis

Burns, Jacqueline K.

322

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percent and more than 0 percent fruit or vegetable juice, the common or usual...juice in a blend of two other fruit juices.”) (d) In...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry juice...the juice, then the source fruits or vegetables from which...

2013-04-01

323

Estimated length: 17.4 pages Running title (32 characters): Sugar metabolism in tomato fruit  

E-print Network

responsible for the taste and flavors of fruits, such as sugars, organic acids and secondary metabolites1 Estimated length: 17.4 pages Running title (32 characters): Sugar metabolism in tomato fruit Full Title (150 characters): Model-assisted analysis of sugar metabolism throughout tomato fruit development

324

Chemical and technological properties of rose ( Rosa canina L.) fruits grown wild in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients and technological properties were determined in developing Rosa canina L. fruits (rosehips) from Konya (Hadim) and Kastamonu to investigate potential uses. Completely ripe fruits contained ash, crude oil, crude energy, crude fiber, crude protein, ascorbic acid, dimethyl sulfite (DMS), and minerals including K, P, Mg, Ca and Fe. Also, technological properties such as length and width of fruit, weight

Fikret Demir; Musa Özcan

2001-01-01

325

Glycerogalactolipids from the fruit of Lycium barbarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four glycerogalactolipids (1–4), together with 11 other previously known homologues were isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum. Their structures were elucidated by chemical analyses including regio-selective enzymatic, alkaline and acidic hydrolyses and spectroscopic methods involving GCMS, HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR, respectively.

Zengping Gao; Zulfiqar Ali; Ikhlas A. Khan

2008-01-01

326

Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness  

PubMed Central

The olive tree lacks dormancy and is low temperature sensitive, with differences in cold tolerance and oil quality among genotypes. The oil is produced in the drupe, and the unsaturated fatty acids contribute to its quality. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship among development, cold response, expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes, and unsaturated fatty acid composition in drupes belonging to genotypes differing in leaf cold tolerance, but producing good oil (i.e. the non-hardy Moraiolo, the semi-hardy Frantoio, and the hardy Canino). In all genotypes, cold sensitivity, evaluated by cold-induced transient increases in cytosolic calcium, was high in the epi-mesocarp cells before oil body formation, and decreased during oil biogenesis. However, genotype-dependent differences in cold sensitivity appeared at the end of oil production. Genotype-dependent differences in FAD2.1, FAD2.2, FAD6, and FAD7 expression levels occurred in the epi-mesocarp cells during the oleogenic period. However, FAD2.1 and FAD7 were always the highest in the first part of this period. FAD2.2 and FAD7 increased after cold applications during oleogenesis, independently of the genotype. Unsaturated fatty acids increased in the drupes of the non-hardy genotype, but not in those of the hardy one, after cold exposure at the time of the highest FAD transcription. The results show a direct relationship between FAD expression and lipid desaturation in the drupes of the cold-sensitive genotype, and an inverse relationship in those of the cold-resistant genotype, suggesting that drupe cold acclimation requires a fine FAD post-transcriptional regulation. Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed. PMID:21357772

Matteucci, M.; D'Angeli, S.; Errico, S.; Lamanna, R.; Perrotta, G.; Altamura, M. M.

2011-01-01

327

Molecular characterization of tomato fruit polygalacturonase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the expression vector ?gt11 and immunological detection, cDNA clones of an endopolygalacturonase gene of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were isolated and sequenced. The 1.6 kb cDNA sequence predicts a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 457 amino acids. The PG2A isoform of tomato fruit endopolygalacturonase was purified and 80% of the amino acid sequence determined. The amino

Raymond E. Sheehy; Judith Pearson; Colin J. Brady; William R. Hiatt

1987-01-01

328

Composition of the cuticle of developing sweet cherry fruit.  

PubMed

The composition of wax and cutin from developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit was studied by GC-MS between 22 and 85 days after full bloom (DAFB). In this and our previous study, fruit mass and surface area increased in a sigmoidal pattern with time, but mass of the cuticular membrane (CM) per unit fruit surface area decreased. On a whole fruit basis, mass of CM increased up to 36 DAFB and remained constant thereafter. At maturity, triterpenes, alkanes and alcohols accounted for 75.6%, 19.1% and 1.2% of total wax, respectively. The most abundant constituents were the triterpenes ursolic (60.0%) and oleanolic acid (7.5%), the alkanes nonacosane (13.0%) and heptacosane (3.0%), and the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol (1.1%). In developing fruit triterpenes per unit area decreased, but alkanes and alcohols remained essentially constant. The cutin fraction of mature fruit consisted of mostly C16 (69.5%) and, to a lower extent, C18 monomers (19.4%) comprising alkanoic, omega-hydroxyacids, alpha,omega-dicarboxylic and midchain hydroxylated acids. The most abundant constituents were 9(10),16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic acid (53.6%) and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic acid (7.8%). Amounts of C16 and C18 monomers per unit area decreased in developing fruit, but remained approximately constant on a whole fruit basis. Within both classes of monomers, opposing changes occurred. Amounts of hexadecandioic, 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic, 9(10)-hydroxy-hexadecane-1,16-dioic and 9,10-epoxy-octadecane-1,18-dioic acids increased, but 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecenoic acids decreased. There were no qualitative and minor quantitative differences in wax and cutin composition between cultivars at maturity. Our data indicate that deposition of some constituents of wax and cutin ceased during early fruit development. PMID:17328933

Peschel, Stefanie; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Knoche, Moritz

2007-04-01

329

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes.) Peanut or other nut butters Seeds (pumpkin, sunflower, sesame) Grains: Dry cereal (boxed or bagged

O'Toole, Alice J.

330

Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

The ripeness degree of climacteric fruits, such as avocado ( Persea americana Mill.), can be correlated with rheological properties. However, there remains little information on not only the postharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins but also the spatial variation within fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and composition of fatty acids and major nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of fruit tissue during ripening is unknown. The texture of different horizontally cut slices from individual fruits within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. The composition of fatty acids and NSCs in fruit mesocarp tissue was determined. The composition of fatty acids and oil and dry matter contents varied significantly according to origin. Significant changes in texture, mannoheptulose and perseitol contents, and linoleic acid percentage were found in avocado fruit flesh during ripening. Spatial variation within fruit was detected in both textural and biochemical characteristics. PMID:19580285

Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine Dorothée; Terry, Leon Alexander

2009-08-12

331

Non GMO fruit factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple structural and regulatory genes modulate biosynthetic pathways, such as those leading to the accumulation and profile of sugars and carotenoids in the mature tomato fruit. Natural genetic variation among wild relatives of the cultivated tomato provides an important, non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO), resource for improving both horticultural and fruit quality traits of elite tomato varieties. Unfortunately, this natural resource

Ilan Levin; Avraham Lalazar; Moshe Bar; Arthur A. Schaffer

2004-01-01

332

Purification and characterisation of an acidic pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus ficuum strain MTCC 7591 suitable for clarification of fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acidic pectin lyase (E.C. 4.2.2.10) produced byAspergillus ficuum MTCC 7591 of molecular weight 31.6 kD was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography.\\u000a Eighty-six fold purification with 60% yield and a specific activity of 7.8 U\\/mg protein was obtained. The Km and calculated turnover number (kcat) of the purified enzyme were found to be 0.60

Sangeeta Yadav; Pramod Kumar Yadav; Dinesh Yadav; Kapil Deo Singh Yadav

2008-01-01

333

Component tissues of different morphological types of tomato fruit and their qualitative and quantitative effects on quality of processed product  

E-print Network

fruit were evaluated for surface color, pigment content, pH, sugar con- tent, and titratable acidity. These data were related with the same attributes of tomato juice prepared from the whole fruit. The contribution of the particular tissues... area has the greater titratable acidity. There is a significant, negative correlation between pH and titratable acidity; while a significant, positive correlation exists between 'Brix and titratable acidity of the juice. Of the fruit types evaluated...

Wagner, Alfred Bernhart

2012-06-07

334

Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) and bitter fennel fruits (F. vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) growing in Turkey.  

PubMed

Oil content in sweet and bitter fennels was obtained 12.22% and 14.41%, respectively. The C(18:1 c6), C(18:2), C(18:1 c9) and C(16:0) acids corresponding to approximately 97% of total oil was recorded as principal fatty acids. The ratios of essential oil from sweet and bitter fennels were found similar (average 3.00%). trans-Anethole, estragole and fenchone were found to be the main constituents in both fennels. The compound with the highest value in the two oil samples was trans-anethole as 95.25% (sweet) and 75.13% (bitter). While estragole was found in bitter fennel oil in a remarkable amount (15.51%), sweet fennel oil contained small amounts of estragole (2.87%). Fenchone was found <1% in sweet and approximately 5% in bitter fennel. p-Anisaldehyde in bitter fennel essential oil, and alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene in sweet fennel essential oil were not recorded, and these compounds were found very low or <1%. PMID:18780240

Co?ge, Belgin; Kiralan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Bilal

2008-01-01

335

The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P.; Lo, Hui-Chen

2014-01-01

336

Growth and proteomic analysis of tomato fruit under partial root-zone drying.  

PubMed

The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) on tomato fruit growth and proteome in the pericarp of cultivar Ailsa Craig were investigated. The PRD treatment was 70% of water applied to fully irrigated (FI) plants. PRD reduced the fruit number and slightly increased the fruit diameter, whereas the total fruit fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) per plant did not change. Although the growth rate was higher in FI than in PRD fruits, the longer period of cell expansion resulted in bigger PRD fruits. Proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue at two fruit growth stages (15 and 30 days post-anthesis [dpa]), and submitted to proteomic analysis including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for identification. Proteins related to carbon and amino acid metabolism indicated that slower metabolic flux in PRD fruits may be the cause of a slower growth rate compared to FI fruits. The increase in expression of the proteins related to cell wall, energy, and stress defense could allow PRD fruits to increase the duration of fruit growth compared to FI fruits. Upregulation of some of the antioxidative enzymes during the cell expansion phase of PRD fruits appears to be related to their role in protecting fruits against the mild stress induced by PRD. PMID:22702247

Marjanovi?, Milena; Stiki?, Radmila; Vuceli?-Radovi?, Biljana; Savi?, Sladjana; Jovanovi?, Zorica; Bertin, Nadia; Faurobert, Mireille

2012-06-01

337

Nutrition of a Developing Legume Fruit  

PubMed Central

The economy of functioning of the developing fruit of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is assessed quantitatively in relation to intake and usage of carbon, nitrogen, and water. Of every 100 units of carbon imported from the parent plant, 52 are incorporated into seeds, 37 into nonmobilizable material of the pod, and the remaining 11 lost as CO2 to the atmosphere. An illuminated fruit can make net gains of CO2 from the atmosphere during the photoperiods of all but the last 2 weeks of its life, suggesting that it is active in assimilation of CO2 respired from pods and seeds. This conservation activity is important to carbon economy. Phloem supplies 98% of the fruit's carbon and 89% of its nitrogen. Most of the xylem's contribution enters early in development. Xylem and phloem supply similar sets of amino compounds, amides predominating. Ninety-six per cent of the fruit's nitrogen becomes incorporated into seeds. Sixteen per cent of the seed's nitrogen is mobilized from the senescing pod. The transpiration ratio of the fruit is 22.5 ml per gram dry matter accumulated. Xylem supplies 60% of a fruit's total water requirement and the equivalent of two-thirds of its transpiration loss. Phloem becomes prominent as a water donor once the seeds start to fill. The fruit exhibits a 31% conversion by weight of organic imports into food reserves of seeds. This entails an intake through vascular channels of 1756 mg sucrose and 384 mg amino compounds and an accumulation in seeds of 412 mg protein, 132 mg oil, and 110 mg perchloric acid-soluble carbohydrate. PMID:16659881

Pate, John S.; Sharkey, Patrick J.; Atkins, Craig A.

1977-01-01

338

Evaluation of the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(?) anthracene (DMBA) induced micronuclei in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

We evaluated the protective effects of EA, a promising dietary constituent against degenerative diseases, on the clastogenic action of the model carcinogen DMBA in vitro on human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and in vivo on bone marrow of mice, using the frequencies of induced micronuclei as the end point. Pre-, post- and simultaneous treatments with EA and the carcinogen were carried out in vitro. Simultaneous treatment with EA caused a statistically significant increase of DMBA induced MN, suggesting a direct interaction between the two agents. No significant reduction in DMBA induced MN was found by pre- or post treatment with EA. Similar effects were observed in the toxicity assay. In in vivo experiments, EA pre-treatment did not affect the frequencies of MN in PCEs of bone marrow induced by DMBA. A good correlation was found between in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results did not reveal any clear indication on the efficacy of EA on the induction of micronuclei by DMBA. EA by itself did not show any harmful effects. PMID:24188931

Grossi, Maria Rosaria; Berni, Andrea; Pepe, Gaetano; Filippi, Silvia; Meschini, Roberta; Papeschi, Cristiano; Natarajan, Adayapalam T; Palitti, Fabrizio

2014-01-13

339

FRUIT & NUT Blackberries  

E-print Network

for harvesting fruit is very high, which restricts most commercial plant- ings to small acreage ventures. Machine climate crop and can be grown anywhere in USDA Hardi- ness Zone 7, 8, or 9. Regular irrigation is needed

Mukhtar, Saqib

340

'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology. PMID:24994760

Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

2014-09-01

341

Development of flavor attributes in the fruit of C. melo during ripening and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extend our understanding of flavor development during fruit ripening the changes in total soluble solids (TSS), pH, sugars, free amino acids, organic acids, total volatiles and a suite of soluble minerals including sodium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium have been measured in fruit of cv. Makdimon melons during development, ripening and storage. Changes in flesh pH, total sugars, total volatiles,

S Grant Wyllie; David N Leach; Youming Wang

1996-01-01

342

Physicochemical characterisation of gulupa ( Passiflora edulis Sims. fo edulis) fruit from Colombia during the ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims. fo edulis) is a tropical fruit native to America. This study was undertaken to characterize the physicochemical properties of this fruit in three maturity stages. In all stages, the pH, °Brix, texture, and titratable acidity were determined. pH value and solid soluble content increased during ripening and titratable acidity decreased during this process; in contrast, texture

Aleyda María Jiménez; Cesar Augusto Sierra; Francisco José Rodríguez-Pulido; María Lourdes González-Miret; Francisco José Heredia; Coralia Osorio

2011-01-01

343

Recommended varieties Select only disease-free, preferably vine-ripened, firm fruit  

E-print Network

acidic than ripened fruit.You may can them safely with any of the following recommendations. StorageRecommended varieties Select only disease-free, preferably vine-ripened, firm fruit for canning are good for making sauce, ketchup and purees. Yellow tomatoes are not really any lower in acid than red

344

Phenolic acids in the flowers and leaves of Grindelia robusta Nutt. and Grindelia squarrosa Dun. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

2D-TLC and RP-HPLC methods were applied to qualitatively determinate free phenolic acids and those liberated by acid and alkaline hydrolysis in the flowers and leaves of G. robusta and G. squarrosa. The presence of eleven phenolic acids, namely: caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic salicylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and ellagic acids was determined. Quantitative estimate of phenolic acids, expressed as caffeic acid, has been analyzed by the method described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII. The content of phenolic acids in G. robusta reached 7.33 mg/g and 6.23 mg/g for flowers and leaves, respectively. The flowers and leaves of G. squarrosa were characterized by similar level of phenolic acids, namely 6.81 mg/g and 6.59 mg/g, respectively. PMID:22876612

Nowak, S?awomira; Rychli?ska, Izabela

2012-01-01

345

Effect of Freezing and Frozen Storage on Phenolic Compounds of Raspberry and Blackberry Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compounds in raspberry and blackberry cultivars grown in Turkey were determined by liquid chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry (MS)\\/MS in fresh, just-frozen, and stored fruits at ?22 °C for 6 months period. The major phenolic compounds\\u000a in water extracted samples were ellagic acid (1,350.36–727.9 mg\\/kg fresh fruit), ferulic acid (820.78–338.27 mg\\/kg fresh fruit),\\u000a caffeic acid (754.85–202.78 mg\\/kg fresh fruit), p-coumaric acid (361.68–142.63 mg\\/kg fresh fruit), p-hydroxybenzoic acid

Cihat Türkben; Esra Sar?burun; Cevdet Demir; Vildan Uyla?er

2010-01-01

346

The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

2014-01-15

347

[Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].  

PubMed

The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function. PMID:25055366

Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

2014-01-01

348

Folic acid in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid, including enriched breads, cereals, flours, cornmeals, pastas, rice, ...

349

Effect of Gibberellin and Auxin on Parthenocarpic Fruit Growth Induction in the cv Micro-Tom of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of applied gibberellin (GA) and auxin on fruit-set and growth has been investigated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv Micro-Tom. It was found that to prevent competition between developing fruits only one fruit per truss should be left\\u000a on the plant. Unpollinated ovaries responded to GA3 and to different auxins [indol-3-acetic acid, naphthaleneacetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)],

Juan C. Serrani; Mariano Fos; Alejandro Atarés; José L. García-Martínez

2007-01-01

350

Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. P spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)-Catechin was the most abundant compound in A. unedo (13.51 mg/100 g) and R. canina (3.59 mg/100 g) fruits. A. unedo fruits presented the highest concentration in flavan-3-ols (36.30 mg/100 g). Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was found in all the studied fruits, being the major anthocyanin in most of them, with the exception of P. spinosa samples, in which cyaniding 3-O-rutinoside and peonidin 3-O-rutinoside predominated; P. spinosa fruit presented the more complex anthocyanin profile among the analysed fruits and also the highest anthocyanin concentrations, which was coherent with its greater pigmentation. All in all, P. spinosa presented the highest levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavonols and flavones, although no flavan-3-ols could be identified in its fruits. The present study represents a contribution to the chemical characterisation of phenolic compounds from wild fruits with acknowledged antioxidant activity and traditionally used for several folk medicinal applications. PMID:23993541

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-12-15

351

Development of a second-generation genetic linkage map for peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and characterization of morphological traits affecting flower and fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved genetic linkage map was constructed from a peach Ferjalou Jalousia Fantasia (JF) F2 population. Ferjalou Jalousia is a flat low-acidity clingstone peach, and Fantasia is a round, normally acidic freestone peach. This population is segregated for six Mendelian characters: pollen sterility, peach or nectarine fruit, flat or round fruit, clingstone, or freestone fruit. It also segregates for the

E. Dirlewanger; P. Cosson; K. Boudehri; C. Renaud; G. Capdeville; Y. Tauzin; F. Laigret; A. Moing

2006-01-01

352

Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.  

PubMed

Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. PMID:24360417

Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

2014-05-01

353

The control of polyphenol oxidase activity in fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of this research was to find alternative methods for the control of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fruits and vegetables with the purpose of reducing or eliminating the use of SO2 for this purpose. Interactions between the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, EDTA, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment (70 °C for 2 min) in the control of PPO

M. E. M. Almeida; J. N. Nogueira

1995-01-01

354

Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits  

PubMed Central

Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening and non-climacteric fruit ripening in general. PMID:23245313

2012-01-01

355

Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneficial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.

Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Memon, Mushtaq A.; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Akbar, Mohammed

2014-01-01

356

Polyamine-induced prolongation of storage in tomato fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) of cv. ‘Rutgers’ and the line ‘Alcobaca-red’ were vacuum infiltrated with solutions of polyamines, their precursors and metabolites, and other compounds which might affect ripening and\\/or storage duration. Putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), spermidine, spermine, diaminopropane, ?-aminobutyric acid and methionine were found to increase the storage life of these fruit after vacuum infiltration of the test

David M. Law; Peter J. Davies; Martha A. Mutschler

1991-01-01

357

[Chemical constituents of Osmanthus fragrans fruits].  

PubMed

By Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and other materials for isolation and purification and by physicochemical methods and spectral analysis for structural identification, 23 compounds were isolated and identified from ethyl acetate portion of alcohol extract solution of Osmanthus fragrans fruits. Their structures were identified as nicotinamide (1), D-allitol (2), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde (3), acetyloleanolic acid (4), benzoic acid (5), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (6), beta-sitosterol (7), borreriagenin (8), cerevistero (9), c-veratroylglycol (10), methyl-2-O-beta-glucopyranosylbenzoate (11), 3', 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavon (12), umbelliferone (13), caffeic acid methyl ester (14), oleanolic acid (15), (-) -chicanine (16), dillapiol (17), 3beta,5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxyergosta-7-22-dien-6-one (18), 2alpha-hydroxy-oleanolic acid (19), betulinic acid (20), betulin (21), 3, 3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (22), and lupeol (23). All compounds were isolated from the osmanthus fruit for the first time. Except for compounds 4, 7, 15, 19, 23, the rest ones were isolated from the this plant for the first time. PMID:24791540

Yin, Wei; Liu, Jin-Qi; Zhang, Guo-Sheng

2013-12-01

358

Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of (3H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids—mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant—that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. Objective: The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of (3H)-oleic acid 0.16 ?Ci/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 ?Ci) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 ?L), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100?L) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in ?gEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces, and urine samples of rats that did not receive (3H)-oleic acid were used as controls. Excretion was expressed as the percentage of the radioactivity excreted via each route with respect to the total radioactive dose administered to each rat. Results: A total of 50 rats were included in the experiment (mean age, 4 weeks; mean weight, 310 g). Absorption was rapid; mean Cmax was 195.56 (31.12) ?gEq/mL, and mean Tmax was 2 hours. Thereafter, a biphasic decay of TR was found: a rapid first phase (t1/2?, 1.33 hours), followed by a slower second elimination phase (t1/2?, 36.07 hours). Radioactivity was rapidly and broadly distributed throughout the tissues, with more accumulating in the prostate than elsewhere. In the first 8 hours, accumulation of TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by the liver, small intestine, and plasma. Subsequently, TR increased in the small intestine, while it decreased in the liver and plasma. In contrast, over the periods of 24 and 144 hours after administration, TR increased in the adipose tissue, while it decreased in the other tissues and plasma. During those intervals, TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by adipose tissue. Mean peak radioactivity in the prostate (562.41 ?gEq/g) was reached at 4 hours and decreased slowly thereafter. The prostate had the highest values of t1/2? and cumulative AUC compared with the other tissues and plasma. Mean (SD) TR was similar in feces (33.48% [4.90%]) and urine (28.96% [5.32%]), with total excretion being 62.40% (5.90%) of the administered dose. Conclusions: In this experimental study, after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid in rats, TR was rapidly and widely distributed across the tissues, with the prostate having the highest accumulation of radioactivity. Excretion of TR was limited, with similar amounts being excreted in feces and urine. The broad distribution of radiolabeled oleic acid and/or its metabolites suggests (SD) pharmacokinetic rationale for the effectiveness of D-004 in

Perez, L. Yohani; Menendez, Roberto; Mas, Rosa; Gonzalez, Rosa M.

2006-01-01

359

Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits  

MedlinePLUS

... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from ...

360

Individually packaged snacks (crackers, fruit, chips, fruit cups, etc)  

E-print Network

Supplies � Other Foil Febreeze Dishwasher Tablets Food Service Gloves Kleenex Cleaning/Laundry Supplies - Priority Clorox Wipes Laundry Detergent Fabric Softener Sheets Hand sanitizer Liquid HandFood Items Individually packaged snacks (crackers, fruit, chips, fruit cups, etc) Individually

Hutcheon, James M.

361

Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.  

PubMed

The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

2003-01-01

362

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops. PMID:24655934

2014-01-01

363

Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.  

PubMed

The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence mechanisms. These food-health concepts would probably spur the large-scale oil palm (and monoculture) plantations, which are already seen to be a major cause of deforestation and replacement of diverse ecosystems in many countries. However, the environmental advantages of palm phytonutrients are that they are prepared from the readily available raw material from palm oil milling processes. Palm fruit, one of only a few fatty fruits, is likely to have an increasingly substantiated place in human health, not only through the provision of acceptable dietary fats, but also its characteristic protective phytonutrients. PMID:14506002

Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

2003-01-01

364

Free and chemically bonded phenolic acids in barks of Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.  

PubMed

Liquid column chromatography, planar chromatography (TLC) on modified and unmodified silica layers, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as ESI-TOF MS and 1H-NMR have been used for separation, purification and identification of phenolic acids in the barks of Sambucus nigra and Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae). By the use of these procedures three cinnamic acid derivatives: caffeic acid, p-coumaric, and ferulic acid, four benzoic acid derivatives: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, two phenylacetic acid derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homogentisic acid, and two depsides: chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were detected and identified in the bark of Viburnum opulus. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and chlorogenic acid were also detected and identified in the bark of Sambucus nigra. Except for chlorogenic acid, this is the first time these phenolic acids have been isolated, detected, and identified in the bark of V. opulus and S. nigra. PMID:18536165

Turek, Sebastian; Cisowski, Wojciech

2007-01-01

365

The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.  

PubMed

Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

2014-09-01

366

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-04-21

367

Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

TDOC Z TA245.7 B873 NO.1591 B-1591 Texas Agricultural Extension Service HOM? FRUIT PRODUCTION FIGS LIBRARY SEP 2 7 1988 ( A&M Univer it Texas Agricultural Extension Service. Zerle L. Carpenter, Director. The Texas A&M University System.... Dooryard trees can be grown in any section of Texas. Figs grow extremely well along the Texas Gulf Coast. However, trees require cold protection in the far northern and western areas and supplemental irrigation in the state's drier areas. The fig fruit...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

1987-01-01

368

Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

2004-11-05

369

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

bean/chick peas Dried/Canned Lentils Kidney or Black beans Soy Products (shelf-stable tofu, canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo

O'Toole, Alice J.

370

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

371

Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits  

PubMed Central

Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

2014-01-01

372

Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits.  

PubMed

Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

Park, Sangkyu; Park, Ae Ran; Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

2014-01-01

373

Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito L.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainitoL.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics: The process of domestication is understudied and poorly known for many tropical fruit tree crops. The star apple or caimito tree (Chrysophyllum cainito L., Sapotaceae) is cultivated throughout the New World tropics for its edible fruits. We studied this species in central Panama, where it grows wild in tropical moist forests and is also commonly cultivated in backyard gardens. Using fruits collected over two harvest seasons, we tested the hypothesis that cultivated individuals of C. cainito show distinctive fruit and seed characteristics associated with domestication relative to wild types. We found that cultivated fruits were significantly and substantially larger and allocated more to pulp and less to exocarp than wild fruits. The pulp of cultivated fruits was less acidic; also, the pulp had lower concentrations of phenolics and higher concentrations of sugar. The seeds were larger and more numerous and were less defended with phenolics in cultivated than in wild fruits. Discriminant Analysis showed that, among the many significant differences, fruit size and sugar concentration drove the great majority of the variance distinguishing wild from cultivated classes. Variance of pulp phenolics among individuals was significantly higher among wild trees than among cultivated trees, while variance of fruit mass and seed number was significantly higher among cultivated trees. Most traits showed strong correlations between years. Overall, we found a clear signature of a domestication syndrome in the fruits of cultivated caimito in Panama. PMID:20543881

Lopez, Isis; Petersen, Jennifer J.; Anaya, Natalia; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Potter, Daniel

2010-01-01

374

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

375

Classification of fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifications for fruits and vegetables are most helpful for dietary assessment and guidance if they are based on the composition of these foods. This work determined whether levels of food components in fruits and vegetables correlated with classification criteria based on botanic family, color, part of plant, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A database of 104 commonly consumed fruits and

Jean A. T. Pennington; Rachel A. Fisher

2009-01-01

376

Fruits and vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-23

377

FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

.5 and the irrigation water has little to no calcium bicarbonate. Rabbiteye plants are also extremely sensitive or machines, with the majority of fruit grown in Texas picked by hand and sold for fresh consump- tion are shallow and fibrous, thus sandy soils pose problems with- out drip irrigation. Soil drying should be pre

Mukhtar, Saqib

378

Hormone and Seed-Specific Regulation of Pea Fruit Growth1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of young pea (Pisum sativum) fruit (pericarp) requires developing seeds or, in the absence of seeds, treatment with gibberellin (GA) or auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid). This study examined the role of seeds and hormones in the regulation of cell division and elongation in early pea fruit development. Profiling histone H2A and -tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) gene expression during early fruit

Jocelyn A. Ozga; Rika van Huizen; Dennis M. Reinecke

2002-01-01

379

Biochemical compositional and technological characterizations of black and white myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical and technological properties were determined in developing Myrtus communis L. fruits (myrtle) from Mersin to investigate potential uses. Completely ripe black and white fruits contained ash, crude\\u000a protein, crude oil, water- and alcohol soluble extracts, tartaric, malic and citric acids, and minerals including Ca, K, P,\\u000a Mg and Na. Proximate compounds (%) for black and white fruits were: 7.47

Haydar Hac?sefero?ullar?; Mehmet Musa Özcan; Derya Arslan; Ahmet Ünver

380

[Study on synchronous correlation between fruit characteristic spectrum and the parameter of internal quality for Hamlin sweet orange fruit].  

PubMed

The purpose of our study is to study the relationship between the reflective spectrum of fruit and the internal quality of the orange fruit and find the suitable mark spectrum that can synchronously measure the several fruit quality index at same time to lay a foundation for the development of a rapid and nondestructive field fruit quality analysis technique by analyzing the visible-near infrared spectrum. Mature Hamlin orange (Citrus sinensis (L)cv. Hamlin sweet orange) fruits were individually mensurated for their reflective spectrum by using FieldSpec-HH spectrometer and for their contents of total soluble solid (TSS), citric acid and vitamin C (Vc) by chemistry analysis. The experiment results showed that the fruit reflectivity values (x) at 988 nm was significantly correlated to both TSS (y)(r = 0.387* *, y = 13. 957x + 5.405), TSS/acid ratio(y)(r = 0. 440* *, y = 75.120x + 37.256), and Vc(r = 0.309*). Both of TSS and Vc contends were positively correlated with the second derivatives of the reflective spectrum at 943 nm, with correlation coefficients of 0.339* and 0.355*. TSS/acid ratio was positively correlated only with the reciprocal log values of the reflective spectrum at 944 nm (r = 0.304*). The results in this study indicated that fruit quality indexes TSS, Vc and TSS/acid can be synchronously, rapidly and nondestructively field measured at the same time by the 988 or 429 nm reflective spectrum test and special regress equation operation. PMID:20545159

Deng, Lie; He, Shao-Lan; Yi, Shi-Lai; Zheng, Yong-Qiang; Xie, Rang-Jin; Zhang, Xuan; Mao, Sha-Sha

2010-04-01

381

Sucrose Synthase in Wild Tomato, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength  

PubMed Central

Here it is reported that sucrose synthase can be readily measured in growing wild tomato fruits (Lycopersicon chmielewskii) when suitable methods are adopted during fruit extraction. The enzyme also was present in fruit pericarp tissues, in seeds, and in flowers. To check for novel characteristics, the wild tomato fruit sucrose synthase was purified, by (NH4)2SO4 fraction and chromatography with DE-32, Sephadex G-200, and PBA-60, to one major band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The following characteristics were obtained: native protein relative molecular weight 380,000; subunit relative molecular weight 89,000; Km values with: sucrose 53 millimolar, UDP 18.9 micromolar, UDP-glucose 88 micromolar, fructose 8.4 millimolar; pH optima between 6.2 to 7.3 for sucrose breakdown and 7 to 9 for synthesis; and temperature optima near 50°C. The enzyme exhibited a high affinity and a preference for uridylates. The enzyme showed more sensitivity to divalent cations in the synthesis of sucrose than in its breakdown. Sink strength in tomato fruits also was investigated in regard to sucrose breakdown enzyme activities versus fruit weight gain. Sucrose synthase activity was consistently related to increases in fruit weight (sink strength) in both wild and commercial tomatoes. Acid and neutral invertases were not, because the published invertase activity values were too variable for quantitative analyses regarding the roles of invertases in tomato fruit development. In rapidly growing fruits of both wild and commercially developed tomato plants, the activity of sucrose synthase per growing fruit, i.e. sucrose synthase peak activity X fruit size, was linearly related to final fruit size; and the activity exceeded fruit growth and carbon import rates by at least 10-fold. In mature, nongrowing fruits, sucrose synthase activities approached nil values. Therefore, sucrose synthase can serve as an indicator of sink strength in growing tomato fruits. PMID:16668741

Sun, Jindong; Loboda, Tadeusz; Sung, Shi-Jean S.; Black, Clanton C.

1992-01-01

382

Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Kalamuck, Karen; Exploratorium

2000-01-01

383

Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit.  

PubMed

Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5?mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1?RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

2013-01-01

384

Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit  

PubMed Central

Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5?mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1?RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

2013-01-01

385

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Broussonetia papyrifera Fruits  

PubMed Central

Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs) was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC–MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products. PMID:22389678

Sun, Jie; Liu, Shao-fang; Zhang, Chu-shu; Yu, Li-na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Qing-li

2012-01-01

386

Effect of plant fruits – Indian gall nut, bedda nut and gooseberry – on hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of supplementation of three fruits, Indian gall nut, bedda nut and gooseberry, on serum lipid levels and excretion of bile acids was investigated. Rats made hypercholesterolemic by feeding hypercholesterolemia inducing diet (HID) for a period of 30 days were used as the test model. Feeding of a dried powder of these fruits along with the HID resulted in

D. Nalini; R. Kapoor

1999-01-01

387

Seasonal and cultivar variations in antioxidant and sensory quality of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of diverse pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars were analyzed for soluble phenolics content, antioxidant activity, soluble solid concentration, acidity and internal red color intensity. Analysis was carried out at various dates throughout the harvest season, corresponding to different climatic conditions during fruit ripening. Values obtained varied with cultivar and ripening date. In three cultivars of different sensory properties and

Hamutal Borochov-Neori; Sylvie Judeinstein; Effi Tripler; Moti Harari; Amnon Greenberg; Ilan Shomer; Doron Holland

2009-01-01

388

Histamine production by bacilli bacteria, acetic bacteria and yeast isolated from fruit wines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven red wines imported from foreign country and 40 domestic fruit wines, including 15 red wines, 4 white wines, 7 plum wines, and 14 other fruit wines, sold in the supermarkets in Taiwan were purchased and tested to determine the occurrence of biogenic amines and histamine-forming bacteria. The levels of pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), reducing sugar

Shu-Chen Chang; Ching-Wen Lin; Chii-Ming Jiang; Hwi-Chang Chen; Ming-Kuei Shih; Yu-Ywan Chen; Yung-Hsiang Tsai

2009-01-01

389

Deciduous Fruit Options for North FL Landscapes by Terry DelValle, Urban Horticulture Extension Agent  

E-print Network

Deciduous Fruit Options for North FL Landscapes by Terry DelValle, Urban Horticulture Extension your homework first. Site Selection: Here is a list of criteria. Fruit require an open sunny spot. Soil pH should be slightly acid, around 6.0 to 6.5, with the exception of blueberries which grow best

Hill, Jeffrey E.

390

lueberriesB lueberries are truly an American fruit, with several  

E-print Network

lueberriesB B lueberries are truly an American fruit, with several species native to North America. They are relatively easy to grow when given acid soils and the right grow- ing climate. The best blueberry for Texas of the fruit's high concentration of antioxidants, which are thought to help prevent cancer and heart disease

Mukhtar, Saqib

391

Temporal Patterns of Fruit Fly (Drosophila) Evolution Revealed by Mutation Clocks  

E-print Network

Temporal Patterns of Fruit Fly (Drosophila) Evolution Revealed by Mutation Clocks Koichiro Tamura events leading to the origin of this fruit fly remain elusive because of the paucity of extensive fossil-like accumulation of nucleotide and amino-acid substitutions. Here we present a novel methodology in which genomic

Kumar, Sudhir

392

Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, ?-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts,

Sherif E. A. Badr; Mohamed Shaaban; Yehya M. Elkholy; Maher H. Helal; Akila S. Hamza; Mohamed S. Masoud; Mounir M. El Safty

2010-01-01

393

Influence of strawberry tree ( Arbutus unedo L.) fruit ripening stage on chemical composition and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbutus unedo is a widespread shrub with economic importance, derived from the use of its berries in the production of alcoholic beverages and in folk medicine. This work intends to evaluate for the first time the effect of fruit ripening stage on antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, fatty acid profile and tocopherol composition. Ripe fruits shown higher extraction yield (45.04±2.23%)

Ivo Oliveira; Paula Baptista; Ricardo Malheiro; Susana Casal; Albino Bento; José Alberto Pereira

2011-01-01

394

The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced\\u000a diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric\\u000a fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood.\\u000a Although the different species

E. Katz; M. Fon; Y. J. Lee; B. S. Phinney; A. Sadka; E. Blumwald

2007-01-01

395

The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits.  

PubMed

Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato. PMID:24659489

Bastías, Adriana; Yañez, Mónica; Osorio, Sonia; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Fernie, Alisdair R; Casaretto, José A

2014-06-01

396

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

2007-08-02

397

21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.  

...Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the...cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil...oil, and tallow and the fatty acids derived from these...

2014-04-01

398

40 CFR 180.289 - Methanearsonic acid; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the herbicide methanearsonic acid, including its metabolites...measuring only methanearsonic acid, from application of the disodium...monosodium salts of methanearsonic acid, calculated as the stoichiometric...Cotton, hulls 0.9 None Fruit, citrus 0.35...

2013-07-01

399

Intake of fruit and vegetables: implications for bone health.  

PubMed

'These famous words by Mencken in the early 20th century about the meaning of life and death, may also apply to the struggle of the healthy skeleton against the deleterious effects of retained acid!' (Kraut & Coburn, 1994). The health-related benefit of a high consumption of fruit and vegetables and the influence of this food group on a variety of diseases has been gaining increasing prominence in the literature over a number of years. Of considerable interest to the osteoporosis field is the role that bone plays in acid-base balance. Natural, pathological and experimental states of acid loading and acidosis have been associated with hypercalciuria and negative Ca balance, and more recently the detrimental effects of 'acid' from the diet on bone mineral have been demonstrated. Suprisingly, consideration of the skeleton as a source of 'buffer' contributing to both the preservation of the body's pH and defence of the system against acid-base disorders has been ongoing for over three decades. However, it is only more recently that the possibility of a positive link between a high consumption of fruit and vegetables and indices of bone health has been more fully explored. A number of population-based studies published in the last decade have demonstrated a beneficial effect of fruit and vegetable and K intake on axial and peripheral bone mass and bone metabolism in men and women across the age-ranges. Further support for a positive link between fruit and vegetable intake and bone health can be found in the results of the Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) and DASH-Sodium intervention trials. There is now an urgent requirement for the implementation of: (1) fruit and vegetable and alkali administration-bone health intervention trials, including fracture risk as an end point; (2) re-analysis of existing dietary-bone mass and metabolism datasets to look specifically at the impact of dietary 'acidity' on the skeleton. PMID:15018489

New, Susan A

2003-11-01

400

The apple skin : colourful healthiness. Developmental and environmental regulation of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate objective of the production, handling and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables is to satisfy consumers requirements. In general the attractiveness of fruits and vegetables to consumers is determined both by visible (e.g. colour) and invisible (e.g. healthiness) quality attributes. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, secondary metabolites, contribute largely to both fruit colour and, through fruit consumption, to

M. A. G. Awad

2001-01-01

401

First synthesis of (+/-)-basidifferquinone C, an inducer for fruiting-body formation in Polyporus arcularius.  

PubMed

Basidifferquinones, isolated from Streptomyces sp., are potent inducers of fruiting-body formation in the basidiomycete, Polyporus arcularius. The first synthesis of (+/-)-basidifferquinone C was accomplished by starting from 3,5-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. PMID:19809187

Hashimoto, Takashi; Tashiro, Takuya; Kitahara, Takeshi; Mori, Kenji; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Takikawa, Hirosato

2009-10-01

402

Pollinating Fruit Crops Most tree fruits and many small fruits grown in New Hampshire require cross pollination to produce a  

E-print Network

-fruitful varieties are especially useful in home gardens where space available for growing fruit is often limited-fruitful. European types and Japanese types generally won't cross pollinate each other. Sweet Cherries Most sweet

New Hampshire, University of

403

Acid rain affects egg-laying behavior of apple maggot flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The tephritid fruit fly,Rhagoletis pomonella, is less likely to attempt oviposition in host fruit that have been exposed to acid rain or to a simulated acid rain solution (pH<3.8). Electrophysiological data suggest that acid rain residue on the fruit surface may interfere with the sensory mechanisms that the fly uses during recognition and acceptance of host fruit.

A. L. Averill; E. S. Bowdan; R. J. Prokopy

1987-01-01

404

Phenolic acids and depsides from some species of the Erodium genera.  

PubMed

Six natural polyphenolic compounds, brevifolin carboxylic acid, brevifolin, ellagic acid, methyl gallate, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid have been isolated from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Erodium cicutarium (L.) L.'Hérit. (Geraniaceae). Structures were determined by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by MS and NMR spectral analysis. The distribution of these compounds in the other species of the Erodium genera (E. botrys, E. chium, E. ciconium, E. cicutarium, E. glutinosum subsp. dunense, E. gruinum, E. manescavi, E. pelargoniiflorum, E. petraeum) were examined by HPLC with a RP-18 column, and MGD-TLC methods on unmodified silica gel and silica gel chemically modified with polar and nonpolar groups (HPTLC-Si 60 LiChrospher, HPTLC-NH2, HPTLC-DIOL, HPTLC RP-18W). PMID:11837680

Fecka, I; Kowalczyk, A; Cisowski, W

2001-01-01

405

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

406

The fruits of selectivity: how birds forage on Goupia glabra fruits of different ripeness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have been published on avian fruit selection, few have addressed the effects of fruit scarcity on the patterns of fruit choice. Here, we compared the consumption of seven bird species for six simultaneously present maturation stages of Goupia glabra fruits. Ripe G. glabra fruits contain more lipids, carbohydrates and energy, and fewer phenols, than unripe fruits. All

H. Martin Schaefer; Veronika Schaefer

2006-01-01

407

Chemical Constituents of the Fruiting Body of Xylaria polymorpha  

PubMed Central

Xylaria, belonging to the Ascomycotina, is known to produce diverse classes of bioactive substances. In an effort to identify the chemical constituents of the fruiting bodies of Xylaria polymorpha, linoleic acid (1), linoleic acid methyl ester (2), ergosterol (3), 4-acetyl-3,4-dihydro-6,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methyl-1H-2-benzopyran-1-one (4), and 4-hydroxyscytalone (5) were isolated from its methanolic extract. Their structures were assigned on the basis of various spectroscopic studies. PMID:23983534

Jang, Yun-Woo; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Seok, Soon-Ja; Yu, Seung Hun

2009-01-01

408

Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatures, book and United States Department of Agriculture-National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Ascorbic acid was highest in Wood apple and lowest in Roselle. Monkey jack contained the highest amount of carotenoids, zinc and copper. Content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorous were found highest in Antidesma velutinum. Potassium was the highest in Wood apple followed by in Moneky jack. It was noted that most of the minor fruits have much higher amount of ascorbic acid than the national fruit - Jack fruit ripe, the king fruit - Mango ripe of Bangladesh and exotic fruits - Apple and Grapes. The nutrient values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity. PMID:23601393

Tariqul Islam Shajib, Mohammad; Kawser, Mahbuba; Nuruddin Miah, Mohammad; Begum, Parveen; Bhattacharjee, Lalita; Hossain, A; Fomsgaard, Inge S; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

2013-10-01

409

Effect of fertilizer treatments on the fruit quality of the Halehaven peach  

E-print Network

Soluble Solids and Fruit Size. 12 13 15 4. Interaction Betveen Phosphorous and Cover Crop on Total Soluble Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . ~ . . ~ 17 5. Interaction Betveen Nitrogen and Phosphorous on Total Titratable Acid . 18 6. Three Factor... Interaction Between Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium on Total Titratable Acid. 19 LIST OF TABIZS I. %an Squares. II. Treatment Means Page 10 11 EFFECT OF FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON TRE FRUIT QUALITY OF THE HAIEHAVEN PEACH INTRODUCTION Many reports...

Storey, James Benton

2012-06-07

410

1-MCP prevents ethylene-induced accumulation of antifungal diene in avocado fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preformed (Z,Z)-1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12,15-diene (AFD) is the most active antifungal compound in avocado; it affects the quiescence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in unripe fruit. Ethylene treatment (40?gl?1) of freshly harvested avocado fruits cv. Fuerte enhanced the expression patterns of genes encoding ?12 fatty acid desaturase (avfad12-3), fatty acid elongase (AVFAE, avfae1), their respective enzymatic activities, and the level of the AFD. Application

X. Wang; I. Kobiler; A. Lichter; A. Leikin-Frenkel; E. Pesis; D. Prusky

2005-01-01

411

Ethanol and methanol as possible odor cues for Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus).  

PubMed

Frugivorous bats from the Old and New World use odor cues to locate and assess fruit condition. We hypothesized that Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) use as odor cues those volatile compounds that increase in emission rate as fruit ripens. We examined whether the smell of fermentation products may indicate the degree of ripeness to fruit bats. We analyzed volatile compounds in the headspace (the gas space above a fruit in a closed container) of dates (Phoenix dactylifera) and rusty figs (Ficus rubiginosa), both of which are consumed by fruit bats, to elucidate which compounds originate from fermentative pathways and to determine which change in emission rate during ripening. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid were the only volatile compounds detected as products of fermentation in both fruits. In dates, emission rates of these compounds increased during maturation, whereas in rusty figs, they decreased or remained constant. Methanol, although not a fermentation product, increased in emission rate during ripening in both fruits. We found that R. aegyptiacus was neither attracted nor deterred by the smell of methanol at any of the concentrations used. Although the odor of ethanol emanating from food containing concentrations similar to those found in ripe fruit did not attract the bats, at relatively high concentrations (> or =1%), the smell of ethanol deterred them. Thus, ethanol at high concentrations may serve as a signal for bats to avoid overripe, unpalatable fruit. PMID:16770719

Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Steeghs, Marco; Laarhoven, Luc-Jan; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans J M; Dudley, Robert; Pinshow, Berry

2006-06-01

412

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

413

The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

Nyhuis, Jane

414

Thermophysical Properties of Stone Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophysical properties of the stone fruits plum, peach, and nectarine were modeled from experimental data as functions of moisture content. Samples were dried to preset moistures in a laboratory cabinet dryer, and the thermal conductivity, specific heat, apparent density, bulk density, and porosity of the fruit were determined. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were found to be linear

W. Phomkong; G. Srzednicki; R. H. Driscoll

2006-01-01

415

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

416

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

417

Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality. PMID:23972229

Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime

2013-09-18

418

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

419

Meristematic sculpting in fruit development.  

PubMed

The diversity of shape in life is astounding, and this is particularly vivid when the varied forms observed in our fruit bowls are examined. How some of the tissues of the Arabidopsis fruit are moulded is starting to be understood, revealing how plants may sculpt plant form by modulating the degree of meristematic properties. In this fruit the KNOX I and BLH meristem identity genes promote medial tissue proliferation by maintaining these tissues in a 'quasi-meristematic' fate. The action of these genes is opposed by ASYMMETRIC LEAVES activity that promotes valve formation together with JAGGED/FILAMENTOUS FLOWER and FRUITFULL activities. This is reminiscent of the function of these genes in the shoot apical meristem and in leaf development. In this review, the aim is to present the medial tissues of the Arabidopsis fruit as a modified meristem and extrapolate our knowledge from other plant organs to fruit development. PMID:19246597

Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Ostergaard, Lars

2009-01-01

420

Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits  

SciTech Connect

Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

1989-04-01

421

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

1999-03-01

422

Survival of salmonella on dried fruits and in aqueous dried fruit homogenates as affected by temperature.  

PubMed

A study was done to determine the ability of Salmonella to survive on dried cranberries, raisins, and strawberries and in date paste, as affected by storage temperature. Acid-adapted Salmonella, initially at 6.57 to 7.01 log CFU/g, was recovered from mist-inoculated cranberries (water activity [aw] 0.47) and raisins (aw 0.46) stored at 25°C for 21 days but not 42 days, strawberries (aw 0.21) for 42 days but not 84 days, and date paste (aw 0.69) for 84 days but not 126 days. In contrast, the pathogen was detected in strawberries stored at 4°C for 182 days (6 months) but not 242 days (8 months) and in cranberries, date paste, and raisins stored for 242 days. Surface-grown cells survived longer than broth-grown cells in date paste. The order of rate of inactivation at 4°C was cranberry > strawberry > raisin > date paste. Initially at 2.18 to 3.35 log CFU/g, inactivation of Salmonella on dry (sand)&ndash inoculated fruits followed trends similar to those for mist-inoculated fruits. Survival of Salmonella in aqueous homogenates of dried fruits as affected by fruit concentration and temperature was also studied. Growth was not observed in 10% (aw 0.995 to 0.999) and 50% (aw 0.955 to 0.962) homogenates of the four fruits held at 4°C, 50% homogenates at 25°C, and 10% cranberry and strawberry homogenates at 25°C. Growth of the pathogen in 10% date paste and raisin homogenates stored at 25°C was followed by rapid inactivation. Results of these studies suggest the need to subject dried fruits that may be contaminated with Salmonella to a lethal process and prevent postprocess contamination before they are eaten out-of-hand or used as ingredients in ready-to-eat foods. Observations showing that Salmonella can grow in aqueous homogenates of date paste and raisins emphasize the importance of minimizing contact of these fruits with high-moisture environments during handling and storage. PMID:24988015

Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

2014-07-01

423

Ascorbate metabolism and the developmental demand for tartaric and oxalic acids in ripening grape berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fresh fruits are well accepted as a good source of the dietary antioxidant ascorbic acid (Asc, Vitamin C). However, fruits such as grapes do not accumulate exceptionally high quantities of Asc. Grapes, unlike most other cultivated fruits do however use Asc as a precursor for the synthesis of both oxalic (OA) and tartaric acids (TA). TA is a commercially

Vanessa J Melino; Kathleen L Soole; Christopher M Ford

2009-01-01

424

Polyamine Metabolism in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of [1,4-14C]putrescine and [terminal methylene-3H]spermidine was studied in the fruit pericarp (breaker stage) discs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv Rutgers, and the metabolites identified by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolism of both putrescine and spermidine was relatively slow; in 24 hours about 25% of each amine was metabolized. The 14C l