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Novel Bioactivity of Ellagic Acid in Inhibiting Human Platelet Activation  

PubMed Central

Pomegranates are widely consumed either as fresh fruit or in beverage form as juice and wine. Ellagic acid possesses potent antioxidative properties; it is known to be an effective phytotherapeutic agent with antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic qualities. Ellagic acid (20 to 80??M) exhibited a potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen; however, it did not inhibit platelet aggregation stimulated by thrombin, arachidonic acid, or U46619. Treatment with ellagic acid (50 and 80??M) significantly inhibited platelet activation stimulated by collagen; this alteration was accompanied by the inhibition of relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)?2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Akt, as well as hydroxyl radical (OH?) formation. In addition, ellagic acid also inhibited p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, ellagic acid did not significantly affect PKC activation and platelet aggregation stimulated by PDBu. This study is the first to show that, in addition to being considered a possible agent for preventing tumor growth, ellagic acid possesses potent antiplatelet properties. It appears to initially inhibit the PLC?2-PKC cascade and/or hydroxyl radical formation, followed by decreased phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, ultimately inhibiting platelet aggregation.

Chang, Yi; Chen, Wei-Fan; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lin, Li-Jyun; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Chang, Chao-Chien



Ellagic acid induces apoptosis through inhibition of nuclear factor ?B in pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the effect of ellagic acid on apop-tosis and proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells and to determine the mechanism of the pro-survival effects of ellagic acid. METHODS: The effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis was assessed by measuring Phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation; and proliferation by measuring DNA thymidine incorporation. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured in permeabilized cells, and in isolated mitochondria. Nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activity was measured by electromobility shift assay (EMSA). RESULTS: We show that ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound in fruits and berries, at concentrations 10 to 50 mmol/L stimulates apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Further, ellagic acid decreases proliferation by up to 20-fold at 50 mmol/L. Ellagic acid stimulates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome C release, and the downstream caspase activation. Ellagic acid does not directly affect mitochondria. Ellagic acid dose-dependently decreased NF-?B binding activity. Furthermore, inhibition of NF-?B activity using IkB wild type plasmid prevented the effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that ellagic acid stimulates apoptosis through inhibition of the prosu-rvival transcription factor NF-?B.

Edderkaoui, Mouad; Odinokova, Irina; Ohno, Izumi; Gukovsky, Ilya; Go, Vay Liang W; Pandol, Stephen J; Gukovskaya, Anna S



Ellagic Acid Inhibits Pancreatic Fibrosis in Male Wistar Bonn\\/Kobori Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key pathological features of chronic pancreatitis are chronic inflammation, acinar atrophy, and pancreatic fibrosis. We\\u000a have previously shown that ellagic acid, a plant-derived polyphenol found in fruits and nuts, inhibited activation of pancreatic\\u000a stellate cells, a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, in vitro. Here we examined whether ellagic acid inhibited\\u000a the development of pancreatic fibrosis in vivo.

Noriaki Suzuki; Atsushi Masamune; Kazuhiro Kikuta; Takashi Watanabe; Kennichi Satoh; Tooru Shimosegawa



Inhibition of liver fibrosis by ellagic acid.  


Chronic administration of carbon tetrachloride in liquid paraffin (1.7) ip; 0.15 ml, (20 doses) has been found to produce severe hepatotoxicity, as seen from the elevated levels of serum and liver glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxides. The chronic administration of carbon tetrachloride was also found to produce liver fibrosis as seen from pathological analysis as well as elevated liver-hydroxy proline. Oral administration of ellagic acid was found to significantly reduce the elevated levels of enzymes, lipid peroxide and liver hydroxy proline in these animals and rectified liver pathology. These results indicate that ellagic acid administration orally can circumvent the carbon tetrachloride toxicity and subsequent fibrosis. PMID:9055108

Thresiamma, K C; Kuttan, R



Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).  


The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. PMID:23561148

Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A



In vitro anti-proliferative activities of ellagic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities of ellagic acid (a naturally occurring bioactive compound in berries, grapes, and nuts) was evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), normal human lung fibroblast cells HEL 299, Caco-2 colon, MCF-7 breast, Hs 578T breast, and DU 145 human prostatic cancer cells. Ellagic acid at concentration in the range 10–100 ?mol\\/L did not

Jack N. Losso; Rishipal R. Bansode; Alfred Trappey; Hiba A. Bawadi; Robert Truax



Free radical studies of ellagic acid, a natural phenolic antioxidant.  


Ellagic acid, a plant-derived polyphenol, inhibits gamma-radiation (hydroxyl radical) induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Its antioxidant capacity has been estimated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay. To understand the actual mechanisms involved in antioxidant activity and the free radical scavenging ability,a nanosecond pulse radiolysis technique has been employed. The rate constants for the reactions of several reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species such as hydroxyl, peroxyl, and nitrogen dioxide radicals have been found to be in the range of 10(6)-10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The ellagic acid radicals have been characterized by the absorption spectra and decay kinetics. Studies on the reactions of ellagic acid with the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical and the radicals of ellagic acid with ascorbate have been used to estimate its one-electron reduction potential. Ellagic acid has also been found to be a good scavenger of peroxynitrite. Using stopped-flow reaction analyzer with absorption detection, the rate constant for this reaction has been determined to be 3.7 x 10(3) M(-1) s (-1). The electron spin resonance spectra of the oxidized ellagic acid radicals have been recorded by horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide method. PMID:11902978

Priyadarsini, K Indira; Khopde, Sujata M; Kumar, S Santosh; Mohan, Hari



Ellagic acid induces apoptosis through inhibition of nuclear factor kB in pancreatic cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine the effect of ellagic acid on apop- tosis and proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells and to determine the mechanism of the pro-survival effects of ellagic acid. METHODS: The effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis was assessed by measuring Phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation; and proliferation by measuring DNA thymidine incorporation. Mitochondrial membrane

Mouad Edderkaoui; Irina Odinokova; Izumi Ohno; Ilya Gukovsky; Stephen J Pandol; Anna S Gukovskaya



Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.



Ellagic acid rhamnosides from the stem bark of Eucalyptus globulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four ellagic acid rhamnosides were isolated from the stem bark of Eucalyptus globulus. Their structures have been established on the basis of the analysis of their 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, IR and MS spectral data. The HMBC data of these compounds were most useful for their structure determinations, with these bring determined to be 3-O-methylellagic acid 3?-O-?-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid

Jong-Pyung Kim; In-Kyoung Lee; Bong-Sik Yun; Sung-Hyun Chung; Gyu-Seop Shim; Hiroyuki Koshino; Ick-Dong Yoo



Inhibition of liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activity and metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK by capsaicin and ellagic acid.  


The tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), present in tobacco and tobacco smoke, is metabolically activated by microsomal enzymes. In this study, we examined the effect of capsaicin and ellagic acid on the in vitro metabolism of NNK by hamster and rat liver microsomes. Capsaicin is the principal component of Capsicum fruits used widely throughout the world as a food additive. Ellagic acid, with reported anticarcinogenic properties, is found in various soft fruits and nuts. Both capsaicin and ellagic acid inhibited the major pathways of NNK-reduction, N-pyridine oxidation and a-hydroxylation by hamster liver microsomes. Capsaicin inhibited NNK-reduction and a-hydroxylation and ellagic acid inhibited N-oxidation and a-hydroxylation by rat liver microsomes. The effects of capsaicin and ellagic acid on isozymes of cytochrome P450 were observed in the hydroxylation reactions of the metabolism of the steroid hormone testosterone. Results of these experiments indicated that both capsaicin and ellagic acid strongly inhibited the constitutive enzymes CYP 2A2, 3A1, 2C11, 2B1, 2B2 and 2C6. This study suggests that capsaicin and ellagic acid, as naturally occurring dietary constituents, possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties through the inhibition of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. PMID:8297156

Zhang, Z; Hamilton, S M; Stewart, C; Strother, A; Teel, R W


Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber



Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber


Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Ellagic Acid Peracetate.  


Ellagic acid (1) was synthesized for the first time from methyl gallate through 3-pentagalloylglucose (?-PGG), and ellagic acid peracetate (3,4,3',4'-tetra-O-acetylellagic acid, 2) was derived from 1 by acetylation. Oral administration of 2 suppressed melanoma growth significantly in C7BL/6 immunocompetent mice without having any effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity. Comparison of the immunoenhancing activities of 1 and 2 indicated that the latter compound increased white blood cell quantities in peripheral blood and immune cells enriched from the bone marrow and liver of mice. Therefore, both the antitumor efficacy and the immunity enhancement by 2 were greater than those by 1. In addition, on oral administration neither 1 nor 2 resulted in whole body, liver, or spleen weight changes of normal, tumor-free mice, indicating that these compounds are potentially non-toxic to mice. It was shown that ellagic acid peracetate (2) inhibits B16 melanoma cell growth in vitro, and induces B16 cell apoptosis, corresponding to BCL-2 down-regulation. Collectively, the present data imply that 2 can suppress tumor growth by enhancing mouse immunity and inducing tumor cell apoptosis without apparent side effects. PMID:23185648

Ren, Yulin; Wei, Min; Still, Patrick C; Yuan, Shunzong; Deng, Youcai; Chen, Xiaozhuo; Himmeldirk, Klaus; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Yu, Jianhua



Extraction and analysis of ellagic acid from novel complex sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA) was quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) coupled with photodiode\\u000a array detection (DAD) in five fine-powdered plants collected from the semiarid region of Mexico. Samples analysed included\\u000a Jatropha dioica branches (Dragon’s blood), Euphorbia antisyphyllitica branches (Candelilla), Turnera diffusa Willd leaves (Damiana), Flourensia cernua leaves (hojasén) and Punica granatum husk (pomegranate) at two maturity stages (“turning” or

Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbo; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Cristóbal N. Aguilar; Ernesto Favela-Torres



Pharmacokinetic study of ellagic acid in rat after oral administration of pomegranate leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of ellagic acid, the principal bioactive component of pomegranate leaf extract, in rats plasma following oral administration of pomegranate leaf extract was achieved by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The calibration curve for ellagic acid was linear (r2=0.9998) ver the concentration range 0.026–1.3?g\\/ml. The intra- and inter-day assays of ellagic acid from rat plasma were less than 6.52%

Fan Lei; Dong-Ming Xing; Lan Xiang; Yu-Nan Zhao; Wei Wang; Lu-Jun Zhang; Li-Jun Du



Dietary ellagic acid attenuates oxidized LDL uptake and stimulates cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages.  


Foam cell formation is the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. Lipid uptake by scavenger receptors (SR) in macrophages initiates chronic proinflammatory cascades linked to atherosclerosis. It has been reported that the upregulation of cholesterol efflux may be protective in the development of atherosclerosis. Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound mostly found in berries, walnuts, and pomegranates, possesses antioxidative, growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-promoting activities in cancer cells. However, the antiatherogenic actions of ellagic acid are not well defined. The current study elucidated oxidized LDL handling of ellagic acid in J774A1 murine macrophages. Noncytotoxic ellagic acid suppressed SR-B1 induction and foam cell formation within 6 h after the stimulation of macrophages with oxidized LDL, confirmed by Oil red O staining of macrophages. Ellagic acid at ?5 ?mol/L upregulated PPAR? and ATP binding cassette transporter-1 in lipid-laden macrophages, all responsible for cholesterol efflux. In addition, 5 ?mol/L ellagic acid accelerated expression and transcription of the nuclear receptor of liver X receptor-? highly implicated in the PPAR signaling. Furthermore, ellagic acid promoted cholesterol efflux in oxidized LDL-induced foam cells. These results provide new information that ellagic acid downregulated macrophage lipid uptake to block foam cell formation of macrophages and boosted cholesterol efflux in lipid-laden foam cells. Therefore, dietary and pharmacological interventions with berries rich in ellagic acid may be promising treatment strategies to interrupt the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:21940512

Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Jung-Lye; Lee, Eun-Sook; Han, Seon-Young; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee



Ellagic acid prevents cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in liver and heart tissue of rats.  


Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce hepatotoxicity, and several studies suggest that supplemental antioxidants can reduce cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects on the liver and heart oxidant/antioxidant system and the possible protective effects of ellagic acid on liver and heart toxicity induced by cisplatin. The control group received 0.9% saline; animals in the ellagic acid group received only ellagic acid (10 mg/kg); animals in the cisplatin group received only cisplatin (7 mg/kg); animals in cisplatin + ellagic acid group received ellagic acid for 10 days after cisplatin. The rats were killed at the end of the treatment period. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in liver and heart tissue. While administration of cisplatin increased the MDA levels in liver and heart tissues, it decreased the GSH, GSH-Px and CAT in these samples when compared to the control group. The administration of ellagic acid to cisplatin-treated rats decreased the MDA levels, and increased GSH, GSH-Px and CAT in these samples. Cisplatin caused marked damages in the histopathological status of liver and heart tissues. These damages were ameliorated by ellagic acid administration. In conclusion, ellagic acid may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters. PMID:17910619

Yüce, Abdurrauf; Ate??ahin, Ahmet; Ceriba?i, Ali Osman; Aksakal, Mesut



Disposition of the plant phenol ellagic acid in the mouse following oral administration by gavage.  


1. The absorption, distribution and elimination of 3H-ellagic acid, a putative antimutagen and anticarcinogen, was studied in male Swiss-Webster mice following oral administration. 2. Levels of 3H-ellagic acid were highest in blood 30 min after administration, in urine and bile 120 min post-administration, and in liver, lung and kidney 15 min after administration [corrected]. 3. Free ellagic acid and its conjugates were present in urine, bile and blood. H.p.l.c. analysis of the organic solvent extracts of urine, bile and blood indicated the presence of four metabolites in urine, two in blood and one in bile. 4. Sulphate ester, glucuronide and glutathione conjugates of ellagic acid were present in urine, bile and blood. H.p.l.c. analysis of organic solvent extracts after aryl sulphatase or beta-glucuronidase treatment showed that ellagic acid was the major component present. 5. Absorption of 3H-ellagic acid occurred mostly within two hours after oral administration. Levels in blood, bile and tissues were low and almost all of the absorbed dose was excreted in urine. 6. More than 53% of the orally administered 3H-ellagic acid remained in the gastrointestinal tract at 24 h. Approximately 19% was excreted in faeces and 22% in urine at 24 h. 7. Of the 24 h faecal radioactivity 93% was extractable into organic solvents and more than 80% of this fraction was free ellagic acid. Only one metabolite was found in faeces. PMID:3400268

Teel, R W; Martin, R M



Dietary compound ellagic acid alleviates skin wrinkle and inflammation induced by UV-B irradiation.  


Ellagic acid, a polyphenol compound present in berries and pomegranate, has received attention as an agent that may have potential bioactivities preventing chronic diseases. This study examined photoprotective effects of ellagic acid on collagen breakdown and inflammatory responses in UV (ultraviolet)-B irradiated human skin cells and hairless mice. Ellagic acid attenuated the UV-B-induced toxicity of HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. Non-toxic ellagic acid markedly prevented collagen degradation by blocking matrix metalloproteinase production in UV-B-exposed fibroblasts. Anti-wrinkle activity of ellagic acid was further investigated in hairless mice exposed to UV-B, in which it attenuated UV-B-triggered skin wrinkle formation and epidermal thickening. Topical application of 10 micromol/l ellagic acid diminished production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-6, and blocked infiltration of inflammatory macrophages in the integuments of SKH-1 hairless mice exposed to UV-B for 8 weeks. In addition, this compound mitigated inflammatory intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in UV-B-irradiated keratinocytes and photoaged mouse epidermis. These results demonstrate that ellagic acid prevented collagen destruction and inflammatory responses caused by UV-B. Therefore, dietary and pharmacological interventions with berries rich in ellagic acid may be promising treatment strategies interrupting skin wrinkle and inflammation associated with chronic UV exposure leading to photoageing. PMID:20113347

Bae, Ji-Young; Choi, Jung-Suk; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Yong-Jin; Park, Jinseu; Kang, Young-Hee



In Vitro and In Vivo Properties of Ellagic Acid in Malaria Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria is one of the most significant causes of infectious disease in the world. The search for new antimalarial chemotherapies has become increasingly urgent due to the parasites' resistance to current drugs. Ellagic acid is a polyphenol found in various plant products. In this study, antimalarial properties of ellagic acid were explored. The results obtained have shown high activity in

Patrice Njomnang Soh; Benoît Witkowski; David Olagnier; Marie-Laure Nicolau; Maria-Concepcion Garcia-Alvarez; Antoine Berry; Francoise Benoit-Vical



Ellagic acid rhamnosides from the stem bark of Eucalyptus globulus.  


Four ellagic acid rhamnosides were isolated from the stem bark of Eucalyptus globulus. Their structures have been established on the basis of the analysis of their 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, IR and MS spectral data. The HMBC data of these compounds were most useful for their structure determinations, with these bring determined to be 3-O-methylellagic acid 3'-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid 3'-O-alpha-3''-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid 3'-O-alpha-2''-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid 3'-O-alpha-4''-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, respectively. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipid peroxidation using rat liver microsomes, with IC50 values of 10.0-14.0 microg/ml. PMID:11394863

Kim, J P; Lee, I K; Yun, B S; Chung, S H; Shim, G S; Koshino, H; Yoo, I D



Inhibition of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutagenicity and DNA methylation by ellagic acid.  


Ellagic acid, a naturally occurring plant phenol, inhibits the activity of the direct-acting mutagen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNU) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Ellagic acid at 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mM inhibited the mutagenicity of MeNU (0.40 mM) by 3%, 13%, 45%, and 60%, respectively. Ellagic acid (3 mM) also inhibited the mutagenic activity of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (25-200 mM) in the presence of pyrazole-induced rat liver fraction S-9. The effect of ellagic acid on DNA methylation was studied by incubating 0, 0.72, 1.32, 2.64, and 6.60 mM ellagic acid with DNA (0.9 mM nucleotide) and [3H]MeNU (0.66 mM). HPLC analysis of DNA hydrolysates showed that ellagic acid caused a dose-dependent 36-84% decrease in O6-methylguanine but only a 20% decrease in the 7-methylguanine adduct. Under conditions where methylation at the O6 position of guanine in double-stranded DNA was inhibited 65% by ellagic acid, no significant inhibition of either O6- or 7-methylguanine formation was detected in single-stranded DNA. Affinity-binding studies revealed that [3H]ellagic acid binds equally to double-stranded or single-stranded DNA but that poly(dA X dT) binds 1.5 times as much ellagic acid as does poly(dG X dC). The binding of ellagic acid to DNA is dependent on the concentration of both ellagic acid and DNA. The specific inhibition of O6-methylguanine formation only in double-stranded DNA and the relatively low inhibition of 7-methylguanine formation rule out the possibility that ellagic acid prevents DNA alkylation by scavenging the electrophilic intermediate generated in the hydrolysis of MeNU. The results suggest that ellagic acid inhibition of MeNU-induced mutagenicity is due to specific inhibition of methylation at the O6 position of guanine through an ellagic acid-duplex DNA affinity-binding mechanism. PMID:3464940

Dixit, R; Gold, B



Biodistribution of ellagic acid and dose?related inhibition of lung tumorigenesis in A\\/J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA), derived from fruit ellagitannins, is known to be antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic in various animal tumor models. In this study, EA at a dose of 4 g\\/kg diet inhibited multiplicity of tumors induced by 4?(methylnitrosamino)?I?(3?pyridyl)?I?butanone (NNK) in A\\/J mice by 54%. This inhibition was dose related between 0.06 and 4.0 g\\/kg diet. In contrast, two related compounds, esculin

Mohamed Boukharta; Guylaine Jalbert; Andre Castonguay



Inhibition of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-Induced Mutagenicity and DNA Methylation by Ellagic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid, a naturally occurring plant phenol, inhibits the activity of the direct-acting mutagen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNU) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Ellagic acid at 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mM inhibited the mutagenicity of MeNU (0.40 mM) by 3%, 13%, 45%, and 60%, respectively. Ellagic acid (3 mM) also inhibited the mutagenic activity of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (25-200 mM) in the presence of

Rakesh Dixit; Barry Gold



Hepatoprotective activity of ellagic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  


Administration of CCl4 to normal rats and consequent oral feeding with ellagic acid (50 mg/kg) provided a significant protection against the biochemical alterations in serum and liver produced by CCl4. In vitro experiments showed that liver microsomes from animals treated with ellagic acid and CCl4, decreased lipid peroxidation compared to microsome prepared from rats exposed to CCl4 alone. PMID:10783760

Singh, K; Khanna, A K; Chander, R



Efficiency of ellagic acid and arbutin in melasma: a randomized, prospective, open-label study.  


The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of gel formulations containing arbutin, synthetic ellagic acid and plant extracts that contain ellagic acid, on patients with melasma. Thirty patients who applied to Ege University Medical Faculty, Department of Dermatology, were included in the study. A signed consent was obtained from each patient prior to study. Patients whose type of melasma was determined via Wood's lamp were randomized to groups of arbutin, synthetic ellagic acid and plant extract containing natural ellagic acid. The pigment density of patients was evaluated via Mexameter before and after the treatment. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Ege University was obtained before the study. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in the statistical analysis. Nine of 10 patients, for whom synthetic ellagic acid was started, completed the study. A decrease in the level of melanin was determined in eight of these nine patients (P = 0.038). A significant decrease in the level of melanin was also determined in all 10 patients who used plant extract containing ellagic acid (P = 0.05). A significant response was obtained from all of 10 patients who used arbutin. The difference between pre- and post-treatment levels of melanin was statistically significant (P = 0.05). Formulations prepared with plant extracts containing ellagic acid was found effective on melasma, similar to the formulations containing synthetic ellagic acid and arbutin. This material that is not yet being used widespread commercially on melasma could be an effective alternative for treatment of melasma. PMID:18837701

Ertam, Ilgen; Mutlu, Basak; Unal, Idil; Alper, Sibel; Kivçak, Bijen; Ozer, Ozgen



In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,

Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Yanjun Zhang; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber



In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,

Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber


Amelioration of cyclosporine A-induced renal, hepatic and cardiac damages by ellagic acid in rats.  


Treatment with cyclosporine A has significantly improved long-term survival after organ transplantations. Cyclosporine A also causes a dose-related decrease in body functions in experimental animals and human beings. The generation of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in cyclosporine A-induced dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ellagic acid on cyclosporine A-induced alterations in the kidney, liver and heart oxidant/antioxidant system. The control group was treated with placebo and subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml isotonic saline + 0.5 ml slightly alkaline solution for 21 days. The cyclosporine A group received a subcutaneous injection of cyclosporine A (15 mg/kg) + 0.5 ml slightly alkaline solution for 21 days. The ellagic acid group was treated with a subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml isotonic saline + ellagic acid (10 mg/kg) for 21 days. The cyclosporine A plus ellagic acid group received a subcutaneous injection of cyclosporine A + ellagic acid for 21 days. Ellagic acid and slightly alkaline solution were administered by gavage. The rats were killed at the end of the treatment period. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in kidney, liver and heart tissues. While administration of cyclosporine A increased the MDA levels in kidney, liver and heart tissues, it decreased the GSH, GSH-Px and CAT in these samples when compared to the control group. However, the simultaneously administration of ellagic acid markedly normalized the cyclosporine A-induced liver and heart MDA levels, liver CAT activities and GSH-Px activities of all samples. Cyclosporine A caused marked damages in the histopathological status of kidney, liver and heart tissues, which were partially ameliorated by ellagic acid administration. In conclusion, ellagic acid may be used in combination with cyclosporine A in transplantation treatment to improve the cyclosporine A-induced oxidative stress parameters and other adverse effects. PMID:18816304

Yüce, Abdurrauf; Ate??ahin, Ahmet; Ceriba?i, Ali Osman



Innovative microwave-assisted hydrolysis of ellagitannins and quantification as ellagic acid equivalents.  


The health-promoting effects of ellagic acid and its intestinal degradation products are well-known. In plants, ellagic acid mainly appears in the form of its precursors, the so-called ellagitannins. Therefore, determination of total ellagic acid content has been accomplished by cleaving ellagitannins with high temperatures and strong acids. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has been shown to be a very effective and quick extraction technique. The aim of the present study was to establish an MAE-based method for a rapid hydrolysis of ellagitannins and to compare this method with a conventional acid hydrolysis. For this purpose, strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa), which have been identified as a major source of ellagitannins in human diet, were used as a model. The newly developed MAE method was quicker, less chemical-consuming and more effective in hydrolysing ellagitannins. PMID:23497905

Theocharis, Grigorios; Andlauer, Wilfried



Ellagic acid induces transcription of the rat glutathione S-transferase-Ya gene.  


Induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes can increase detoxification of carcinogens and reduce carcinogen-induced mutagenesis and tumorigenesis. To determine if the anticarcinogen ellagic acid induces cellular enzymes which detoxify carcinogens, we examined the effect of ellagic acid on the expression of glutathione S-transferase-Ya. Rats fed ellagic acid demonstrated significant increases in total hepatic GST activity, hepatic GST-Ya activity and hepatic GST-Ya mRNA. To determine if the observed increase in GST-Ya mRNA was due to ellagic acid inducing transcription of the GST-Ya gene, transfection studies were performed with plasmid constructs containing various portions of the 5' regulatory region of the rat GST-Ya gene. The transfection studies demonstrated that ellagic acid increased GST-Ya mRNA by inducing transcription of the GST-Ya gene and demonstrated that this induction is mediated through the antioxidant responsive element of the GST-Ya gene. PMID:7697830

Barch, D H; Rundhaugen, L M; Pillay, N S



Protection against 3-methylcholanthrene-induced skin tumorigenesis in Balb/C mice by ellagic acid.  


Topical application of ellagic acid, a naturally occurring dietary plant phenol, to Balb/C mice resulted in significant protection against 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced skin tumorigenesis. Ellagic acid was found to be an effective inhibitor of tumor formation whether the tumor data are considered as percent mice with tumors, cumulative number of tumors, tumors per mouse or tumors per tumor bearing animal as a function of the number of weeks on test. By 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 weeks of testing, the number of tumors per mouse in the group receiving MCA alone was 2.0, 3.4, 4.0, 4.9 and 5.3, respectively, whereas the corresponding numbers in the group receiving MCA plus 2 mumol ellagic acid were 0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively. At the termination of the experiment (16 weeks) aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in skin and liver and the extent of 3H-BP-binding to skin, liver and lung DNA were determined and both of these parameters were found to be significantly inhibited in the animals treated with ellagic acid. These results indicate that ellagic acid can inhibit the metabolism of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and modulate skin carcinogenesis induced by these chemicals. PMID:6324772

Mukhtar, H; Das, M; Del Tito, B J; Bickers, D R



Protective effect of ellagic acid on t-butyl hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes.  


Ellagic acid, a plant polyphenol, showed protective effect on isolated rat hepatocytes against destruction due to lipid peroxide formation induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide in vitro. Ellagic acid inhibited the generation of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals both in enzymic and non enzymic systems, thus providing protection against oxidative damage. PMID:10687292

Singh, K; Khanna, A K; Visen, P K; Chander, R



Ellagic acid ameliorates nickel induced biochemical alterations: diminution of oxidative stress.  


Nickel, a major environmental pollutant is known for its clastogenic, toxic and carcinogenic potentials. The present investigation shows that ellagic acid proves to be exceptional in the amelioration of the nickel-induced biochemical alterations in serum, liver and kidney. Administration of nickel (250 micromol Ni/kg body wt) to female Wistar rats, resulted in increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content [kidney (*P<0.05) and liver (**P<0.001)] and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities [kidney and liver, (**P<0.001)]. Ellagic acid treatment to the intoxicated rats leads to the formation of soluble ellagic acid-metal complex which facilitates excretion of nickel from the cell or tissue, thus ameliorating nickel-induced toxicity, as evident from the down regulation of GSH content, GST and GR activities with concomitant restoration of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in liver and kidney. Our data shows that ellagic acid maintains cell membrane integrity through sequestration of metal ions from the extracellular fluid, as evident from the alleviated levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) when compared to nickel treated group. Similarly, the enhanced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels that are indicative of renal injury showed a reduction of about 45 and 40%, respectively. The data also show that treatment of ellagic acid after 30 min of nickel administration exhibits maximum inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, our data suggests that ellagic acid act as an effective chelating agent in suppressing nickel-induced renal and hepatic biochemical alterations. PMID:10602394

Ahmed, S; Rahman, A; Saleem, M; Athar, M; Sultana, S



Preventive effects of ellagic Acid against Doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity in mice.  


Preventive effects of ellagic acid against doxorubicin-induced cardiac oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic stress were examined. This agent at 0.25, 0.5 or 1 % was added in feed and supplied to mice for 8 weeks, and followed by doxorubicin treatment. Ellagic acid intake increased its deposit in heart. Pre-intake of this compound at 0.5 and 1 % significantly attenuated doxorubicin caused increase in plasma creatine phosphokinase activity. Doxorubicin treatment decreased glutathione content, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, declined glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and enhanced xanthine oxidases (XO) activity in heart. Ellagic acid intake dose-dependently reserved glutathione content, lowered ROS and MDA levels, and reduced XO activity. This compound at 0.5 and 1 % retained GPX and SOD activities, and decreased cytokines in heart. Doxorubicin treatment raised cardiac activity and protein production of caspase-3, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p50 and p65. Ellagic acid dose-dependently lowered caspase-3 activity and cleaved caspase-3 formation, and at 0.5 and 1 % declined activity and protein level of NF-?B. Doxorubicin treatment also up-regulated cardiac expression of p-p38, p-ERK 1/2 and p-JNK, and ellagic acid at 0.5 and 1 % suppressed p-p38 expression and at 1 % down-regulated p-ERK 1/2 expression. These findings suggest that ellagic acid is a potent cardiac protective agent against doxorubicin. PMID:23322372

Lin, Ming-Cheng; Yin, Mei-Chin



Ellagic acid peracetate is superior to ellagic acid in the prevention of genotoxicity due to aflatoxin B1 in bone marrow and lung cells.  


Earlier observations carried out in our laboratory highlighted the mode of action of acetoxy 4-methylcoumarins and quercetin pentaacetate in preventing the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). We have extended the observation to an acetoxy biscoumarin i.e. ellagic acid peracetate (EAPA), which unlike ellagic acid (EA) has demonstrated time-dependent inhibition of liver microsomes catalysed AFB1-epoxidation as measured by AFB1 binding to DNA. EAPA was more potent than EA in preventing bone marrow and lung cells from AFB1-induced genotoxicity. EAPA was acted upon by microsomal acetoxy drug:protein transacetylase (TAase) leading to modulation of the catalytic activity of certain functional proteins (cytochrome P450, NADPH cytochrome c reductase and glutathione S-transferase), possibly by way of protein acetylation. PMID:17227624

Kumar, Ajit; Tyagi, Yogesh K; Ponnan, Prija; Rohil, Vishwajeet; Prasad, Ashok K; Dwarkanath, Bilekere S; Parmar, Virinder S; Raj, Hanumantharao G



Ellagic acid ameliorates nickel induced biochemical alterations: diminution of oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel, a major environmental pollutant is known for its clastogenic, toxic and carcinogenic potentials. The present investigation shows that ellagic acid proves to be exceptional in the amelioration of the nickel-induced biochemical alterations in serum, liver and kidney. Administration of nickel (250 mmol Ni\\/kg body wt) to female Wistar rats, resulted in increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content [kidney

S. Ahmed; A. Rahman; M. Saleem; M. Athar; S. Sultana



Design of biodegradable nanoparticles: a novel approach to encapsulating poorly soluble phytochemical ellagic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosizing of poorly water soluble drugs or incorporating them into nanoparticles to increase their solubility and thereby the bioavailability has become a favoured approach today. This work describes a novel method for encapsulating poorly water soluble phytochemical ellagic acid that is also sparingly soluble/insoluble in routine solvents used to prepare nanoparticles.

Bala, I.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hariharan, S.; Sitterberg, J.; Bakowsky, U.; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi



Ellagic acid inhibited 2-aminofluorene and p-aminobenzoic acid acetylation by mononuclear leucocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats.  


Following exposure of rats to the arylamine carcinogen 2-aminofluorene, DNA-carcinogen adducts were found in the liver and bladder target tissues, and also in circulating leucocytes. This work investigated the effect of ellagic acid on arylamine (2-aminofluorene and p-aminobenzoic acid) acetylations in rat leucocytes. Evidence is presented that rat mononuclear leucocytes are capable of acetylating 2-aminofluorene and p-aminobenzoic acid. Both lymphocytes and monocytes were able to acetylate arylamines during 18 h of culture. Cultured lymphocytes produced about twice as much N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene from 2-aminofluorene and 2.2-fold as much N-acetyl-p-aminobenzoic acid from p-aminobenzoic acid as monocytes. After cotreatment with ellagic acid the lymphocyte and monocyte cultures indicated that ellagic acid reduced 2-aminofluorene acetylation. PMID:11258539

Ho, C C; Tsai, H Y; Lai, Y S; Chung, J G



Epidermal benzo[a]pyrene metabolism and DNA-binding in Balb/C mice: inhibition by ellagic acid.  


Topical application of ellagic acid, a common plant phenol, to control or to 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) pretreated Balb/C mice, resulted in significant inhibition of hepatic and epidermal microsomal aryl hydrogen hydroxylase activity, and of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) binding to epidermal and hepatic DNA in vivo. In vitro addition of ellagic acid (0.25 mM) to epidermal microsomal incubation systems from either control or 3-MC-treated animals resulted in 62-75% inhibition of BP binding to calf thymus DNA. These studies suggest that ellagic acid could prove useful in understanding and/or modulating polyaromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis. PMID:6506765

Mukhtar, H; Das, M; Del Tito, B J; Bickers, D R



Effect of ellagic acid on hepatic and pulmonary xenobiotic metabolism in mice: studies on the mechanism of its anticarcinogenic action.  


Our recent studies have shown that ellagic acid, a naturally occurring dietary plant phenol, protects BALB/c mice against 3-methylcholanthrene-induced skin tumorigenesis. To further elucidate the mechanism of the antineoplastic action of ellagic acid its effect on hepatic and pulmonary benzo[a]pyrene (BP) metabolism, cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferase activities were studied in BALB/c mice. Chronic oral feeding of the compound in drinking water (0.3 mg/l for 16 weeks) or acute intraperitoneal administration (50 mg/kg for five consecutive days) of ellagic acid resulted in 20-25% decreases in hepatic and pulmonary cytochrome P-450 levels. Hepatic and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities in both groups of ellagic acid-treated animals were 33-52% and 28-43% lower than their respective non-ellagic acid-treated controls. Hepatic as well as pulmonary aminopyrine N-demethylase and epoxide hydrolase activities were unchanged in both groups of ellagic acid-treated mice. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity towards BP-4,5-oxide or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrates was found to be enhanced 51-79% and 38-58% in both groups of animals. H.p.l.c. analysis of organic solvent-soluble metabolites of BP by liver and lung microsomes indicated a substantial inhibition of diol formation (including BP-7,8-diol), as well as of phenols and quinones. In liver, these inhibitory effects were more pronounced after oral feeding than after intraperitoneal administration. Our results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of ellagic acid inhibits BP metabolism and/or enhances glutathione S-transferase activity. Thus the modulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism by ellagic acid may be related to the anticarcinogenic effects of this compound. PMID:3876174

Das, M; Bickers, D R; Mukhtar, H



Gene Expression Signature of DMBA-Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinomas: Modulation by Chlorophyllin and Ellagic Acid  

PubMed Central

Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGF? receptors, NF-?B, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram



Studies on the vascular and hematological changes induced by ellagic acid in rats.  


We compared the major changes induced by ellagic acid (EA), a Hageman factor activator, in normal rats and in kininogen-deficient Brown Norway rats. In normal rats, large doses of EA induced a congestion of lymph nodes, spleen and liver, a prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, the consumption of prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen and fibrinogen, as well as the stimulation of platelets with their accumulation in lungs, liver and spleen. A systemic hypotension of long duration was also observed. The fibrinogen consumption, the thrombocytopenia and the lengthening of activated partial thromboplastin time were dose-dependent. In kininogen-deficient rats, EA induced only a minimal congestion of lymphoid tissues, the accumulation of platelets in lungs, a decrease of plasma fibrinogen and a short-lasting hypotension. It is concluded that the vascular changes induced by blood coagulation with ellagic acid resulted mainly from kinin formation. PMID:3445821

Damas, J; Adam, A; Remacle-Volon, G; Grek, V



Ellagic Acid Production from Biodegradation of Creosote Bush Ellagitannins by Aspergillus niger in Solid State Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Aspergillus niger GH1 in converting creosote bush ellagitannins into ellagic acid (EA) was evaluated in solid state culture. Creosote bush\\u000a leaves were used to extract the ellagitannins fraction, which was impregnated in polyurethane foam used as support of solid\\u000a state culture. Ellagitannins content, EA accumulation, and the related enzymatic activities were evaluated. A. niger GH1 was able

Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Juan S. Hernández; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Ernesto Favela-Torres; Cristóbal N. Aguilar



Comparative Study of Electrocoagulation and Electrooxidation Processes for the Degradation of Ellagic Acid From Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of electrocoagulation and electrooxidation processes for the degradation of ellagic acid from aqueous solution was carried out. For the electrocoagulation process, metallic iron was used as electrodes whereas graphite and RuO2\\/IrO2\\/TaO2 coated titanium electrodes were used for the electrooxidation processes. The effect of the process variables such as initial pH, concentration of the supporting electrolyte, applied current

M. Muthukumar; M. Govindaraj; A. Muthusamy; G. Bhaskar Raju



Ellagic acid--a novel organic electrode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries.  


Ellagic acid, a naturally occurring polyphenol, extracted from pomegranate husk, is found to be a very good organic electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high reversible capacities of ~450 and 200 mA h g(-1) at C/10 and C/2.5 discharge rates, respectively; ex situ NMR studies reveal possible lithiation-delithiation modes at different stages of the charge-discharge process. PMID:23841110

Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Harish, M N K; Sampath, S



Ellagic acid protects hepatocytes from damage by inhibiting mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment is to investigate the antioxidative and antiapoptotic roles of ellagic (EA) acid in in vitro and in in vivo experiment. We measured protective properties of EA against oxidative stress-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and Concanavalin (ConA)-induced liver damage in vivo. EA, a potent antioxidant, exhibited protective properties against oxidative stress-induced hepatocyte damage by preventing vitamin

Jung Me Hwang; Jin Sook Cho; Tae Hyeon Kim; Young Ik Lee



Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Improve Response to Antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBiofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives

Cassandra L. Quave; Miriam Estévez-Carmona; Cesar M. Compadre; Gerren Hobby; Howard Hendrickson; Karen E. Beenken; Mark S. Smeltzer



Ellagic acid inhibits human pancreatic cancer growth in Balb c nude mice.  


Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in several plants and fruits. The objectives of this study were to examine the molecular mechanisms by which EA inhibits pancreatic cancer growth in Balb C nude mice. PANC-1 cells were injected subcutaneously into Balb c nude mice, and tumor-bearing mice were treated with EA. The expression of Akt, Shh and Notch and their target gene products were measured by the immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Treatment of PANC-1 xenografted mice with EA resulted in significant inhibition in tumor growth which was associated with suppression of cell proliferation and caspase-3 activation, and induction of PARP cleavage. EA inhibited the expression of Bcl-2, cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK6, and induced the expression of Bax in tumor tissues compared to untreated control group. EA inhibited the markers of angiogenesis (COX-2, HIF1?, VEGF, VEGFR, IL-6 and IL-8), and metastasis (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in tumor tissues. Furthermore, treatment of mice with EA caused a significant inhibition in phospho-Akt, Gli1, Gli2, Notch1, Notch3, and Hey1. EA also reversed epithelial to mesenchymal transition by up-regulating E-cadherin and inhibiting the expression of Snail, MMP-2 and MMP-9. These data suggest that EA can inhibit pancreatic cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis by suppressing Akt, Shh and Notch pathways. In view of the fact that EA could effectively inhibit human pancreatic cancer growth by suppressing Akt, Shh and Notch pathways, our findings suggest that the use of EA would be beneficial for the management of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23684930

Zhao, Min; Tang, Su-Ni; Marsh, Justin L; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K



Disposition of the naturally occurring antimutagenic plant phenol, ellagic acid, and its synthetic derivatives, 3-O-decylellagic acid and 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid in mice.  


The effect of ellagic acid and some of its more lipophilic derivatives on the mutagenicity of (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenz[a]pyrene was examined in Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Ellagic acid, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid, 4,4'-di-O-methylellagic acid and 3-O-decylellagic acid were found to have approximately equal antimutagenic activity. The tissue distribution and elimination of ellagic acid, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid and 3-O-decylellagic acid were examined in CD-1 mice. Little or no ellagic acid (less than 1 nmol/g) was found in blood, lung or liver after the oral administration by gavage of 300 mumol of ellagic acid per kg body weight of after feeding 1% of ellagic acid in the diet for 1 week. Following the i.p. administration of 120 mumol/kg of ellagic acid, the blood and lung levels of ellagic acid were 15-20 nmol/g at 30 min after the dose, and the concentrations of ellagic acid decreased to 1-3 nmol/g at 6-8 h after the dose. A portion of the administered i.p. dose precipitated in the abdominal cavity. After i.v. administration, ellagic acid was eliminated very rapidly from blood, lung and liver, and approximately 70% of the administered dose was recovered in the urine and feces as free ellagic acid and its conjugates. At 2 h after an i.v. injection of 60 mumol/kg of ellagic acid, 46% of the dose was recovered in the urine as ellagic acid and its conjugates. Of this amount, about half was excreted as free ellagic acid and half was excreted as conjugates. An additional 25% of the dose was recovered in the feces (mostly as free ellagic acid) after 7 h. The disposition of 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid or 3-O-decylellagic acid after i.v. administration (32 mumol/kg) was examined and compared to the disposition of the same i.v. dose of ellagic acid. The concentrations of ellagic acid, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid and 3-O-decylellagic acid decreased rapidly in the blood, liver and lung, but the concentrations of 3-O-decylellagic acid in the lung throughout the experimental period (2-360 min) was on average 20- to 40-fold higher than the corresponding average concentrations of ellagic acid or 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid. PMID:3093111

Smart, R C; Huang, M T; Chang, R L; Sayer, J M; Jerina, D M; Conney, A H



Influence of ellagic acid on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation in mice.  


Addition of ellagic acid (EA) to liver microsomes of mice resulted in a steady increase in inhibition of NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation up to 2 mM concentration. The maximum of 70% inhibition of ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation was achieved at 1 mM concentration of EA. Feeding of EA significantly increased the levels of reduced glutathione and glutathione reductase in liver and lungs of male and female mice. However, there were no changes in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. On the other hand, microsomes from liver and lungs of EA fed animals showed significantly suppressed NADPH- and ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation. PMID:1930268

Majid, S; Khanduja, K L; Gandhi, R K; Kapur, S; Sharma, R R



Ellagic acid prevents rat colon carcinogenesis induced by 1, 2 dimethyl hydrazine through inhibition of AKT-phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colon cancer is the third most malignant neoplasm in the world and chemoprevention through dietary intervention is an emerging option to reduce its mortality. Ellagic acid (EA) a major component of berries possesses attractive biological deeds. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of ellagic acid in fostering apoptosis in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) mediated experimental colon carcinogenesis model. Wistar

Syed Umesalma; Ganapasam Sudhandiran



Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA(2) activity.  


The Casearia sylvestris SW (Flacourtiaceae) is utilized in folk medicine (Brazil and all Latin American) to treat several pathologic processes as inflammation, cancer, microbial infection and snake bites. Studies showed that C. sylvestris aqueous extract can inhibit many toxic effects caused by snake venoms (or caused by phospholipase A(2) isolated) from different species, mainly of Bothrops genus. Inhibition of enzymatic and myotoxic activities, decrease of edema formation and increase of the survival rate of rats injected with lethal doses of bothropic venoms are some toxic effects inhibited by C. sylvestris. In this study, four ellagic acid derivatives from aqueous extracts of C. sylvestris were isolated, characterized, and tested against effects from both total venom and PLA(2) (Asp 49 BthTX-II) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. The isolated compounds were as follows: ellagic acid (A), 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid (B), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (C), 3-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxy ellagic acid (D). The inhibition constant values (Ki) for enzymatic activity, as well the IC(50) values found in the edematogenic and myotoxic activities, indicate that the ellagic acid is the best inhibitor of these activities, while compounds C and D are the substances with lowest capacity on inhibiting these same effects. Our results show that the presence of hydroxyls at position 3 or 3' (compounds A and B) increases the capacity of these derivatives on inhibiting these toxic effects. However, the presence of methoxyl groups at position 3 or 3' reduced, but did not completely inhibit the capacity of compounds C and D on inhibiting all the toxic effects studied. PMID:18718481

Da Silva, Saulo L; Calgarotto, Andrana K; Chaar, Jamal S; Marangoni, Sérgio



Drug development for liver diseases: focus on picroliv, ellagic acid and curcumin.  


The use of herbal drugs for the treatment of liver diseases has a long tradition in many eastern countries. The easy accessibility without the need for laborious pharmaceutical synthesis has drawn increased attention towards herbal medicines. Few herbal preparations exist as standardized extracts with major known ingredients or even as pure compounds. Some of the herbals, which show promising activity, are ellagic acid for antifibrotic treatment, phyllanthin for treating chronic hepatitis B, glycyrrhizin to treat chronic viral hepatitis and picroliv for liver regeneration. These compounds, which have proven antioxidant, antiviral or anticarcinogenic properties, can serve as primary compounds for further development as hepatoprotective drugs. This review provides the chemistry, pharmacology and future aspects of picroliv, ellagic acid and curcumin with focus on hepatoprotective properties. These phytochemicals may prove to be very useful in the treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by viral agents, toxic drugs and plant poisons. The high safety profile may be an added advantage. However, poor bioavailability and temperature and light sensitivity can reduce the efficacy of drugs like curcumin. In future, the derivatives or new combinations of these drugs may prove to be useful. PMID:19049667

Girish, C; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra



Inhibition of N-nitrosamine carcinogenesis and aflatoxin DNA damage by ellagic acid  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ellagic acid (EA), on the tumorigenicity of N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine (NBMA) in the rat esophagus was investigated. Groups of 30 male F-344 rats were fed a semipurified diet containing EA for 27 weeks. N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine was administered subcutaneously, once a week for 18 weeks. Ellagic acid produced a significant inhibition in the average number of esophageal tumors at both 20 weeks and 27 weeks. To investigate the mechanism(s) of this inhibition, EA was tested for its effect on the metabolism, DNA-binding and DNA-adduct formation of NBMA in cultured explants of rat esophagus. Explants were incubated in medium containing EA at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 {mu}M for 16 hours, followed by the addition of 1{mu}M ({sup 3}H)NBMA and EA for 12 hours. Explant DNA was isolated by phenol extraction and hydroxylapatite chromatography, and benzaldehyde formation was determined by h.p.l.c. analysis of the culture medium. Finally, EA was examined for its ability to inhibit DNA damage induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) in cultured explants of rat trachea and esophagus, and human tracheobronchus.

Mandal-Chaudhuri, S.



Fungal Biodegradation of Tannins from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) and Tar Bush (Fluorensia cernua) for Gallic and Ellagic Acid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the present work, the production of two potent antioxidants, gallic and ellagic acids, has been studied using solid-state fermentation (SSF) of tannin-rich aqueous plant extracts impregnated in polyurethane foam. Extracts from creosote and tar bush were ino- culated with Aspergillus niger PSH spores and impregnated in the polyurethane support. The kinetics of the fermentation was monitored every 24

Janeth Ventura; Ruth Belmares; Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Gerardo Gutiérrez-Sanchez; Raul Rodríguez-Herrera; Cristóbal Noé Aguilar



Intestinal epithelial cell accumulation of the cancer preventive polyphenol ellagic acid—extensive binding to protein and DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenol present in many berries, has been demonstrated to be preventive of esophageal cancer in animals both at the initiation and promotion stages. To be able to extrapolate these findings to humans we have studied the transcellular absorption and epithelial cell accumulation of [14C]EA in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The apical (mucosal) to basolateral (serosal)

Alexander C Whitley; Gary D Stoner; Michael V Darby; Thomas Walle



Transport behavior of ellagic acid of pomegranate leaf tannins and its correlation with total cholesterol alteration in HepG2 cells.  


The aim of this study was to investigate whether ellagic acid in pomegranate leaf tannins could be transported into HepG2 cells and its transport behavior. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a 996 photodiode array detector at 254 nm was applied. The mobile phase was an acetonitrile-water solution (containing 0.1% triethylamine, pH 3.0; 16:64, v/v, for determining ellagic acid in cells). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min. Cells were incubated with pomegranate leaf tannins with 100 and 50 microg/mL (containing 1.71 and 0.85 microg/mL of ellagic acid, respectively) for a specific time, then lysed and sonicated in methanol to extract intracellular ellagic acid. A 10 microL aliquot of sample was injected into the HPLC system to determine ellagic acid concentration. The results showed that ellagic acid in pomegranate leaf tannins could be transported into the cells, which was in correlation with total cholesterol alteration in the cells. This is the first time that the transport behavior of ellagic acid through HepG2 cells in vitro has been comprehensively demonstrated. PMID:19101929

Lan, Jiaqi; Lei, Fan; Hua, Lei; Wang, Yugang; Xing, Dongming; Du, Lijun



Effect of Ellagic Acid, a Plant Polyphenol, on Fibrotic Markers (MMPs and TIMPs) during Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity.  


ABSTRACT Alcoholic fibrosis and its end-stage cirrhosis occur when the rate of matrix synthesis exceeds matrix degradation. Hepatic fibroproliferation is associated with alterations of hepatic tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMPs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs/matrixins) expressions. The alteration of hepatic matrixins and TIMPs expression to disease stage and inflammatory activity underlines their potential diagnostic markers in chronic liver disease. Ellagic acid (EA), a natural phenolic compound found in fruits and nuts, has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancerous properties. The aim of our study was to gain further insight into the effect of EA on fibrotic markers (MMPs and TIMPs) during alcohol-induced tissue injury. To elucidate the effect on the MMPs/TIMPs balance by EA, gelatin zymography, multiwell zymography, succinylated gelatin assay, and ELISA technique (for TIMPs) were carried out. Coadministration of EA with alcohol decreased the expression of MMP-2 and -9 and TIMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that EA at the dosage of 60 mg/kg body weight effectively decreased the expression pattern of fibrotic markers during alcohol-induced toxicity. Hence, it can be developed as an antifibrotic compound in near future. PMID:20020958

Devipriya, N; Sudheer, A Ram; Srinivasan, M; Menon, Venugopal P



Biodistribution of ellagic acid and dose-related inhibition of lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice.  


Ellagic acid (EA), derived from fruit ellagitannins, is known to be antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic in various animal tumor models. In this study, EA at a dose of 4 g/kg diet inhibited multiplicity of tumors induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in A/J mice by 54%. This inhibition was dose related between 0.06 and 4.0 g/kg diet. In contrast, two related compounds, esculin and esculetin, had no effect on lung tumorigenesis. The biodistribution of EA was studied as a function of dose and time after gavage of EA. The levels of EA in the lung were directly proportional to the dose of EA between 0.2 and 2.0 mmol. The maximum level of EA, corresponding to 21.3 nmol/g, was observed 30 minutes after gavage with 2.0 mmol of EA/kg body wt, which corresponds to only 70 ppm of the administered dose. The levels in liver tissues were 10-fold lower and reached a maximum 30 minutes after gavage. At this interval, the blood level of EA was 1 nmol/ml. The inclusion of EA in cyclodextrin doubles the level of EA in lung tissues. These results demonstrate that EA localizes preferentially in lung tissues and confirm that EA administered orally can inhibit lung tumorigenesis. PMID:1437655

Boukharta, M; Jalbert, G; Castonguay, A



Ellagic Acid, the Active Compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, Exerts In Vivo Anti-Angiogenic Effect and Inhibits MMP-2 Activity  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess the potential anti-angiogenic mechanism of Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) and characterize the major compound in P. urinaria that exerts anti-angiogenic effect. The water extract of P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in chicken embryo and human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). The matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was determined by gelatin zymography. The mRNA expressions of MMP-2, MMP-14 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Level of MMP-2 proteins in conditioned medium or cytosol was determined by western blot analysis. We confirmed that P. urinaria's in vivo anti-angiogenic effect was associated with a reduction in MMP-2 activity. Ellagic acid, one of the major polyphenolic components as identified in P. urinaria by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), exhibited the same anti-angiogenic effect in vivo. Both P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid inhibited MMP-2 activity in HUVECs with unchanged mRNA level. The mRNA expression levels of MMP-14 and TIMP-2 were not altered either. Results from comparing the change of MMP-2 protein levels in conditioned medium and cytosol of HUVECs after the P. urinaria or Ellagic Acid treatment revealed an inhibitory effect on the secretion of MMP-2 protein. This study concluded that Ellagic Acid is the active compound in P. urinaria to exhibit anti-angiogenic activity and to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 protein from HUVECs.

Huang, Sheng-Teng; Wang, Chen-Yu; Yang, Rong-Chi; Wu, Hsiao-Ting; Yang, Su-Hui; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.



Dietary ellagic acid inhibits the enzymatic activity of CYP1A1 without altering hepatic concentrations of CYP1A1 or CYP1A1 mRNA.  


The anticarcinogen ellagic acid significantly reduces the incidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon induced carcinomas, in association with significant reductions in benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and CO reducible hepatic cytochrome P450. This suggested that ellagic acid reduced hepatic concentrations of CYP1A1, but these changes occurred without any alteration in CYP1A1 mRNA or in immunoreactive CYP1A1. Dietary ellagic acid results in muMolar concentrations of ellagic acid in hepatic tissue. Addition of similar concentrations of ellagic acid in vitro directly inhibited the measurement of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and CO reducible cytochrome P450. Thus dietary ellagic acid does not alter the hepatic concentration of CYP1A1, but the dietary ellagic acid remaining in hepatic tissue appears to directly inhibit the measurement of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and CO reducible cytochrome P450. PMID:8024593

Barch, D H; Rundhaugen, L M; Thomas, P E; Kardos, P; Pillay, N S



Ellagic acid prevents rat colon carcinogenesis induced by 1, 2 dimethyl hydrazine through inhibition of AKT-phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway.  


Colon cancer is the third most malignant neoplasm in the world and chemoprevention through dietary intervention is an emerging option to reduce its mortality. Ellagic acid (EA) a major component of berries possesses attractive biological deeds. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of ellagic acid in fostering apoptosis in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) mediated experimental colon carcinogenesis model. Wistar male rats were segregated into four groups: group I-control rats, group II-rats received ellagic acid (60 mg/kg body weight p.o. every day), rats in group III-induced with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 15 weeks, DMH-induced group IV rats were initiated with ellagic acid treatment. The present study is designed to explore the significance of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt molecular pathway as well as ellagic acid's chemopreventive effect in colon cancer. DMH-induced rats exhibited elevated expressions of PI3K and Akt as confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoblot and confocal microscopic analysis. Mechanistically, ellagic acid was found to prevent PI3K/Akt activation that in turn, results in modulation of its downstream Bcl-2 family proteins. Bax expression and caspase-3 activation was noted after ellagic acid supplementation leading to elevation of cytochrome c (cyt c) levels and finally cell death. These observations were supported by the DNA fragmentation results, which showed the occurrence of apoptosis. This study reveals the involvement of PI3K-Akt signaling through which ellagic acid induces apoptosis and subsequently suppresses colon cancer during DMH-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that ellagic acid begets apoptosis in DMH-induced colon carcinoma. PMID:21463623

Umesalma, Syed; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam



Ellagic acid protects hepatocytes from damage by inhibiting mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species.  


The aim of this experiment is to investigate the antioxidative and antiapoptotic roles of ellagic (EA) acid in in vitro and in in vivo experiment. We measured protective properties of EA against oxidative stress-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and Concanavalin (ConA)-induced liver damage in vivo. EA, a potent antioxidant, exhibited protective properties against oxidative stress-induced hepatocyte damage by preventing vitamin k3 (VK3)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions, apoptotic and necrotic cellular damage and mitochondrial depolarization, which is a main cause of ROS production. EA also protects against cell death and elevation of glutathione (GSH), alanine transaminase (ALT) and asparatate transaminase (AST) in Con A-induced fulminant liver damage in mice. These results show that antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of EA prevent liver damage induced by various type of oxidative stress. PMID:20347566

Hwang, Jung Me; Cho, Jin Sook; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Lee, Young Ik



Protective effect of curcumin, ellagic acid and bixin on radiation induced toxicity.  


Whole body irradiation of rats (10 Gy as five fractions) found to produce lung fibrosis within 2 months as seen from increased lung collagen hydroxyproline and histopathology. Oral administration of antioxidants curcumin, ellagic acid, bixin and alpha-tocopherol at a concentration 200 mumole/kg body weight significantly reduced the lung collagen hydroxyproline in these animals. In serum and liver lipid peroxidation which were found to be increased by irradiation was reduced significantly by antioxidant treatment. The liver superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity were also found to be increased and catalase activity decreased in irradiated control. Superoxide dismutase activity reduced significantly by antioxidant treatment while catalase activity was found to be increased with alpha-tocopherol treatment. The increased frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes after whole body irradiation of mice was found to be significantly reduced with antioxidants. PMID:9014516

Thresiamma, K C; George, J; Kuttan, R



Ellagic acid inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)-induced metalloproteinase (MMP) expression by modulating the protein kinase C-?/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/nuclear factor-?B (PKC-?/ERK/PPAR-?/NF-?B) signaling pathway in endothelial cells.  


Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelium-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, a key event triggering acute myocardial infarction. In addition, studies have reported that the PKC-MEK-PPAR? signaling pathway is involved in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced expression of MMPs. Ellagic acid, a phenolic compound found in fruits and nuts, has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancerous properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its antiatherogenic effects remain to be clarified. This study aimed to assess whether the effects of ellagic acid on the fibrotic markers MMP-1 and MMP-3 are modulated by the PKC-ERK-PPAR-? signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that have been exposed to oxLDL. It was found that ellagic acid significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Pretreatment with ellagic acid and DPI, a well-known ROS inhibitor, attenuated the oxLDL-induced expression and activity of PKC-?. In addition, ellagic acid as well as pharmacological inhibitors of ROS, calcium, and PKC strongly suppressed the oxLDL-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and NF-?B activation. Moreover, ellagic acid ameliorated the oxLDL-induced suppression of PPAR-? expression. In conclusion, the data suggest that ellagic acid elicits its protective effects by modulating the PKC-?/ERK/PPAR-?/NF-?B pathway, resulting in the suppression of ROS generation and, ultimately, inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression in HUVECs exposed to oxLDL. PMID:21480623

Kuo, Mei-Ying; Ou, Hsiu-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jane; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Song, Tuzz-Ying; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Tsai, Chiou-Sheng; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng



The thrombopenic effect of ellagic acid in the rat. Another model of platelet stimulation "in vivo".  


In the rat, intravenous injection of large doses (30 mg/Kg) of ellagic acid (EA) induced a decrease in the plasma level of fibrinogen and in the blood platelet content and an increase of the activated partial thromboplastin time. The long-lasting thrombocytopenia was inhibited by heparin (4 mg/Kg), defibrase (20 U/Kg), clocoumarol (4 mg/Kg) and CCI 17810 (120 mg/Kg). It was not inhibited by aspirin (90 mg/Kg), indomethacin (8 mg/Kg), ketoprofen (4-10 mg/Kg), epsilon-aminocaproic acid (150 mg/Kg), methysergide (4 mg/Kg), chlorpromazine (10 mg/Kg) and promethazine (4 mg/Kg). On the contrary, the small doses of indomethacin (4 mg/Kg) and of ketoprofen (0.5-2 mg/Kg) increased the thrombopenic effect of EA. EA induced the accumulation of Cr51-labelled platelets into the lungs and the liver, accompanied by a 64% fall in Cr51 blood radioactivity. The platelet stimulating effect of EA would depend on an intravascular coagulation which occurs in the whole cardiovascular system. It is suggested that the pro-aggregating derivatives of arachidonic acid had a minor role in this stimulation. The intravascular coagulation induced by EA was accompanied by a swelling of the lymph nodes and of the spleen. In immune platelet depleted rats, EA induced only the swelling of lymph nodes. PMID:3563981

Damas, J; Remacle-Volon, G



Ellagic acid induces NAD(P)H:quinone reductase through activation of the antioxidant responsive element of the rat NAD(P)H:quinone reductase gene.  


Induction of cellular detoxification enzymes can increase detoxification of carcinogens and reduce carcinogen-induced mutagenesis and tumorigenesis. To determine if the dietary anticarcinogen ellagic acid induced enzymes which detoxify xenobiotics and carcinogens, we examined the effect of ellagic acid on the expression of the phase II detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR). QR is induced by xenobiotics and antioxidants interacting with the xenobiotic responsive and antioxidant responsive elements of the 5' regulatory region of the QR gene. Ellagic acid is structurally related to the antioxidants which induce QR and we proposed that ellagic acid would induce QR expression through activation of the antioxidant responsive element of the QR gene. Rats fed ellagic acid demonstrated a 9-fold increase in hepatic and a 2-fold increase in pulmonary QR activity, associated with an 8-fold increase in hepatic QR mRNA. To determine if this increase in QR mRNA was due to activation of the antioxidant responsive element, transient transfection studies were performed with plasmid constructs containing various portions of the 5' regulatory region of the rat QR gene. These transfection studies confirmed that ellagic acid induces transcription of the QR gene and demonstrated that this induction is mediated through the antioxidant responsive element of the QR gene. PMID:7522986

Barch, D H; Rundhaugen, L M




Microsoft Academic Search

A simple rapid and economic simultaneous HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantification of Gallic acid (GA), Ellagic acid (EA) and Ascorbic acid (AA), in Emblica officinalis Linn. (aamla) and in two poly herbal Unani formulations, containing aamla as an ingredient. Separation of was achieved on a reverse phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with mobile phase 0.1% orthophosphoric

Mhaveer Singh; Y. T. Kamal; E. T. Tamboli; Rabea Parveen; Khalid M. Siddiqui; S. M. A. Zaidi; Sayeed Ahmad



Effects of Ellagic Acid on Copper, Zinc, and Biochemical Values in Serum and Liver of Experimental Cholestatic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural polyphenolic compound. Although, modulator effects of EA on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels\\u000a in some liver diseases have been reported in experimental animals, its effects in obstructive jaundice (OJ) has not been clarified.\\u000a We aimed to evaluate potential effects of EA on Cu and Zn levels in liver and serum of cholestatic rats.

Metehan Gümü?; Hatice Yüksel; Osman Evliyao?lu; Murat Kapan; Abdullah Böyük; Ak?n Önder; Mustafa Aldemir


Enhanced oral bioavailability and antioxidant profile of ellagic acid by phospholipids.  


Ellagic acid (EA) has been reported as a potent antioxidant from natural resources with several nutritional benefits. The major disadvantage of this phytoconstituent is its rapid elimination from the body after administration. To overcome this limitation, a novel dietary formulation of EA with phospholipid was developed to investigate the effect of this complex on carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. The antioxidant activity of the complex (equivalent of EA = 25 and 50 mg/kg of body weight) and free EA (25 and 50 mg/kg of body weight) was evaluated by measuring various enzymes in oxidative stress condition. The complex significantly protected the liver by restoring the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and liver glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances with respect to the carbon tetrachloride treated group (P < 0.05 and < 0.01). The complex provided better protection to rat liver than free EA at the same dose. The serum concentration of EA obtained from the complex (equivalent to 80 mg/kg of EA) was higher (C(max) = 0.54 microg/mL) than that of pure EA (80 mg/kg) (C(max) = 0.21 microg/mL), and the complex maintained effective concentration for a longer period of time in serum. The experimental outcome highlighted better hepatoprotective activity of the EA complex due to its potential antioxidant property compared with the free EA tested at the same dose level. PMID:19449806

Murugan, Venkatesh; Mukherjee, Kakali; Maiti, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Pulok K



A new ferulic acid ester, a new ellagic acid derivative, and other constituents from pachycentria formosana: effects on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.  


A new ferulic acid ester derivative, tetracosane-1,24-diyl di[(Z)-ferulate] (1), and a new ellagic acid derivative, 3,4?:?3',4'-bis(O,O-methylene)ellagic acid (2), have been isolated from leaves and twigs of Pachycentria formosana, together with eight known compounds. Their structures were determined by in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. Among the isolated compounds, oleanolic acid (6), ursolic acid acetate (7), and 3-epibetulinic acid (9) exhibited potent inhibition (IC(50) values ? 21.8 ?M) of O?(-) generation by human neutrophils in response to N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). In addition, oleanolic acid (6), 3-O-[(E)-feruloyl]ursolic acid (8), 3-epibetulinic acid (9), and lawsonic acid (10) also inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC(50) values ? 18.6 ?M. PMID:21922659

Cho, Jui-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chou, Tsung-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Jih-Jung



Ellagic acid production by Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation of pomegranate residues.  


Two Aspergillus niger strains (GH1 and PSH) previously isolated from a semiarid region of Mexico were characterized for their effectiveness in converting pomegranate ellagitannins (ET) into ellagic acid (EA) in a solid state fermentation (SSF). Pomegranate seeds and husk were used as support for the SSF. Released EA was evaluated by liquid chromatography. Yields of 6.3 and 4.6 mg of EA per gram of dried pomegranate husk were obtained with A. niger GH1 and PSH, respectively. Total hydrolyzable polyphenols of pomegranate husk were degraded during the first 72 h of culture (71 and 61%, by GH1 and PSH strains, respectively). Tannin acyl hydrolase activity was not clearly associated with EA production. EA that accumulated in cultures of A. niger GH1 was remarkably pure after a simple extraction process. Pomegranate husk is a good support, and at the same time an excellent substrate in the production of high commercial interest metabolites like EA due the degradation of its ET content. PMID:18228068

Robledo, Armando; Aguilera-Carbó, Antonio; Rodriguez, Raúl; Martinez, José Luis; Garza, Yolanda; Aguilar, Cristobal N



Ellagic acid metabolism and binding to DNA in organ explant cultures of the rat.  


Ellagic acid (EA) is a plant phenolic compound with postulated antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity. In this study, explants of esophagus, forestomach, colon, bladder, trachea, lung and liver from male Sprague-Dawley rats (130-140 g) were incubated in culture medium containing [3H]EA (20 microM, 4.5 microCi/ml) for 24 h at 37 degrees C. After extraction, purification and quantitation of explant DNA significant differences in the binding of EA to the DNA was observed. The most binding occurred in esophagus and the least in lung. Analysis of the organsoluble fraction of the culture medium by high performance liquid chromatography yielded 3 metabolites of EA. None of the metabolites were identified. Elution of water-soluble metabolites from an alumina column showed that there were sulfate ester, glucuronide and glutathione conjugates of EA in the explant culture medium from all the organs. The profile of water-soluble conjugates was very similar between colon and forestomach and between trachea and lung. These results indicate that EA binds to DNA in different tissues and that tissues metabolize EA to both organosoluble and water-soluble products. PMID:3621152

Teel, R W; Martin, R M; Allahyari, R



Distribution and metabolism of ellagic acid in the mouse following intraperitoneal administration.  


The distribution and metabolism of ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant phenolic compound with reported antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity, was investigated in mice following intraperitoneal injection. Male Swiss-Webster mice were given a single i.p. injection of [3H]EA and sacrificed at 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min and 24 h post-injection. At these times urine, blood and bile samples were obtained from each animal and various organs were removed, weighed and homogenized. Radioactivity in the samples was determined at each time interval and expressed as nmol [3H] EA/mg sample. Metabolites in urine and bile were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and water-soluble conjugates were isolated by eluting samples of urine and bile from an alumina column. Radioactivity expressed as nmol [3H] EA/mg sample (wet weight) decreased with time in most organ homogenates. The peak radioactivity in bile appeared at 60 min post-injection while the peak radioactivity in urine occurred at 120 min. The two organs showing the highest amount of radioactivity were kidney and liver and the lowest was in brain. HPLC analysis revealed one unidentified metabolite of EA in bile and three in urine. Most of the radioactivity recovered from both bile and urine was associated with EA. Water-soluble conjugates in urine were isolated as sulfate esters, glucuronide and glutathione conjugates. Water-soluble conjugates in bile were evenly distributed as glucuronide and glutathione conjugates. PMID:3815327

Teel, R W



Apoptotic markers in a prostate cancer cell line: Effect of ellagic acid.  


Ellagic acid (EA) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in cultured cells; however, the precise molecular mechanism involved in EA-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is unknown. The aim of the present study was to delineate possible apoptotic pathway(s) involved in the EA-mediated chemotherapeutic effects in the LNCaP human prostatic cancer cell line. EA produced anti-proliferative effects through inhibition of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and a reduction in intracellular levels of ?-catenin. Moreover, we demonstrated that EA induced apoptosis via downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), human antigen R (HuR) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). EA modulated the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) resulting in a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the activation of caspase-3. Finally, we demonstrated that EA reduced both transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. EA treatment resulted in the increased expression of the tumor suppressor protein p21 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that EA treatment represents a new and highly effective strategy in reducing prostate cancer carcinogenesis. PMID:24085108

Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Cardile, Venera; Kim, Dong Hyun; Abraham, Nader G; Sorrenti, Valeria



Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway  

SciTech Connect

Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

Ou, Hsiu-Chung [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Jane [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shin-Da [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Yang [Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Tsan-Hung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Kun-Ling [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Cheng [Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Technology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)



Effect of ellagic acid on cyclosporine A-induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats.  


Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressor, which is most frequently used in the transplant surgery and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. It has been shown that CsA is able to generate reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, which are directly involved in the CsA nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound against CsA-induced liver injury in male Wistar rats. In this study, CsA was administered orally (25 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days to induce toxicity. EA was administered orally (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days along with oral administration of CsA. CsA-induced liver damage was evidenced by increased activities of serum hepatic enzymes namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase with a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides in the liver. The levels of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase and non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione) were also decreased in CsA-treated rats. Administrations of EA at 50 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased the activities of hepatic marker enzymes compared with other doses of EA (12.5, 25 mg/kg body weight). In addition, the levels of TBARS and hydroperoxides were significantly decreased and the levels of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants significant increased on treatment with EA in the liver. The biochemical observation was supplemented by histopathologic examination of liver section. The results of this study indicate that EA might play an important role in protecting CsA-induced oxidative damage in the liver. PMID:18705750

Pari, Leelavinothan; Sivasankari, Ramasamy



Stability and solubility enhancement of ellagic acid in cellulose ester solid dispersions.  


Structurally varied, carboxyl-containing cellulose derivatives were evaluated for their ability to form amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) with ellagic acid (EA), in order to improve the solubility of this high-melting, poorly bioavailable, but highly bioactive natural flavonoid compound. ASDs of EA with carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared, and EA dissolution from these ASDs was compared with that from pure crystalline EA and from EA/poly(vinylpyrrolidinone) (PVP) solid dispersions (SD). Polymer/drug mixtures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD), modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRPD and FT-IR results indicated that EA was amorphous in solid dispersions with EA concentration up to 25 wt%. The stability against crystallization and solution concentrations of EA from these solid dispersions were significantly higher than those observed for physical mixtures and pure crystalline EA. HPMCAS stabilized EA most effectively, among the polymers tested, against both chemical degradation and recrystallization. The relative ability to solubilize EA from ASDs at pH 6.8 was PVP>HPMCAS>CMCAB. EA dissolves from ASD in PVP quickly and completely (maximum 92%) at pH 6.8, but EA is also released from PVP at pH 1.2, and then crystallizes rapidly. Therefore PVP is not a practical candidate for EA ASD. In contrast, the cellulose derivative ASDs show very slow EA release at pH 1.2 (<4%) and faster but still incomplete drug release at pH 6.8 (maximum 35% for HPMCAS SD). The pH-triggered drug release from HPMCAS ASD makes HPMCAS a practical choice for EA solubility enhancement. PMID:23399175

Li, Bin; Harich, Kim; Wegiel, Lindsay; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J



Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Improve Response to Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Background Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. Methodology/Principal Findings This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50–200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530–1040 µg/mL). This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

Quave, Cassandra L.; Estevez-Carmona, Miriam; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hobby, Gerren; Hendrickson, Howard; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.



Ellagic acid promoted biomimetic synthesis of shape-controlled silver nanochains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, was utilized for the biomimetic synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles, which over a period of time formed extended branched nanochains of hexagonal-shaped silver nanoparticles. It was found that EA not only has the capability of reducing silver ions, resulting in the formation of Ag nanoparticles, due to its extended polyphenolic system, but also appears to recognize and affect the Ag nanocrystal growth on the (111) face, leading to the formation of hexagon-shaped Ag nanocrystals. Initially, various Ag nanocrystal shapes were observed; however, over a longer period of time, a majority of hexagonal-shaped nanocrystals were formed. Although the exact mechanism of formation of the nanocrystals is not known, it appears that EA attaches to the silver nuclei, leading to lower surface energy of the (111) face. Further, the nanocrystals fuse together, forming interfaces among the aggregates, and, with time, those interfaces become lesser, and the nanoparticles merge together and share the same single crystallographic orientation, which leads to the formation of long elongated chains of hexagonal nanoparticles. This biomimetic approach may be developed as a green synthetic method to prepare building blocks with tunable properties for the development of nanodevices. Further, we explored the antibacterial properties and found that the tandem of EA-Ag nanochains substantially enhanced the antibacterial properties of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria compared to silver nanoparticles or EA alone. Additionally, the materials were also utilized for imaging of mammalian NRK (normal rat kidney) cells.

Barnaby, Stacey N.; Yu, Samantha M.; Fath, Karl R.; Tsiola, Areti; Khalpari, Omid; Banerjee, Ipsita A.



MicroRNA 'signature' during estrogen-mediated mammary carcinogenesis and its reversal by ellagic acid intervention.  


Dysregulated miRNA expression has been associated with the development and progression of cancers, including breast cancer. The role of estrogen (E2) in regulation of cell proliferation and breast carcinogenesis is well-known. Recent reports have associated several miRNAs with estrogen receptors in breast cancers. Investigation of the regulatory role of miRNAs is critical for understanding the effect of E2 in human breast cancer, as well as developing strategies for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study we used the well-established ACI rat model that develops mammary tumors upon E2 exposure and identified a 'signature' of 33 significantly modulated miRNAs during the process of mammary tumorigenesis. Several of these miRNAs were altered as early as 3weeks after initial E2 treatment and their modulation persisted throughout the mammary carcinogenesis process, suggesting that these molecular changes are early events. Furthermore, ellagic acid, which inhibited E2-induced mammary tumorigenesis in our previous study, reversed the dysregulation of miR-375, miR-206, miR-182, miR-122, miR-127 and miR-183 detected with E2 treatment and modulated their target proteins (ER?, cyclin D1, RASD1, FoxO3a, FoxO1, cyclin G1, Bcl-w and Bcl-2). This is the first systematic study examining the changes in miRNA expression associated with E2 treatment in ACI rats as early as 3week until tumor time point. The effect of a chemopreventive agent, ellagic acid in reversing miRNAs modulated during E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis is also established. These observations provide mechanistic insights into the new molecular events behind the chemopreventive action of ellagic acid and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:23791885

Munagala, Radha; Aqil, Farrukh; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Gupta, Ramesh C



Modulating effects of ellagic acid, vanillin and quercetin in a rat medium term multi-organ carcinogenesis model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dietary supplementation with the antioxidants ellagic acid, quercetin and vanillin were examined using a medium term multi-organ carcinogenesis model in rats. Groups of 10–15 male F344 rats were given i.p. injections of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 100 mg\\/kg body wt.) and N-methylnitrosourea (MNU, 20 mg\\/kg body wt), s.c. injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg\\/kg body wt.), together with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine

Keisuke Akagi; Masao Hirose; Toru Hoshiya; Yasumoto Mizoguchi; Nobuyuki Ito; Tomoyuki Shirai



Modulating effects of ellagic acid, vanillin and quercetin in a rat medium term multi-organ carcinogenesis model.  


Effects of dietary supplementation with the antioxidants ellagic acid, quercetin and vanillin were examined using a medium term multi-organ carcinogenesis model in rats. Groups of 10-15 male F344 rats were given i.p. injections of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 100 mg/kg body wt.) and N-methylnitrosourea (MNU, 20 mg/kg body wt), s.c. injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg body wt.), together with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4- hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) and 0.1% 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN), both in the drinking water, for a total multiple initiation period of 4 weeks (DMBDD) treatment). Ellagic acid, quercetin or vanillin, each at a dose of 1% each in the diet were administered from 1 day before and throughout the carcinogen exposure period, or after completion of the initiation regimen. All surviving animals were sacrificed at the end of week 36, and major organs were examined histopathologically. In the small intestine, significant reductions in the incidence and number of tumors (adenomas and carcinomas) were observed in the groups administered ellagic acid during (8%, 0.08 +/- 0.29) or after (8%, 0.08 +/- 0.29) DMBDD treatment, and those receiving quercetin after DMBDD treatment (0%) compared to the control value (57%, 1.07 +/- 1.21). Although the incidences were not statistically significant, slightly decreased numbers of small intestinal tumors were found in the groups receiving vanillin during (0.33 +/- 0.72), or after (0.40 +/- 0.83) DMBDD treatment. The incidence of large intestinal carcinomas in the group treated with vanillin during DMBDD treatment was significantly higher (73%) than the control value (21%). These results indicated that while ellagic acid and quercetin exerted potent chemopreventive action in both the initiation and promotion stages in the present experimental system, their beneficial effects were restricted to the small intestine. Since small intestinal carcinomas are very infrequent in humans, the advantages of these phenolic compounds for human application as chemopreventors should not be overestimated. PMID:7621439

Akagi, K; Hirose, M; Hoshiya, T; Mizoguchi, Y; Ito, N; Shirai, T



Biodistribution of, antimutagenic efficacies in Salmonella typhimurium of, and inhibition of P450 activities by ellagic acid and one analogue.  


Ellagic acid (EA) is generated by hydrolysis of ellagitannins present in fruit berries and edible nuts and grapes. Large doses of EA prevent lung tumorigenesis induced by the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in A/J mice. In this study, we document the efficacies of the EA structural analogue (3,4,7,8-tetrahydroxy-6H-benzo[b,d]pyran-6-one) (analogue 1) to inhibit specific P450 activities, pulmonary metabolism of NNK in A/J mice, and NNK-induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. Mouse lung microsomes metabolized benzyloxyresorufin, a marker of cytochrome P450 2B1 activity, more extensively than methoxyresorufin or ethoxyresorufin. The EA analogue was more effective than EA in inhibiting dealkylation of the three alkoxyresorufins, suggesting that it is a nonspecific inhibitor of P450s. Mouse lung microsomes hydroxylate testosterone in the 7alpha and 6beta positions, suggesting contributions of P450 2A1 and P450 3A2 isozymes, respectively. Inhibition of both pathways was more effective with the EA analogue than with EA. Mouse lung explants metabolized NNK by alpha-carbon hydroxylation (activation) and pyridine N-oxidation (deactivation). Both pathways were inhibited when 100 microM EA was added to the culture medium. The EA analogue was a better inhibitor of the activation of NNK to electrophilic species than EA. Mouse lung microsomes activate NNK to intermediates mutagenic to S. typhimurium. Inhibition of NNK mutagenicity by EA or the EA analogue was 20 or 65%, respectively. The distribution of the EA analogue in lung and liver was determined following gavage with 1.7 mmol of the EA analogue. In the lung, a maximal level of EA analogue corresponding to 105 nmol was observed 30 min after administration of the analogue. The level in liver tissues was 4-fold lower than in the lung. Results of this study demonstrate that the EA analogue is more effective than EA in inhibiting the pulmonary activation of NNK and suggest that the EA analogue could be effective in preventing lung tumorigenesis. PMID:9815185

Castonguay, A; Boukharta, M; Teel, R



Quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid from longan ( Dimocarpus longan Lour.) seed and mango ( Mangifera indica L.) kernel and their effects on antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) have been identified in longan seed and mango kernel by the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD). The ethanolic extract of longan seed contained 23.3 and 156mg\\/100 seeds of GA and EA, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of mango kernel contained approximately 87% more GA than the

Yean-Yean Soong; Philip J. Barlow



The flavonoid ellagic acid from a medicinal herb inhibits host immune tolerance induced by the hepatitis B virus-e antigen.  


The aim of this study is to characterize the role of ellagic acid, a flavonoid from a medicinal herb which blocks HBeAg secretion in a HBV infected cell line and in HBeAg transgenic mice, in immune tolerance in chronic HBV infection. Using the mouse strain C57ML/6, HBeAg-producing transgenic mice (HBeAg-Tg), under the control of metal ion-inducible promoter were generated. The effect on immune tolerance of HBeAg-Tg and the release of immune tolerance by the inhibitor of HBeAg secretion, ellagic acid, was tested using T/B cell proliferation, HBeAg/HBeAb production, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and cytokine assays. C57ML/6 based HBeAg-producing HBeAg-Tg mice were tolerant to HBeAg at the T and B-cell level, did not produce antibodies to HBeAg in vivo and in vitro, produced minimal levels of cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-gamma) and decreased CTL responses, while feeding mice with ellagic acid (5mg/kg body weight) blocked the immune tolerance caused by HBeAg. Our results suggest that host immune tolerance induced by HBeAg during HBV infection, a viral strategy to guarantee HBV infection, can be overcome by ellagic acid, thus it can be used as a therapeutic for HBV-carriers. PMID:16720052

Kang, Eun Hwa; Kown, Tae Young; Oh, Goo Taeg; Park, Weung Feel; Park, Sung-Il; Park, Sung Kyu; Lee, Young Ik



In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of ellagic acid and its colonic metabolite, urolithins, on human bladder cancer T24 cells.  


Urolithins were the metabolites of ellagic acid by intestinal flora in gastrointestinal tract. In previous research, it was found that urolithins could mainly inhibit prostate cancer and colon cancer cell growth. However, there is no report about bladder cancer therapy of urolithins. In this paper, three urolithin-type compounds (urolithin A, urolithin B, 8-OMe-urolithin A) and ellagic acid were evaluated for antiproliferative activity in vitro against human bladder cancer cell lines T24. The IC50 values for T24 cell inhibition were 43.9, 35.2, 46.3 and 33.7?M for urolithin A, urolithin B, 8-OMe-urolithin A and ellagic acid, respectively. After the administration of urolithins and ellagic acid, we found these compounds could increase mRNA and protein expression of Phospho-p38 MAPK, and decrease mRNA and protein expression of MEKK1 and Phospho-c-Jun in T24 cells. Caspase-3 was also activated and PPAR-? protein expression increased in drug-induced apoptosis. And what's more, the antioxidant assay afforded by three urolithins and EA treatments were associated with decreases in the intracellular ROS and MDA levels, and increased SOD activity in H2O2-treated T24 cells. The results suggested that these compounds could inhibit cell proliferation by p38-MAPK and/or c-Jun medicated caspase-3 activation and reduce the oxidative stress status in bladder cancer. PMID:23811531

Qiu, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Benhong; Jin, Long; Yu, Honglian; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Youyi; Qin, Chengchen; Xie, Shuixiang; Zhu, Fan



Dose-response effect of ellagic acid on circulatory antioxidants and lipids during alcohol-induced toxicity in experimental rats.  


Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound that exhibits antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anticarcinogenic activities in a wide range of assays both in vitro and in vivo. It occurs in various foods such as strawberries, grapes, walnuts, etc. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ellagic acid on alcohol-induced changes in the circulatory antioxidative status, micronutrients and lipid levels in a dose-dependent fashion. Female albino Wistar rats weighing 150-170 g were used to assess the effects of EA against alcohol-induced damage. Three different concentrations of EA (30, 60 and 90 mg/kg body weight) were tested against 20% alcohol via intragastric administration. At the end of the experimental duration of 45 days, we evaluated endogenous antioxidants: both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (vitamin C and E, and reduced glutathione) status, micronutrients, viz. copper and zinc, and lipids: cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids in the circulation. The body weight gain of both alcohol-fed rats and EA-treated rats were also inferred. EA significantly inhibits alcohol-induced toxicity by improving body weight, restoring antioxidant status, modulating micronutrients and attenuating the lipid levels in the circulation. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed with 60 mg/kg body weight of EA in all the biochemical assessments. The results support the hypothesis that EA at the concentration of 60 mg/kg body weight decreases the intensity of alcohol-induced toxicity and could be developed as a potential drug for alcohol abuse in the near future. PMID:18034663

Devipriya, Nagarajan; Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Menon, Venugopal P



The effect of ellagic acid on xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P-450IIE1 and nitrosodimethylamine mutagenicity.  


Ellagic acid (EA) is an inhibitor of the in vitro mutagenicity of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 using pyrazole-induced rat liver 9000 x g supernatant (S-9). In order to understand this activity, the effect of EA on the metabolic hydroxylation of 4-nitrophenol, a substrate, as is NDMA, for cytochrome P-450IIE1 was studied using pyrazole induced rat S-9 and microsomal protein. It is shown that EA has an inhibitory effect on 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase with both enzyme preparations. This effect on cytochrome P-450IIE1 may be responsible, at least in part, for the inhibition of NDMA mutagenicity by EA. PMID:1730135

Wilson, T; Lewis, M J; Cha, K L; Gold, B



Effects of ellagic acid on copper, zinc, and biochemical values in serum and liver of experimental cholestatic rats.  


Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural polyphenolic compound. Although, modulator effects of EA on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels in some liver diseases have been reported in experimental animals, its effects in obstructive jaundice (OJ) has not been clarified. We aimed to evaluate potential effects of EA on Cu and Zn levels in liver and serum of cholestatic rats. Forty Wistar albino rats were equally divided into four groups. First group was used as controls. Second group received EA (60 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) for 8 days. Third was OJ group, and fourth group was OJ plus EA group. After 8 days, blood and liver samples were obtained. Higher serum and liver Cu and lower serum and liver Zn levels were found in OJ group (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. However, these differences reached to significant levels for Cu in serum and for Zn in lever. Higher serum copper levels were decreased, and lower liver Zn levels were increased by EA treatment in cholestatic rats (p < 0.05). Also, higher Cu/Zn ratio in OJ group was decreased by EA treatment both in liver (p < 0.05) and in serum (p < 0.05). Significantly higher serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase values were found in OJ and OJ + EA groups compared with the control and EA groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, result of the current study indicated that ellagic acid has modulator effects on Cu and Zn levels in liver and serum of cholestatic rats. PMID:20882364

Gümü?, Metehan; Yüksel, Hatice; Evliyao?lu, Osman; Kapan, Murat; Böyük, Abdullah; Önder, Ak?n; Aldemir, Mustafa



Inhibition of aflatoxin B1 mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium and DNA damage in cultured rat and human tracheobronchial tissues by ellagic acid.  


Ellagic acid (EA), a plant phenol found in various fruits and nuts, was examined for its ability to inhibit aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mutagenesis in strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium. In the presence of rat liver S-9 microsomal preparation, EA (1.5 microgram/plate) inhibited the number of mutations induced by AFB1 (0.5 microgram/plate) by 50%. EA at a dose of 1000 micrograms/plate inhibited the mutation frequency by greater than 90%. EA was also tested for its ability to inhibit the DNA binding and adduct formation of AFB1 in cultured explants of rat trachea and human tracheobronchus. Explants were incubated in medium containing EA at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 microM for 16 h followed by the addition of 1 microM [3H]AFB1 and EA for 24 h. DNA was isolated by phenol extraction and hydroxylapatite chromatography. EA caused a dose-dependent inhibition in the covalent binding of AFB1 to the DNA of both the rat trachea (9-57% inhibition) and human tracheobronchus (24-79% inhibition). After acid hydrolysis of the isolated DNA, the AFB1-DNA adducts were separated by h.p.l.c. In tissues from both species, the major AFB1- DNA adducts were AFB1-N7-Gua [8,9-dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyAFB1] and AFB1-N7-FaPyr (major) [8,9-dihydro-8- (2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl formamido)-9-hydroxyAFB1], and the formation of these adducts was reduced by 28-76% in the presence of EA. These data indicate that EA has the potential to act as a naturally occurring inhibitor of AFB1-related respiratory damage in rats and in humans. PMID:3117405

Mandal, S; Ahuja, A; Shivapurkar, N M; Cheng, S J; Groopman, J D; Stoner, G D



Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis.  


This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01-0.11? ? g/mL and 0.03-0.36? ? g/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19-103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38-0.73% and 0.49-2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r (2) values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

Kim, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung



Effects of ellagic acid by oral administration on distribution and metabolism of 2-aminofluorene in Sprague-Dawley rats.  


The effects of ellagic acid on the in vivo N-acetylation and metabolism of 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) were investigated in bladder, blood, colon, kidney, liver, feces and urine samples from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Major metabolites such as 1-OH-2-AAF, 8-OH-2-AAF and 9-OH-2-AAF were found in bladder tissues, 1-OH-2-AAF, 5-OH-2-AAF and 8-OH-2-AAF were found in blood samples, 1-OH-2-AAF, 3-OH-2-AAF, 5-OH-2-AAF, 8-OH-2-AAF and 9-OH-2-AAF were found in colon tissues, 1-OH-2-AAF, 3-OH-2-AAF and 9-OH-2-AAF were found in kidney tissues, 1-OH-2-AAF, 3-OH-2-AAF and 8-OH-2-AAF were found in liver tissues, 1-OH-2-AAF, 3-OH-2-AAF, 5-OH-2-AAF and 8-OH-2-AAF were found in feces samples and 1-OH-2-AAF, 3-OH-2-AAF, 5-OH-2-AAF and 8-OH-2-AAF were also found in urine samples after rats had been orally treated with 2-AF (50 mg/kg) for 24 h. Pretreatment of male rats with ellagic acid (10 mg/kg) 24 h prior to the administration of 2-AF (50 mg/kg) resulted in absence of 8-OH-2-AAF in bladder tissues, and there were significant decreases of 8-OH-2-AAF in blood and urine samples. In blood samples, amounts of 2-AAF and 8-OH-2-AAF were significantly decreased; in colon tissues, amounts of 2-AF, 1-OH-2-AAF and 3-OH-2-AAF, in liver tissues, amounts of 2-AAF, 1-OH-2-AAF and 3-OH-2-AAF, and in urine samples, amounts of 2-AF and 8-OH-2-AAF were significantly decreased in 24-h ellagic acid (EA)-treated rats before 2-AF was added to the diet. However, significantly increased 1-OH-2-AAF concentrations were found in urine samples in 24-h EA-treated rats before 2-AF was administered. In the EA and 2-AF rats, in the same time treated groups, bladder, colon and liver tissues, and feces and urine samples showed significant differences when compared to the ones without EA co-treatment. We saw significant decreases of the amounts of 2-AF and 1-OH-2-AAF in colon tissues. The feces samples showed increased amounts of 2-AAF in EA- and in 2-AF- treated rats in the same time groups, but urine samples showed a decreased amount of 8-OH-2-AAF in both EA-treated groups. The total amounts of 2-AF metabolites in bladder, blood, kidney and liver tissues showed significant difference between control and the group which was EA-treated 24 h before 2-AF was added. The total amounts of 2-AF metabolites in the liver, feces and urine showed significant decreases between control and EA-treated at the same time with 2-AF groups. This is the first report of EA affecting the N-acetylation and metabolism of 2-AF in rat tissues in vivo. PMID:15796167

Ho, Chin-Chin; Lai, Yi-Shyong; Wang, Der-Yean; Chen, Yi-Shuan; Lee, Jau-Hong; Tang, Nou-Ing; Chung, Jing-Gung


Inhibitory effects of vitamin E and ellagic acid on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation in liver nuclear DNA of rats treated with 2-nitropropane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of five naturally occurring antioxidants, ?-carotene (BC), vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE), ellagic acid (EA) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formation by 2-nitropropane (2-NP), a hepatocarcinogen in rats, were studied. Four days oral administration of VE (100 mg\\/kg BW\\/day) or EA (100 mg\\/kg BW\\/day) significantly inhibited 8-OH-dG formation in the liver nuclear DNA of male

Atsuya Takagi; Kimie Sai; Takashi Umemura; Ryuichi Hasegawa; Yuji Kurokawa



Zinc-Chelation Contributes to the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Ellagic Acid on Inhibiting MMP-2 Activity, Cell Migration and Tube Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEllagic acid (EA), a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been demonstrated to exert anti-angiogenic effect but the detailed mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the zinc chelating activity of EA contributed to its anti-angiogenic effect.Methods and Principal FindingsThe matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) activity, a zinc-required reaction, was directly inhibited by EA as examined

Sheng-Teng Huang; Rong-Chi Yang; Hsiao-Ting Wu; Chao-Nin Wang; Jong-Hwei S. Pang; Irina V. Lebedeva



LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS identification and LC-DAD quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in Drosera peltata.  


The herb of Drosera peltata, commonly named the shield sundew, is used as an antitussive in phytotherapy, although the plants' composition has not been determined in detail so far. Hence, in this study, we present a validated, sensitive, reliable, and cheap narrow-bore LC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in this herbal drug. In addition, the structures of 13 compounds have been elucidated by LC-MS, LC-NMR, and offline NMR experiments after isolation: herbacetin-3-O-glucoside (1), gossypitrin (2), ellagic acid (3), quercetin-7-O-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), kaempferol-3-O-(6?-O-galloyl)-glucoside (6), herbacetin-7-O-glucoside (7), astragalin (8), gossypetin (9), herbacetin (10), quercetin (11), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (12), and kaempferol (13). Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10 have been identified in D. peltata for the first time, and compounds 1, 4, 6, 7, and 10 have not been detected in any Drosera species before. PMID:23831703

Braunberger, Christina; Zehl, Martin; Conrad, Jürgen; Fischer, Sonja; Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte



Modulatory potential of ellagic acid, a natural plant polyphenol on altered lipid profile and lipid peroxidation status during alcohol-induced toxicity: a pathohistological study.  


Polyphenol-rich dietary foodstuffs, consumed as an integral part of vegetables, fruits, and beverages have attracted attention due to their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and nuts, has been reported to scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Chronic consumption of alcohol potentially results in serious illness including hepatitis, fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, and cirrhosis. A little is known about the influence of EA on alcohol toxicity in vivo. Accordingly, in the present study, we have evaluated the protective effects of EA on lipid peroxidation and lipid levels during alcohol-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Forty female albino Wistar rats, which were weighing between 150-170 g were used for the study. The toxicity was induced by administration of 20% alcohol orally (7.9 g/kg body wt.) for 45 days. Rats were treated with EA at three different doses (30, 60, and 90 mg/kg body wt.) via intragastric intubations together with alcohol. At the end of experimental duration, liver marker enzymes (i.e., aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase), lipid peroxidative indices (i.e., thiobarbituriacid reactive substances and hydroperoxides) in plasma, and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) in tissues were analyzed to evaluate the antiperoxidative and antilipidemic effects of EA. Liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidative indices, and lipid levels, i.e., cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids, were significantly increased whereas phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the alcohol-administered group. EA treatment resulted in positive modulation of marker enzymes, peroxidative indices, and lipid levels. EA at the dose of 60 mg/kg body wt. was found to be more effective when compared to the other two doses. Histological changes observed were also inconsistent with the biochemical parameters. Our study suggests that EA exerts beneficial effects at the dosage of 60 mg/kg body wt. against alcohol-induced damage, and it can be used as a potential drug for the treatment of alcohol-abuse ailments in the near future. PMID:18418896

Devipriya, Nagarajan; Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Vishwanathan, Periyaswamy; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan


E-cinnamic acid derivatives and phenolics from Chilean strawberry fruits, Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.  


Three E-cinnamic acid glycosides, tryptophan, and cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from ripe fruits of the Chilean strawberry Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis. 1-O-E-Cinnamoyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranoside, and 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-alpha-xylofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranose are reported for the first time. The cinnamic acid glycosides and aromatic compound patterns in F. chiloensis fruits were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analyses of extracts showed that cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and free ellagic acid are present in achenes while the E-cinnamoyl derivatives and tryptophan were identified only in the thalamus. The free radical scavenging effect of the fruit extract can be associated with the anthocyanin content. PMID:16248546

Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Saud, Guillermo; Caligari, Peter D S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo



Inhibitory effect of ellagic acid on N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced liver carcinogenesis in male ACI/N rats.  


The effect of ellagic acid (EA) on the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-2-fluorenylacetamide (FAA) was investigated in male ACI/N rats. Rats were fed diet containing 200 ppm FAA and 400 ppm EA for 16 weeks, and diet containing 400 ppm EA alone was fed to the animals for one week before FAA exposure and one week after the carcinogen treatment. Animals were killed at intervals up to 20 weeks after cessation of the carcinogen. Liver altered foci and neoplasms were quantified using gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase reaction as well as conventional staining for identification. Exposure to FAA alone induced a substantial number of altered foci and at the end of experiment (week 36), the incidence of hepatocellular neoplasms was 100%. In the group receiving EA together with FAA, the number of altered foci was decreased at all time points and at termination, the final incidence of hepatocellular neoplasms (30%) was also reduced. Thus, EA inhibited the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by FAA when it was administered concurrently with the carcinogen. PMID:2906931

Tanaka, T; Iwata, H; Niwa, K; Mori, Y; Mori, H



Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence  

PubMed Central

Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin.

Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena



Ellagic acid & gallic acid from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. inhibit HIV-1 infection through inhibition of HIV-1 protease & reverse transcriptase activity  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used as traditional medicines and are effective in controlling diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV property of the extracts prepared from the leaves and stems of banaba, and further purification and characterization of the active components. Methods: Aqueous and 50 per cent ethanolic extracts were prepared from leaves and stems of banaba and were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV activity using in vitro reporter gene based assays. Further, three compounds were isolated from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract of banaba leaves using silica gel column chromatography and characterization done by HPLC, NMR and MS analysis. To delineate the mode of action of the active compounds, reverse transcriptase assay and protease assay were performed using commercially available kits. Results: All the extracts showed a dose dependent inhibition of HIV-1-infection in TZM-bl and CEM-GFP cell lines with a maximum from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract from leaves (IC50= 1 to 25 ?g/ml). This observation was confirmed by the virus load (p24) estimation in infected CEM-GFP cells when treated with the extracts. Gallic acid showed an inhibition in reverse transcriptase whereas ellagic acid inhibited the HIV-1 protease activity. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a novel anti-HIV activity of banaba. The active components responsible for anti-HIV activity were gallic acid and ellagic acid, through inhibition of reverse transcriptase and HIV protease, respectively and hence could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HIV-1 agents.

Nutan; Modi, Manoj; Goel, Tanvi; Das, Tiyasa; Malik, Shweta; Suri, Samiksha; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Sharad Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh; Malhotra, Swadesh; Gupta, Satish Kumar



Effects of ellagic acid by oral administration on N-acetylation and metabolism of 2-aminofluorene in rat brain tissues.  


Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Acetyl Coenzyme A-dependent arylamine NAT enzyme exist in many tissues of experimental animals including humans, and that NAT has been shown to be exist in mouse brain tissue. Increased NAT activity levels are associated with increased sensitivity to the mutagenic effects of arylamine carcinogens. Attenuation of liver NAT activity is related to breast and bladder cancer processes. Therefore, the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on the in vitro and in vivo N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene (AF) were investigated in cerebrum, cerebellum and pineal gland tissues from male Sprague-Dawley rats. For in vitro examination, cytosols with or without EA (0.5-500 microM) co-treatment decreased 7-72%, 15-63% and 10-78% of AF acetylation for cerebrum, cerebellum and pineal gland tissues, respectively. For in vivo examination, EA and AF at the same time treated groups with all 3 examined tissues did show significant differences (the changes of total amounts of AF and AF metabolites based on the Anova analysis) when compared to the ones without EA cotreatment rats. The pretreatment of male rats with EA (10 mg/kg) 24 hr prior to the administration of AF (50 mg/kg) (one day of EA administration suffice to induce large changes in phase II enzyme activity) resulted in a 76% decrease in total AF and metabolites in pineal gland but did not show significant differences in cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. This is the first demonstration to show that EA decreases the N-acetylation of carcinogens in rat brain tissues. PMID:11071370

Lin, S S; Hung, C F; Ho, C C; Liu, Y H; Ho, H C; Chung, J G



Subchronic exposure to ellagic acid impairs cytotoxic T-cell function and suppresses humoral immunity in mice.  


Ellagic acid (EA) is present in a variety of foods such as grapes, strawberries, raspberries, and nuts. It is a dietary plant phenol that has been shown to inhibit oxidative stress and chemical carcinogenesis. Although several studies have examined the protective mechanisms of dietary EA including the induction of detoxifying enzymes, regulation of cell cycle, chelation of nickel, and prevention of DNA methylation, none have addressed the role of EA in immunological surveillance. This study investigates the status of immune function in B6C3F1 mice exposed continuously to EA in drinking water at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Although this range of exposure is above the estimated human daily intake (approximately 940 microg/day for 70 kg person or 13.4 microg/kg/day), these levels would not be unreasonable if EA were used as a dietary supplement or as a chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports have demonstrated the anticarcinogenic effects of EA at levels 10- to 250-fold greater than those applied in this study. Immunological parameters assessed included natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity, IgM antibody plaque forming cell (PFC) response, thymus, spleen, kidney, and liver mass, and total cellularity for the thymus and spleen. Subchronic exposure to EA for 28 days in drinking water caused significant suppression of specific IgM antibody responses in the 2.0 mg/kg EA treatment group and suppressed cytotoxic T-cell function in the 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg EA treatment groups. All other immunological parameters were within normal ranges. Kidney and liver mass were not altered after treatment with EA. The results from this study indicate that EA suppressed both IgM antibody responses and CTLs. These observations suggest important implications on human health should EA be prescribed as a chemotherapeutic agent or a preventative dietary supplement for cancer. PMID:19180803

Allen, C T; Peden-Adams, M M; EuDaly, J; Keil, D E



The effects of dietary ellagic acid on rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 and phase II enzymes.  


Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol possesses broad chemoprotective properties. Dietary EA has been shown to reduce the incidence of N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced rat esophageal tumors. In this study changes in the expression and activities of specific rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 (P450) and phase II enzymes following dietary EA treatment were investigated. Liver and esophageal mucosal microsomes and cytosol were prepared from three groups of Fisher 344 rats which were fed an AIN-76 diet containing no EA or 0.4 or 4.0 g/kg EA for 23 days. In the liver total P450 content decreased by up to 25% and P450 2E1-catalyzed p-nitrophenol hydroxylation decreased by 15%. No changes were observed in P450 1A1, 2B1 or 3A1/2 expression or activities or cytochrome b5 activity. P450 reductase activity decreased by up to 28%. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) expression decreased by up to 85% after EA treatment, but mEH activities did not change. The hepatic phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H:quinone reductase [NAD-(P)H:QR] and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activities increased by up to 26, 17 and 75% respectively. Assays for specific forms of GST indicated marked increases in the activities of isozymes 2-2 (190%), 4-4 (150%) and 5-5 (82%). In the rat esophageal mucosa only P450 1A1 could be detected by Western blot analysis and androstendione was the only P450 metabolite of testosterone detectable. However, there were no differences in the expression of P450 1A1, the formation of androstendione or NAD(P)H:QR activities between control and EA-fed rats in the esophagus. Although there was no significant decrease in overall GST activity, as measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), there was a significant decrease in the activity of the 2-2 isozyme (66% of control). In vitro incubations showed that EA at a concentration of 100 microM inhibited P450 2E1, 1A1 and 2B1 activities by 87, 55 and 18% respectively, but did not affect 3A1/2 activity. Using standard steady-state kinetic analyses, EA was shown to be a potent non-competitive inhibitor of both liver microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activities, with apparent Ki values of approximately 55 and 14 microM respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that EA causes a decrease in total hepatic P450 with a significant effect on hepatic P450 2E1, increases some hepatic phase II enzyme activities [GST, NAD-(P)H:QR and UDPGT] and decreases hepatic mEH expression. It also inhibits the catalytic activity of some P450 isozymes in vitro. Thus the chemoprotective effect of EA against various chemically induced cancers may involve decreases in the rates of metabolism of these carcinogens by phase I enzymes, due to both direct inhibition of catalytic activity and modulation of gene expression, in addition to effects on the expression of phase II enzymes, thereby enhancing the ability of the target tissues to detoxify the reactive intermediates. PMID:8625497

Ahn, D; Putt, D; Kresty, L; Stoner, G D; Fromm, D; Hollenberg, P F



Ellagic acid improves hepatic steatosis and serum lipid composition through reduction of serum resistin levels and transcriptional activation of hepatic ppara in obese, diabetic KK-A(y) mice.  


Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in a wide variety of plant foods that not only exhibits free radical-scavenging activity, but also confers protective effects against liver injury. Previously, we reported that pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) had an inhibitory effect on resistin secretion from differentiated murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes and identified EA contained in PFE as a potent suppressor of resistin secretion. Resistin, an adipocytokine, is considered the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we explored whether EA supplementation reduces serum resistin and improves hepatic steatosis and serum lipid profile by using KK-A(y) mice fed high-fat diet as a model for obese type 2 diabetes. We found that EA supplementation improved serum lipid profile and hepatic steatosis, and reduced serum resistin levels without altering mRNA expression levels in adipose tissue. Moreover, EA supplementation upregulated mRNA expression of apoa1, ldlr, cpt1a, and ppara genes in the liver. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EA is a potent suppressor of resistin secretion in vivo and a transcriptional activator of ppara in the liver, suggesting a possibility for improving obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in KK-A(y) mice. PMID:23583377

Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Nishii, Saori; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio



A comparative study for the evaluation of two doses of ellagic Acid on hepatic drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat.  


The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30?mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30?mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30?mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin



Inhibition of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring plant phenolics caffeic, ellagic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids.  


The modifying effects of dietary administration of the plant phenolic antioxidants caffeic acid (CA), ellagic acid (EA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and ferulic acid (FA) during the initiation phase on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis and on the number and area of silver-stained nucleolar organizer region proteins (AgNORs), a new cell proliferation marker, of the tongue squamous epithelium were investigated in male F344 rats. Rats were fed the diet containing 500 p.p.m. CA, 400 p.p.m. EA, 250 p.p.m. CGA or 500 p.p.m. FA for 7 weeks. One week after the commencement of the diets, 4-NQO (20 p.p.m.) was administered in the drinking water for 5 weeks. Feeding of four phenolic compounds significantly reduced the incidences of tongue neoplasms (squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma) and preneoplastic lesions (hyperplasia and dysplasia) by 32 weeks, and rats fed CA or EA had no tongue neoplasms. The number and area of AgNORs per nucleus were decreased significantly by dietary treatment with these four phenolics. Thus, CA, EA, CGA and FA inhibited the tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-NQO when they were administered concurrently with the carcinogen. These results might suggest possible application of these natural substances for cancer chemoprevention in tongue in addition to other tissues (skin, lung, liver and esophagus). PMID:8330344

Tanaka, T; Kojima, T; Kawamori, T; Wang, A; Suzui, M; Okamoto, K; Mori, H



Pomegranate Juice Metabolites, Ellagic Acid and Urolithin A, Synergistically Inhibit Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cell Growth via Distinct Effects on Cell Cycle Control and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Ellagitannins (ETs) from pomegranate juice (PJ) are bioactive polyphenols with chemopreventive potential against prostate cancer (PCa). ETs are not absorbed intact but are partially hydrolyzed in the gut to ellagic acid (EA). Colonic microflora can convert EA to urolithin A (UA), and EA and UA enter the circulation after PJ consumption. Here, we studied the effects of EA and UA on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in DU-145 and PC-3 androgen-independent PCa cells and whether combinations of EA and UA affected cell proliferation. EA demonstrated greater dose-dependent antiproliferative effects in both cell lines compared to UA. EA induced cell cycle arrest in S phase associated with decreased cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 levels. UA induced a G2/M arrest and increased cyclin B1 and cdc2 phosphorylation at tyrosine-15, suggesting inactivation of the cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase complex. EA induced apoptosis in both cell lines, while UA had a less pronounced proapoptotic effect only in DU-145. Cotreatment with low concentrations of EA and UA dramatically decreased cell proliferation, exhibiting synergism in PC-3 cells evaluated by isobolographic analysis and combination index. These data provide information on pomegranate metabolites for the prevention of PCa recurrence, supporting the role of gut flora-derived metabolites for cancer prevention.

Vicinanza, Roberto; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David



Inhibitory effects of vitamin E and ellagic acid on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation in liver nuclear DNA of rats treated with 2-nitropropane.  


The effects of five naturally occurring antioxidants, beta-carotene (BC), vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE), ellagic acid (EA) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formation by 2-nitropropane (2-NP), a hepatocarcinogen in rats, were studied. Four days oral administration of VE (100 mg/kg BW/day) or EA (100 mg/kg BW/day) significantly inhibited 8-OH-dG formation in the liver nuclear DNA of male F-344 rats injected with 2-NP (100 mg/kg BW, i.p., killed 6 h later). The same treatment with EGCG (100 mg/kg BW/day) showed slight, but not significant, inhibition. In contrast, 4 days' oral administration of BC (100 mg/kg BW/day) or VC (300 mg/kg BW/day) and 3 weeks' feeding of the two (either at 0.5% in the diet) did not produce any inhibitory effects on 8-OH-dG formation. Thus, it is expected that VE and EA may have anticarcinogenic effects towards 2-NP. PMID:7750089

Takagi, A; Sai, K; Umemura, T; Hasegawa, R; Kurokawa, Y



Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS.  


Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC-DAD method has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and D. rotundifolia). During elaboration of the method 13 compounds, including three substances not previously described for Drosera species, were detected and unambiguously identified by means of extensive LC-MS and LC-NMR experiments and by off-line heteronuclear 2D NMR after targeted isolation. The most prominent component of D. rotundifolia and D. anglica, 2?-O-galloylhyperoside, with myricetin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(2?-O-galloyl)-?-galactopyranoside, were identified for the very first time in this genus. The LC-DAD method for quantification was thoroughly validated, and enables, for the first time, separation and precise analysis of these analytes in Droserae herba. Simple sample preparation and use of a narrow-bore column guarantee low cost and simplicity of the suggested system, which is excellently suited to quality control of the drug or herbal medicinal products containing this drug. PMID:21298259

Zehl, Martin; Braunberger, Christina; Conrad, Jürgen; Crnogorac, Marija; Krasteva, Stanimira; Vogler, Bernhard; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte



Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.  


The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082

Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta



Stages of activation of hepatic stellate cells: effects of ellagic acid, an inhibiter of liver fibrosis, on their differentiation in culture.  


To further explore that hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation results in physiological protection against environmental insult, the profile of differentiation of HSC has been examined upon treatment with ellagic acid (EA), a plant-derived antioxidant that shows multiple protective effects during liver disease. Sparse rat liver cell cultures were grown in media containing EA (3, 6, 30 and 100 microg/ml) and, as controls, without EA, and inspected until day 7 in culture. The cells were double-labelled with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMAA), marker proteins of quiescent and activated HSC, respectively. In EA-free culture conditions, the quiescent (SMAA-/GFAP+) HSC transiently acquired a semi-activated (SMAA+/GFAP+), phenotype and were further transformed into activated (SMAA+/GFAP-), pleomorphic HSC. Up to a concentration of 30 microg/ml, EA induced an early synthesis of SMAA in all HSC and inhibited their morphologic differentiation and individual growth throughout the culture period. At a concentration of 6 microg/ml, EA supported the semi-activated (SMAA+/GFAP+) phenotype of HSC throughout the culture period, whereas treatment with high EA concentrations (30 microg/ml) resulted in an early loss of GFAP expression. In conclusion: (i) the uniform response of HSC to EA by mild activation adds functional significance to cellular features preceding the transformation of HSC to myofibroblasts; (ii) the high sensitivity of HSC to EA treatment suggests their involvement in any mechanisms of protection by this antioxidant; (iii) the maintenance of HSC morphology might be one of the factors playing a role in the prevention or slowing down of liver fibrosis; (iv) because the effects of EA are concentration- and time-dependent, an arbitrary usage of this antioxidant is a matter of potential concern; (v) the various patterns of HSC activation observed might correspond to distinct activities of these cells, which, in turn, might lead to different outcomes of liver fibrosis. PMID:14710849

Buniatian, G H



The gut microbiota ellagic acid-derived metabolite urolithin A and its sulfate conjugate are substrates for the drug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP).  


The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a drug efflux transporter that can affect the pharmacological and toxicological properties of many molecules. Urolithins, metabolites produced by the gut microbiota from ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannins, have been acknowledged with in vivo anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated whether urolithins (Uro-A, -B, -C, and -D) and their main phase II metabolites Uro-A sulfate, Uro-A glucuronide, and Uro-B glucuronide as well as their precursor EA were substrates for ABCG2/BCRP. Parental and Bcrp1-transduced MDCKII cells were used for active transport assays. Uro-A and, to a lesser extent, Uro-A sulfate showed a significant increase in apically directed translocation in Bcrp1-transduced cells. Bcrp1 did not show affinity for the rest of the tested compounds. Data were confirmed for murine, human, bovine, and ovine BCRP-transduced subclones as well as with the use of the selective BCRP inhibitor Ko143. The transport inhibition by Uro-A was analyzed by flow cytometry compared to Ko143 using the antineoplastic agent mitoxantrone as a model substrate. Results showed that Uro-A was able to inhibit mitoxantrone transport in a dose-dependent manner. This study reports for the first time that Uro-A and its sulfate conjugate are ABCG2/BCRP substrates. The results suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of these gut microbiota-derived metabolites could modulate ABCG2/BCRP-mediated transport processes and mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. Further in vivo investigations are warranted. PMID:23586460

González-Sarrías, Antonio; Miguel, Verónica; Merino, Gracia; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Alvarez, Ana I; Espín, Juan C



Ellagic acid inhibits PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and prevents atheroma formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  


Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds have beneficial health effects. In the present study, we determined the ability of ellagic acid (EA) to prevent platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation of primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). We also determined the ability of EA to prevent atherosclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Proliferation of cells was measured via Alamar Blue assay and through propidium iodide-based cell cycle analysis in flow cytometer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured via 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex red methods. Expression of proliferation markers and activation of kinases were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Cotreatment of primary cultures of RASMCs with 25 ?mol/L of EA significantly reduced PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml)-induced proliferation by blocking S-phase entry. EA effectively blocked PDGF receptor-? (PDGFR-?) tyrosine phosphorylation, generation of intracellular ROS and downstream activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. It also blocked PDGF-BB-induced expression of cyclin D1. Computational molecular docking of EA with the PDGFR-?-PDGF-BB complex revealed two putative inhibitor binding sites which showed similar binding energies with the known PDGFR-? inhibitor AG1295. In diabetic rats, supplementation of diet with 2% EA significantly blocked diabetes-induced medial thickness, and lipid and collagen deposition in the arch of aorta. These were assessed through haematoxylin and eosin, Oil Red O and Masson's trichome staining, respectively. EA treatment also blocked cyclin D1 expression in medial smooth muscle cells in experimental animals. Thus, EA is effective in reducing atherosclerotic process by blocking proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23866995

Rani P, Uma; Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Ganugula, Raghu; T, Avaneesh; Kumar P, Uday; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Dixit, Madhulika



The efficacy of protective effects of tannic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and propyl gallate against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and DNA damages in IMR-90 cells.  


There is increasing evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intimately involved in the oxidative damage of tissues for a wide variety of pulmonary diseases. Thus, it is desirable to search for chemopreventive agents that can counteract ROS-mediated injury to the pulmonary tissues. Using a human lung fibroblast IMR-90 cells as the experimental model, we first demonstrated that nearly 90% of intracellular ROS could be removed when H(2)O(2)-treated cells (200 microM) simultaneously incubated with 10 microg/mL of tannic acid (TA), gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA), and propyl gallate (PA). Using C(11)-BODIPY(581/591 )as a lipid peroxidation probe, we also attested that all these compounds examined (10 microg/mL) could alleviate H(2)O(2)-evoked lipid peroxidation phenomena. Next, we examined the protective effects of these compounds on the depletion of intracellular glutathione (iGSH) in H(2)O(2)-treated cells using CMF-DA probe. Interestingly, PA was demonstrated to be the only compound that could effectively protect the integrity of iGSH from being depleted by this system. Finally, the protective effects of these compounds against oxidative DNA damage were evaluated using 8-oxoguanine formation as a marker. Our data indicated that all four compounds suppressed the formation of 8-oxoguanine effectively. Taken together, our data suggested that TA, GA, EA, and PA can protect cells from oxidative stress. PMID:17628875

Chen, Ching-Hsein; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Chin-Hui; Wong, Chung Hang; Chen, Chi-Hung; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Ssu Ching



Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection mass spectrometry of phenolic compounds in fruit of Eucalyptus globulus cultivated in Algeria.  


A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) following fractionation by chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 column has been developed to determine the phenolic composition of fruit of Eucalyptus globulus growing in Algeria. The presence of 18 gallotannins, 26 ellagitannins, and 2 flavonols was established. Tentative identification is provided for these compounds on the basis of UV-visible spectra and mass spectrometry data. Most compounds described in this study have not previously detected in fruit of E. globulus. Moreover, this is the first report of methyl digalloyl diglucose, 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid 4-O-?-glucopyranoside, ellagic acid hexose, methyl ellagic acid pentose, methyltetragalloylglucose, and valoneic acid isomers (sanguisorbic, flavogallic acid dilactone) in the genus Eucalyptus. Quantitatively, ellagic acid and its derivatives, including ellagitannins, are largely predominant. PMID:21121679

Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Chibane, Mohamed; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Slimani, Sakina; Henry, Max; Cheynier, Veronique; Madani, Khodir



Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi



A new method of standartization of health-promoting pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract.  


This study analyzes the major phenolic constituents of pomegranate fruit juice and pericarp feedstock, and dry extracts thereof, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pomegranate pericarp was extracted with water (WE) and alcohol (AE) as solvents, and liquid extracts were subsequently freeze-dried. The results indicate that ellagitannins punicalagin A and punicalagin B are the major constituents in the primary pomegranate feedstock and in both types of extracts. Ellagic acid, a common botanical constituent that is currently used to standardize pomegranate extracts, as well as ellagitannin punicalin, were found to be only minor constituents. Total punicalagins (the sum of punicalagins A+B and punicalin) and ellagic acid content in the pomegranate fruit pericarp feedstock WE were 7,6+/-0,3% and 0,2+/-0,1% by dry weight, respectively, and in the AE feedstock 7,0+/-0,2 and 0,4+/-0,1%, respectively. Total phenolic content (the sum of punicalagins and ellagic acid) in the pomegranate WE and AE were 45,8+/-1,2% and 42,3+/-1,1%, respectively. The concentrations of ellagic acid in the pomegranate WE and AE were 0,8+/-0,2% and 3,9+/-0,2%, respectively. Total phenolics in fresh single-strength pomegranate whole fruit juice contained 2,216+/-70 mg/L (95% punicalagins), whereas commercial pomegranate juice that was purchased from local stores was 317+/-13 mg/L (70% punicalagins). Our results strongly suggest that the commercially produced pomegranate extracts should be standardized to the content of total punicalagins as well as ellagic acid. The current standard uses only ellagic acid, which is unreliable, potentially misleading and vulnerable to commercial adulteration. PMID:17179594

Jimenez Del Rio, M; Ramazanov, A; Sikorski, S; Ramazanov, Z; Chkhikvishvili, I



Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit  

SciTech Connect

Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

Robbins, C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Mulcahy, F. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Somayajula, K. (Coca-Cola Co., Atlanta, GA); Edenborn, H.M.



Ascorbic acid content of some Nigerian local fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid contents of some common local fruits and vegetables was determined. The ascorbic acid contents of the fruits ranged from 21.8 to 98.0 mg per 100 g sample while that of vegetables ranged from 21.3 to 98.8 mg per 100 g sample. The traditional processing of some of the fruits resulted in losses of ascorbic acid of between 43

S. C. Achinewhu



Organ specific, protocol dependent modulation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene carcinogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by dietary ellagic acid.  


This study investigated pre-initiation and post-initiation effects of dietary ellagic acid (EA) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) multi-organ carcinogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). EA at 100, 250 (study 2), 1000 and 2000 (study 1) p.p.m. suppressed stomach adenopapilloma incidence by 33, 60, 70 and 78% (P < or = 0.001), respectively, as well as tumor multiplicity (P < 0.01) and size (P < 0.001) when fed continuously following DMBA initiation. However, continuous EA feeding also produced modest (250 p.p.m.) to extensive (1000, 2000 p.p.m.) growth rate suppression in these studies. Retrospective logistic regression modeling of the data allowed separation of growth-related from non-growth-related inhibitory effects. By this approach: (i) tumor development showed a similarly strong dependence (same regression slope) on animal growth rate in all treatment groups; (ii) EA-mediated reduction in mean population growth contributed to suppressed stomach tumor response above 250 p.p.m. EA; and (iii) even at high, toxic doses EA displayed inhibitory mechanisms additional to, and distinct from, growth suppression effect. The effects of post-initiation EA were organ specific. Chronic EA treatment significantly suppressed swim-bladder as well as stomach tumor incidence at doses > or = 1000 p.p.m., but increased liver tumor incidence at doses > or = 250 p.p.m. Three protocols examined EA effects on the initiation process. EA fed at 1000 p.p.m. concurrently with 750 p.p.m. dietary DMBA for 7 weeks modestly reduced stomach tumor incidence (from 85 to 78%, P < 0.05) and multiplicity (from 6.3 +/- 4.3 to 4.9 +/- 2.9, P < 0.01), but did not alter swim-bladder or liver response. The effect of EA pretreatment prior to DMBA single-dose initiation by gill uptake was also examined. When fed for 1 week prior to initiation, 2000 p.p.m. EA again imposed a small reduction in stomach adenoma incidence (from 88 to 78%; P < 0.05) and multiplicity (from 5.5 +/- 3.2 to 4.4 +/- 3.2; P < 0.01). However, when EA was pre-fed for 3 weeks instead of 1 week, protection in the stomach was lost and response in liver and swim-bladder significantly increased. In sum, these studies demonstrate that EA influence on DMBA tumorigenesis in this multi-organ model is highly protocol dependent and organ specific. Post-initiation dietary EA consistently suppressed stomach tumor development in trout, at EA doses far lower than those required for protection in rodents. At higher doses, however, EA also displayed toxicity and a potential in some protocols to enhance tumor response in other organs. PMID:8968055

Harttig, U; Hendricks, J D; Stoner, G D; Bailey, G S



Phenolic acid profiles of mangosteen fruits ( Garcinia mangostana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of phenolic acids in various parts of mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) was determined by GC and MS. The total content of phenolic acids, identified by GC-FID ranged from 265.7±12.7 (aril) to 5027.7±188.0 (peel) mg per kg of dry matter of sample. Ten phenolic acids were identified in mangosteen fruit. Of these, protocatechuic acid was the major phenolic acid

Ryszard Zadernowski; Sylwester Czaplicki; Marian Naczk



Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi



What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells.  


Fleshy fruit acidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell. PMID:23408829

Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C




EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...


Diffusion Properties of Garcinia Fruit Acids (Garcinia atroviridis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion properties of garcinia fruit acids (Garcinia atroviridis) were investigated in a batch reactor. The influences of two variables were studied: material thickness and extraction temperature. Stirring was continuous to assure turbulent flow inside the vessel. Garcinia fruits were sliced into infinite slabs of two different thicknesses, 2.5 and 4.0 mm. Each group of a given thickness was then




Multisensory flavor perception: Assessing the influence of fruit acids and color cues on the perception of fruit-flavored beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study designed to investigate the influence of fruit acids (in particular, citric and malic acid) on people’s perception of the identity and the intensity of a variety of different fruit-flavored solutions. Participants had to identify the flavor of fruit-flavored drinks that were colored yellow, grey, orange, red, or else were presented as colorless solutions. The participants also

Massimiliano Zampini; Emma Wantling; Nicola Phillips; Charles Spence



N-Malonyl-d-tryptophan in Apple Fruits Treated with Succinic Acid 2,2-Dimethylhydrazide  

PubMed Central

Fruit from Red Delicious apple trees treated with the growth retardant succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide contained more N-malonyl-d-tryptophan than control fruit. When succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide and tryptophan were injected into immature fruits, more N-methyl-d-tryptophan was produced than when dl-tryptophan was injected alone. Our results suggest that succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide may control fruit and vegetative growth by interfering with auxin production.

Williams, M. W.; Stahly, E. A.



Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit.

Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sanchez-Sevilla, Jose F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano



Process for Preserving Raw Fruits and Vegetables Using Ascorbic Acid Esters and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit and vegetable p...

G. M. Sapers K. B. Hicks P. A. Seib



Process for Preserving Raw Fruits and Vegetables Using Ascorbic Acid Esters and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit...

G. M. Sapers K. B. Hicks P. A. Seib



Abscisic acid triggers whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms to increase fruit calcium uptake and prevent blossom end rot development in tomato fruit.  


Calcium (Ca) uptake into fruit and leaves is dependent on xylemic water movement, and hence presumably driven by transpiration and growth. High leaf transpiration is thought to restrict Ca movement to low-transpiring tomato fruit, which may increase fruit susceptibility to the Ca-deficiency disorder, blossom end rot (BER). The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of reduced leaf transpiration in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants on fruit and leaf Ca uptake and BER development. Tomato cultivars Ace 55 (Vf) and AB2 were grown in a greenhouse environment under Ca-deficit conditions and plants were treated weekly after pollination with water (control) or 500 mg l(-1) ABA. BER incidence was completely prevented in the ABA-treated plants and reached values of 30-45% in the water-treated controls. ABA-treated plants had higher stem water potential, lower leaf stomatal conductance, and lower whole-plant water loss than water-treated plants. ABA treatment increased total tissue and apoplastic water-soluble Ca concentrations in the fruit, and decreased Ca concentrations in leaves. In ABA-treated plants, fruit had a higher number of Safranin-O-stained xylem vessels at early stages of growth and development. ABA treatment reduced the phloem/xylem ratio of fruit sap uptake. The results indicate that ABA prevents BER development by increasing fruit Ca uptake, possibly by a combination of whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms. PMID:21282326

de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Shackel, Kenneth A; Mitcham, Elizabeth J



Fatty acid composition and antioxidant system in relation to susceptibility of loquat fruit to chilling injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cultivars of loquat fruit with contrasting chilling resistance were stored at 1°C for 35days to investigate the relationship between chilling injury and fatty acid composition and its antioxidant system. No symptoms of chilling injury occurred in the fruit of ‘Qingzhong’ cultivar during the whole storage, whereas in ‘Fuyang’ fruit, chilling injury increased sharply after 21days of storage at 1°C.

Shifeng Cao; Zhenfeng Yang; Yuting Cai; Yonghua Zheng



Comparison of ascorbic acid content of Emblica officinalis fruits determined by different analytical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica fruits have long been endowed with many pharmacological properties, which are attributable to their rich vitamin C content. A recent report that Emblica fruits do not contain ascorbic acid, but contain two hydrolysable low molecular weight tannins with antioxidant attributes, thus challenging the long-standing belief that amla fruits owe their potential pharmacological activity to their vitamin C content. The

V. Raghu; Kalpana Platel; K. Srinivasan



Changes in amino acid composition and nitrogen metabolizing enzymes in ripening fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free amino acid content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits from cultivars Platense, Vollendung and Cherry were determined during ripening. It was found that glutamate markedly increased in red fruits of the three cultivars under study. At this stage, the cv Cherry had the highest relative glutamate molar content (52%) of all the analyzed tomato fruit cultivars. Measurements of

Silvana B. Boggio; Javier F. Palatnik; Hans W. Heldt; Estela M. Valle



Use of ion chromatography for the measurement of organic acids in fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradient ion chromatographic method to separate and determine main organic acids in fruit juices was developed. The method allows the separation of organic anions on Dionex OMNI PAC PAX-500 column by NaOH gradient elution and conductometric detection. The main organic acids of fruit juices (citric, malic, tartaric) were separated together with other less abundant acids. More than 500 samples

G. Saccani; S. Gherardi; A. Trifirò; C. Soresi Bordini; M. Calza; C. Freddi



Reduced chilling injury in mango fruit by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the antioxidant response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on chilling injury (CI) in mango fruit. 2,4-D treatment at 150mgL?1 could significantly alleviate CI or disease incidence of mango fruit during 7 days storage at 4°C and an additional 14 days at 20°C (P<0.05). Fruit quality, including increased soluble solids, soluble sugar, fruit firmness, and

Baogang Wang; Jianhui Wang; Hao Liang; Jianyong Yi; Jingjing Zhang; Lin Lin; Yu Wu; Xiaoyuan Feng; Jiankang Cao; Weibo Jiang



Antisense acid invertase (TIV1) gene alters soluble sugar composition and size in transgenic tomato fruit.  

PubMed Central

Invertase (beta-fructosidase, EC hydrolyzes sucrose to hexose sugars and thus plays a fundamental role in the energy requirements for plant growth and maintenance. Transgenic plants with altered extracellular acid invertase have highly disturbed growth habits. We investigated the role of intracellular soluble acid invertase in plant and fruit development. Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants expressing a constitutive antisense invertase transgene grew identically to wild-type plants. Several lines of transgenic fruit expressing a constitutive antisense invertase gene had increased sucrose and decreased hexose sugar concentrations. Each transgenic line with fruit that had increased sucrose concentrations also had greatly reduced levels of acid invertase in ripe fruit. Sucrose-accumulating fruit were approximately 30% smaller than control fruit, and this differential growth correlated with high rates of sugar accumulation during the last stage of development. These data suggest that soluble acid invertase controls sugar composition in tomato fruit and that this change in composition contributes to alterations in fruit size. In addition, sucrose-accumulating fruit have elevated rates of ethylene evolution relative to control fruit, perhaps as a result of the smaller fruit size of the sucrose-accumulating transgenic lines.

Klann, E M; Hall, B; Bennett, A B



Variation in ascorbic acid and mineral content in fruits of some varieties of chilli ( Capsicum annuum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid content in green and ripe fruits and zinc, copper, manganese, iron, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus content in dry fruits were found to vary significantly in different varieties of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Ascorbic acid content in ripe fruits of all of the eleven chilli varieties was higher than in the corresponding green fruits. Path coefficient analysis

B. M. Khadi; J. V. Goud; V. B. Patil



Changes in fatty acid composition of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit during maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits cultivated in the North-East of Tunisia (Charfine). The fruits matured in 55 days after flowering (DAF). Oil and petroselinic acid synthesis proceeded at a steady rate up to 32 DAF. The first results showed a rapid oil accumulation started at newly formed fruits (9.6±0.2%) and continued

Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mouna Ben Taarit; Thouraya Chahed; Mohamed Hammami; Brahim Marzouk



Free amino acid production during tomato fruit ripening: a focus on l -glutamate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tomato, free amino acids increase dramatically during fruit ripening and their abundance changed differentially. More evident\\u000a is l-glutamate which gives the characteristic “umami” flavor. Glutamate is the principal free amino acid of ripe fruits of cultivated\\u000a varieties. In this paper, we examined the capacity of tomato fruits to process endogenous as well as exogenous polypeptides\\u000a during the ripening transition,

Augusto Sorrequieta; Gisela Ferraro; Silvana B. Boggio; Estela M. Valle



Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation.\\u000a The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial\\u000a aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase\\u000a causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that

Asfaw Degu; Bayissa Hatew; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Ludmila Shlizerman; Naftali Zur; Ehud Katz; Alisdair R. Fernie; Eduardo Blumwald; Avi Sadka



Changes in amino acid composition and nitrogen metabolizing enzymes in ripening fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.  


The free amino acid content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits from cultivars Platense, Vollendung and Cherry were determined during ripening. It was found that glutamate markedly increased in red fruits of the three cultivars under study. At this stage, the cv Cherry had the highest relative glutamate molar content (52%) of all the analyzed tomato fruit cultivars. Measurements of nitrogen-assimilating enzyme activities of these fruits showed a decrease in glutamine synthetase (GS, EC during fruit ripening and a concomitant increase in NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC and aspartate aminotransferase (EC activities. Western blot analysis of protein extracts revealed that while GS was principally present in green fruit extracts, GDH was almost exclusively observed in the extracts of red fruits. These results suggest a reciprocal pattern of induction between GS and GDH during tomato fruit ripening. PMID:11011100

Boggio; Palatnik; Heldt; Valle



Purification and characterization of banana fruit acid phosphatase.  


An acid phosphatase (APase, EC from ripened banana (Musa cavendishii L. cv. Cavendish) fruit has been purified 1,876-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP)-hydrolyzing specific activity of 745 micromol Pi produced (mg protein)(-1) min(-1). Non-denaturing PAGE of the final preparation resolved a single protein-staining band that co-migrated with APase activity. SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration demonstrated that the purified enzyme exists as a 40-kDa monomer. That the enzyme is glycosylated was indicated by its tight absorption to Concanavalin A-Sepharose. Banana APase was relatively heat stable, displayed a symmetrical pH/activity profile with maximal activity at pH 5.8, and was activated 180% and 150% by 5 mM Mn2+ and Mg2+, respectively. The enzyme exhibited a broad substrate selectivity, with maximal specificity constants (Vmax/Km) obtained with pNPP, phosphoenolpyruvate, phenyl phosphate, and O-phospho-L-tyrosine. Potent inhibition by Pi, molybdate, vanadate, arsenate, and Zn2+ was observed. Putative metabolic functions of the APase are discussed in relation to maintaining significant Pi mobility during banana fruit ripening. PMID:11800388

Turner, W L; Plaxton, W C



[Simultaneous determination of 11 organic acids in fruit juice by ion exclusion chromatography].  


A method for the quantitative determination of 11 organic acids (oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, glutaric acid and fumaric acid) in fruit juice was developed successfully. It was based on an ion exclusion chromatographic separation under the conditions of isocratic elution with 17 mmol/L sulphuric acid solution with the ICE-ION-300 ion exclusion column, and the UV detection at 210 nm. The precision of the method was investigated and the relative standard deviations were from 1.5% to 9.8% (n = 10). PMID:12541818

Guo, D H; Xia, L



Salicylic acid alleviated pathogen-induced oxidative stress in harvested sweet cherry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in regulating an antioxidative defense response of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum was investigated by immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. After inoculation with P. expansum, carbonylated proteins accumulated to a lesser extent in SA-treated fruit than in control fruit, ranging from molecular mass 29–45kDa. Higher activities of

Xiangbin Xu; Shiping Tian



Perception of flavour in standardised fruit pulps with additions of acids or sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesised that adding sugars or acids to pulps derived from fruit of different genetic background, or of lower or higher carbohydrate status should give similar results until a threshold for sweetness or acidity perception in the pulp background was reached. Pulps made from fruit of Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’—a fresh sweet-acid kiwifruit—and A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’—a sweet tropical flavoured kiwifruit, were

Ken B. Marsh; Ellen N. Friel; Anne Gunson; Cynthia Lund; Elspeth MacRae



Interaction of Aqueous Solutions of Chlorine with Malic Acid, Tartaric Acid, and Various Fruit Juices. A Source of Mutagens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. Diethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain...

T. L. Chang R. P. Streicher H. Zimmer



Organic acid, phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of fruit flesh and seed of Viburnum opulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viburnum opulus L., belonging to the plant family of Caprifoliaceae, is known as “gilaburu” in Turkey and “Guelder rose” in Europe. Fruits and fruit juice of V. opulus began to be sold in the markets of Turkey recently. Due to the lack of information in the literature, major organic acids, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC),

M. Cam; Y. Hisil; A. Kuscu



Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts from ten fruits were examined for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits included: mao luang (Antidesma bunius Linn.), mao khipla (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.), mulberry (Morus alba Linn.), wild grape (Tetrastigma quadrangulatum), red grape (Vitis vinifera), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilus), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cherry (Prunus avium), and black currant (Ribes nigrum).

Supachai Samappito; Luchai Butkhup



Quantification of L-ascorbic acid and total ascorbic acid in fruits and spinach by capillary zone electrophoresis.  


A standard curve for the quantification of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was established, and the quantification of ascorbic acid and total ascorbic acid in fruits (lemon, Sunkist, and pineapple) and spinach were performed using D-isoascorbic acid (D-IAA) as an internal standard. The minimum detection limits (MDLs) for L-AA and D-IAA were determined to be 1 and 2 microg/mL, respectively, at 265 nm. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) in fruits and spinach was quantified in the presence of DL-homocysteine. The recoveries for L-AA in these juices were between 95 and 105%. PMID:11386660

Liao, T; Jiang, C M; Wu, M C; Hwang, J Y; Chang, H M



Edible Myrciaria vexator fruits: bioactive phenolics for potential COPD therapy.  


The edible fruits of Myrciaria vexator McVaugh (Myrtaceae), from northern South America, are eaten in certain locales, either fresh or processed into jellies and drinks. Activity-guided fractionation of M. vexator resulted in identification of ellagic acid (1), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (2), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (3), 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid (4), and jaboticabin (5), and latter two compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. Ellagic acid was further examined, and found to inhibit cigarette smoke extract induced MMP-1 expression in vitro, and may be of significance in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD). Other compounds identified for the first time from M. vexator include cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (6), cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside (7), cyanidin-3-O-rutionoside (8), petunidin (9), peonidin-3-O-galactoside (10) malvidin (11), hyperoside (12), querecetin-3-O-glucoside (13), and guajaverin (14), methyl protocatechuate (15), and protocatechuic acid (16). PMID:22739086

Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Ma, Chunhui; Dabo, Abdoulaye J; Whalen, Kathleen; Reynertson, Kurt A; Foronjy, Robert F; D Armiento, Jeanine M; Kennelly, Edward J



New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...


Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...


Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits  

PubMed Central

The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 ?g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies.

Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine



Radical scavenging capacity of methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. extract: anthocyanin and phenolic acids composition of fruits.  


Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and IC(50) values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW of fruits. PMID:23364751

Ayranci, Erol; Erkan, Naciye



Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY); Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.



Recent trends in the analysis of amino acids in fruits and derived foodstuffs.  


The amino acid content of fruit and fruit-derived foods is studied intensely because of the contribution to nutritional value, aroma, taste and health-promoting effects and their possible use as markers of origin and authenticity. In this review, based on 101 references, the most recent trends in the analysis of amino acids are presented: the most important techniques, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatisation) and the most frequent applications are described and compared. Pertinent publications were retrieved from Scopus and Web of Knowledge database searches lastly performed in February 2012 with the keywords "amino acid", "analysis", "liquid chromatography", "gas chromatography", "electrophoresis", "fruit", and "vegetables"; the time limit was set from the year 2000 onwards. Although amino acids have been analysed in foods for decades, new technical possibilities and advancements have allowed ever-increasing accuracy and targeting of the methods in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex plant matrices and their high intrinsic variability. PMID:23686004

Mandrioli, Roberto; Mercolini, Laura; Raggi, Maria Augusta



??????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??? ?????????????? Determination of Benzoic Acid and Sorbic Acid in Bael Fruit, Rossella Drink and Flavor Concentrate Syrups by Steam Distillation. ????? ????????????* ?????? ??????????? 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

????????: ??????????????????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? Platinum EPS C18 ??????????????? 0.01 ?????? pH 4.5 ??? ????????????????????????? ??????????? 1.0 ???????????????? ??????????????????????????????? 240???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???? ??????????????????? 50-1000 ???????????????? ????????????? ??? 90-107% ??? 87-118% ????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? Abstract: Benzoic acid and sorbic acid in bael fruit, rossella drink and flavor concentrate syrups were extracted by steam distillation

Ladda Wattanasiritham; Kulvadee Trongpanich


Soluble sugars and carboxylic acids in ripe apricot fruit as parameters for distinguishing different cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major sugar and carboxylic acid components in apricot flesh fruits were detected and quantified. Fifty-one genotypes including\\u000a clones growing in France, Spain, Italy, Greece and USA, belonging to the INRA germ plasm collection has been evaluated. Principal\\u000a component analysis (PCA) has been performed to study correlation among fruit quality measurements and to interpret relationships\\u000a between genotypes as a tool for

Fabrizio Gurrieri; Jean-Marc Audergon; Guy Albagnac; Maryse Reich



Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chairgulprasert, V., Krisornpornsan, B. and Hamad, A. Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.) fruits Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(2) : 321-326 The pulp of longkong fruits (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.), collected from Narathiwat province, was dried and extracted by steam distillation to obtain the essential oil in 0.48% yield. The GC-MS data

Vanida Chairgulprasert; Boonsong Krisornpornsan; Abdulhakim Hamad


Organic acids, antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and lipid characterisation of Georgia-grown underutilized fruit crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four underutilized Georgia-grown fruit crops, namely loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), mayhaw (Crataegus sp.), fig (Ficus carica), and pawpaw (Asimina triloba), and their leaves were analysed for total polyphenols by Folin–Ciocalteau method, and antioxidant capacity by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Organic acids and phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC. For lipid profile, fruits were separated into

Garima Pande; Casimir C. Akoh



?-Aminobutyric acid treatment reduces chilling injury and activates the defence response of peach fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peach fruit were immersed in 5mM ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) solution for 10min at 20°C and then stored at 1°C for 5weeks to investigate the effect of GABA treatment on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant enzymes and energy status in peach fruit. The results showed that GABA treatment significantly inhibited CI incidence of peaches and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as

Aiping Yang; Shifeng Cao; Zhenfeng Yang; Yuting Cai; Yonghua Zheng



Evaluation of Surface Free Energy of Various Fruit Epicarps Using Acid–Base and Zisman Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface free energy (SFE; ?\\u000a SV) of 16 fruit epicarps present on the Chilean market was calculated by two approaches: the acid–base and Zisman. The results\\u000a show that the fruit epicarps were low surface energy since the magnitude of ?\\u000a SV falls within a narrow range, between 37 and 44 mJ m???2. Zisman approach gave a critical surface tension values, ?\\u000a cr

Patricia Velásquez; Olivier Skurtys; Javier Enrione; Fernando Osorio


Separation of Hydroxycitric Acid Lactone from Fruit Pectins and Polyhydroxyphenols on Poly(4-Vinylpyridine) Weak-Base Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) has been used for the separation of hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL) from polyhydroxyphenols and fruit pectins, as the study has relevance to the problem of extraction of the antiobesity substance hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia fruits, a rich source of the acid. PVP has been used both in free-base form and in protonated or salt form as a




Target selection in designing pasteurization processes for shelf-stable high-acid fruit products.  


This study is focused on the search for targets and criteria for the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products, such as juices, nectars, pastes, purees, concentrates, jams, jellies, etc. First, an overview of pasteurization is presented and then, frequently used targets for pasteurization processes are reviewed Enzymes naturally present in fruits, in decreasing order of heat resistance, were pectinesterase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase, and they may be used as pasteurization targets. The heat resistance of each enzyme is strongly dependent on its fruit origin. The most heat resistant micro-organisms capable of spoiling high acid fruit products include ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys nivea, Talaromyces flavus, Eupenicillium javanicum, and Byssochlamys fulva moulds, as well as bacterial spores of Clostridium butyricum, Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus megaterium. These micro-organisms, spores, and enzymes were, in general, less heat resistant than the spores of a particular spoilage micro-organism named Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, which has been causing problems in the fruit industry. Therefore, the use of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores as a reference micro-organism in the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products is suggested. PMID:15540648

Silva, Filipa V M; Gibbs, Paul



Metabolite Profiling of Jaboticaba ( Myrciaria cauliflora ) and Other Dark-Colored Fruit Juices.  


Many dark-colored fruit juices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba ( Myrciaria cauliflora ) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264

Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J



High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits, Vegetables and Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruits, vegetables and juices. Samples were homogenized with 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 2.0 and extracted with 3% metaphosphoric acid. Ascorbic acid was analyzed on a polymer C18 column (RLRP-S 100A) with UV detection at 244 nm. The mobile phase was 1.8% tetrahydrofuran and 0.3%

R. J. Bushway; J. M. King; B. Perkins; M. Krishnan



Chemical composition and antioxidant/antidiabetic potential of Brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps.  


Foods provide essential and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypocholesterolemic activities, which have been related to vitamins A, C, and E and phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify potential sources of bioactive compounds through the determination of flavonoids and ellagic acid contents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity and alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of Brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps. Camu-camu, cambuci, uxi, and tucuma and commercial frozen pulps of cambuci, cagaita, coquinho azedo, and araca presented the highest antioxidant capacities. Cambuci and cagaita exhibited the highest alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Quercetin and kaempferol derivatives were the main flavonoids present in most of the samples. Ellagic acid was detected only in umbu, camu-camu, cagaita, araca, and cambuci. According to the results, native Brazilian fruits can be considered as excellent sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:20337450

De Souza Schmidt Gonçalves, Any Elisa; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés



Effects of exogenous oxalic acid on ripening and decay incidence in mango fruit during storage at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C to investigate effects on ripening and decay incidence during storage at room temperature (25°C). The results showed that oxalic acid treatment delayed fruit ripening and reduced fruit decay incidence compared to the control. It was suggested that the physiological effect of oxalic

Xiaolin Zheng; Shiping Tian; Michael J. Gidley; Hong Yue; Boqiang Li



Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.



Phenolics of Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) fruits: identification of anthocyanins and gallic acid derivatives.  


Arbutus unedo L., the strawberry tree (Ericaceae family), is an evergreen shrub or small tree, typical of the Mediterranean fringe and climate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of A. unedo fruits. Seven compounds were purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the MeOH extract followed by HPLC and were characterized as arbutin, beta-D-glucogalline, gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylshikimic acid, and 5-O-galloylshikimic acid, by means of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. Moreover, LC-PDA-MS analysis of the red pigment of A. unedo fruits revealed the presence of three anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside. These pigments were also quantified. PMID:17177565

Pawlowska, Agata Maria; De Leo, Marinella; Braca, Alessandra



Ascorbic acid and tannins from Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fruits--a revisit.  


The fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as amla in Ayurveda, are considered to be a rich source of ascorbic acid. However, the antioxidant activities exhibited by E. officinalis extract are superior to those of ascorbic acid itself. Low molecular hydrolyzable tannins emblicanins A and B have been suggested in the earlier literature to be the contributory antioxidant molecules in the extract. This work finds no evidence for the presence of emblicanins A and B in the extract. In addition, the high content of ascorbic acid is also questionable due to previous nonidentification of coeluting mucic acid gallates. This paper reports a new HPLC method to detect even trace amounts of ascorbic acid in E. officinalis fruit juice or extract. PMID:19063633

Majeed, Muhammed; Bhat, Beena; Jadhav, Atul N; Srivastava, Jyotish S; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam



Chili pepper fruits: presumed precursors of fatty acids characteristic for capsaicinoids.  


Capsaicin is a molecule unique to fruits from the genus Capsicum. It is responsible for the pungent sensation and displays valuable pharmacological properties. Despite the fruits' economic importance and decades of research, the regulation of the content of capsaicinoids in individual fruits is not completely elucidated, and no agricultural cultivation of chili of defined pungency is assured. Precursor candidates of the fatty acid moiety of the capsaicinoids, especially for the unique 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid, were examined. Thioesters, acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA, were isolated from the placenta of Capsicum fruits by means of DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, selectively converted to the corresponding N-butylamides, and analyzed by GC-MS. Fatty acid moieties characteristic for capsaicinoids were identified. In two different varieties ( Capsicum chinense var. Habanero orange and Capsicum annuum var. Jalapeno) it was shown that the fatty acid pattern corresponds to the distribution pattern of the capsaicinoids formed up to this time. The acyl-thioester fractions contained already the 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid. PMID:18489121

Thiele, Roland; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael



Fruit acid extracts, a fresh approach to skin renewal.  


Synopsis Alpha-hydroxy acids are a common class of naturally occurring chemicals that have become increasingly popular for cosmetic use. Currently alpha-hydroxy acids from both natural and synthetic sources are being used in skincare products. From lactic acid to complex natural blends, several different approaches have been adopted for the use of alpha-hydroxy acids. This paper reviews the history of alpha-hydroxy acids use in cosmetics and gives new data showing the increased rate of cell renewal by topical application. PMID:19250482

Scholz, D; Brooks, G J; Parish, D F; Burmeister, F



Differential expression of fatty acid synthase genes, Acl, Fat and Kas, in Capsicum fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of capsaicinoids in the placenta of chilli fruit is modelled to require components of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex. Three candidate genes for subunits in this complex, Kas, Acl, and Fat, isolated based on differential expression, were char- acterized. Transcription of these three genes was pla- cental-specific and RNA abundance was positively correlated with degree of pungency.

Maneesha R. Aluru; Michael Mazourek; Laurie G. Landry; Jeanne Curry; Molly Jahn; Mary A. O'Connell



Physiological and biochemical responses in peach fruit to oxalic acid treatment during storage at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and biochemical responses in peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) cv. ‘Bayuecui’ to two concentrations (1 and 5mM) of oxalic acid treatment were studied during storage at room temperature (25°C). Slower relative leakage rate, higher flesh firmness, lower respiration, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and a

Xiaolin Zheng; Shiping Tian; Xianghong Meng; Boqiang Li



Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two consecutive seasons, 40 Spanish pomegranate cultivars (cvs) were analysed and their individual organic acids and\\u000a sugars compositions were examined. Intervarietal differences in acidity content reported by different authors were confirmed.\\u000a According to organoleptic characteristics and chemical compositions three groups of varieties were established: sweet (SWV),\\u000a soursweet (SSWV) and sour (SV). On average, for two seasons, total organic acids

Pablo Melgarejo; Domingo Manuel Salazar; F. Artés



Amino acid composition and betaxanthin formation in fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica.  


In contrast to earlier reports high levels of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) were found in fruit juices of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Whereas the occurrence of taurine in plant tissue was thought to be restricted to algae, fungi, and the endosperm of some higher plants, prickly pear proved to be a rich source of dietary taurine. Using L-taurine as the amino compound, a new betaxanthin was synthesized by partial synthesis. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence its structure was determined to be the taurine-immonium-conjugate of betalamic acid. Also betalamic acid could be detected in yellow and orange coloured cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica for the first time. In spite of the high levels of L-taurine accompanied by the occurrence of betalamic acid, the corresponding betaxanthin could not be detected in the fruit tissue. PMID:17260288

Stintzing, F C; Schieber, A; Carle, R



Fatty Acid, Tocopherol and Sterol Compositions of Canadian Prairie Fruit Seed Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of four prairie fruits—chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), thorny buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Woods’ rose (Rosa woodsii) and hawthorn (Crataegus × mordenensis)—from Southern Alberta were investigated. The lipid contents of the seeds were found to be 10.4, 11.5, 3.7 and 3.4%, respectively.\\u000a The tested seed lipids contained mainly linoleic acid in the range from 27.9 to 65.6% and oleic acid from 19.7 to

Farooq Anwar; Roman Przybylski; Magdalena Rudzinska; Eliza Gruczynska; John Bain



HPLC\\/UV determination of organic acids in fruit juices and nectars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed phase HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids in fruit juices and nectars is presented. The method is based on the reaction of free organic acids with O-(4 nitrobenzyl)-N,N'-diisopropylisourea (PNBDI) in presence of dioxane. Excess of reagent was removed with a strong cation-exchange resin. The p-nitrobenzyl esters were separated on a C18 reversed phase column using

Sara C. Cunha; José O. Fernandes; Isabel M. Ferreira



Determination of organic acids in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with tandem-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem-mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) with triple quadrupole in selective reaction monitoring mode was developed to determine organic acids (glutamic, tartaric, quinic, malonic, malic, shikimic, ?-ketoglutaric, pyruvic, citric, succinic and fumaric acids) in fruits (melon, grape, peach, orange, lemon) and vegetables (green and red pepper, tomato, lettuce and lamb’s lettuce). The negative ion mode of

Pilar Flores; Pilar Hellín; José Fenoll


Amino Acids on Mango Yield and Fruit Quality at Submedio São Francisco Region, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers of the Submedio São Francisco Region (Brazil) have been spraying amino acids on mango trees with the objective of increasing panicle length and improving fruit retention and quality. This study, done in two experiments, tested the effect of amino acids sprayings at concentrations of 0.0%; 0.02%; 0.04% and 0.06%, on mango plants, 'Tommy Atkins', on the budding phase (panicles

C. Mouco; M. A. C. de Lima; A. L. da Silva; F. M. Rodrigues


Antisense acid invertase (TIV1) gene alters soluble sugar composition and size in transgenic tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertase (P-fructosidase, EC hydrolyzes sucrose to hexose sugars and thus plays a fundamental role in the energy requirements for plant growth and maintenance. Transgenic plants with altered extracellular acid invertase have highly disturbed growth habits. We investigated the role of intracellular soluble acid invertase in plant and fruit development. Transgenic tomato (Lyco- persicon escukntum Mill.) plants expressing a constitutive

Ellen M. Klann; Alan B. Bennett



Candidate Genes and Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Fruit Ascorbic Acid Content in Three Tomato Populations  

PubMed Central

Fresh fruit and vegetables are a major source of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an important antioxidant for the human diet and also for plants. Ascorbic acid content in fruit exhibits a quantitative inheritance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ascorbic acid content have been mapped in three tomato populations derived from crosses between cultivated tomato varieties (Solanum lycopersicum accessions) and three related wild species or subspecies. The first population consists of a set of introgression lines derived from Solanum pennellii, each containing a unique fragment of the wild species genome. The second population is an advanced backcross population derived from a cross between a cultivated tomato and a Solanum habrochaites (formerly Lycopersicum hirsutum) accession. The third population is a recombinant inbred line population derived from the cross between a cherry tomato line and a large fruited line. Common regions controlling ascorbic acid content have been identified on chromosomes 2, 8, 9, 10, and 12. In general, the wild alleles increased ascorbic acid content, but some improvement could also be provided by S. lycopersicum. Most QTLs appeared relatively stable over years and in different environments. Mapping of candidate genes involved in the metabolism of ascorbic acid has revealed a few colocations between genes and QTLs, notably in the case of a monodehydroascorbate reductase gene and a QTL present in two of the populations on chromosome 9 (bin 9-D), and a previously mapped GDP-mannose epimerase and a QTL on chromosome 9 (bin 9-J).

Stevens, Rebecca; Buret, Michel; Duffe, Philippe; Garchery, Cecile; Baldet, Pierre; Rothan, Christophe; Causse, Mathilde



Supplemental Foliar Potassium Applications during Muskmelon Fruit Development Can Improve Fruit Quality, Ascorbic Acid, and Beta-carotene Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group)) fruit sugar content is directly related to potassium (K)- mediated phloem transport of sucrose into the fruit. However, during fruit growth and maturation, soil fertilization alone is often inadequate (due to poor root uptake and competitive uptake inhibition from calcium and magnesium) to satisfy the numerous K-dependent processes, such as photosynthesis, phloem transport, and

Gene E. Lester; John L. Jifon; Gordon Rogers


[Relationship between ascorbic acid accumulation and related enzyme activities in fruit of Rosa roxburghii Tratt].  


Ascorbic acid (AsA) and sugar levels, together with activities of L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH, a key enzyme in AsA biosynthesis in higher plant), AAO, AAP, MDAR and DHAR in fruit of Rosa roxburghii Tratt were measured during development. The result showed that AsA accumulated continually but with a slow, fast and slow accumulating rate in the R. roxburghii fruit during its development, in which the period from the end of June to the early of August was the most important period of AsA accumulation, since the AsA accumulated in this stage accounting for approximately 90% of the final level (Fig.1B). Changes in GalLDH activity coincided with AsA accumulating rate during fruit development (Fig.2B). The extremely significant positive correlation existed between the GalLDH activity and AsA accumulating rate (r(2)=0.783**) (Fig.3). Transitory and low activities of AAO and AAP in the fruit were detected in the initial stage of development (Table 1), suggesting that little AsA degraded by the activities of the two oxidative enzymes during the whole development. This data elucidated, at least in part, the reason for high accumulation of AsA in the R. roxburghii fruit. Furthermore, no activity of MDAR or DHAR in the fruit was detected during the whole development, implying that the two enzymes are not key factors for contribution of AsA level. No correlation was found between AsA content and sugar contents in the R. roxburghii fruit. PMID:16121016

An, Hua-Ming; Chen, Li-Geng; Fan, Wei-Guo; Liu, Qing-Lin



The Effect of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Other Growth Regulators on the Ripening of Avocado Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

Observations were made of the effects of several plant regulators, indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, abscisic acid, and gibberellic acid, as well as of extracts prepared from leaves and fruit stalks on the respiration pattern, ethylene production, and the number of days to ripen of avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill.). These substances were vacuum infiltrated to insure good penetration and distribution. Kinetin, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, and the extracts had no effect on either ripening time or on the respiration pattern and ethylene production of the fruits. Indoleacetic acid, however, had a marked effect on ripening. At high concentrations (100 and 1000 ?m), indoleacetic acid stimulated respiration and induced preclimacteric ethylene production, resulting in accelerated ripening of the fruits. At the low concentrations (1 and 10 ?m), it delayed ripening of fruits and suppressed the climacteric respiration and ethylene production. The results reinforce several previous observations with other fruits that auxins may largely constitute `resistance to ripening' and may be responsible for the lack of ripening shown by unpicked fruits.

Tingwa, Peter O.; Young, Roy E.



Morus Alba Fruit Herbal alternative to synthetic Acid Base indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Morus alba linn belonging to the family: Moraceae (Urticaceae); it is commonly called as white Mullberry; toola; tuk; shetu. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution,

K. S. Pathade; S. B. Patil; M. S. Kondawar; N. S. Naikwade; C. S. Magdum


Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.  


The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8?g/100?g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9?g/100?g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7?g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets. PMID:23539474

Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin



Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.  


The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power. PMID:18785051

de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria



Cytotoxic chalcones and antioxidants from the fruits of a Syzygium samarangense (Wax Jambu)  

PubMed Central

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts of the pulp and seeds of the fruits of Syzygium samarangense Merr. & Perry (Blume) led to the identification of four cytotoxic compounds and eight antioxidants on the basis of HPLC-PDA analysis, MS, and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Three C-methylated chalcones, 2?,4?-dihydroxy-3?,5?-dimethyl-6?-methoxychalcone (1), 2?,4?-dihydroxy-3?-methyl-6?-methoxychalcone (stercurensin, 2), and 2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxychalcone (cardamonin, 3), were isolated and displayed cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 10, 35, and 35 ?M, respectively) against the SW-480 human colon cancer cell line. Also a number of known antioxidants were obtained including six quercetin glycosides: reynoutrin (4), hyperin (5), myricitrin (6), quercitrin (7), quercetin (9), and guaijaverin (10), one flavanone: (S)-pinocembrin (8), and two phenolic acids: gallic acid (11) and ellagic acid (12).

Simirgiotis, Mario J.; Adachi, Seiji; To, Satoshi; Yang, Hui; Reynertson, Kurt A.; Basile, Margaret J.; Gil, Roberto R.; Weinstein, I. Bernard; Kennelly, Edward J.



Cytotoxic chalcones and antioxidants from the fruits of a Syzygium samarangense (Wax Jambu).  


Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts of the pulp and seeds of the fruits of Syzygium samarangense Merr. & Perry (Blume) led to the identification of four cytotoxic compounds and eight antioxidants on the basis of HPLC-PDA analysis, MS, and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Three C-methylated chalcones, 2',4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethyl-6'-methoxychalcone (1), 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methyl-6'-methoxychalcone (stercurensin, 2), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone (cardamonin, 3), were isolated and displayed cytotoxic activity (IC(50) = 10, 35, and 35 ?M, respectively) against the SW-480 human colon cancer cell line. Also a number of known antioxidants were obtained including six quercetin glycosides: reynoutrin (4), hyperin (5), myricitrin (6), quercitrin (7), quercetin (9), and guaijaverin (10), one flavanone: (S)-pinocembrin (8), and two phenolic acids: gallic acid (11) and ellagic acid (12). PMID:22359426

Simirgiotis, Mario J; Adachi, Seiji; To, Satoshi; Yang, Hui; Reynertson, Kurt A; Basile, Margaret J; Gil, Roberto R; Weinstein, I Bernard; Kennelly, Edward J



Biocontrol of blue and gray mold diseases of pear fruit by integration of antagonistic yeast with salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the biocontrol yeast Cryptococcus laurentii and salicylic acid (SA) in suppressing the blue and gray mould rots in pear fruit and to explore possible mode of action involved. Our results showed that the combined treatment of pear fruit with C. laurentii with SA at 100 ?g ml?1 resulted in a remarkably improved

Ting Yu; Jishuang Chen; Rongle Chen; Bin Huang; Donghong Liu; Xiaodong Zheng



Improved control of postharvest blue mold rot in pear fruit by a combination of Cryptococcus laurentii and gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid (GA3) is associated with fruit ripening and senescence. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of GA3 to improve the efficacy of Cryptococcus laurentii in controlling postharvest blue mold rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Although GA3 alone was not found to have any influence on P. expansum or C. laurentii in vivo and in vitro,

Ting Yu; Ping Gu Wu; Jiong Jiong Qi; Xiao Dong Zheng; Feng Jiang; Xi Zhan



No effect on oxidative stress biomarkers by modified intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids or vegetables and fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet may both increase and decrease oxidative stress in the body. We compared the effects of four strictly controlled isocaloric diets with different intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 11 or 3% of energy) and vegetables and fruit (total amount of vegetables and fruit 516 or 1059 g\\/10 MJ) on markers associated with oxidative stress in 77 healthy volunteers (19–52

R Freese; L O Dragsted; S Loft; M Mutanen



Purification, properties and partial amino-acid sequence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase from apple fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme which converts 1-aminocyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) into ethylene, ACC oxidase, has been isolated from apple fruits (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv. Golden Delicious), and for the first time stabilized in vitro by 1,10-phenanthroline and purified 170-fold to homogeneity in a five-step procedure. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured and native proteins have similar molecular weights (approx. 40 kDa) indicating that the

Eve Dupille; César Rombaldi; Jean-Marc Lelièvre; Jean-Claude Cleyet-Marel; Jean-Claude Pech; Alain Latché



Variation in the contents of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and three quercetin glycosides in leaves and fruits of rowan (Sorbus) species and varieties from collections in Lithuania.  


Our research aim was to investigate the quantitative composition of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin in leaves and fruit of introduced rowan plants to Lithuania using a HPLC method. In leaf and fruit samples, quantitative estimation of neochlorogenic acid (in leaf samples 1.11-11.49 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.93-5.43 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (in leaf samples 2.74-21.91 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.55-7.50 mg/g), rutin (in leaf samples 0.03-4.88 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-0.39 mg/g), hyperoside (in leaf samples 0.15-7.44 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-1.19 mg/g) and isoquercitrin (in leaf samples 0.75-5.24 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-0.65 mg/g) was performed. In leaf samples, the total content of identified phenolic compounds ranged from 7.18 to 35.74 mg/g. In fruit, raw material total content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and identified flavonoids varied from 2.24 to 11.19 mg/g. Comparison of raw material samples of Sorbus species according to their quantitative composition of identified phenolic compounds using cluster analysis singularized S. commixta leaf and fruit samples. These contained the highest contents of chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and isoquercitrin, but also the lowest contents of neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The highest contents of neochlorogenic acid were recorded for S. lancifolia leaves, and of rutin for S. anglica leaves. PMID:24079179

Gaivelyte, Kristina; Jakstas, Valdas; Razukas, Almantas; Janulis, Valdimaras



Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Acid Invertase as Determinants of Sucrose Concentration in Developing Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

Fruits of orange-fleshed and green-fleshed muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were harvested at different times throughout development to evaluate changes in metabolism which lead to sucrose accumulation, and to determine the basis of differences in fruit sucrose accumulation among genotypes. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose saccharides, hexoses and starch, as well as activities of the sucrose metabolizing enzymes sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC, sucrose synthase (EC, and acid and neutral invertases (EC were measured. Sucrose synthase and neutral invertase activities were relatively low (1.7 ± 0.3 micromole per hour per gram fresh weight and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively) and changed little throughout fruit development. Acid invertase activity decreased during fruit development, (from as high as 40 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) in unripe fruit, to undetectable activity in mature, ripened fruits, while SPS activity in the fruit increased (from 7 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) to as high as 32 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight. Genotypes which accumulated different amounts of sucrose had similar acid invertase activity but differed in SPS activity. Our results indicate that both acid invertase and SPS are determinants of sucrose accumulation in melon fruit. However, the decline in acid invertase appears to be a normal function of fruit maturation, and is not the primary factor which determines sucrose accumulation. Rather, the capacity for sucrose synthesis, reflected in the activity of SPS, appears to determine sucrose accumulation, which is an important component of fruit quality.

Hubbard, Natalie L.; Huber, Steven C.; Pharr, D. Mason



Sugar, acid- and phenol contents in apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:This study was carried out to obtain data about the sugar-, acid- and phenol content of apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation, with reference to their role in human health and especially for diet recommendations.Setting:Styria (Austria) and Slovenia.Interventions:HPLC, Spectral Photometry, organoleptic and olfactory tests.Results:The total sugar content of most cultivars from integrated cultivation ranged between 115 and 160

K Hecke; K Herbinger; R Veberi?; M Trobec; H Toplak; F Štampar; H Keppel; D Grill



Characterization of peroxidase-mediated chlorophyll bleaching in strawberry fruit.  


Peroxidase (POX) from strawberry fruits was analyzed for its capacity to bleach chlorophyll. The partially purified enzyme preperation catalyzed the bleaching of chlorophylls and their derivatives in the presence of H(2)O(2) and phenolic compounds. The optimal reaction conditions were 35 degrees C, pH 5.2 and ionic strength equal to 0.2. The maximum activity was observed at 1 mM of H(2)O(2), while higher concentrations inhibited enzyme activity. Compounds with a high affinity to the heme group, radical scavengers and reducing agents, showed an inhibitory effect. Phenolic compounds such as umbelliferone, naringenin and p-substituted monophenols acted as cofactors. Instead, other phenolic compounds tested such as caffeic acid, catechin, ellagic acid, esculin and quercetin inhibited the activity of POX on chlorophylls. Phenolic compounds extracted from strawberry fruits showed an inhibitory effect on POX-chlorophyll bleaching activity, although this effect decreased markedly during ripening. POX showed higher affinity for compounds derived from chlorophyll a than from chlorophyll b, and the enzyme preferentially degraded chlorophyll derivatives with the Mg(2+) ion present and the phytol group removed. The POX-chlorophyll bleaching activity was found in all ripening stages from small green to ripe, the highest activity corresponding to large green fruits. PMID:11557069

Martínez, G A; Civello, P M; Chaves, A R; Añón, M C



Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  


Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu



Acid and Neutral Invertases in the Mesocarp of Developing Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv Prince) Fruit  

PubMed Central

Acid and neutral invertases were found in the mesocarp of developing muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv Prince) fruit and the activities of these enzymes declined with maturation of the fruit, concomitantly with the accumulation of sucrose. Neutral invertase was only present in the soluble fraction and acid invertase was present in both the soluble and cell-wall fractions. The cell-wall fraction contained three types of acid invertase: a NaCl-released invertase; an EDTA-released invertase, and a tightly bound invertase that still remained on the cell wall after treatment with NaCl and EDTA. The soluble acid and neutral invertases could be separated from one another by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and they exhibited clear differences in their properties, namely, in their pH optima, substrate specificity, Km values for sucrose, and inhibition by metal ions. The EDTA-released invertase and the soluble acid invertase were similar with regard to their chromatographic behavior on DEAE-cellulose, but the NaCl-released invertase was different because it was adsorbed to a column of CM-cellulose. The soluble acid invertase and two cell-wall bound invertases had very similar characteristics with regard to optimal pH and temperature, Km value for sucrose, and substrate specificity.

Ranwala, Anil P.; Iwanami, Shun-Suke; Masuda, Hiroshi



Digallic acid from Pistascia lentiscus fruits induces apoptosis and enhances antioxidant activities.  


The antioxidant and apoptotic activities of digallic acid, isolated from the fruits of Pistascia lentiscus, were investigated. The study demonstrated that digallic acid possessed pro-apoptotic effects, as shown by provoking DNA fragmentation of K562 cells. It also revealed a significant antioxidant potential and effective scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH·) and O?·? radicals, and reduced cupric ions. We conclude that this integrated approach to apoptotic and antioxidant assessment may be useful to maximize the beneficial effects associated with using P. lentiscus derivatives as medicinal and dietary compounds. PMID:21780210

Bhouri, Wissem; Skandrani, Ines; Sghair, Mohamed Ben; Franca, Marie-Geneviève Djoux; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira, Leila Chekir



In vitro antioxidant and inhibitory potential of Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis fruits against LDL oxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes.  


The present study evaluated the free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts (Hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (ME), 70% methanol (MW) and Water (WA)) of Terminalia bellerica (TB) and Emblica officinalis (EB) fruits. Methanol extract (ME) of TB and EB fruits exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals. Cell based antioxidant activity was assayed by flow cytometry using DCFH-DA as probe. Methanol extracts were also screened for their antidiabetic activity via inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase and antiglycation assays. Results showed that ME of TB and EB can act as potent ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Significant antiglycation activity also confirms the therapeutic potential of these extracts against diabetes. Both the extracts significantly inhibited the oxidation of LDL under in vitro conditions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) analysis revealed that methanol extract of TB and EB contains ellagic acid and ascorbic acid as the major compound respectively. PMID:20951180

Nampoothiri, Suresh V; Prathapan, A; Cherian, Ozhathil Lijo; Raghu, K G; Venugopalan, V V; Sundaresan, A



The genetic architecture of branched-chain amino acid accumulation in tomato fruits.  


Previous studies of the genetic architecture of fruit metabolic composition have allowed us to identify four strongly conserved co-ordinate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). This study has been extended here to encompass the other 23 enzymes described to be involved in the pathways of BCAA synthesis and degradation. On coarse mapping the chromosomal location of these enzymes, it was possible to define the map position of 24 genes. Of these genes eight co-localized, or mapped close to BCAA QTL including those encoding ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD), and isopropylmalate dehydratase (IPMD). Quantitative evaluation of the expression levels of these genes revealed that the S. pennellii allele of IPMD demonstrated changes in the expression level of this gene, whereas those of KARI and DHAD were invariant across the genotypes. Whilst the antisense inhibition of IPMD resulted in increased BCAA, the antisense inhibition of neither KARI nor DHAD produced a clear effect in fruit BCAA contents. The results are discussed both with respect to the roles of these specific enzymes within plant amino acid metabolism and within the context of current understanding of the regulation of plant branched-chain amino acid metabolism. PMID:21436187

Kochevenko, Andrej; Fernie, Alisdair R



The genetic architecture of branched-chain amino acid accumulation in tomato fruits  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of the genetic architecture of fruit metabolic composition have allowed us to identify four strongly conserved co-ordinate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). This study has been extended here to encompass the other 23 enzymes described to be involved in the pathways of BCAA synthesis and degradation. On coarse mapping the chromosomal location of these enzymes, it was possible to define the map position of 24 genes. Of these genes eight co-localized, or mapped close to BCAA QTL including those encoding ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD), and isopropylmalate dehydratase (IPMD). Quantitative evaluation of the expression levels of these genes revealed that the S. pennellii allele of IPMD demonstrated changes in the expression level of this gene, whereas those of KARI and DHAD were invariant across the genotypes. Whilst the antisense inhibition of IPMD resulted in increased BCAA, the antisense inhibition of neither KARI nor DHAD produced a clear effect in fruit BCAA contents. The results are discussed both with respect to the roles of these specific enzymes within plant amino acid metabolism and within the context of current understanding of the regulation of plant branched-chain amino acid metabolism.

Kochevenko, Andrej; Fernie, Alisdair R.



Polar lipid and fatty acid distribution in carotenolipoprotein complexes extracted from sea buckthorn fruits.  


Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., fam. Elaeagnaceae) fruits are rich in pigments and lipoproteins located in membranes and the fleshy mesocarp. In spite of many reports concerning the neutral lipids in the mesocarp, no data about the polar lipids and their fatty acid composition are available even though they play important structural and physiological roles in cell membranes and may offer interesting applications as emulsifiers and nutrients in cosmetic preparations. Carotenolipoprotein complexes are located particularly in fruit membranes where polar lipids may function as bridge compounds between the polar (protein) and non-polar (carotenoid) moieties. The fatty acid compositions of total and individual polar lipids separated from carotenolipoprotein complexes were determined by HPTLC and GC. The polar lipids included 61% phospholipids and 39% galactolipids, which contained mainly 16:0, 16:1 (9c), 18:1 (9c), 18:1 (11c) and 18:2 (9c, 12c) fatty acids. Almost all polar lipids showed high ratios of 16:0/16:1 (11c) and 18:1 (9c)/18:1 (11c), and higher quantities of 18 carbon unsaturated fatty acids than of the saturated analogue. Galactolipids proved to be richest in 18:1 (9c) and 18:3 (9c, 12c, 15c) fatty acids, while phospholipids contained higher concentrations of 16:0 and 18:1 (9c). PMID:11705255

Pintea, A; Marpeau, A; Faye, M; Socaciu, C; Gleizes, M


Evidence for Light-Stimulated Fatty Acid Synthesis in Soybean Fruit1  

PubMed Central

In leaves, the light reactions of photosynthesis support fatty acid synthesis but disagreement exists as to whether this occurs in green oilseeds. To address this question, simultaneous measurements of the rates of CO2 and O2 exchange (CER and OER, respectively) were made in soybean (Glycine max L.) fruits. The imbalance between CER and OER was used to estimate the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR) in the equation: DRUR = 4 × (OER + CER). This yielded a quantitative measure of the rate of synthesis of biomass that is more reduced per unit carbon than glucose (in photosynthesizing tissues) or than the substrates of metabolism (in respiring tissues). The DRUR increased by about 2.2-fold when fruits were illuminated due to a greater increase in OER than decrease in CER. This characteristic was shown to be a property of the seed (not the pod wall), to be present in fruits at all developmental stages, and to reach a maximal response at relatively low light. When seeds were provided with 13CO2, light reduced 12CO2 production but had little effect on 13CO2 fixation. When they were provided with 18O2, light stimulated 16O2 production but had no effect on 18O2 uptake. Together, these findings indicate that light stimulates fatty acid synthesis in photosynthetic oilseeds, probably by providing both ATP and carbon skeletons.

Willms, Jennifer R.; Salon, Christophe; Layzell, David B.



Acids of pomegranate peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

the substance were identical with those of ellagic acid. On the basis of the results of a determination of the maximum intensities of the spots (SF-4a at 440 nm) revealed with a 1% solution of iron ammonium alum, it was established that the peel contains0.55% of ellagic acid on the air-dry raw material. The ethereal extract was evaporated to dryness

E. P. Nosacheva; Yu. B. Kerimov; T. N. Bikbulatova



Determination of gallic acid in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. dried fruit powder by HPTLC  

PubMed Central

Objective: Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.), an euphorbiaceous plant, is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of India, China and Indonesia. The fruits possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. In the current article a new, simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid in dried fruit powder of Phyllanthus emblica. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination of gallic acid was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The linear ascending development was carried out in a twin trough glass chamber saturated with a mobile phase consisting of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid: methanol (3:3:0.8:0.2) at room temperature (25 ± 2°C). Camag TLC scanner III was used for spectrodensitometric scanning and analysis, in the absorbance mode, at 278 nm. Results: The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2 = 0.99977 in the concentration range of 40 – 240 ng spot—1, with respect to the peak area. According to the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), the method was validated for precision, accuracy, and recovery. Conclusion: Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method was reproducible and selective for the estimation of gallic acid.

Sawant, Laxman; Pandita, Nancy; Prabhakar, Bala



Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.  


Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively. PMID:23247371

Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J



Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).  


Sweet melon cultivars contain a low level of organic acids and, therefore, the quality and flavor of sweet melon fruit is determined almost exclusively by fruit sugar content. However, genetic variability for fruit acid levels in the Cucumis melo species exists and sour fruit accessions are characterized by acidic fruit pH of <5, compared to the sweet cultivars that are generally characterized by mature fruit pH values of >6. In this paper, we report results from a mapping population based on recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the non-sour 'Dulce' variety and the sour PI 414323 accession. Results show that a single major QTL for pH co-localizes with major QTLs for the two predominant organic acids in melon fruit, citric and malic, together with an additional metabolite which we identified as uridine. While the acidic recombinants were characterized by higher citric and malic acid levels, the non-acidic recombinants had a higher uridine content than did the acidic recombinants. Additional minor QTLs for pH, citric acid and malic acid were also identified and for these the increased acidity was unexpectedly contributed by the non-sour parent. To test for co-localization of these QTLs with genes encoding organic acid metabolism and transport, we mapped the genes encoding structural enzymes and proteins involved in organic acid metabolism, transport and vacuolar H+ pumps. None of these genes co-localized with the major pH QTL, indicating that the gene determining melon fruit pH is not one of the candidate genes encoding this primary metabolic pathway. Linked markers were tested in two additional inter-varietal populations and shown to be linked to the pH trait. The presence of the same QTL in such diverse segregating populations suggests that the trait is determined throughout the species by variability in the same gene and is indicative of a major role of the evolution of this gene in determining the important domestication trait of fruit acidity within the species. PMID:22406955

Cohen, S; Tzuri, G; Harel-Beja, R; Itkin, M; Portnoy, V; Sa'ar, U; Lev, S; Yeselson, L; Petrikov, M; Rogachev, I; Aharoni, A; Ophir, R; Tadmor, Y; Lewinsohn, E; Burger, Y; Katzir, N; Schaffer, A A



Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.  


Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of decay. In both species the weight loss was not affected by the treatments. These results show that a good control of postharvest decay could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining the effect of a GRAS compound such as AAC with curing. Conversely the results obtained, by applying this control method to the orange variety were not so promising. Further researches are needed to shed light on the different behaviour between the two species. PMID:20222556

Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G



Microbial production of ellagic acid and biodegradation of ellagitannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years, tannin biodegradation has been the subject of a lot of studies due to its commercial importance and scientific\\u000a relevance. Tannins are molecules of low biodegradation and represent the main chemical group of natural anti-microbials occurring\\u000a in the plants. Among the different kinds of tannins, ellagitannins represent the group less studied manly due to their diversity\\u000a and

Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Ernesto Favela-Torres; Cristóbal N. Aguilar



New steroidal glycoside ester and aliphatic acid from the fruits of Lycium chinense.  


Two new compounds stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-3-O-?-D-(2'-n-triacontanoyl) glucopyranoside (1) and 19,21-dimethyl triacont-17,22,24,26,28-pentaene-1-oic acid (2), along with the three known compounds n-tetracosanyl octadec-9-enoate (3), ?-sitosterol, and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucoside, have been isolated from the methanol extract of Lycium chinense fruits. The structures of these phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. PMID:22375866

Jung, Woo-Suk; Chung, Ill-Min; Ali, Mohd; Ahmad, Ateeque



[Determination of triterpenoic acids in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba using HPLC-MS with polymeric ODS column].  


A simple and sensitive method has been developed to simultaneously determine betunilic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba from different regions by HPLC-MS. This HPLC assay was performed on PAH polymeric C18 bonded stationary phase column with mobile phase contained acetonitrile-water (90: 10) and with negative ESI detection mode. The developed approach was characterized by short time consumption for chromatographic separation, high sensitivity and good reliability so as to meet the requirements for rapid analysis of large-batch fruits of Z. jujuba from different habitats. PMID:23717965

Zhang, Yong; Zhou, An; Xie, Xiao-Mei



Effects of exogenous quercetin on the levels of carbohydrates and amino acids in fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low doses of the exogenous flavonoid quercetin increased the content of sugars in tomato fruits of various cultivars. The\\u000a content of glucose in tomato fruits of cv.Ukrainskii teplichnyi increased from 3.62 to 11.24% per unit dry weight. Increases in the content of glucose were found in all tomato cultivars\\u000a examined. An analysis of qualitative and quantitative compositions of amino acids

L. F. Stakhov; L. N. Stakhova; V. G. Ladygin



Expressing yeast SAMdc gene confers broad changes in gene expression and alters fatty acid composition in tomato fruit.  


Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits expressing a yeast S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) gene under control of a ripening-induced promoter show altered phytonutrient content and broad changes in gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional alterations in pericarp tissues of the ySAMdc-expressing fruits are shown. Consistent with the ySAMdc expression pattern from the ripening-induced promoter, very minor transcriptional alterations were detected at the mature green developmental stage. At the breaker and red stages, altered levels of numerous transcripts were observed with a general tendency toward upregulation in the transgenic fruits. Ontological analysis of up- and downregulated transcript groups revealed various affected metabolic processes, mainly carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis, which appeared to be intensified in the ripening transgenic fruits. Other functional ontological categories of altered transcripts represented signal transduction, transcription regulation, RNA processing, molecular transport and stress response, as well as metabolism of lipids, glycans, xenobiotics, energy, cofactors and vitamins. In addition, transcript levels of genes encoding structural enzymes for several biosynthetic pathways showed strong correlations to levels of specific metabolites that displayed altered levels in transgenic fruits. Increased transcript levels of fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes were accompanied by a change in the fatty acid profile of transgenic fruits, most notably increasing ?-3 fatty acids at the expense of other lipids. Thus, SAMdc is a prime target in manipulating the nutritional value of tomato fruits. Combined with analyses of selected metabolites in the overripe fruits, a model of enhanced homeostasis of the pericarp tissue in the polyamine-accumulating tomatoes is proposed. PMID:21338368

Kolotilin, Igor; Koltai, Hinanit; Bar-Or, Carmiya; Chen, Lea; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Levin, Ilan; Reuveni, Moshe



Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cul- tivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, includ- ing effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net

Erick De la Barrera; Park S. Nobel



Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric

Timothy J. Barden; Marguerite Y. Croft; E. John Murby; Robert J. Wells



Solid State Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Production of Citric Acid by Wild Strains of Aspergillus Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the potential of Aspergillus niger strains for the production of citric acid from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) through solid state bioconversion (SSB). Twenty six wild strains of Aspergillus niger isolated from lemon, orange, and sewage treatment plant sludge were evaluated. Factors considered in the study were citric acid production, sugar consumption, and protein content as

Zahangir Alam; Niamul Bari; Suleyman A. Muyibi; Parveen Jamal; Abdullah-Al-Mamun



Effects of growing region and maturity stages on oil yield and fatty acid composition of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes on oil yield and fatty acid profiles were studied during maturation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits cultivated in Menzel Temime and Oued Beja, Tunisia. Oil and petroselinic acid biosynthesis proceeded at a steady rate up to 16 DAF in Oued Beja and in 33 DAF in Menzel Temime. The first results show that a rapid oil accumulation started

Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mouna Ben Taarit; Mohamed Hammami; Brahim Marzouk



N-terminal amino acid sequence of persimmon fruit beta-galactosidase.  

PubMed Central

beta-Galactosidase (EC from persimmon fruit was purified 114-fold with a 15% yield using Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, CM-Sephadex ion exchange, and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography, with subsequent electroelution from nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels. The estimated molecular mass of the native beta-galactosidase by Sephacryl S-200 was 118 kD. After sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE of the enzyme electroeluted from native gels, two subunits with estimated molecular masses of 34 and 44 kD were observed, suggesting that the native enzyme was an aggregate of several subunits. Amino acid composition and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two major subunits were different.

Kang, I K; Suh, S G; Gross, K C; Byun, J K



Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ?6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice.




Changes in indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid oxidase, and peroxidase isoenzymes in the seeds of developing peach fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Merry) seeds were followed during fruit development. The highest concentration of IAA, 2.7 ?g\\/g fresh weight,\\u000a was found at the beginning of Stage III of fruit development, approximately 50–60 days after anthesis. The IAA-decarboxylating\\u000a capacity of crude extracts of seeds was also greatest at 55–60 days after

Victoriano Valpuesta; Miguel A. Quesada; Cristina Sánchez-Roldán; Horacio A. Tigier; Antonio Heredia; Martin J. Bukovac



Water-insoluble condensed tannins content of young persimmon fruits-derived crude fibre relates to its bile acid-binding ability.  


In this study, we prepared crude fibre samples from young fruits of 10 persimmon (Diospyros kaki) cultivars and from young fruits of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta) and peach (Prunus persica) and compared their bile acid-binding abilities in vitro. All crude fibre samples from young fruits of persimmon were able to bind to cholic acid in a 4?mM cholic acid solution, but crude fibre samples from young fruits of Japanese pear and peach did not show bile acid-binding ability. The bile acid-binding ability was strongly correlated with the water-insoluble condensed tannins content in crude fibre samples (r?=?0.909, p?fruits of persimmon is related to its bile acid-binding ability. PMID:22250751

Takekawa, Kanako; Matsumoto, Kenji



Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits.  


Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH? IC(50), ranged from very active (19.4 ?g/ml) to inactive (389 ?g/ml). PMID:21340048

Reynertson, Kurt A; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J



Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits  

PubMed Central

Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH? IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 ?g/ml) to inactive (389 ?g/ml).

Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.



Effects of vegetables–fruit extracts and indole-3-carbinol on stearic acid-modulated intercellular communication and cytochrome P450IA activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modulatory effects were investigated of extracts of a vegetables–fruit mixture and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on stearic acid-modulated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and cytochrome P450-IA activity (EROD). In V79 cells, pure water and hexane extracts of a vegetables–fruit mixture and 25 ?g\\/ml I3C significantly protected against decreased GJIC caused by 10 ?M stearic acid. Furthermore, pure, 10× and 100× diluted vegetables–fruit

Jolanda M Rijnkels; Astrid C van der Reijden; Gerrit M Alink



A new 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-conjugating activity in tomato fruit.  

PubMed Central

A new conjugate, 1-(gamma-L-glutamylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (GACC), of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is identified. The only previously identified conjugate of ACC is 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC). GACC, not MACC, was the major conjugate formed by crude protein extracts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv Ailsa Craig) fruit pericarp and seeds incubated with [14C]ACC. GACC was resolved from [14C]ACC and [14C]MACC by reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography and subsequently detected and quantified using a radioisotope-imaging system. Proteins precipitated from crude extracts failed to catalyze formation of GACC unless the supernatant was added back. Reduced glutathione, but not other reducing agents, replaced the crude supernatant. When [35S-cysteine]glutathione and [3H-2-glycine]glutathione were used as substrates, neither radiolabeled glycine nor cysteine from the glutathione tripeptide was incorporated into GACC. Oxidized glutathione, S-substituted glutathione, and di- and tripeptides having an N-terminal gamma-L-glutamic acid, but lacking cysteine and glycine, also served as substrates for GACC formation. Peptides lacking the N-terminal gamma-L-glutamic acid did not serve as substrates. Acid hydrolysis of GACC yielded ACC, suggesting that GACC is an amide-linked conjugate of ACC. Taken together, these results indicate that GACC is 1-(gamma-glutamylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and that its formation is catalyzed by a gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the N-acetyl dimethyl ester of GACC confirmed this structure.

Martin, M N; Cohen, J D; Saftner, R A



Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  


Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai



Kinetic study of empty fruit bunch using hot liquid water and dilute acid.  


Empty fruit bunch (EFB), a residual product of the palm plantation, is an attractive biomass for biorefinery. As xylan is susceptible to high temperature pretreatment, it is important to setup a proper pretreatment condition to maximize the sugar recovery from EFB. Kinetic parameters of mathematical models were obtained in order to predict the concentration of xylose, glucose, furfural, and acetic acid in the hydrolysate and to find production conditions of xylose. We investigated the kinetics of hot liquid water and dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis over a 40-min period using a self-designed setup by measuring the concentrations of released sugars (xylose, glucose) and degradation products (acetic acid and furfural). The reaction was performed within the range 160?180 °C, under reaction conditions of various concentration of sulfuric acid (0.1?0.2%) and 1:7 solid-liquid ratio in a batch reactor. The kinetic constants can be expressed by the Arrhenius equation with the activation energy for the hydrolysis of sugar and decomposition of sugar. The activation energy of xylose was determined to be 136.2187 kJ mol(-1). PMID:22238014

Kim, Jun Seok; Choi, Won Il; Kang, Minsu; Park, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jin-Suk



Bioactive compounds and phenolic-linked functionality of powdered tropical fruit residues.  


Tropical fruit residues consisting of seeds, peels and residual pulp generated as by-products of fruit processing industry were investigated for bioactive compounds, the in vitro antioxidant capacity as well as alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Cyanidin, quercetin, ellagic acid (EA) and proanthocyanidins were found in acerola, jambolan, pitanga and cajá-umbu residue powders. Acerola powder had the highest phenolic content (8839.33?mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100?g) and also high-ascorbic acid (AA) concentration (2748.03?mg/100?g), followed by jambolan and pitanga. The greatest 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition was observed for jambolan (436.76?mmol Trolox eq/g) followed by pitanga (206.68?mmol Trolox eq/g) and acerola (192.60?mmol Trolox eq/g), while acerola had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay result (7.87?mmol Trolox eq/g). All fruit powders exhibited enzymatic inhibition against alpha-amylase (IC50 ranging from 3.40 to 49.5?mg CE/mL) and alpha-glucosidase (IC50 ranging from 1.15 to 2.37?mg CE/mL). Therefore, acerola, jambolan and pitanga dried residues are promising natural ingredients for food and nutraceutical manufacturers, due to their rich bioactive compound content. PMID:23014856

Correia, Roberta T P; Borges, Kátia C; Medeiros, Maria F; Genovese, Maria I



High efficiency joint CZE determination of sugars and acids in vegetables and fruits.  


In this work, an improved CE method for the medium-throughput determination of main organic acids (oxalate, malate, citrate), the amino acid glutamate and the sugars fructose, glucose and sucrose in several food matrices is described. These compounds have been identified as key components in the taste intensity of fruit and vegetable crops. Using a running buffer with 20 mM 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid pH 12.1 and 0.1% hexadimethrine bromide, replacing it every 5 h to avoid pH decrease, and optimizing capillary conditioning between runs with 58 mM SDS during 2 min at 20 psi, it is possible to effectively quantify these compounds while increasing medium throughput repeatability. This procedure resolves problems such as increases in migration time and reduction of resolution between problematic peaks (malate/citrate and fructose/glucose) detected in a previous method. The new procedure even considerably reduced time analysis down to 12 min. Under optimal conditions, a large number of injections (200) could be administered without any disturbances in the same capillary. The reliability of the proposed method was further investigated with several food matrix samples, including tomato, pepper, muskmelon, winter squash, and orange. This method is recommended for routine analysis of large number of samples typical of production quality systems or plant breeding programs. PMID:22887163

Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Roselló, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando



Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.  


Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4. PMID:23709290

Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong



Direct determination of gibberellic Acid in tomato and fruit by using photochemically induced fluorescence.  


A simple, sensitive method for determining gibberellic acid based on photochemically induced fluorescence detection was developed to determine this plant growth regulator in a technical formulation, tomato, and fruit samples. The principle for the determination is the photochemical reactivity of the gibberellic acid, being consistent with the occurrence of photoaromatization and photochemical dimerization with loss of carbon dioxide, and with the likely formation of various fluorescent photoproducts. Six min of UV (mainly at 253.7 nm) irradiation in a solution containing 50% (v/v) methanol and buffer at pH 5 provided the best results. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 50-150 ng mL(-1), and the limit of detection was 1.7 ng mL(-1). The method is useful to determine gibberellic acid in samples with background fluorescence such as plum and tomato without the need for labor-intensive preparation as a result of UV irradiation suppressing the fluorescent background. PMID:24102243

Murillo Pulgarín, José A; García Bermejo, Luisa F; Becedas Rodríguez, Sonia



Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.  


This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of ?-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products. PMID:22264421

do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N



Elemental composition and fatty acid profile of the edible fruits of Amatungula (Carissa macrocarpa) and impact of soil quality on chemical characteristics.  


The Amatungula fruit, from Carissa macrocarpa, is commonly consumed by the local people of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Levels of elements in the fruit were determined to assess if they conform to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) and to assess for potential toxicities. Soils and fruit samples from nine sites in eastern KZN were investigated. Concentrations of elements in the fruit were found to be in the order of Ca>Mg>Fe>Mn?Cu?Pb>Se>Cr>Ni>Zn. For the elements in focus, except for Pb, all of the elements found in the fruit contribute significantly towards the RDAs. Lipid profiling was also done to determine the fruits potential as a source of essential fatty acids. The fruit was rich in monounsaturated and essential fatty acids with the linoleic acid to ?-linolenic acid ratio conforming to the recommended range for cardiac health. Concentrations of elements in soil had no significant effect on plant concentrations, but competition between elements in soil influenced their availability. Total soil concentrations of most metals studied have significantly correlated Pb availability, indicating the impact of these metals on Pb availability. The Amatungula fruit showed tendency to accumulate Pb, with Pb levels in fruit at all sites being toxic to human health. Site location had a major effect on plant concentrations however uptake and distribution was primarily dependent on the plants inherent controls, as evidenced by the accumulation and exclusion of elements, to meet its physiological requirements. PMID:22632042

Moodley, Roshila; Koorbanally, Neil; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B



Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.  


The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition. PMID:19348424

Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel



Bile acid-binding activity of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit and its hypolipidemic effect in mice.  


The hypolipidemic effects and bile acid-binding properties of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit were examined. In an animal experiment, male C57BL/6.Cr mice (n = 5) were fed an AIN-76-modified high fat diet supplemented with 2% or 5% (w/w) dried young persimmon fruit (YP) for 10 weeks. The intake of YP significantly enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and lowered the concentration of hepatic lipids and plasma cholesterol. Analysis of gene expression in liver tissue showed that 2% or 5% YP up-regulated the expression of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 gene. In the 5% group, there were increased expressions of the genes for cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Next, the bile acid-binding ability of YP was analysed in vitro using cholic acid (CA). In 100-2000 microM CA solutions, 1% (w/v) YP adsorbed approximately 60% of CA, while dried mature persimmon fruit adsorbed approximately 20% of CA. The positive control, cholestyramine, adsorbed approximately 80% of CA in the 100-2000 microM CA solutions. A crude tannin extract from YP, which contained 54.7% condensed tannins, adsorbed approximately 78% of CA in the 2000 microM CA solutions. These results suggest that the ability of YP to bind bile acid contributes to its hypolipidemic effect in mice. PMID:19585467

Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki



Responses of reactive oxygen metabolism and quality in mango fruit to exogenous oxalic acid or salicylic acid under chilling temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

After being immersed in water, oxalic acid (OA) or salicylic acid (SA) aqueous solutions, mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) fruit were stored at 14? Co r at 5? C with shelf life to determine the effects of exogenous OA or SA on reactive oxygenmetabolism,qualityandchillinginjury(CI)ofthefruit.MangoCIcould be reduced by OA and SA treatments. Compared with that in control, accompanied with alleviated

Zhan-Sheng Ding; Shi-Ping Tiana; Xiao-Lin Zheng; Zhong-Wei Zhou; Yong Xu



Expression profiling of ascorbic acid-related genes during tomato fruit development and ripening and in response to stress conditions  

PubMed Central

L-Ascorbate (the reduced form of vitamin C) participates in diverse biological processes including pathogen defence mechanisms, and the modulation of plant growth and morphology, and also acts as an enzyme cofactor and redox status indicator. One of its chief biological functions is as an antioxidant. L-Ascorbate intake has been implicated in the prevention/alleviation of varied human ailments and diseases including cancer. To study the regulation of accumulation of this important nutraceutical in fruit, the expression of 24 tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genes involved in the biosynthesis, oxidation, and recycling of L-ascorbate during the development and ripening of fruit have been characterized. Taken together with L-ascorbate abundance data, the results show distinct changes in the expression profiles for these genes, implicating them in nodal regulatory roles during the process of L-ascorbate accumulation in tomato fruit. The expression of these genes was further studied in the context of abiotic and post-harvest stress, including the effects of heat, cold, wounding, oxygen supply, and ethylene. Important aspects of the hypoxic and post-anoxic response in tomato fruit are discussed. The data suggest that L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase could play an important role in regulating ascorbic acid accumulation during tomato fruit development and ripening.

Ioannidi, Eugenia; Kalamaki, Mary S.; Engineer, Cawas; Pateraki, Irene; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Giovannonni, James; Kanellis, Angelos K.



Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid.  


Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cultivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rates for fruits were higher during the night; they were maximal at 7 d before anthesis and decreased as development progressed. Fruits undergoing drought, imposed by detaching terminal stems bearing fruits, were 50% smaller than the control at 80 d after anthesis and did not ripen. Fruits injected with 2 ml of 500 ppm GA3 were 30% smaller than the control at 80 d after anthesis; they contained a large proportion of aborted seeds that produced a weak sink signal for dry mass accumulation. Gas exchange was higher at 21 d after anthesis for fruits treated with GA3. Total soluble sugars represented 40% of the fruit's dry mass until 45 d after anthesis, when the sugar content rapidly increased, reaching 90% at 73 d after anthesis. Such an increase was not observed for fruits treated with GA3, and the sugar content for fruits undergoing drought remained low throughout development. Starch content increased for developing fruits of O. ficus-indica until 14 d after anthesis and, except for the fruits undergoing drought, decreased thereafter. Fruit development for O. ficus-indica is apparently regulated by water availability as well as hormonal signals originating both within and outside the fruit. PMID:14966221

de La Barrera, Erick; Nobel, Park S



Effect of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide on Cryptosporidium parvum viability in fruit juices.  


Cryptosporidium parvum has historically been associated with waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis has been associated with unpasteurized apple cider. Infectious oocysts are shed in the feces of common ruminants like cattle and deer in and near orchards. In this study, the ability of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added to fruit juice to inhibit the survival of C. parvum was analyzed. Oocyst viability was analyzed by a cell culture infectivity assay with the use of a human ileocecal cell line (HCT-8) whose infectivity pattern is similar to that for human oral infectivity. Cell monolayers were infected with 10(6) treated oocysts or a series of 10-fold dilutions. Parasitic life stages were visualized through immunohistochemistry with 100 microscope fields per monolayer being counted. In vitro excystation assays were also used to evaluate these treatments. Organic acids and H2O2 were added to apple cider, orange juice, and grape juices on a weight/volume basis. Malic, citric, and tartaric acids at concentrations of 1 to 5% inhibited C. parvum's infectivity of HCT-8 cells by up to 88%. Concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 3% H2O2 were evaluated. The addition of 0.025% H2O2 to each juice resulted in a >5-log reduction of C. parvum infectivity as determined with a most-probable-number-based cell culture infectivity assay. As observed with differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy, reduced infectivity may be mediated through effects on the oocyst wall that are caused by the action of H2O2 or related oxygen radicals. The addition of low concentrations of H2O2 can represent a valuable alternative to pasteurization. PMID:14503720

Kniel, Kalmia E; Sumner, Susan S; Lindsay, David S; Hackney, Cameron R; Pierson, Merle D; Zajac, Anne M; Golden, David A; Fayer, Ronald



Sugar, Non-volatile and Phenolic Acids Composition of Strawberry Tree ( Arbutus unedo L. var. ellipsoidea ) Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using GC-MS, phenolic and non-volatile acids and soluble sugars were identified and quantified in strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits. The phenolic acids quantified were gallic (10.7 mg\\/g dry weight), gentisic (1.9 mg\\/g), protocatechuic (0.6 mg\\/g), p -hydroxybenzoic (0.3 mg\\/g), vanillic (0.12 mg\\/g) and m -anisic (0.05 mg\\/g). From the group of non-volatile acids, fumaric (1.94 mg\\/g dry weight), lactic

F. A. Ayaz; M. Kucukislamoglu; M. Reunanen



Formation of flavonoids, especially anthocyanin and chlorogenic acid in ‘Jonagold’ apple skin: influences of growth regulators and fruit maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of ethephon, (S)-trans-2-amino-4-(2-aminoethoxy)-3-butenoic acid hydrochloride (ABG-3168), gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), alar, cycocel (CCC), prohexadione-Ca, seniphos, shikimic acid, plantacur-E and galactose on the accumulation of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in ‘Jonagold’ apple skin were investigated, with emphasis on anthocyanin, in order to separate maturity-related from other development-related influences. Fruit maturation\\/ripening as determined by both Streif and Starch indices was

Mohamed A Awad; Anton de Jager



Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.  


The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC. PMID:19679456

Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C



Regulation of the Lemon-Fruit V-ATPase by Variable Stoichiometry and Organic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lemon-fruit V-ATPase can exist in two forms: nitrate-sensitive and nitrate-insensitive. Here we report the results of measurements of H+ \\/ATP stoichiometries using two kinetic methods: one based on steady-state DpH and one based on initial rates of H+-pumping. Our findings indicate that the nitrate-insensitive fruit V-ATPase has an H+ \\/ATP stoichiometry of ~1, while both the nitrate-sensitive fruit V-ATPase

M. L. M ller; L. Taiz



The Growth and Production of Patulin Mycotoxin by Penecillium expansum on Apple Fruits and its Control by the Use of Propionic Acid and Sodium Benzoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larous, L., N. Hendel, J.K. Abood and M. Ghoul. 2007. The Growth and Production of Patulin Mycotoxin by Penecillium expansum on Apple Fruits and its Control by the Use of Propionic Acid and Sodium Benzoate. Arab J. Pl. Prot. 25: 123-128. Penicillium expansum was the most frequently isolated fungal species in all tested samples of moulded apple fruits. The optimum

L. Larous; N. Hendel; J. K. Abood; M. Ghoul


Biocontrol of gray mold decay in peach fruit by integration of antagonistic yeast with salicylic acid and their effects on postharvest quality parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of using Rhodotorula glutinis alone or in combination with salicylic acid (SA) for the control of postharvest gray mold decay of peach fruit, and their effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. Washed cell suspensions of yeast controlled gray mold better than yeast in culture broth. Treatment of wounds with autoclaved cell cultures or cell-free culture filtrate

Hongyin Zhang; Longchuan Ma; Lei Wang; Song Jiang; Ying Dong; Xiaodong Zheng



Quantification and histochemical localization of ascorbic acid in 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji' apple fruit during on-tree development and cold storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple fruit are subject to multiple stressors during pre- and post-harvest development. Stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be detrimental to the fruit, and ascorbic acid (AsA) is involved in many of the antioxidant pathways that detoxify ROS. An inclusive study to characterize AsA dy...


Analysis of organic acids in fruit juices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an enhanced tool for authenticity testing.  


Organic acid analysis plays a fundamental role in the testing of authenticity of fruit juices. Analytical methods used routinely for organic acids suffer from poor reproducibility, often give false positives/negatives for tartaric acid, and do not offer the possibility of analyte confirmation. There are conflicting reports in the literature on the presence/absence of tartaric acid in pomegranate juice, a potential indicator of adulteration with grape juice. In this work, a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for citric, malic, quinic, and tartaric acid in fruit juices. Validation data including precision and recovery in six types of juice are presented. Tartaric and quinic acids were confirmed in pomegranate juice at concentrations of 1-5 and ?1 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than those resulting from adulteration with grape juice and apple juice, respectively, at the 5% level. A separate method for isocitric acid in orange juice based on the single standard addition method is also described. PMID:21361392

Ehling, Stefan; Cole, Shannon



Protective effect of ascorbic acid against the browning developed in apple fruit treated with high hydrostatic pressure.  


Apple Reineta variety was used as an apple dessert. The 1-1.5-cm cubes were immersed in a sucrose solution (30% w/v) and subjected to high pressure (HP) of 400 MPa for 30 min at 5 degrees C. Different ascorbic acid concentrations were used to protect the fruit from the browning developed after the HP treatment. After 2 months of storage at 5 degrees C, no brown color was observed in the samples treated with 20 mM ascorbic acid, and they were acceptable to consumers. However, untreated samples presented fermentation, and they were not acceptable to consumers. The electric conductivity and potassium content were found to be good indicators of the metabolites released from the fruit to the solution in samples treated with high pressure. HP did not affect the peroxidase activity but eliminated the microbial population. PMID:10552682

Préstamo, G; Arroyo, G



Combination of salicylic acid and ultrasound to control postharvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum in peach fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultrasound (40kHz, 10min) and salicylic acid (SA, 0.05mM) either separately, or combined on blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum in peach fruit was investigated. The results showed that the application of SA alone could reduce blue mold, while the use of ultrasound had no effect. Our results also revealed that SA combined with ultrasound treatment was more

Zhenfeng Yang; Shifeng Cao; Yuting Cai; Yonghua Zheng



Detection of Organic Acids and pH of Fruit Vinegars Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated to determine the acetic, tartaric, formic acids and pH of fruit vinegars.\\u000a Optimal partial least squares (PLS) models were developed with different preprocessing. Simultaneously, the performance of\\u000a least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models was compared with three kinds of inputs, including wavelet transform\\u000a (WT), latent variables, and effective wavelengths (EWs). The results indicated that all

Fei Liu; Yong He; Li Wang; Guangming Sun


Fatty acid synthesis in the oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ): Incorporation of acetate by tissue slices of the developing fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm (E. guineensis) fruits at three stages of development were studied. At week 12–13 after anthesis, the endosperm had started accumulating\\u000a oil and tissue slices incorporated [1-14C] acetate into fatty acids which resembled those found in the mature endosperm. The mesocarp contained very little oil and\\u000a incorporated acetate into polar lipids. At week 16–17, the mesocarp started to accumulate

Khaik-Cheang Oo; Sau-Keen Teh; Hun-Teik Khor; Augustine S. H. Ong



Production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid from empty palm fruit bunches by Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.  


The oleaginous microalga Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 was cultivated in enzymatic hydrolysates of alkali-pretreated empty palm fruit bunches (EFBs), without prior detoxification process. The maximal levels of lipid and docosahexaenoic acid synthesized were 12.5 and 5.4 g L?¹ after cultivation for 36 h. Similar lipid levels were also obtained via simultaneous saccharification and cultivation. The results suggested that EFB is a promising source for production of useful lipids by the microalgal strain. PMID:23053417

Hong, Won-Kyung; Yu, Anna; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kim, Chul Ho; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Yang, Ji-Won; Kondo, Akihiko; Seo, Jeong-Woo



Lipid and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and seed of avocado fruits harvested at northern range in Japan.  


The lipid and fatty acid composition of the mesocarp and seed of avocado fruit grown and harvested in Japan, which is located at the northern range of the avacado, was investigated and compared to an imported avocado purchased commercially. The potential of the avocado mesocarp as an agricultural product in Japan was also explored. Total lipids (TL) accounted for approximately 20% of the mesocarp. Further analysis showed that the neutral lipid (NL) fraction accounted for at least 95% of the TL, and almost 90% of NL was triacylglycerol. Monoenoic acids accounted for at least 65% of the total fatty acids, and oleic acid, which is regarded as an especially important functional component of avacado accounted for approximately 50% of the monounsaturated fatty acids. A comparison of the Japanese avocado cultivars and an imported avocado cultivar in the present study revealed no significant differences in the lipid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, production of avocado fruit, which is rich in various nutritional components, is expected to be increased on a larger number of farms in Japan in the future. It is believed to be necessary to carry out further verification, such as the establishment of a cultivation technique adoptable to Japan, examination of optimal soil and land features, and cultivar selection. PMID:18838831

Takenaga, Fumio; Matsuyama, Kaori; Abe, Shin; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Itoh, Shingo



Biochemical characteristics and gelling capacity of pectin from yellow passion fruit rind as affected by acid extractant nature.  


The effects of acid extractant type on the yield and characteristics of pectin from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) rind was investigated by using citric, nitric, or sulfuric acids at different concentrations (10 mM and 30 mM) and pH (1.8 and 2.5). The results showed that not only concentration, but also acid type influenced the extracted pectin yields (3-14%, w/w). The yield of pectin extracted with citric acid was the lowest. Acid type and concentration affected the molecular characteristics of pectin, notably, the degree of esterification (29-73), galacturonic acid to rhamnose ratio (14-35), weight average-molecular weight (100-250 kDa), gel strength (127-179), and setting time (841-1236 s). Citric acid-extracted pectin had a higher degree of esterification and weight average-molecular weight and better gelling properties. At 30 mM concentration, nitric and sulfuric acids solubilize pectins having a degree of esterification <50, contrary to citric acid. The results indicate that the latter acid exerts the least deesterifying action on pectin solubilization from the cell wall material. Citric acid-extracted pectin was closer to lemon pectin of similar degree of esterification in terms of gelling properties. PMID:19199593

Yapo, Beda M



Melanogenesis-inhibitory saccharide fatty acid esters and other constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni).  


Five new saccharide fatty acid esters, named nonioside P (3), nonioside Q (4), nonioside R (8), nonioside S (10), and nonioside T (14), and one new succinic acid ester, butyl 2-hydroxysuccinate (=4-butoxy-3-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid) (31), were isolated, along with 26?known compounds, including eight saccharide fatty acid esters, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 13, three hemiterpene glycosides, 15, 17, and 18, six iridoid glycosides, 21-25, and 27, and nine other compounds, 20, 28, 29, and 32-37, from a MeOH extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni). Upon evaluation of these and five other glycosidic compounds, 11, 16, 19, 26, and 30, from M. citrifolia fruit extract for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), most of the saccharide fatty acid esters, hemiterpene glycosides, and iridoid glycosides showed inhibitory effects with no or almost no toxicity to the cells. These compounds were further evaluated with respect to their cytotoxic activities against two human cancer cell lines (HL-60 and AZ521) and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. PMID:22700235

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tochizawa, Shun; Takahashi, Nami; Yamamoto, Ayako; Zhang, Jie; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka



Effect of blanching, dehydration method and temperature on the ascorbic acid, colour, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit.  


Freshly harvested okra fruits were blanched in boiling water (with or without 0.2% sodium metablsulphite salt) and the effect of this treatment, dehydration methods and temperature on certain characteristics of okra investigated. Blanching resulted in the slight decrease in carbohydrate, fat, ash, colour components, ascorbic acid and viscosity. Besides this initial loss, blanching in sulphite solution led to the retention of more of the colour components and ascorbic acid during dehydration. All dehydrated okra samples had higher contents of carbohydrate, fat and ash but lesser contents of protein and ascorbic acid than fresh okra. Fresh okra fruits, on the other hand, had higher content of the colour pigments and were more viscous than all dehydrated products. Samples blanched prior to dehydration retained more of the colour components but were less viscous than unblanched samples. Vacuum dehydrated samples retained more ascorbic acid, colour pigment and mucilage at each of the dehydration temperatures than those from a hot air oven. High dehydration temperatures had negative effect on the colour, ascorbic acid and viscosity of okra. PMID:9713583

Inyang, U E; Ike, C I



Circulating salicylic acid is related to fruit and vegetable consumption in healthy subjects.  


Salicylic acid (SA) is a natural phenolic compound known as the active principle of aspirin. Its presence in vegetal sources suggests that fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption could produce measurable SA serum concentrations in human subjects not taking aspirin. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between FV intake and circulating SA in healthy subjects. Thirty-eight volunteers (twenty-two males and sixteen females) were recruited from an Italian university campus. They recorded their food intake for 7 d to evaluate dietary consumption and, in particular, FV intake; fasting blood samples were taken on the morning of the eighth day to measure SA serum concentration, using a sensitive stable isotope dilution and GC-MS method. Median SA serum concentration was 0.124 mumol/l (range 0.028-0.295). Circulating SA was significantly related to FV consumption, both to the mean daily intake (r2 0.13, P = 0.03) and to the last day intake (r2 0.16, P = 0.01). The subjects in the highest FV intake quartile in the preceding day (>4.75 servings) had significantly higher SA concentrations than in the lowest quartile ( < 2.3 servings) (median concentrations 0.188 and 0.112 mumol/l, respectively; P = 0.04). This study proved that, after overnight fast, human subjects not taking aspirin display circulating SA in amounts related to the FV consumption. It is therefore possible that the beneficial effects of regular FV consumption in man could also depend on low chronic SA exposure. PMID:17532866

Spadafranca, A; Bertoli, S; Fiorillo, G; Testolin, G; Battezzati, A



Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit  

SciTech Connect

There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. (USDA, Beltsville, MD (USA))



A novel aspartic acid protease gene from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus): Cloning, characterization and relation to postharvest chilling stress resistance.  


A full-length cDNA encoding a putative aspartic acid protease (AcAP1) was isolated for the first time from the flesh of pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit. The deduced sequence of AcAP1 showed all the common features of a typical plant aspartic protease phytepsin precursor. Analysis of AcAP1 gene expression under postharvest chilling treatment in two pineapple varieties differing in their resistance to blackheart development revealed opposite trends. The resistant variety showed an up-regulation of AcAP1 precursor gene expression whereas the susceptible showed a down-regulation in response to postharvest chilling treatment. The same trend was observed regarding specific AP enzyme activity in both varieties. Taken together our results support the involvement of AcAP1 in postharvest chilling stress resistance in pineapple fruits. PMID:23838125

Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Soler, Alain; Cruz de Carvalho, Maria H



Mumefural, citric acid derivative improving blood fluidity from fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc).  


The effects of food components on blood fluidity were studied by in vitro assay using a dedicated microchannel instrument for model capillaries. We found that the fruit-juice concentrate of the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc), a traditional Japanese food, markedly improved the fluidity of human blood. Using HPLC, we isolated the active compounds and characterized them using UV, MS, IR, and NMR. They included a novel compound, 1-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl] dihydrogen 2-hydroxypropane-1,2, 3-tricarboxylate (mumefural), and a related compound, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF). Mumefural markedly improved blood fluidity in all subjects, while HMF worked differently in different individuals. The flow rate of blood spiked with mumefural or HMF was compared to that of the two predominant organic acids in the fruit. Citric acid, malic acid, and furfuryl alcohol also improved fluidity in all subjects. The activity of P. mume is derived from not only artifacts produced during thermal processing, such as mumefural, but also from endogenous organic acids. PMID:10552374

Chuda, Y; Ono, H; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Matsumoto, K; Nagata, T; Kikuchi, Y



Separation, characterization, and quantitation of phenolic acids in a little-known blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit by HPLC-MS.  


The aim of this study was the qualitative and quantitative determination of free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound phenolic acids in the blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit. A method for the determination of the profile of phenolic acids of four different phenolic fractions in the fruit was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Thirteen compounds (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, syringic, sinapic, salicylic, and trans-cinnamic acids) were identified and quantified in the berry. These experimental results showed that the predominant phenolic acid in the fruit of V. arctostaphylos is caffeic acid in free and insoluble ester-bound forms and p-coumaric acid in soluble ester and glycoside forms. Seven phenolic acids were identified as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (HBAs) and four as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAs). Total content of HBAs and HCAs in the four phenolic fractions constituted 30.1 and 69.9% of the free, 27.9 and 72.1% of the ester, 24.7 and 75.3% of the glycoside, and 51.7 and 48.3% of the ester-bound forms, respectively. Total phenolics as the sum of individual phenolic acids identified is 698.5 ng/g of fresh weight (fw) for the free, 3399.2 ng/g of fw for the ester, 3522.1 ng/g of fw for the glycoside, and 3671.6 ng/g of fw for the ester-bound phenolic fractions. The present results were compared with reported levels of phenolic acids in the fruits of different Vaccinium species. These data suggest that the fruit can be considered as a potentially good dietary source of phenolic acids. PMID:16218652

Ayaz, Faik A; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Gruz, Jiri; Novak, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav



Changes in the abscisic acid levels and related gene expression during fruit development and ripening in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).  


Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural plant hormone playing an important role in many physiological processes including fruit ripening and is also recently found to be potential for biomedical applications. This study was aimed to measure ABA levels and its biosynthesis in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which is one of the best sources of anthocyanins. Five ABA biosynthetic genes were isolated from bilberry and their expression profiles were studied in bilberry tissues, particularly during berry development. The level of ABA highly increased at the onset of bilberry fruit ripening, at the stage when expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (VmCHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (VmANS), also increased. In fully ripe berries and leaves, ABA levels were lower but none was detected in bilberry stem or rhizome. The expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VmNCED1) and putative neoxanthin synthase (VmNSY) was high in berry tissues and their expression increased markedly at the onset of berry ripening along with the accumulation of ABA. In contrast, the expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase (VmZEP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (VmSDR/ABA2) and aldehyde oxidase (VmAO) were most highly associated with leaf tissues with no obvious relation to ABA content during berry development. The obtained results indicate that the ABA biosynthesis may play an important role in the regulation of ripening of non-climacteric bilberry fruits through transcriptional regulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes. PMID:23850079

Karppinen, Katja; Hirvelä, Elina; Nevala, Tiina; Sipari, Nina; Suokas, Marko; Jaakola, Laura



Non-extractable procyanidins and lignin are important factors in the bile acid binding and radical scavenging properties of cell wall material in some fruits.  


The cell wall components and the food functions of alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) of Chinese quince, quince, hawthorn, apple, pear and blueberry fruits were analyzed. Chinese quince contained characteristically high contents of cellulose, lignin, and non-extractable procyanidins (NEPCs). On the other hand, the quince AIS contained the highest proportion of NEPCs, the highest mean degree of polymerization (mDP), the strongest radical scavenging activity, and strong bile acid binding activity. In fruit AIS, the lignin and NEPC contents both showed positive correlations with the bile acid binding and radical scavenging activities. The value for mDP × NEPC content was a good index for the radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that highly polymerized NEPCs and lignin are important factors of cell wall components of fruits to having a high functionality, and Chinese quince and quince are interesting fruits from this view point. PMID:21243435

Hamauzu, Yasunori; Mizuno, Yukari



Effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.  


To elucidate the effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids and to determine the best temperature to minimize their postharvest change, their content after harvest was investigated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C for 14 days in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Aoshima-unshiu) fruit. In all sugars, the changes were negligible at all temperatures. Organic acids decreased slightly at all temperatures, with the exception of malic acid at 30 °C, which increased slightly. Two amino acids, ornithine and glutamine, increased at 5 °C, but they did not increase at other temperatures. In 11 amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, lysine, methionine, histidine, and ?-amino butyric acid), the content was higher at 20 and 30 °C than at other temperatures. Thus, the content of amino acids was more variable than that of sugars and organic acids in response to temperatures. Moreover, amino acids responded to temperature differently: two amino acids were cold responsive, and 11 were heat-responsive. The best temperature to minimize the postharvest changes in amino acid profiles in the juice sacs of Aoshima-unshiu was 10 °C. The responsiveness to temperatures in two cold-responsive (ornithine and glutamine) and five heat-responsive (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, lysine, and histidine) amino acids was conserved among three different Satsuma mandarin cultivars, Aoshima-unshiu (late-maturing cultivar), Silverhill (midmaturing cultivar), and Miyagawa-wase (early-maturing cultivar). The metabolic responsiveness to temperature stress was discussed on the basis of the changes in the amino acid profile. PMID:22950419

Matsumoto, Hikaru; Ikoma, Yoshinori



Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.  


A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric and citric acids which are readily separated by GC. Using this procedure low concentrations of one acid can be detected and quantitated in the presence of very high concentrations of another. This new method detects tartaric acid at levels of 10 ppm in juices containing 10,000 ppm citric acid. Quantitation was performed either by using GC-FID with triethyl citrate or diethyl tartrate as internal standards or with the element specific calibration capability of the GC-AED. A simple new technique for the determination of citric/isocitric acid ratio is now available. Also, in contrast to HPLC methods, the identity of an analyte is readily confirmed by GC-MS. PMID:9409006

Barden, T J; Croft, M Y; Murby, E J; Wells, R J



Determination of folic acid by ion-pair RP-HPLC in vitamin-fortified fruit juices after solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and reliable method was developed for the determination of folic acid (FA) in vitamin-fortified fruit juices and fruit drinks. After solid-phase extraction clean-up with strong-anion-exchange material, FA was determined by ion-pair reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 0.04 and 0.06 mg\\/l, respectively. Average recoveries at two fortified levels (0.5 and

Dietmar E Breithaupt



Induction of H 2O 2-metabolizing enzymes and total protein synthesis by antagonistic yeast and salicylic acid in harvested sweet cherry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immersion of sweet cherry fruit in Pichia membranefaciens at a concentration of 5×107cellsml?1 or in salicyclic acid (SA) at 0.5mM for 10min reduced the incidence of decay and lesion size caused by Penicillium expansum. Without pathogen inoculation, peroxidase (POD) activity was enhanced in yeast-treated fruit, but activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed a decrease in the

Zhulong Chan; Shiping Tian



Attractiveness to mexican fruit flies of combinations of acetic acid with ammonium\\/amino attractants with emphasis on effects of hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium acetate was more attractive than other ammonium salts to Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens) in an orchard test. We hypothesized that acetic acid enhanced the attractiveness of ammonia in the orchard test and that acetic acid may similarly enhance attractiveness of AMPu, an attractant consisting of a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium carbonate, methylamine HCl, and putrescine. In

D. C. Robacker; D. S. Moreno; A. B. Demilo



A reliable methodology for quantitative extraction of fruit and vegetable physiological amino acids and their subsequent analysis with commonly available HPLC systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High performance liquid chromatography of dabsyl derivatives of amino acids was employed for quantification of physiological amino acids in selected fruits and vegetables. This method was found to be particularly useful because the dabsyl derivatives of glutamine and citrulline were sufficiently se...


Effect of fruit maturation on sugar and organic acid composition in two blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus) native to Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some organic acids and sugars in two blueberry species from north?east Anatolia, Turkey, were studied. The fruits of the blueberry species (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and V. myrtillus L.) were collected at three stages of maturity (immature, mid ripe, and ripe), and the organic acids and sugars were studied by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and verified by gas liquid chromatography?mass spectrometry

F. A. Ayaz; A. Kadioglu; E. Bertoft; C. Acar; I. Turna



Simultaneous determination of flavanones, hydroxycinnamic acids and alkaloids in citrus fruits by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.  


A simple and accurate method has been developed to simultaneously separate and determine 10 bioactive compounds in citrus fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). This HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid as mobile phase. DAD has been performed at 273, 283 and 324nm for quantification of the alkaloids, flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acids. MS was also employed to identify the each analyte. Ten analytes (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, octopamine, synephrine and tyramine) demonstrated good linearity (r?0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. The method revealed high average recovery (range, 92.1-97.9%) and good precision with interday and intraday variations with less than 4.71%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 0.11?g/ml, while the limits of quantification (LOQs) were defined in the range of 0.08-0.39?g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to analyse three types of bioactive constituents in eight citrus hybrids pulps and eight citrus hybrids peels, which has been successfully cultivated in China. PMID:23140749

He, Dongxiu; Shan, Yang; Wu, Yuehui; Liu, Guozhu; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo



Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.  


Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs. PMID:16332121

Pätzold, Ralf; Brückner, Hans



Determination of triterpenic acids in fruits by a novel high performance liquid chromatography method with high sensitivity and specificity.  


A novel and interesting pre-column derivatisation method was developed for the analysis of triterpenic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Each triterpenic acid produced two HPLC peaks with similar peak areas after derivatising with chiral 1-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) propan-2-yl-methanesulfonate (CPMS), while the fatty acid derivative of CPMS had only one peak. This phenomenon greatly increased the confidence in analyte confirmation. Compound with only one peak or two peaks differing greatly in their peak areas could be excluded from the target compound list. CPMS was compared with five other derivatising reagents, four of which produced only one peak for one triterpenic acid, to study the possible mechanism. Analytes with different behaviours were also studied to better interpret the mechanism. The proposed method also showed the merits of high sensitivity and less sample consumption. It was successfully applied to the analysis of triterpenic acids in fruit peels and flesh. There is no prior report on the two peak phenomenon of triterpenic acids. The information provided in this study will be helpful for those who are also engaged in derivatisation study. PMID:24176341

Zhang, Shijuan; Sun, Yuanpeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiaoyan; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui



Fruits of two seabuckthorn varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of two varieties of Hippophae rhamnoides L. collected in Kyrgyzstan (I) and Uzbekistan (II) were investigated. Differences in their morphological and biochemical properties were demonstrated. Titrable acids, ascorbic acid, and protein dominated in the fruits of I. Pulp oil of II contained more free fatty acids (acid number 2.9 mg KOH) and carotinoids (419.3 mg%). The principal pulp acid

T. V. Chernenko; N. T. Ul’chenko; A. I. Glushenkova



Conversion of acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch to L-lactic acid by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans JI12.  


Cost-effective conversion of lignocellulose hydrolysate to optically pure lactic acid is commercially attractive but very challenging. Bacillus coagulans JI12 was isolated from natural environment and used to produce L-lactic acid (optical purity?>?99.5 %) from lignocellulose sugars and acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) at 50 °C and pH 6.0 without sterilization of the medium. In fed-batch fermentation with 85 g/L initial xylose and 55 g/L xylose added after 7.5 h, 137.5 g/L lactic acid was produced with a yield of 98 % and a productivity of 4.4 g/L?h. In batch fermentation of a sugar mixture containing 8.5 % xylose, 1 % glucose, and 1 % L-arabinose, the lactic acid yield and productivity reached 98 % and 4.8 g/L?h, respectively. When EFB hydrolysate was used, 59.2 g/L of lactic acid was produced within 9.5 h at a yield of 97 % and a productivity of 6.2 g/L?h, which are the highest among those ever reported from lignocellulose hydrolysates. These results indicate that B. coagulans JI12 is a promising strain for industrial production of L-lactic acid from lignocellulose hydrolysate. PMID:23504058

Ye, Lidan; Hudari, Mohammad Sufian Bin; Zhou, Xingding; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Jin Chuan



?-Polyglutamic acid (?-PGA) produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens C06 promoting its colonization on fruit surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens C06, an effective biological agent in controlling brown rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola, was also found to produce extra-cellular mucilage and form mucoid colonies on semi-solid surfaces. This study aimed to characterize the extra-cellular mucilage produced by B. amyloliquefaciens C06 using transposon mutagenesis and biochemical and physical analyses. The mucilage production in B. amyloliquefaciens C06

Jun Liu; Dan He; Xiu-zhen Li; Shengfeng Gao; Huijun Wu; Wenzhe Liu; Xuewen Gao; Ting Zhou



Cloning and expression of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene and ascorbic acid content of acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) fruit at ripening stages.  


Acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) is one of the richest natural sources of L-ascorbic acid (AsA; vitamin C). GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP; EC was found to play a major role in the proposed AsA biosynthetic pathway in plants, considering that Arabidopsis vtc1-1 mutant with point mutation in this gene has a highly reduced AsA content. GMP cDNA was isolated from acerola fruits, designated MgGMP, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and its expression was monitored during fruit ripening. The full-length cDNA was found to have an ORF of 1083bp encoding a polypeptide of 361 amino acids. In silico analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence showed a pI of 6.45 and molecular mass of 39.7kD. MgGMP showed over 80% amino acid sequence identity with other plant GMP homologues. The phylogenetic tree shows the close relation of MgGMP to the GMP of other plants as against those from parasite, yeasts and mammals. Southern analysis indicated that M. glabra contains not less than two copies of GMP genes. Northern blot analysis showed the transcript abundance of MgGMP in all the organs of acerola examined, with the fruit having the highest expression. The relative transcript abundance of MgGMP mRNA levels in the fruits changes as the ripening process progresses, with the unripe green fruits having the highest relative mRNA level, and the lowest was found in the fruits at advanced ripening stage. A strong correlation was also observed between the relative MgGMP mRNA levels and the AsA contents of acerola during fruit ripening. PMID:17764967

Badejo, Adebanjo A; Jeong, Seok T; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Esaka, Muneharu



A rapid method for the determination of total l-ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid micellar electrokinetic capillary Chromatographic method for the determination of the total l-ascorbic acid content of a variety of fruits and vegetables is described. The vitamin is extracted from the foods with 3% metaphosphoric acid and stabilized with aqueous 0.2% d,l-dithiothreitol before analysis. d-Erythorbic acid is used as the internal standard. The analyses are performed with 75 ?m fused

Catherine O. Thompson; V. Craige Trenerry



Chemopreventive efficacy of Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) fruit extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis--a dose-response study.  


Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae), a novel natural fruit has long been used as a home remedy by the medical practitioners. In this report, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of P. emblica fruit methanolic extract (PFMet) on oxidant-antioxidant status in hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Buccal pouch carcinoma was induced in hamsters by painting with DMBA (0.5% in mineral oil) on the left buccal pouch three times a week for 14 weeks. By means of HPLC analysis, ascorbic acid (24.13%), gallic acid (10.45%), ellagic acid (1.74%) and quercetin (0.009%) were identified and quantified in the PFMet. The results showed that depleted activities of SOD, CAT and TBARS level and significant elevation were observed in the levels of GSH, vitamin E and activity of GPx in DMBA group of buccal pouch. The level of TBARS was significantly enhanced and the activities of enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymatic (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) antioxidants were diminished significantly in plasma of tumor bearing animals. The effects were dose dependent and the above noted parameters were renovated to near normal after supplementation with different doses of PFMet (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW). The data obtained in this study clearly indicate that PFMet at a dose of 200mg/kg BW possesses optimum chemopreventive effect against DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:23058484

Krishnaveni, Mani; Mirunalini, Sankaran



Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

PubMed Central

1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild. 2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments. 3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost.

Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carey, James R.; Zwaan, Bas J.



Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry).  


A methanol extract of chaste-tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus L.) was tested for its ability to displace radiolabeled estradiol from the binding site of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). The extract at 46 +/- 3 microg/ml displaced 50% of estradiol from ERalpha and 64 +/- 4 microg/ml from ERbeta. Treatment of the ER+ hormone-dependent T47D:A18 breast cancer cell line with the extract induced up-regulation of ERbeta mRNA. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was upregulated in the Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. However, chaste-tree berry extract did not induce estrogen-dependent alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in Ishikawa cells. Bioassay-guided isolation, utilizing ER binding as a monitor, resulted in the isolation of linoleic acid as one possible estrogenic component of the extract. The use of pulsed ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is an affinity-based screening technique, also identified linoleic acid as an ER ligand based on its selective affinity, molecular weight, and retention time. Linoleic acid also stimulated mRNA ERbeta expression in T47D:A18 cells, PR expression in Ishikawa cells, but not AP activity in Ishikawa cells. These data suggest that linoleic acid from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus can bind to estrogen receptors and induce certain estrogen inducible genes. PMID:14974442

Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Sun, Y; Deng, S; Schlecht, S M; Zheng, W; Nikolic, D; Mahady, G; van Breemen, R B; Fong, H H S; Pezzuto, J M; Bolton, J L; Farnsworth, N R



Bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin from young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) in vitro and in vivo.  


The bile acid-binding ability of a highly polymerized tannin (kaki-tannin) extracted from dried-young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) was examined. The kaki-tannin was composed mainly of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate. Bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin was examined against cholic acid, glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid and deoxycholic acid in vitro, and its effect on fecal bile acid excretion in mice was also examined. Although the bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin was weaker than that of cholestyramine, kaki-tannin adsorbed all the bile acids tested and significantly promoted fecal bile acid excretion in mice when supplied at 1% (w/w) in the diet. PMID:20922818

Matsumoto, Kenji; Kadowaki, Akio; Ozaki, Natsumi; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki



Hyaluronic acid depolymerization by ascorbate-redox effects on solid state cultivation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in cashew apple fruit bagasse.  


The cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) has been used as a promising agricultural resource for the production of low-molecular weight (M(W)) hyaluronic acid (HA) (10(4)-10(5) Da). The cashew juice is a rich source of vitamin C containing, 1.2-2.0 g L(-1). This work explores the effects of the initial concentration of the ascorbate on the solid fermentation of the juice-moisturized bagasse from the cashew apple fruit. The results show that the M(W) reduction of HA is proportional to the initial ascorbate concentration. The presence of ascorbate did not influence the Streptococcus zooepidemicus metabolism. However, the HA productivity was increased from 0.18 to 0.28 mg g(-1) h(-1) when the ascorbate concentration ranged from 1.7 to 10 mg mL(-1). These findings contribute to the controlled production of HA in a low M(W) range, which is important in cell signalization, angiogenesis and nanoparticles production. PMID:22806044

de Macedo, André Casimiro; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade



HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Profile, Nutritive Content, and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Punica granatum Fruit Peel.  


This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE) and the water extract (AQPE) were ranged from 185?±?12.45 to 298.00?±?24.86?mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/gm and 23.05?±?1.54 to 49.8?±?2.14 quercetin (QE) mg/g, respectively. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 100 µg/ml (0.38 quercetin equivalents), for AQPE, 168 µg/ml (0.80 quercetin equivalents), for MPE. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated by chromatographic (HPLC) method. About 5 different flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives including quercetin (1), rutin (2), gallic acid (3), ellagic acid (4), and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (5) have been identified. Among both extracts, methanolic extract was the most effective. This report may be the first to show nutritive content and correlation analysis to suggest that phenols and flavonoids might contribute the high antioxidant activity of this fruit peel and establish it as a valuable natural antioxidant source applicable in the health food industry. PMID:23983682

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena



Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit and seeds from the jujube plant (Ziziphus jujuba) possess nutritional and medicinal including antimicrobial properties. We measured free amino acid content by ion-exchange chromatography, individual phenolic content by HPLC, UV, and mass spectral methods, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocal...


Determination of Shikimic Acid in Fruits of Illicium Species and Various Other Plant Samples by LC-UV and LC-ESI-MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple and specific analytical method for the quantitative determination of shikimic acid from the methanol extract of the fruits of Illicium species and from various plant samples was developed. The LC–UV separation was achieved by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column with potassium dihy...


Dietary acid reduction with fruits and vegetables or bicarbonate attenuates kidney injury in patients with a moderately reduced glomerular filtration rate due to hypertensive nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutralization of dietary acid with sodium bicarbonate decreases kidney injury and slows the decline of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. The sodium intake, however, could be problematic in patients with reduced GFR. As alkali-induced dietary protein decreased kidney injury in animals, we compared the efficacy of alkali-inducing fruits and vegetables with

Nimrit Goraya; Jan Simoni; Chanhee Jo; Donald E Wesson



Melanogenesis inhibitory activities of iridoid-, hemiterpene-, and fatty acid-glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).  


A new iridoid glycoside, 9-epi-6alpha-methoxy geniposidic acid (4), three new hemiterpene glycosides, 3-methylbut-3-enyl 2'-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (nonioside K) (6), 3-methylbut-3-enyl 6'-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (nonioside L) (8), and 3-methylbut-3-enyl 6'-O-(beta-D-xylofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (nonioside M) (9), and two new saccharide fatty acid esters, 6'-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1'-O-[(2xi)-2-methylbutanoyl]-beta-D-glucopyranose (nonioside N) (16) and 6'-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-1'-O-[(2xi)-2-methylbutanoyl]-beta-D-glucopyranose (nonioside O) (17), were isolated from a methanol extract of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni), along with 11 known compounds, namely, three iridoid glycosides (1-3), two hemiterpene glycosides (5 and 7), and five saccharide fatty acid esters (10-15). Upon evaluation of compounds 1-17 on the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells induced with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), 13 compounds (1, 3, 4, 6-14, and 17) exhibited marked inhibitory effects with 34-49% reduction of melanin content at 100 muM with no or almost no toxicity to the cells (91-116% of cell viability at 100 microM). PMID:20032599

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Seino, Ken-ichi; Kaneko, Etsuyo; Watanabe, Kensuke; Tochizawa, Shun; Fukatsu, Makoto; Banno, Norihiro; Metori, Koichi; Kimura, Yumiko



Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits.  


The purpose of this investigation was to report on the total phenolics, anthocyanins, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of strawberry, peach, and apple, the influence of dehydration and ascorbic acid treatments on the levels of these compounds, and the effect of these treatments on fruit color. Results showed that fresh strawberry had the highest levels for total phenolics [5317.9 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE)/kg], whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peach (3392.1 and 1973.1 mg of CAE/kg, respectively), and for anthocyanins (138.8 mg/kg), whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peaches (11.0 and 18.9 mg/kg, respectively; fresh strawberry had an ORAC value of 62.9 mM/kg Trolox equivalents. The fresh apple and peach were found to have ORAC values of 14.7 and 11.4 mM/kg of Trolox equivalents, respectively. The color values indicated that the addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid increased the lightness (L) and decreased the redness (a) and yellowness (b) color values of fresh strawberry, peach, and apple, sliced samples, and the puree made from them. Also, results showed that dehydration is a good method to keep the concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and ORAC values at high levels. PMID:15913308

Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Howard, L



Improvement of production of citric acid from oil palm empty fruit bunches: optimization of media by statistical experimental designs.  


A sequential optimization based on statistical design and one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was employed to optimize the media constituents for the improvement of citric acid production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) through solid state bioconversion using Aspergillus niger IBO-103MNB. The results obtained from the Plackett-Burman design indicated that the co-substrate (sucrose), stimulator (methanol) and minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Mg) were found to be the major factors for further optimization. Based on the OFAT method, the selected medium constituents and inoculum concentration were optimized by the central composite design (CCD) under the response surface methodology (RSM). The statistical analysis showed that the optimum media containing 6.4% (w/w) of sucrose, 9% (v/w) of minerals and 15.5% (v/w) of inoculum gave the maximum production of citric acid (337.94 g/kg of dry EFB). The analysis showed that sucrose (p<0.0011) and mineral solution (p<0.0061) were more significant compared to inoculum concentration (p<0.0127) for the citric acid production. PMID:19231166

Bari, Md Niamul; Alam, Md Zahangir; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Jamal, Parveen; Abdullah-Al-Mamun



Identification of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes (XTHs) and their expression in persimmon fruit as influenced by 1-methylcyclopropene and gibberellic acid during storage at ambient temperature.  


Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is thought to contribute to fruit softening by degrading xyloglucan that is a predominant hemicellulose in the cell wall. In this study, two full-length XTH genes (DKXTH1 and DKXTH2) were identified from 'Fupingjianshi' persimmon fruit, and the expression level of both XTH genes was investigated during softening for 18-24 d using RT-qPCR. Sequence analysis showed that DKXTH1 and DKXTH2 contained a putative open reading frame of 861 and 876 bp encoding polypeptides of 287 and 292 amino acid residues, respectively, which contained the conserved DEIDFEFLG motif of XTH, a potential N-linked glycosylation signal site. RT-qPCR analysis showed that DKXTH1 and DKXTH2 in untreated fruit had different expression patterns during fruit softening, in which maximum expression occurred on days 3 and 12 of ripening, respectively. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) treatments delayed the softening and ethylene peak of persimmon fruit, as well as suppressed the expression of both XTH genes, especially DKXTH1. These results indicated that the expression of both XTH genes might be ethylene dependent action, and closely related to softening of persimmon in the early (DKXTH1) and later (DKXTH2) ripening stages. PMID:23265513

Zhu, Qinggang; Zhang, Zhengke; Rao, Jingping; Huber, Donald J; Lv, Jingyi; Hou, Yali; Song, Kanghua



A comparative study of thermal and acid inactivation kinetics in fruit juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg grown at acidic conditions.  


Acid and heat inactivation in orange and apple juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (i.e., Spanish Type Culture Collection) 443 (CECT 443) (Salmonella Typhimurium) and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg CECT 4384 (Salmonella Senftenberg) grown in buffered brain heart infusion (pH 7.0) and acidified brain heart infusion up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic, and hydrochloric acids was evaluated. Acid adaptation induced an adaptive response that increased the subsequent resistance to extreme pH conditions (pH 2.5) and to heat, although the magnitude of these responses differed between the two isolates and fruit juices. The acid resistance in orange juice for acid-adapted cells (D-values of 28.3-34.5 min for Salmonella Senftenberg and 30.0-39.2 min for Salmonella Typhimurium) resulted to be about two to three times higher than that corresponding to non-acid-adapted cells. In apple juice, acid-adapted Salmonella Senftenberg cells survived better than those of Salmonella Typhimurium, obtaining mean D-values of 114.8 +/- 12.3 and 41.9 +/- 2.5 min, respectively. The thermotolerance of non-acid-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in orange (D(58)-value: 0.028 min) and apple juices (D(58)-value: 0.10 min) was approximately double for acid-adapted cells. This cross-protection to heat was more strongly expressed in Salmonella Senftenberg. D(58)-values obtained for non-acid-adapted cells in orange (0.11 min) and apple juices (0.19 min) increased approximately 10 and 5 times, respectively, after their growth in acidified media. The conditions prevailing during bacterial growth and heat treatment did not significantly influence the z-values observed (6.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Typhimurium and 7.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg). The enhanced acid resistance found for both isolates could enable them to survive for prolonged time periods in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the risk of illness. Further, it should be taken into account that microbial growth in acidified media also induces a cross-protection response against heat that should also be considered for the design of pasteurization processes for acid foods. PMID:19694554

Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes



Carbohydrate esters of cinnamic acid from fruits of Physalis peruviana, Psidium guajava and Vaccinium vitis-idaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-O-trans-Cinnamoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranose was isolated from fruits of Physalis peruviana and 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-?-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranose was obtained from fruits of Psidium guajava. Fruits of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and P. guajava were found to be rich sources of 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-?-d-glucopyranose.

Stefan Latza; Dietmar Ganßer; Ralf G. Berger



Impact of high intensity pulsed electric fields or heat treatments on the fatty acid and mineral profiles of a fruit juice–soymilk beverage during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) (35 kV\\/cm with 4 ?s bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 800 and 1400 ?s) or thermal (90 °C for 60 s) treatments on fatty acid and mineral profiles of a fruit juice-soymilk (FJ–SM) beverage during storage (56 days) at 4 °C were evaluated, having the just prepared beverage as a reference. Linoleic, oleic, linolenic, palmitic and stearic acids

M. Morales-de la Peña; L. Salvia-Trujillo; M. A. Rojas-Graü; O. Martín-Belloso



Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 ?g/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 ?g/ml and 15.88 ?g/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors.



Novel fatty acid esters of p-coumaryl alcohol in epicuticular wax of apple fruit.  


Hexane extracts of epicuticular wax from cv. Gala apples were noted to have an unusual, broad absorbance maximum at approximately 258 nm, which led us to isolate and identify the primary UV-absorbing compounds. Column and thin-layer chromatography yielded a fraction that gave a series of paired, 260-nm-absorbing peaks on C(18) HPLC. These were shown to be a family of phenolic fatty acid esters, for which retention times increased with increasing fatty acid chain length, and paired peaks were esters of two related phenolics with the same fatty acid moiety. Alkaline hydrolysis of the esters released two water-soluble phenolics separable by C(18) HPLC. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry gave a molecular mass of 150 for both, and (1)H NMR plus UV absorbance spectra identified them as E and Z isomers of p-coumaryl alcohol. Alkaline cleavage of the fatty acid esters in the presence of methanol or ethanol resulted in partial derivatization of E-p-coumaryl alcohol to the corresponding gamma-O-methyl or O-ethyl ether. Gradient HMQC NMR of the HPLC-purified stearate ester of E-p-coumaryl alcohol indicated that fatty acid esterification occurs at the gamma-OH rather than at the 4-OH on the phenyl ring. This is the first report of fatty acid esters of monolignols as a natural plant product. PMID:11513667

Whitaker, B D; Schmidt, W F; Kirk, M C; Barnes, S



Determination of ?-hydroxy acids and their enantiomers in fruit juices by ligand exchange CE with a dual central metal ion system.  


The content of ?-hydroxy acids and their enantiomers can be used to distinguish authentic and adulterated fruit juices. Here, we investigated the use of ligand exchange CE with two kinds of central metal ion in a BGE for the simultaneous determination of enantiomers of dl-malic, dl-tartaric and dl-isocitric acids, and citric acid. Ligand exchange CE with 100 mM d-quinic acid as a chiral selector ligand and 10 mM Cu(II) ion as a central metal ion could enantioseparate dl-tartaric acid but not dl-malic acid or dl-isocitric acid. Addition of 1.8 mM Sc(III) ion to the BGE with 10 mM Cu(II) ion to create a dual central metal ion system permitted the simultaneous determination of these ?-hydroxy acid enantiomers and citric acid. The proposed ligand exchange CE was thus well suited for detecting adulteration of fruit juices. PMID:23423790

Kodama, Shuji; Aizawa, Sen-ichi; Taga, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Honda, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kemmei, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi



Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation  

SciTech Connect

Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology



Relationships between Fruit Mineral Nutrients Concentrations and Some Fruit Quality Attributes in Greenhouse Cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to determine nutritional and performance quality indices of greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) in relationship with fruit nutrient concentrations. Fruit firmness showed a positive correlation with fruit calcium (Ca) concentration (r = 0.66; P < 0.01). Ascorbic acid and citric acid concentrations in the fruit were positively influenced by potassium (K) concentration. There was

F. Aghili; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni; M. Mobli



Determination of organic acids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of sour Citrus aurantium fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much attention recently has been paid to the possible he alth benefits of dietary phenolics that have antioxidant activities stronger than that of vitamin C. However, information concerning the antioxidant capacities of sour orange peel and juice is not available. So, the purpose of this research is to determine the organic acids, total phenolic content, total flavonoid cont ent, and

S. Ersus; M. Cam



Effects of Acid Rain on Apple Tree Productivity and Fruit Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Nec...

P. L. Forsline R. C. Musselman W. J. Kender R. J. Dee



Determination of ascorbic acid and isoascorbic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis: application to fruit juices and to a pharmaceutical formulation.  


Capillary zone electrophoresis was applied to the determination of ascorbic and isoascorbic acid, analysing the various parameters of influence such as the separation voltage, the buffer pH and concentration, the type of separation capillary or the loading conditions. Both analytes could be adequately determined within 5 min. The proposed method uses a 20 cm x 25 microns i.d. coated column, 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 5.0, 8 kV separation voltage and light absorption detection at 265 nm. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the 0-1 mg mi-1 range, with detection limits of 0.5 micrograms ml-1. This method proved to be very rapid, simple and practical for the qualitative and quantitative determination of ascorbic acid in lemon and orange juices, as well as in a commercially available pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:1298373

Lin Ling, B; Baeyens, W R; Van Acker, P; Dewaele, C


Oral administration of Trapa taiwanensis Nakai fruit skin extracts conferring hepatoprotection from CCl4-caused injury.  


As a folk medicine, the hot-water infusion of water caltrop fruits has been used to protect the liver. In this study, the outer skins of mature water caltrop fruits ( Trapa taiwanensis Nakai) were removed, forced-air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to extraction with hot water, and the infusion was lyophilized and pulverized to prepare a hot water extract of T. taiwanensis (HWETT). HWETT was subjected to assays of ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, reducing power, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and antioxidative potency, and all determinations showed HWETT to be a potent antioxidant. As further analyzed with LC-MS, two major HPLC-detected components were elucidated as gallic acid and ellagic acid. Hepatoprotective activity of HWETT was assessed with Sprague-Dawley male rats by oral administration. Six groups of rats (n = 8 for each) were respectively treated, namely, control, CCl(4) (20% CCl(4)/olive oil by 2.0 mL/kg bw), CCl(4) and Silymarin (200 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and low HWETT dose (12.5 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and medium HWETT dose (25 mg/kg bw), and CCl(4) and high HWETT dose (125 mg/kg bw). After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted for an additional day and sacrificed to collect blood, liver, and kidney for analyses. Histopathological examinations showed that oral administrations with Silymarin and HWETT were effective in protecting the liver from CCl(4)-caused fatty change. Oral administration of HWETT at 125 mg/kg bw was more effective than was Silymarin at 200 mg/kg bw. On biochemical analyses, oral administrations with HWETT at medium and high doses were effective (p < 0.05) in lowering CCl(4)-caused increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. It is of merit to demonstrate HWETT as a potent source of antioxidants and hepatoprotective agents. PMID:21381650

Wang, Shih-Hao; Kao, Ming-Yuan; Wu, She-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Yi; Chang, Ju-Chun; Chiou, Robin Y-Y



Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee



Influence of Anthocyanins, Flavonols and Phenolic Acids on the Antiradical Activity of Berries and Small Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

One fraction enriched with flavonols and phenolic acids; and the fraction enriched with anthocyanins, were isolated from red raspberry, blackberry, sour cherry, strawberry, chokeberry, elderberry, and blueberry to study their antiradical activity using the free radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, test. The phenol content was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antiradical activity of anthocyanins was 7 to 25 times higher than the

Lidija Jakobek; Marijan Seruga




Microsoft Academic Search

The fraction enriched with flavonols and phenolic acids; and the fraction enriched with anthocyanins were isolated from red raspberry, blackberry, sour cherry, strawberry, chokeberry, elderberry, and blueberry to study their antiradical activity using the free radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. The phenol content was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antiradical activity of anthocyanins was 7 to 25 times higher

Lidija Jakobek; Marijan Seruga



Simultaneous separation and determination of five organic acids in beverages and fruits by capillary electrophoresis using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles as pseudostationary phase.  


A kind of novel diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles with the diameter of ?110nm was successfully prepared and characterised by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and elemental analysis. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with this kind of nanoparticles as pseudostationary phase was developed for the simultaneous analysis of five organic acids in beverage and fruit samples. The effects of pH, buffer concentration, and nanoparticles concentration on separation were carefully investigated. Five organic acids were baseline separated in 5min under optimum experimental conditions. The precisions for five replicate separations of a standard mixture solution were 2.71-6.13% for peak area and 1.22-1.93% for migration time respectively. The detection limits were 7.5, 0.15, 0.23, 0.33 and 10.0mg/L for citric acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and ascorbic acid, respectively. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of five analytes in beverage and fruit samples and certified reference materials with satisfactory results. PMID:24128456

Liu, Feng-Jie; Ding, Guo-Sheng; Tang, An-Na



Selected arsenic species: As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAA) in Xerocomus badius fruiting bodies.  


The aim of the study was to determine the content of As(III), As(V) and DMAA (dimethylarsinic acid) in Xerocomus badius fruiting bodies collected from selected Polish forests from areas subjected to very low or high anthropopressure and some commercially available samples obtained from the Polish Sanitary Inspectorate. The arsenic species determination was provided by two independent HPLC-HG-AAS hyphenated systems. The results show high levels (up to 27.1, 40.5 and 88.3 mg kg(-1) for As(III), As(V) and DMAA, respectively) of arsenic and occurrence of different species in mushrooms collected from areas subjected to high anthropopressure and two commercially available samples. For mushroom samples collected from areas not subjected to high anthropopressure and two commercially available samples the arsenic species level was below 0.5 mg kg(-1) for each arsenic form. Therefore, the accumulation of arsenic by mushrooms may lead to high (toxic for humans) arsenic concentrations, and arsenic species levels should be monitored in mushroom foodstuffs. PMID:23993523

Niedzielski, P; Mleczek, M; Magdziak, Z; Siwulski, M; Kozak, L



Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee



Development of hydrogel patch for controlled release of alpha-hydroxy acid contained in tamarind fruit pulp extract.  


Synopsis The aim of this study was to develop hydrogel patch using crosslinked chitosan-starch as polymeric matrix for controlling the release of the natural alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) contained in the extract of tamarind's fruit pulp. The chitosan (MW 100 000) was blended with corn, tapioca or rice starch in various ratios and then crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. The physical characteristics, mechanical resistance, bio-adhesion property and surface morphology of the prepared hydrogel patches with and without the extract were investigated. The release patterns of the hydrogel patches containing the extract were investigated by measuring the amount of tartaric acid, a major AHA present in the tamarind's fruit pulp extract, accumulated in the receptor medium of the vertical diffusion cell at various time intervals over a period of 6 h. The results indicated that the formulations of chitosan : corn starch 4.5 : 0.5 with glutaraldehyde 0.02% w/w (C(4.5)C(0.5)G(0.02)) or 0.04% w/w (C(4.5)C(0.5)G(0.04)), chitosan : tapioca starch 4.5 : 0.5 with glutaraldehyde 0.04% w/w (C(4.5)T(0.5)G(0.04)) or 0.05% w/w (C(4.5)T(0.5)G(0.05)), and chitosan : rice starch 4.5 : 0.5 with glutaraldehyde 0.04% w/w (C(4.5)R(0.5)G(0.04)) and chitosan : rice starch 4.0 : 1.0 with glutaraldehyde 0.03% w/w (C(4.0)R(1.0)G(0.03)) provided the flexible and elastic patches with good bio-adhesive property. The tensile strength values ranged from 5 to15 N mm(-2) and the elasticity ranged from 30 to 60%. The addition of the extract in these formulations significantly increased the tensile strength values of the obtained patches. The patch of C(4.0)R(1.0)G(0.03) formulation containing the extract showed relatively highest porosity, corresponding to its highest amount (12.02 +/- 0.33 mg) and rate (0.452 +/- 0.012 mg mm(-2) min(-1/2)) of tartaric acid released. The amounts of tartaric acid released from the developed hydrogel patches were proportional to a square root of time (Higuchi's model), particularly the release from C(4.0)R(1.0)G(0.03) (R(2), 0.9978 +/- 0.0020) and C(4.5)R(0.5)G(0.04) (R(2), 0.9961 +/- 0.0024) patches. PMID:18492158

Viyoch, J; Sudedmark, T; Srema, W; Suwongkrua, W



Seasonal abscisic acid signal and a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, DkbZIP5, regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in persimmon fruit.  


Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to plant protection and crop quality. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) has a unique characteristic of accumulating large amounts of PAs, particularly in its fruit. Normal astringent-type and mutant nonastringent-type fruits show different PA accumulation patterns depending on the seasonal expression patterns of DkMyb4, which is a Myb transcription factor (TF) regulating many PA pathway genes in persimmon. In this study, attempts were made to identify the factors involved in DkMyb4 expression and the resultant PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in differential changes in the expression patterns of DkMyb4 and PA biosynthesis in astringent-type and nonastringent-type fruits depending on the development stage. To obtain an ABA-signaling TF, we isolated a full-length basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF, DkbZIP5, which is highly expressed in persimmon fruit. We also showed that ectopic DkbZIP5 overexpression in persimmon calluses induced the up-regulation of DkMyb4 and the resultant PA biosynthesis. In addition, a detailed molecular characterization using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient reporter assay indicated that DkbZIP5 recognized ABA-responsive elements in the promoter region of DkMyb4 and acted as a direct regulator of DkMyb4 in an ABA-dependent manner. These results suggest that ABA signals may be involved in PA biosynthesis in persimmon fruit via DkMyb4 activation by DkbZIP5. PMID:22190340

Akagi, Takashi; Katayama-Ikegami, Ayako; Kobayashi, Shozo; Sato, Akihiko; Kono, Atsushi; Yonemori, Keizo



Seasonal Abscisic Acid Signal and a Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor, DkbZIP5, Regulate Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Persimmon Fruit1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to plant protection and crop quality. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) has a unique characteristic of accumulating large amounts of PAs, particularly in its fruit. Normal astringent-type and mutant nonastringent-type fruits show different PA accumulation patterns depending on the seasonal expression patterns of DkMyb4, which is a Myb transcription factor (TF) regulating many PA pathway genes in persimmon. In this study, attempts were made to identify the factors involved in DkMyb4 expression and the resultant PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in differential changes in the expression patterns of DkMyb4 and PA biosynthesis in astringent-type and nonastringent-type fruits depending on the development stage. To obtain an ABA-signaling TF, we isolated a full-length basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF, DkbZIP5, which is highly expressed in persimmon fruit. We also showed that ectopic DkbZIP5 overexpression in persimmon calluses induced the up-regulation of DkMyb4 and the resultant PA biosynthesis. In addition, a detailed molecular characterization using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient reporter assay indicated that DkbZIP5 recognized ABA-responsive elements in the promoter region of DkMyb4 and acted as a direct regulator of DkMyb4 in an ABA-dependent manner. These results suggest that ABA signals may be involved in PA biosynthesis in persimmon fruit via DkMyb4 activation by DkbZIP5.

Akagi, Takashi; Katayama-Ikegami, Ayako; Kobayashi, Shozo; Sato, Akihiko; Kono, Atsushi; Yonemori, Keizo



Epicuticular changes and storage potential of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] fruit following gibberellic acid preharvest sprays and postharvest heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (L.) cv. Gialla] fruit were treated 10 weeks after the second induced-bloom flush with 10 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) or were heated at 37°C for 30 h under saturated humidity after harvest. The two treatments were also combined before storage at 6°C for 45 days plus 4 additional days at 20°C to simulate a marketing

M. Schirra; G. D’hallewin; P. Inglese; T. La Mantia



Metabolic profiling of phenolic acids and oxidative stress markers after consumption of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit.  


This study investigated the effect of one-week consumption of 165 g/day fresh blue honeysuckle berries (208 mg/day anthocyanins) in 10 healthy volunteers. At the end of intervention, levels of benzoic (median 1782 vs 4156), protocatechuic (709 vs 2417), vanillic (2779 vs 4753), 3-hydroxycinnamic (143 vs 351), p-coumaric (182 vs 271), isoferulic (805 vs 1570), ferulic (1086 vs 2395), and hippuric (194833 vs 398711 ?g/mg creatinine) acids by LC/MS were significantly increased in the urine. Clinical chemistry safety markers were not altered. Oxidative stress markers, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (0.73 vs 0.88 U/g Hb) and catalase (2.5 vs 2.8 ?kat/g Hb) activities, and erythrocyte/plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (522 vs 612/33 vs 38 ?mol/g Hb/protein) levels were significantly increased, without change in plasma antioxidant status. Nonsignificant changes of advanced oxidation protein products and oxidized LDL were observed. The results provide a solid base for further study of metabolite excretion and antioxidant parameters after ingestion of anthocyanins. PMID:23581742

Heinrich, Jan; Valentová, Kate?ina; Vacek, Jan; Palíková, Irena; Zatloukalová, Martina; Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrbková, Jana; Šimánek, Vilím



An analysis on quality, colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits (Sandoricum koetjape Burm. F.) Merr. Pui Fai cultivar, grown in Northern Thailand.  


This laboratory experiment was carried out at the Department of Agricultural Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during June to October 2007. The experiment aimed to search for the most appropriate harvesting age of fruits of Santol orchard plants with respect to colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Each replication consisted of 10 fruits, thus a total of 160 fruits were used. The Santol fruits were harvested at different ages, i.e., 100, 115, 130 and 145 days after full bloom of flowers and these harvested ages were used as treatments, i.e., 100 for T1 (Control), 115 for T2, 130 for T3 and 145 for T4. The results showed that the most appropriate harvesting date for high quality Santol fruits was found with T4, i.e., 145 days after full bloom of flowers where Santol fruits of T4 gave the highest mean values of fruit length, diameter, fresh weight fruit(-1) of 10.71 cm, 9.31 cm and 399.76 g, respectively. Yellowness of skin colour of fruits was evenly distributed. Total soluble solid content of pericarp, flesh tissue and seeds were highest for T4 with mean values of 13.93, 15.05 and 18.260 brix, respectively. Flesh texture density highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers. Titratable acidity content in fruits was highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers whereas a reverse was found with pH of fruit juices. PMID:18817267

Chutichudet, P; Chutichudet, Benjawan; Kaewsit, S



Rapid Determination of Amino Acids in Fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by Hydrophilic Interaction Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.  


In this study, a sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free amino acids without derivatization using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed. The method was performed on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation system coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQ-MS) instrument. Sufficient separation of 23 underivatized amino acids was achieved on an Acquity BEH Amide column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 ?m) in a single run of 12 min. Then the method was applied for the analysis of the free amino acids in 46 batches of Ziziphus jujuba fruits which comprised 39 cultivars from 26 cultivation regions. Multivariate statistical analysis was also used to investigate the differences in free amino acid profiles among the samples. This study showed that HILIC-UHPLC-TQ-MS is an effective technique to analyze underivatized amino acids in the food samples. PMID:23413770

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Yefei; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Shang, Erxin



Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology.  


A central composite design was employed to optimize the extraction of pectin with citric acid. The independent variables were citric acid concentration (0.086-2.91% w/v) and extraction time (17-102 min). The combined effect of these variables on the degree of esterification was investigated. Results have shown that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between the independent variables and the responses. Besides that, the citric acid concentration was the most important factor to affect the degree of esterification, as it exerted a significant influence on the dependent variable. Lower citric acid concentration increased the pectin degree of esterification. The surface response showed the relationships between the independent variables, and thus responses were generated. Through this surface, the satisfactory condition of 0.086% w/v citric acid for 60 min was established for extraction of high-ester yellow passion fruit pectin. PMID:18083550

Pinheiro, Eloi Sa Rovaris; Silva, Iolanda M D A; Gonzaga, Luciano V; Amante, Edna R; Teófilo, Reinaldo F; Ferreira, Márcia M C; Amboni, Renata D M C



The Occurrence of Abscisic Acid and Abscisyl-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Developing and Mature Citrus Fruit as Determined by Enzyme Immunoassay 1  

PubMed Central

The contents of (+)-cis-abscisic acid (ABA) and alkaline-hydrolyzable ABA-conjugate(s) were analyzed by means of enzyme immunoassay in partially purified extracts of developing and mature sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv Washington navel). A relatively small increase in ABA was observed in the fruit exocarp during the natural color transition from green to orange. At the same time, the ABA-conjugate level increased approximately 12-fold in this tissue. The contents of ABA and ABA-conjugate equaled 15.0 ± 0.7 and 107.8 ± 2.1 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, respectively, in the exocarp at harvest. Other tissues also contained considerable quantities of these compounds. Whereas the highest ABA content was observed in the exocarp, the highest ABA-conjugate content was observed in the central vascular axis of the fruit and equaled 187.0 ± 10.3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight. The only immunoreactive conjugate found in significant quantity in mature fruit was identified as abscisyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (ABA-GE) based on (a) immunological cross-reactivity, (b) thin layer chromatography co-chromatography with authentic standards in two solvent systems, (c) susceptibility to both chemical and enzymic degradation, and (d) mass spectroscopy.

Harris, Michael J.; Dugger, William M.



Transcriptomic analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis, recycling and degradation of L-ascorbic acid in pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.).  


Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is widely recognized among the vegetables with high content of ascorbic acid (AsA). However, the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis, recycling and degradation of AsA and their relative contribution to the concentration of AsA have not been established yet. In the present work, the expression levels of selected genes involved in the AsA biosynthesis, degradation and recycling pathways were analyzed during development and ripening of pepper fruit cv. Palermo and in mature fruit of four cultivars (Lipari, C-116, Surrentino and Italverde) with different AsA concentrations. An inverse correlation was found between the expression of the biosynthetic genes and AsA concentrations, which could indicate that a feedback mechanism regulates AsA homeostasis in pepper fruits. Interestingly, analysis of mRNA levels of ascorbate oxidase, involved in the degradation of AsA, suggests that this enzyme plays a critical role in the regulation of the AsA pool during fruit development and ripening. PMID:23602093

Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo



Broad-spectrum antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria and their application in fruit models.  


A large-scale screen of some 7,000 presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from animal, human, or plant origin, identified 1,149 isolates with inhibitory activity against the food-spoilage mould Penicillium expansum. In excess of 500 LAB isolates were subsequently identified to produce a broad spectrum of activity against P. expansum, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium notatum, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing of 94 broad spectrum isolates revealed that the majority of antifungal producers were strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. The remaining population was composed of Weissella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceous isolates. Characterization of six selected broad-spectrum antifungal LAB isolates revealed that antifungal activity is maximal at a temperature of 30 °C, a pH of 4.0 and is stable across a variety of salt concentrations. The antifungal compound(s) was shown to be neither proteinaceous nor volatile in nature. P. pentosaceous 54 was shown to have protective properties against P. expansum spoilage when applied in pear, plum and grape models, therefore representing an excellent candidate for food-related applications. PMID:23160868

Crowley, Sarah; Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe



21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a...artificially sweetened fruit cocktailâ. ...prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...pectinâ. When any organic salt or acid or...



Bolus consumption of a specifically designed fruit juice rich in anthocyanins and ascorbic acid did not influence markers of antioxidative defense in healthy humans.  


Exotic fruits such as açai, camu-camu, and blackberries rich in natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, anthocyanins) are marketed as "functional" foods supporting a pro-/antioxidant balance. Confirming data from human studies are lacking. Within a randomized controlled crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested 400 mL of a blended juice of these fruits or a sugar solution (control). Blood was drawn before and afterward to determine antioxidants in plasma, markers of antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC)] and oxidative stress [isoprostane, DNA strand breaks in leukocytes in vivo], and their resistance versus H?O?-induced strand breaks. Compared with sugar solution, juice consumption increased plasma ascorbic acid and maintained TOSC and partly Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (both P values < 0.05). Strand breaks in vivo increased after ingestion of both beverages (P < 0.001), probably due to postprandial and/or circadian effects. This anthocyanin-rich fruit juice may stabilize the pro-/antioxidant balance in healthy nonsmokers without affecting markers of oxidative stress. PMID:23072538

Ellinger, Sabine; Gordon, André; Kürten, Mira; Jungfer, Elvira; Zimmermann, Benno F; Zur, Berndt; Ellinger, Jörg; Marx, Friedhelm; Stehle, Peter



Ethylene Production by Cytoplasmic Particles from Apple and Tomato Fruits in the Presence of Thiomalic and Thioglycolic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESPITE several tracer studies1,2 and the use of very sensitive techniques for the detection of ethylene3,4, there has been no clear indication of a biosynthetic pathway that can evolve ethylene in fruits. Spencer5 reported ethylene production by cytoplasmic particles from tomato fruit in the presence of malate and co-factors. This suggested that the biosynthesis of ethylene could be related to

M. Lieberman; C. C. Craft



Isolation and structure elucidation of flavonoid and phenolic acid glycosides from pericarp of hot pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) var. Bronowicka Ostra have been studied with regard to content of flavonoids and other phenolics. Nine compounds were isolated from pericarp of pepper fruits by preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by chromatographic (analytical HPLC) and spectroscopic (UV, NMR) techniques. Two of the identified compounds, trans-p-ferulylalcohol-4-O-(6-(2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionyl) glucopyranoside and luteolin-7-O-(2-apiofuranosyl-4-glucopyranosyl-6-malonyl)-glucopyranoside were found for the first

Ma?gorzata Materska; Sonia Piacente; Anna Stochmal; Cosimo Pizza; Wies?aw Oleszek; Irena Perucka



An Acid Protease Produced by Monilinia fructigena in vitro and in Infected Apple Fruits, and its Possible Role in Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Monilinia fructigena grown in a liquid medium containing protein secreted a protease with many similarities to one extractable from apple fruits infected with this pathogen but absent from healthy fruit. Enzymes from both sources degraded several protein substrates optimally at pH 3.4. At this pH, haemoglobin was degraded optimally at 47 OC, while at 37 OC both enzymes

E. C. Hislop; JAN L. PAVER; J. P. R. KEONI



Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric fragmentation study of flavonoids as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: analysis of flavonoids, sugars, carboxylic and amino acids in model systems and in citrus fruits.  


The fragmentation patterns and quantitation possibilities of three anthocyanidins (pelargonidin, cyanidin, malvidin), one flavonol (quercetin), two flavones (apigenin, luteolin) and two flavanones (naringenin, hesperetin) have been investigated as trimethylsilyl and as trimethylsilyl (oxime) derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results proved that anthocyanidins and flavanones form trimethylsilyl (oximes), while flavonol and flavones provide simple trimethylsilyl derivatives. In all cases, characteristic fragments of high masses are formed proper for quantitation purposes. Hydrolysis conditions for naringin, hesperidin and rutin have been optimized, resulting in the quantitative release of naringenin, hesperetin and quercetin together with their corresponding saccharides. These basic studies made possible the identification and quantification of the flavonoid, carboxylic-/amino acid and sugar constituents of citrus fruit juices and albedos, without any extraction/enrichment procedure. In total 33 compounds have been determined in hydrolyzed samples, such as 2 flavonoids (naringenin and hesperetin), 6 phenolic acids (trimethoxybenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, quinic, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids), 3 aliphatic carboxylic acids (levulinic, malic, citric acids), phosphoric acid, 4 amino acids (aspartic, glutamic acids, alanine, proline), 9 monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, fucose, fructose, galactose, glucose, galacturonic acid, sedoheptulose), inositol, sugarphosphate, 5 disaccharides and tocopherol. Measurements were carried out as the trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether/ester derivatives of constituents, in the concentration range of 2 x 10(-3) to 49.9%. Identification level of samples varied between 26.4 and 77.5%, expressed in dry matter content of juices and albedos. PMID:17289064

Füzfai, Zs; Molnár-Perl, I



Rapid automated high performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of amino acids and biogenic amines in wine, fruit and honey.  


This paper reports a new, simple, rapid and economical method for routine determination of 24 amino acids and biogenic amines in grapes and wine. No sample clean-up is required and total run time including column re-equilibration is less than 40min. Following automated in-loop automated pre-column derivatisation with an o-phthaldialdehyde, N-acetyl-l-cysteine reagent, compounds were separated on a 3mm×25cm C(18) column using a binary mobile phase. The method was validated in the range 0.25-10mg/l; repeatability was less than 3% RSD and the intermediate precision ranged from 2 to 7% RSD. The method was shown to be linear by the 'lack of fit' test and the accuracy was between 97 and 101%. The LLOQ varied between 10?g/l for aspartic and glutamic acids, ethanolamine and GABA, and 100?g/l for tyrosine, phenylalanine, putrescine and cadaverine. The method was applied to grapes, white wine, red wine, honey and three species of physalis fruit. Grapes and physalis fruit were crushed, sieved, centrifuged and diluted 1/20 and 1/100, respectively, for analysis; wines and honeys were simply diluted 10-fold. It was shown using this method that the amino acid content of grapes was strongly correlated with berry volume, moderately correlated with sugar concentration and inversely correlated with total acidity. PMID:20950817

Kelly, Mary T; Blaise, Alain; Larroque, Michel



Effects of 2,4DP (2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid) plant growth regulator on fruit size and yield of Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis Osb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Valencia orange is a high-quality fruit grown in Turkey; however, small fruit sizes and high fruit discard percentages are common in Valencia oranges. Small fruit size is the main factor limiting the marketing of Valencia oranges; thus, synthetic auxins are commonly used to enhance the size of citrus fruit. The objective of the present study was to observe the

B Y?ld?r?m; T Ye?ilo?lu; M ?ncesu; M U Kamilo?lu; B Çimen; ? Tamer



Effects of 2,4DP (2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid) plant growth regulator on fruit size and yield of Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis Osb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Valencia orange is a high-quality fruit grown in Turkey; however, small fruit sizes and high fruit discard percentages are common in Valencia oranges. Small fruit size is the main factor limiting the marketing of Valencia oranges; thus, synthetic auxins are commonly used to enhance the size of citrus fruit. The objective of the present study was to observe the

B Y?ld?r?m; T Ye?ilo?lu; M ?ncesu; MU Kamilo?lu; B Çimen; ? Tamer



Hormonal Interactions in Fruit Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit development involves a complex interplay of cell division, differentiation and expansion of sporophytic and gametophytic\\u000a tissues that is carefully coordinated temporally and spatially. Plant hormones are signal molecules that regulate many processes\\u000a of plant development, including fruit development leading to mature fruit and viable mature seed. Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins,\\u000a abscisic acid, and ethylene have been implicated at various stages

Jocelyn A. Ozga; Dennis M. Reinecke



Screening of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids in 19 berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin) and phenolic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic and ellagic acids) were simultaneously detected from 19 berries using a simple High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method. These phenolics have been proposed to have beneficial effects on health as antioxidants and anticarcinogens. Marked differences were observed in the phenolic profiles among the berries, with certain similarities

S. Häkkinen; M. Heinonen; S. Kärenlampi; H. Mykkänen; J. Ruuskanen; R. Törrönen



Manipulation of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis pathways in Solanum lycopersicum: elevated GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase activity enhances L-ascorbate levels in red fruit.  


Ascorbate (AsA) plays a fundamental role in redox homeostasis in plants and animals, primarily by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Three genes, representing diverse steps putatively involved in plant AsA biosynthesis pathways, were cloned and independently expressed in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Yeast-derived GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase) and arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO), as well as myo-inositol oxygenase 2 (MIOX2) from Arabidopsis thaliana, were targeted. Increases in GMPase activity were concomitant with increased AsA levels of up to 70% in leaves, 50% in green fruit, and 35% in red fruit. Expression of ALO significantly pulled biosynthetic flux towards AsA in leaves and green fruit by up to 54 and 25%, respectively. Changes in AsA content in plants transcribing the MIOX2 gene were inconsistent in different tissue. On the other hand, MIOX activity was strongly correlated with cell wall uronic acid levels, suggesting that MIOX may be a useful tool for the manipulation of cell wall composition. In conclusion, the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway showed great promise as a target for biotechnological manipulation of ascorbate levels in tomato. PMID:21979413

Cronje, Christelle; George, Gavin M; Fernie, Alisdair R; Bekker, Jan; Kossmann, Jens; Bauer, Rolene



Acid-ethanol extractable compounds from fruits and seeds of the bitter gourd Momordica charantia: effects on lipid metabolism in isolated rat adipocytes.  


Fruits and seeds of the bitter gourd Momordica charantia (Family Cucurbitaceae) were extracted with acidic ethanol. The extract was adjusted to pH 3 and proteins and peptides were precipitated by addition of a copious volume of acetone. The precipitate was dissolved, dialyzed and lyophilized. The resulting material, designated "p-fraction" was tested for antilipolytic and lipogenic activities. Seed "p-fraction" was further chromatographed on fetuin agarose to yield an unadsorbed fraction (F) which could be fractionated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-10 to give an unretarded fraction (F1) and a retarded fraction (F2). Fruit "p-fraction" exhibited antilipolytic activity in hamster adipocytes and stimulated 3H-glucose incorporation into lipids. F1, a saponin containing fraction, inhibited both lipolysis and 3H-glucose incorporation into lipids. F2 enhanced 3H-glucose incorporation into lipid. The results are indicative of the presence of compounds with insulinomimetic activities in M. charantia fruits and seeds. PMID:3318384

Ng, T B; Wong, C M; Li, W W; Yeung, H W




Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women around the world. The hormone 17-estradiol (E2) is strongly implicated as a causative agent in this cancer. Since estrogen acts as a complete carcinogen, agents that interfere with the carcinogenic actions of E2 are required. Most agents effective against experimental mammary carcinogenesis have been employed as pure compounds disregarding the

Harini Sankaran Aiyer



Comparison of Various Preparation Methods for Determination of Organic Acids in Fruit Vinegars with a Simple Ion-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion-exclusion liquid chromatography with mobile phase 0.005 mol L?1 H2SO4 and step flow rate gradient (0.2 mL min?1 in the first 40 min and 0.5 mL min?1 from 41 to 60 min) was used to determine 20 organic acids simultaneously at 17 °C within 51 min. The peak resolutions (Rs)\\u000a were 0.45?3.02 and separation factors (?) were all higher than 1. Impurities in fruit vinegar executed with direct injection

Jau-Tien Lin; Shih-Chuan Liu; You-Cheng Shen; Deng-Jye Yang


The hypocholesterolemic activity of Momordica charantia fruit is mediated by the altered cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating gene expression in rat liver.  


Although many studies have demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic activity of Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd fruit (BGF), the relative hypocholesterolemic mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that BGF alters hepatic gene expression of cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating proteins to improve blood cholesterol profiles. To clarify the mechanism, we fed 7-week-old male Wistar rats a high-cholesterol (HC) diet containing 5% BGF for 4 weeks and determined the cholesterol levels in the serum, liver and feces, concentrations of the fecal total bile acid, and the expression level of cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating genes. The HC diet with BGF supplementation showed a significant serum hypocholesterolemic activity compared with the HC diet without BGF. BGF intake also significantly increased the levels of fecal total bile acid, suggesting that BGF inhibited the reabsorption of bile acids into the intestine. Hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver receptor homolog-1, which are both involved in cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) regulation, were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, by BGF intake. In addition, BGF tended to increase the hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level. Taken together, these results suggest that BGF not only decreases the reabsorption of bile acids into the intestine but also increases the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by CYP7A1 up-regulation through the down-regulation of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor/SHP pathway. PMID:23827133

Matsui, Sho; Yamane, Takumi; Takita, Toshichika; Oishi, Yuichi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo



Production of humic acids from oil palm empty fruit bunch by submerged fermentation with Trichoderma viride: cellulosic substrates and nitrogen sources.  


The novelty of this study was to produce humic acids by submerged fermentation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) with Trichoderma viride and to investigate the effects of the cellulosic substrates and the organic sources of nitrogen on the biotechnological production of these acids. The results obtained indicate the potential application of EFB, a waste of oil palm processing, for humic acids production. Because EFB contains cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, fermentations were also performed using these polymers as carbon sources, separately or in combination. After 120 h of fermentation, significant production of humic acids was observed only in cultures containing either EFB or a mixture of the three polymers. Use of either potato peptone or yeast extract as a nitrogen source yielded nearly identical patterns of fungal growth and production of humic acids. The data obtained from microscopic imaging of T. viride growth and sporulation in EFB, coupled with the determined rates of production of humic acids indicated that the production of these acids is related to T. viride sporulation. PMID:23564497

Motta, F L; Santana, M H A



Anti-secretory and cyto-protective effects of chebulinic acid isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula on gastric ulcers.  


In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, the gastro protective mechanism of chebulinic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit was investigated. Chebulinic acid was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity of chebulinic acid was observed against CRU (62.9%), AS (55.3%), AL (80.67%) and PL (66.63%) induced ulcer models. The reference drug omeprazole (10 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 77.73% protection against CRU, 58.30% against AS and 70.80% against PL model. Sucralfate, another reference drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 65.67% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Chebulinic acid significantly reduced free acidity (48.82%), total acidity (38.29%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 59.75% respectively. Further, chebulinic acid significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC50 of 65.01 ?g/ml as compared to the IC50 value of omeprazole (30.24 ?g/ml) confirming its anti-secretory activity. PMID:23462212

Mishra, Vaibhav; Agrawal, Manali; Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Madhur, Gaurav; Rastogi, Preeti; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Palit, Gautam; Narender, Tadigoppula



Anti-hyperlipidemic effects and potential mechanisms of action of the caffeoylquinic acid-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet.  


Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD). The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b) was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol) in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPAR? and PPAR?-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPAR? was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPAR? and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities. PMID:23613974

Zhang, Xiaopo; Wu, Chongming; Wu, Haifeng; Sheng, Linghui; Su, Yan; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Tian, Yu; Ji, Yubin; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong



Changes in carotenoid and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of different tomato genotypes related to the depletion of UV-B radiation.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate if the depletion of UV-B radiation affected the most representative carotenoids as well as the ascorbic acid content in tomato fruits, harvested at both breaker and firm red stages. To do this, three tomato genotypes, DRW 5981, HP 1, and Esperanza, were grown inside a greenhouse either covered with polyethylene transparent to UV-B or depleted of UV-B by a special covering film. The antioxidant properties of the fruits were evaluated on the water-insoluble fractions according to the ABTS method. UV-B effect on antioxidant activity was negligible in DRW and HP 1 genotypes, whereas it was detrimental in Esperanza at both ripening stages. This genotype seems to have a negligible capability of accumulating carotenoids and a great susceptibility to detrimental effects of UV-B; conversely, the DRW genotype shows high carotenoid levels under sunlight conditions and a further promotion by UV-B. On the other hand, the HP 1 mutant displays an intermediate behavior and represents the only genotype favored by UV-B with respect to ascorbic acid accumulation. PMID:15826075

Giuntini, Deborah; Graziani, Giulia; Lercari, Bartolomeo; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Soldatini, Gian Franco; Ranieri, Annamaria



Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and

Ryohei Nakano; Emi Ogura; Yasutaka Kubo; Akitsugu Inaba



Global Analysis of Gene Expression During Development and Ripening of Citrus Fruit Flesh. A Proposed Mechanism for Citric Acid Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarrays of cDNA have been used to examine expression changes of 7000 genes during development and ripening of the fruit flesh of self-incompatible Citrus clementina, a non-climateric species. The data indicated that 2243 putative unigenes showed significant expression changes. Functional classification revealed that genes encoding for regulatory proteins were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated gene clusters. The transcriptomic study together

Manuel Cercós; Guillermo Soler; Domingo J. Iglesias; José Gadea; Javier Forment; Manuel Talón



Fatty Acid Profiling of the Main Tissues of Spanish Olive Fruit: Effect of the Oil Extraction Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were as follows: (1) study of the extraction efficiency of the methods to obtain extra virgin\\u000a olive oil and pomace oil, and the fatty oil composition provided by each tissue and the whole fruit using both methods; (2)\\u000a characterisation of the oil obtained by each extraction method according to quality parameters; and (3) development

S. Gómez-González; J. Ruiz-Jiménez; M. D. Luque de Castro



Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea.  


Fruit pulp and seeds from the jujube plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties. The bioactive components have been shown to vary both with cultivar and with growing conditions. Most studies report the components of varieties from China. We measured free amino acid, individual phenolic, and total phenolic content, and antioxidative activities in three jujube fruit pulp extracts from Boeun-deachu, Mechu, and Sanzoin cultivars and two seed extracts (Mechu and Sanzoin) from plants grown in Korea. In g/100 g dry weight, total free amino acid content measured by ion-exchange chromatography ranged from 5.2 to 9.8 in the pulp and from 4.0 to 5.3 in the seed. Total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteu ranged from 1.1 to 2.4 in the pulp and from 3.6 to 4.6 in the seed. Flavonoids were measured by HPLC and ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 in the pulp and from 3.2 to 4.0 in the seed. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC elution position and UV/vis and mass spectra. Fruits contained the following flavonoids: procyanidin B2, epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q-3-R), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-G), kaempferol-glucosyl-rhamnoside (K-G-R), and two unidentified compounds. Seeds contained the following flavonoids: saponarin, spinosin, vitexin, swertish, 6'''-hydroxybenzoylspinosin (6'''-HBS), 6'''-feruloylspinosin (6'''-FS), and one unidentified substance. Dimensions and weights of the fresh fruit samples affected phenolic content. The distribution of the individual flavonoids among the different samples varied widely. Data determined by the FRAP antioxidative assay were well correlated with total phenolic content. In a departure from other studies, data from the DPPH free radical assay were not correlated with FRAP or with any of the measured compositional parameters. Because individual jujube flavonoids are reported to exhibit different health-promoting effects, knowledge of the composition and concentration of bioactive compounds of jujube products can benefit consumers. PMID:21574660

Choi, Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...


Shocking Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how a piece of fruit can act as an electrolyte, conducting electricity between two different metals. In this way, learners construct a simple battery and record their observations. Educators can use this activity to introduce circuits, electrodes, and electrolytes. After completing this activity, learners can explore other fruit and vegetable conductors.

Houston, Children'S M.



Towards fruitful metabolomics: High throughput analyses of polyphenol composition in berries using direct infusion mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannin-enriched extracts from raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry were analysed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric (LC–MS) techniques. The raspberry and cloudberry extracts contained a similar mixture of identifiable ellagitannin components and ellagic acid. However, the strawberry extract contained a complex mixture of ellagitannin and proanthocyanidin components that could not be adequately resolved to allow identification of individual peaks. Nevertheless, the negative ESI-MS

Gordon McDougall; Inger Martinussen; Derek Stewart



Determination and pharmacokinetics of geniposidic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Gardenia jasminoides fruit crude extract and Zhi-zi-chi decoction.  


A simple and efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of geniposidic acid in rat plasma. After the addition of internal standard salidroside and acidification (0.1% formic acid, pH = 3.2), plasma samples were carried out by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and separated on a Kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) within a run time of 9.0 min. Analysis was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with a positive electrospray ionization interface. No endogenous interference was observed at retention times of the analytes because of the high specificity of selected ion monitoring mode. The linear range was 0.02-4.0 µg/mL and the lower limit of quantification was 0.02 µg/mL. The mean extraction recoveries of geniposidic acid and internal standard from rat plasma were all >88.0% and the matrix effects were within acceptance criteria (90-110%). The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of geniposidic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of G. jasminoides fruit crude extract and Zhi-zi-chi decoction, respectively. PMID:23420755

Long, Zhimin; Zhang, Ruowen; Zhao, Xu; Meng, Xia; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui



Enhanced production of itaconic acid from corn starch and market refuse fruits by genetically manipulated Aspergillus terreus SKR10.  


A potent itaconic acid producing strain, Aspergillus terreus SKR10, was isolated from horticulture waste. Market refuse, apple and banana, were explored as novel substrates for itaconic acid production with yields of 20+/-2.0 and 20.0+/-1.0 g l(-1), respectively. Itaconic acid yields of 28.5+/-2.2 and 31.0+/-1.7 g l(-1) were obtained with acid and alpha-amylase hydrolyzed corn starch. The efficiency of itaconic acid production by this wild type strain was improved by ultraviolet, chemical and mixed mutagenic treatments. Two high itaconic acid yielding mutants, N45 and UNCS1 were obtained by gradient plating. These two mutants were capable of producing twice the yield of itaconic acid as the parent strain. PMID:12146646

Reddy, C S K; Singh, R P



Pome fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...


Studies on the diagnosis of hop stunt viroid in fruit trees: Identification of new hosts and application of a nucleic acid extraction procedure based on non-organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-radioactive digoxigenin-labelled RNA probe specific for hop stunt viroid (HSVd) diagnosis has been developed. The high sensitivity and specificity of this RNA probe in dot blot hybridizations to nucleic acids from field samples, allowed the confirmation of the presence of HSVd in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and its detection in two fruit tree species not previously described as hosts

Nathalie Astruc; Jose F. Marcos; Guy Macquaire; Thierry Candresse; Vicente Pallfis



A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.  


Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma for low pH or high acidity in apple. PMID:22806345

Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Li, Mingjun; Fazio, Gennaro; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong



Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars.  


Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4), South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine) were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis). The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed. PMID:21886093

Sochor, Jiri; Skutkova, Helena; Babula, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Cernei, Natalia; Rop, Otakar; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Provazník, Ivo; Kizek, Rene



Sucrose Synthase, Starch Accumulation, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrasting evidence has accumulated regarding the role of acid invertase and sucrose synthase in tomato fruit sink establishment and maintenance. In this work the relationships among the activi- ties of sucrose synthase and acid invertase, Lycopersicon esculen- tum Mil1 cv UC-82B fruit growth, and starch accumulation were analyzed in fruit at O to 39 d after anthesis. Sucrose synthase, but

Fei Wang; Alan Smith


Deoxycholic acid as an endogenous risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis and effects of gomisin A, a lignan component of Schizandra fruits.  


Although hepatocarcinogensis has been reported to be promoted by exogenous administration of bile acids, the relation of endogenous bile acids to hepatocarcinogenesis is not completely understood. This study investigates the relationship between serum concentration of bile acids, the appearance of preneoplastic change, glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci in the liver of male Donryu rats which had been fed 0.06% 3'-methyl-4-dimethylamino-azobenzene (3'-MeDAB), and the effects of gomisin A, previously reported to inhibit the tumor promotion process. During the feeding of 3'-MeDAB for 5 weeks, the concentrations of serum bile acids were found to have increased significantly to several times the levels found at the start of the experiment. The increase of serum bile acids, especially deoxycholic acid (DCA), and the appearance of preneoplastic lesions, the number and area of GST-P-positive foci in the liver, were significantly inhibited by simultaneous oral administration of gomisin A (30 mg/kg). When DCA (100 mg/kg) was orally administered after an initiation by 3'-MeDAB, serum bile acids and preneoplastic changes were significantly increased, these increases were inhibited by combined feeding of 0.03% gomisin A in the diet. There were good correlations between the serum concentration of DCA and the number of GST-P-positive foci in the liver in both experimental protocols. These results confirm that DCA is an endogenous risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis and suggest that anti-promoter effect of gomisin A is based on improving metabolism of bile acids, including DCA. PMID:8687124

Ohtaki, Y; Hida, T; Hiramatsu, K; Kanitani, M; Ohshima, T; Nomura, M; Wakita, H; Aburada, M; Miyamoto, K I


A Penicillium expansum glucose oxidase-encoding gene, GOX2, is essential for gluconic acid production and acidification during colonization of deciduous fruit.  


Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest maceration of fruit through secretion of total, d-gluconic acid (GLA). Two P. expansum glucose oxidase (GOX)-encoding genes, GOX1 and GOX2, were analyzed. GOX activity and GLA accumulation were strongly related to GOX2 expression, which increased with pH to a maximum at pH 7.0, whereas GOX1 was expressed at pH 4.0, where no GOX activity or extracellular GLA were detected. This differential expression was also observed at the leading edge of the decaying tissue, where GOX2 expression was dominant. The roles of the GOX genes in pathogenicity were further studied through i) development of P. expansum goxRNAi mutants exhibiting differential downregulation of GOX2, ii) heterologous expression of the P. expansum GOX2 gene in the nondeciduous fruit-pathogen P. chrysogenum, and iii) modulation of GLA production by FeSO(4) chelation. Interestingly, in P. expansum, pH and GLA production elicited opposite effects on germination and biomass accumulation: 26% of spores germinated at pH 7.0 when GOX activity and GLA were highest whereas, in P. chrysogenum at the same pH, when GLA did not accumulate, 72% of spores germinated. Moreover, heterologous expression of P. expansum GOX2 in P. chrysogenum resulted in enhanced GLA production and reduced germination, suggesting negative regulation of spore germination and GLA production. These results demonstrate that pH modulation, mediated by GLA accumulation, is an important factor in generating the initial signal or signals for fungal development leading to host-tissue colonization by P. expansum. PMID:22352719

Barad, Shiri; Horowitz, Sigal Brown; Moscovitz, Oren; Lichter, Amnon; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov



Carbohydrate control over carotenoid build-up is conditional on fruit ontogeny in clementine fruits.  


The final contents of primary and secondary metabolites of the ripe fruit depend on metabolic processes that are tightly regulated during fruit ontogeny. Carbohydrate supply during fruit development is known to influence these processes but, with respect to secondary metabolites, we do not really know whether this influence is direct or indirect. Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. We applied treatments increasing fruit load reversibly or irreversibly at three key stages of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruit development: early after cell division, at the onset of fruit coloration (color break) and near maturity. The highest fruit load obtained by early defoliation (irreversible) had the highest impact on fruit growth, maturity and metabolism, followed by the highest fruit load obtained by early shading (reversible). Final fruit size decreased by 21 and 18% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Soluble sugars decreased by 18% in the early irreversible treatment, whereas organic acids increased by 46 and 29% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Interestingly, total carotenoids increased by 50 and 18%, respectively. Changes in leaf starch content and photosynthesis supported that these early treatments triggered a carbon starvation in the young fruits, with irreversible effects. Furthermore, our observations on the early treatments challenge the common view that carbohydrate supply influences positively carotenoid accumulation in fruits. We propose that early carbon starvation irreversibly promotes carotenoid accumulation. PMID:22882610

Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Poggi, Isabelle; Urban, Laurent



Rod Press Fruit Harvester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to an apparatus for removing or harvesting fruit and more particularly to an apparatus that will harvest fruit especially from narrow fruit growing canopies by pressing the fruit out of the production canopy.

D. L. Peterson



Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...



Microsoft Academic Search

CompoundIisolated from fraction TB5 ofTerminalia belericaand finally identified as 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced physiological and biochemical alterations in the liver. The main parameters studied were hexobarbitone-induced sleep, zoxazolamine induced paralysis, serum levels of transaminases and bilirubin. The hepatic markers assessed were lipid peroxidation, drug metabolising enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and triglycerides.

K. K Anand; B Singh; A. K Saxena; B. K Chandan; V. N Gupta; V Bhardwaj



Maturation of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) under Spanish growing conditions and its postharvest performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Changes in fruit colour, acidity, soluble solids content, respiration rate and ethylene production were determined in loquat fruit cv. Algerie, throughout maturation and during postharvest storage at 2ºC. Maturation- associated changes appeared not to be coordinated, since fruit colour progressively increased, but the decline in fruit acidity was initiated latter than the increase in soluble solids content. The

L. González; M. T. Lafuente; L. Zacarías


Carbon dioxide effects on fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The first products of C14O2 fixation by lemon fruit in the dark were found to be malic, citric and aspartic acids. It is presumed that exalacetic is actually the first product to be labeled but that it is converted rapidly to the three other acids.2.Malonic acid was identified as one of the products of exposure to C14O2.3.Aconitic, fumaric and a-ketoglutaric

Roy E. Young; Jacob B. Biale



Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía


Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of 6?,7?-dihydroxy-vouacapan-17?-oic acid isolated from Pterodon emarginatus Vog. fruits.  


6?,7?-dihydroxy-vouacapan-17?-oic (tricyclic furanoid diterpene; DHVO) acid was isolated from the hexane extract of Pterodon emarginatus fruits and evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects using an assay that induces paw oedema with carrageenan, dextran and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in rats and the writhing and formalin tests in mice. Oral administration of 50 mg/kg DHVO significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced oedema formation by 24% (p < 0.05). This treatment did not inhibit dextran-induced oedema but was effective when the inflammatory effect was triggered by PGE(2), inhibiting oedema formation by 39% (p < 0.05). In the writhing test, doses of 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg resulted in a dose-dependent effect with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.983 (F = 29.04, ANOVA). Doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg inhibited both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases (p < 0.05) in the formalin test but were not effective for increasing the lag time in the hot plate test. Together, these results suggest that DHVO has both anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic effects. PMID:21384179

Galceran, Camila Benatti; Sertie, Jayme Antonio Aboin; Lima, Clarissa Silva; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares



Postharvest responses of Chinese bayberry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postharvest responses of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc.) at 20°C were investigated using three red cultivars, ‘Biqi’, ‘Hunanzhong’ and ‘Wuzhong’. Fruit from a single harvest for each cultivar were divided into three categories according to fruit colour, designated as ‘immature’, ‘mature’ and ‘ripe’. Respiration rate, ethylene production, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), fructose, glucose, sucrose

WangShu Zhang; KunSong Chen; Bo Zhang; ChongDe Sun; Chong Cai; ChunHua Zhou; WenPing Xu; WeiQing Zhang; Ian B Ferguson




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of coatings on fruits was reviewed for the purpose of evaluating the potential use for organically produced commodities. Ingredients used in fruit coating formulations were reviewed including beeswax, carnauba, and candelilla waxes, and shellac and wood rosin resins. Fatty acids, m...


The effectiveness of grafting to improve tomato fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of applying grafting to improve fruit quality has been scarcely investigated. Different shoot tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes were grafted onto distinctly-different tomato rootstocks and the effect of the rootstock on two important fruit quality parameters, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), was studied under both non-saline and saline conditions. Increased SSC and TA in fruits from

Francisco B. Flores; Paloma Sanchez-Bel; María T. Estañ; María M. Martinez-Rodriguez; Elena Moyano; Belén Morales; Juan F. Campos; José O. Garcia-Abellán; María I. Egea; Nieves Fernández-Garcia; Félix Romojaro; María C. Bolarín



Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), glucose, fructose and

S. Fanasca; A. Martino; E. Heuvelink; C. Stanghellini



[Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].  


The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23808277

Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Ba?kov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Ba?garin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar



Tomato Fruit Cell Wall 1  

PubMed Central

Cell wall isolation procedures were evaluated to determine their effect on the total pectin content and the degree of methylesterification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cell walls. Water homogenates liberate substantial amounts of buffer soluble uronic acid, 5.2 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall. Solubilization appears to be a consequence of autohydrolysis mediated by polygalacturonase II, isoenzymes A and B, since the uronic acid release from the wall residue can be suppressed by homogenization in the presence of 50% ethanol followed by heating. The extent of methylesterification in heat-inactivated cell walls, 94 mole%, was significantly greater than with water homogenates, 56 mole%. The results suggest that autohydrolysis, mediated by cell wall-associated enzymes, accounts for the solubilization of tomato fruit pectin in vitro. Endogenous enzymes also account for a decrease in the methylesterification during the cell wall preparation. The heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was superior to the other methods studied since it reduces ?-elimination during heating and inactivates constitutive enzymes that may modify pectin structure. This heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was used in subsequent enzymatic analysis of the pectin structure. Purified tomato fruit polygalacturonase and partially purified pectinmethylesterase were used to assess changes in constitutive substrates during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase treatment of heat-inactivated cell walls from mature green and breaker stages released 14% of the uronic acid. The extent of the release of polyuronides by polygalacturonase was fruit development stage dependent. At the turning stage, 21% of the pectin fraction was released, a value which increased to a maximum of 28% of the uronides at the red ripe stage. Pretreatment of the walls with purified tomato pectinesterase rendered walls from all ripening stages equally susceptible to polygalacturonase. Quantitatively, the release of uronides by polygalacturonase from all pectinesterase treated cell walls was equivalent to polygalacturonase treatment of walls at the ripe stage. Uronide polymers released by polygalacturonase contain galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose. As a function of development, an increase in the release of galacturonic acid and rhamnose was observed (40 and 6% of these polymers at the mature green stage to 54 and 15% at the red ripe stage, respectively). The amount of galactose and arabinose released by exogenous polygalacturonase decreased during development (41 and 11% from walls of mature green fruit to 11 and 6% at the red ripe stage, respectively). Minor amounts of glucose and xylose released from the wall by exogenous polygalacturonase (4-7%) remained constant throughout fruit development.

Koch, James L.; Nevins, Donald J.



Embryo Abortion in Relation to Fruit Size, Quality, and Concentrations of Nutrients in Skin and Pulp of Mango  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effects of embryo abortion on fruit size and weight, stone weight, and fruit quality, including total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, TSS\\/acid ratio, sugars, and concentrations of macro and micronutrients in skin and pulp, nubbins (seedless fruit) and seeded fruit of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars ‘Glenn,’ ‘Irwin,’ ‘Haden,’ ‘Kent,’ and ‘Kensington Pride’ were compared at the ripe

Zora Singh



Molecular regulation of fruit ripening.  


Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R



Effects of Ellagic Acid by Oral Administration on N-Acetylation and Metabolism of 2Aminofluorene in Rat Brain Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Acetyl Coenzyme A-dependent arylamine NAT enzyme exist in many tissues of experimental animals including humans, and that NAT has been shown to be exist in mouse brain tissue. Increased NAT activity levels are associated with increased sensitivity to the mutagenic effects of arylamine carcinogens. Attenuation of liver NAT activity is related to breast and

Song S. Lin; Chi F. Hung; Chin C. Ho; Yi H. Liu; Heng C. Ho; Jing G. Chung



Isolation, purification and identification of ellagic acid derivatives, catechins, and procyanidins from the root bark of Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root bark of Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic Congo for the treatment of several conditions such as anorexia, fatigue and intestinal infections. We have identified and quantitated several polyphenol antioxidants in the methanol extract of the root bark (120g). The polyphenol content (3.32g\\/kg) was predominantly ellagitannins (25%) and polyhydroxyflavan-3-ols (catechins and procyanidins, 75%)

F. Khallouki; R. Haubner; W. E. Hull; G. Erben; B. Spiegelhalder; H. Bartsch; R. W. Owen



Mechanism of Fruit Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The making of a fruit is a developmental process unique to plants. It requires a complex network of interacting genes and\\u000a signaling pathways. In fleshy fruit, it involves three distinct stages, namely, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening.\\u000a Of these, ripening has received most attention from geneticists and breeders, as this important process activates a whole\\u000a set of biochemical

M. Bouzayen; A. Latché; P. Nath; J. C. Pech


Redox spectrophotometric method involving electrolytically generated manganese(III) sulphate with diphenylamine for the determination of ascorbic acid present in the samples of various fruits, commercial juices and sprouted food grains.  


A spectrophotometric method was developed for ascorbic acid present in various fruits, commercial fruit juices and sprouted food grains. The method involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid with excess manganese(III) following reduction of unreacted manganese(III) with diphenylamine or barium diphenylamine sulphonate forming a product ?(max) 570 nm the system 1 or 540 nm the system 2 and decrease in the colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of vitamin C with quantification range 0.3-3.0 ?g ml(-1). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values of the system 1 and the system 2 were 1.829 × 10(4) and 1.813 × 10(4)mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.0096 and 0.0097 ?g cm(-2) respectively. The stoichiometry was 4:1 between manganese(III) and diphenylamine. The ascorbic acid contents of the same samples were determined separately following the procedures of the developed method as well as the reference method and the results were comparable. PMID:23411340

Shyla, B; Nagendrappa, G



Aqueous thermal degradation of gallic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous thermal degradation experiments show gallic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic carboxylic compound, decomposes rapidly at temperatures between 105° and 150°C, with an activation energy of 22.9 or 27.8 kcal/ mole, depending on pH of the starting solution. Pyrogallol is the primary product identified, indicating degradation via decarboxylation and a carbanion transition state. Relatively rapid degradation of vanillic, phthalic, ellagic and tannic acids has also been observed, suggesting that these and perhaps other aromatic acids could be short-lived in deep formation waters.

Snow Boles, Jennifer; Crerar, David A.; Grissom, Grady; Key, Tonalee C.


Alteration of the interconversion of pyruvate and malate in the plastid or cytosol of ripening tomato fruit invokes diverse consequences on sugar but similar effects on cellular organic acid, metabolism, and transitory starch accumulation.  


The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening. PMID:23250627

Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, José G; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R



Exploitation of the health-promoting and sensory properties of organic pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice through lactic acid fermentation.  


Two strains (POM1 and C2) or LP09 of Lactobacillus plantarum, which were previously isolated from tomatoes and carrots, and another commercial strain of L. plantarum (LP09), were selected to singly ferment (30 °C for 120 h) pomegranate juice (PJ) under standardized protocol. PJs were further stored at 4 °C for 30 days. Filtered PJ, not added of starters (unstarted PJ), was used as the control. After fermentation, all starters grew to ca. 9.0 Log CFU/mL. Viable cells of strain LP09 sharply decreased during storage. The other two strains survived to ca. 7.0 and 8.0 Log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria consumed glucose, fructose, malic acid, and branched chain and aromatic amino acids. The concentration of free fatty acids increased for all started PJs. Compared to unstarted PJ, color and browning indexes of fermented PJs were preferable. The concentration of total polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were the highest for started PJs, with some differences that depended on the starter used. Fermentation increased the concentration of ellagic acid, and enhanced the antimicrobial activity. Fermented PJs scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 and modulated the synthesis of immune-mediators from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Unstarted and fermented PJs inhibited the growth of K562 tumor cells. The sensory attributes of fermented PJs were preferred. The fermentation of pomegranate juice would represent a novel technology option, which joins health-promoting, sensory and preservative features to exploit the potential of pomegranate fruits. PMID:23562695

Filannino, Pasquale; Azzi, Loubna; Cavoski, Ivana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Rizzello, Carlo G; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella



Determination of free and total phenolic acids in plant-derived foods by HPLC with diode-array detection.  


A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with diode-array detection (DAD) was used to identify and quantify free and total phenolic acids (m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ellagic acid) in plant foods. Free phenolic acids were extracted with a mixture of methanol and 10% acetic acid. Bound phenolic acids were liberated using first alkaline and then acid hydrolysis followed by extraction with diethyl ether/ethyl acetate (1:1). All fractions were quantified separately by HPLC. After HPLC quantification, results of alkali and acid hydrolysates were calculated to represent total phenolic acids. Ellagic acid was quantified separately after long (20 h) acid hydrolysis. The methods developed were effective for the determination of phenolic acids in plant foods. DAD response was linear for all phenolic acids within the ranges evaluated, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. Coefficients of variation for 4-8 sample replicates were consistently below 10%. Recovery tests of phenolic acids were performed for every hydrolysis condition using several samples. Recoveries were generally good (mean >90%) with the exceptions of gallic acid and, in some cases, caffeic acid samples. PMID:12059140

Mattila, Pirjo; Kumpulainen, Jorma



Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit.  

PubMed Central

The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA (TOMSSF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was only slight in the endosperm and was undetectable in the embryo, shoot, petiole, and leaf tissues. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in parallel with that of SuSy, but acid invertase activity did not increase in response to the reduced SuSy activity. The only effect on the carbohydrate content of young fruit was a slight reduction in starch accumulation. The in vitro sucrose import capacity of fruits was not reduced by SuSy inhibition at 23 days after anthesis, and the rate of starch synthesized from the imported sucrose was not lessened even when SuSy activity was decreased by 98%. However, the sucrose unloading capacity of 7-day-old fruit was substantially decreased in lines with low SuSy activity. In addition, the SuSy antisense fruit from the first week of flowering had a slower growth rate. A reduced fruit set, leading to markedly less fruit per plant at maturity, was observed for the plants with the least SuSy activity. These results suggest that SuSy participates in the control of sucrose import capacity of young tomato fruit, which is a determinant for fruit set and development.

D'Aoust, M A; Yelle, S; Nguyen-Quoc, B



Studying Current-Potential Curves Using a Bipotentiometric Lodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Voltammetry principles are introduced to students by means of a bipotentiometric method to determine vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. The aim is to draw attention to voltammetric methods, particular to the study of current-potential curves, stressing the potential applicability in areas of food quality control.|

Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M.



Mark's Fruit Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

Rieger, Mark


Metabolic characterization of tomato fruit during preharvest development, ripening, and postharvest shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato is an important crop in terms of its economic and nutritional value. Tomato fruit quality is a function of metabolite content, which is prone to physiological changes related to fruit development and ripening. The aim of this work was to use a metabolomic approach to characterize compositional changes (sugars, acids and amino acids) of tomato during preharvest fruit development,

Gemma Oms-Oliu; M. L. A. T. M. Hertog; B. Van de Poel; J. Ampofo-Asiama; A. H. Geeraerd; B. M. Nicolaï



Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.  


More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary



Non-extractable Procyanidins and Lignin are Important Factors in the Bile Acid Binding and Radical Scavenging Properties of Cell Wall Material in some Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell wall components and the food functions of alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) of Chinese quince, quince, hawthorn, apple,\\u000a pear and blueberry fruits were analyzed. Chinese quince contained characteristically high contents of cellulose, lignin, and\\u000a non-extractable procyanidins (NEPCs). On the other hand, the quince AIS contained the highest proportion of NEPCs, the highest\\u000a mean degree of polymerization (mDP), the strongest radical

Yasunori Hamauzu; Yukari Mizuno



Electrical and mechanical properties of carbon pellets from acid (HNO 3 )treated self-adhesive carbon grain from oil palm empty fruit bunch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors such as its natural properties, low cost and availability in large quantities as a by-product may give oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) a great potential as a candidate precursor for solid carbon products. Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) were prepared from EFB by a low temperature pre-carbonization process. Green pellets were prepared from SACG and SACG treated with nitric

M. Deraman; R. Omar; S. Zakaria; I. R. Mustapa; M. Talib; N. Alias; R. Jaafar



How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.



Precooked Fruits and Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precooked fruits and vegetables are prepared by a process wherein the fruits and vegetables are cooked to their centers at a temperature below the temperature at which sloughing of the surface tissue would occur if the fruits or vegetables were cooked to ...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng



Cultivar, storage conditions and ripening effects on physical and chemical qualities of red raspberry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid, total polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (TEAC), soluble solids, titratable acidity and fruit colour (L*, chroma and hue angle) were quantified (a) in ripe fruit of four raspberry cultivars and (b) in fruit of different commercial ripening stages (semi-ripe, ripe and slightly over-ripe defined by CIE L*a*b* measurements) of cv. Tulameen. Fruit were also stored 1d at 20°C room

Erika Krüger; Helmut Dietrich; Evelin Schöpplein; Sabine Rasim; Petra Kürbel




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of cultivar, fruit size, soil type and year on total ascorbic acid (TAA), free ascorbic acid (AA), dehydroascorbic acid (DAA) folic acid (FA) and potassium (K) in [Cucumis melo L. (Inodorous Group)] was determined. Fully mature (abscised) commercial size fruit: 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 (fru...


Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.  


In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented. PMID:8841165

Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D



Influence of acid tolerance responses on survival, growth, and thermal cross-protection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidified media and fruit juices.  


A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with lactic acid, acid-adapted cells were more tolerant than acid-shocked cells which, in turn, were more tolerant than control cells. The ability of the three types of cells to grow after inoculation into acidified TSB, then plated on tryptic soy agar containing sodium chloride was determined. Tolerance of acid-adapted cells and, less markedly, acid-shocked cells to sodium chloride was diminished, compared to control cells. The pathogen showed extraordinary tolerance to the low pH of apple cider and orange juice held at 5 or 25 degrees C for up to 42 days. Growth occurred in one brand of apple cider (pH 3.98) incubated at 25 degrees C. Regardless of test parameters, there was no indication that cell types differed in tolerance to the acidic environment in apple cider or orange juice. Survival of control, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells heated in apple cider and orange juice was studied. Within each apple cider or orange juice, D(52 degrees C)-values of acid-adapted cells were considerably higher than those of acid-shocked or control cells, which indicates that heat tolerance can be substantially enhanced by acid adaptation compared to acid shock. PMID:9926995

Ryu, J H; Beuchat, L R



Influence of acid tolerance responses on survival, growth, and thermal cross-protection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidified media and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with

Jee-Hoon Ryu; Larry R Beuchat



Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripening in Banana Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. (AAA group, Caven- dish subgroup) cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production

Xuejun Liu; Shinjiro Shiomi; Akira Nakatsuka; Yasutaka Kubo; Reinosuke Nakamura; Akitsugu Inaba



Persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit: some physical, chemical and nutritional properties.  


The persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki) fruits were analysed for some physical properties (fruit dimensions, fruit mass, fruit volume, fruit density, aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, spread area, projected area, bulk density, skin and flesh firmness, skin and flesh colour as L, a and b values, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces and porosity), chemical properties (moisture, ash, pH, acidity, vitamin C, total soluble solids) and nutritional properties (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc). The fruit characteristics ranged from 169 g for average fruit mass, 65.97 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 1.03% for sphericity and 180 cm3 for volume of fruit. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 5,817 N/m3, 9,300 N/m3 and 38.06%, respectively. The present study also revealed important nutritional values of persimmon fruits. PMID:19382348

Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai


Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin



Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  


We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D



Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts

V. H. Tournas; J. Heeres; L. Burgess



Hawthorn ( Crataegus spp.) fruit: some physical and chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits were analysed for some physical (dimensions, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk density, fruit density, volume, terminal velocity, hardness and porosity) and chemical (moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude energy, crude fiber, ash, pH, acidity, water- and alcohol soluble extract) properties. Mineral content of wild hawthorn growing in Turkey were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic

Musa Özcan; Haydar Hac?sefero?ullar?; Tamer Marako?lu; Derya Arslan



Gac fruit: nutrient and phytochemical composition, and options for processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng or Gac fruits are rich in nutrients including carotenoids, fatty acids, vitamin E, polyphenol compounds and flavonoids. Medicinal compounds are also found in the seeds, but the benefits of traditional preparations from these need to be clarified. The plant has the potential to be a high value c