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Sample records for fruit ellagic acid

  1. Effects of Cultivar, Fruit Number and Reflected Photosynthetically Active Radiation on Fragaria ananassa Productivity and Fruit Ellagic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    ATKINSON, C. J.; DODDS, P. A. A.; FORD, Y. Y.; LE MIRE, J.; TAYLOR, J. M.; BLAKE, P. S.; PAUL, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims A number of strawberry varieties were surveyed for their total ellagic acid concentration, and attempts were made to determine if ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations of two strawberry cultivars could be increased by polythene reflective mulches. Methods After adjusting crop yields and cultivation using polythene mulches with two different PAR reflective capacities, field- and polytunnel-grown strawberries were analysed for ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations by HPLC. Comparative measurements of yield and fruit quality were determined along with plant developmental changes. Key Results Ellagic acid concentration varied widely with strawberry cultivar (60341?g g?1 frozen weight), as did the ratio of conjugated ellagic acid?:?free ellagic acid. Also, there was significant year-to-year variation in total ellagic acid concentration with some cultivars. Mulches with different reflective capacities impacted on strawberry production; highly reflective mulches significantly increased growth and yield, the latter due to increases in fruit size and number. Conclusions Highly reflective mulches significantly increased total concentrations of ellagic acid and ascorbic acid relative to control in fruit of different cultivars. The potential of agronomic practices to enhance the concentration and amounts of these important dietary bioactive compounds is discussed. PMID:16423867

  2. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

  3. Extraction and determination of ellagic acid contentin chestnut bark and fruit.

    PubMed

    Vekiari, S A; Gordon, M H; García-Macías, P; Labrinea, H

    2008-10-15

    Chestnuts are an important economic resource in the chestnut growing regions, not only for the fruit, but also for the wood. The content of ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring inhibitor of carcinogenesis, was determined in chestnut fruits and bark. EA was extracted with methanol and free ellagic acid was determined by HPLC with UV detection, both in the crude extract and after hydrolysis. The concentration of EA was generally increased after hydrolysis due to the presence of ellagitannins in the crude extract. The concentration varied between 0.71 and 21.6mgg(-1) (d.w.) in un-hydrolyzed samples, and between 2.83 and 18.4mgg(-1) (d.w.) in hydrolyzed samples. In chestnut fruits, traces of EA were present in the seed, with higher concentrations in the pellicle and pericarp. However, all fruit tissues had lower concentrations of EA than had the bark. The concentration of EA in the hydrolyzed samples showed a non-linear correlation with the concentration in the unhydrolyzed extracts. PMID:26047294

  4. Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 μg/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 μg/mL; 63 μM) and UA (IC50=9.0 μg/mL; 39 μM) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

  5. Novel Bioactivity of Ellagic Acid in Inhibiting Human Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yi; Chen, Wei-Fan; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lin, Li-Jyun; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Chang, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranates are widely consumed either as fresh fruit or in beverage form as juice and wine. Ellagic acid possesses potent antioxidative properties; it is known to be an effective phytotherapeutic agent with antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic qualities. Ellagic acid (20 to 80??M) exhibited a potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen; however, it did not inhibit platelet aggregation stimulated by thrombin, arachidonic acid, or U46619. Treatment with ellagic acid (50 and 80??M) significantly inhibited platelet activation stimulated by collagen; this alteration was accompanied by the inhibition of relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)?2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Akt, as well as hydroxyl radical (OH?) formation. In addition, ellagic acid also inhibited p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, ellagic acid did not significantly affect PKC activation and platelet aggregation stimulated by PDBu. This study is the first to show that, in addition to being considered a possible agent for preventing tumor growth, ellagic acid possesses potent antiplatelet properties. It appears to initially inhibit the PLC?2-PKC cascade and/or hydroxyl radical formation, followed by decreased phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, ultimately inhibiting platelet aggregation. PMID:23533502

  6. Spectrofluorimetric determination of ellagic acid in brandy.

    PubMed

    Sdeck, Jana; Tthov, Jana

    2012-12-01

    Two spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the rapid determination of ellagic acid. The first method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and borax in methanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 456nm with excitation at 383nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 2.510(-8) to 7.510(-7)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 410(-9)molL(-1). The second method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and boric acid in ethanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 447nm with excitation at 387nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 1.2510(-7) to 1.0010(-6)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 710(-9)molL(-1). The methods were successfully applied for the determination of ellagic acid in brandy samples. The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC method. PMID:22953802

  7. Stilbene, ellagic acid, flavonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant properties, ellagic acid, and polyphenolic were evaluated in 19 muscadine cultivars and 2 muscadine selections. Analysis was carried out on muscadine fruit skin, pulp and juice partitions. The major phenolics in muscadine juice, pulp and skins were identified by their retention times ...

  8. Formation of β-glucogallin, the precursor of ellagic acid in strawberry and raspberry

    PubMed Central

    Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H.; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of the Rosaceae family (Fragaria and Rubus; F.×ananassa FaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5, F. vesca FvGT2, and R. idaeus RiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highest GT2 gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisense FaGT2 strawberry plants clearly confirmed the in planta function. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols. PMID:26884604

  9. Formation of β-glucogallin, the precursor of ellagic acid in strawberry and raspberry.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of theRosaceaefamily (FragariaandRubus;F.×ananassaFaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5,F. vescaFvGT2, andR. idaeusRiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highestGT2gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisenseFaGT2strawberry plants clearly confirmed thein plantafunction. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols. PMID:26884604

  10. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, J. A.; Gonzlez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-06-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mssbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  11. Storage retention of stilbene, ellagic acid, favonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of ellagic acid and other other nutraceutical compounds in muscadine grapes add value and enhance the marketability of this southern U.S. specialty crop. Due to its nutraceutical profile, muscadines may potentially become the next super fruit. The objective of this study was to dete...

  12. Microbial production of ellagic acid and biodegradation of ellagitannins.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Carbo, Antonio; Augur, Christopher; Prado-Barragan, Lilia A; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2008-02-01

    In the last years, tannin biodegradation has been the subject of a lot of studies due to its commercial importance and scientific relevance. Tannins are molecules of low biodegradation and represent the main chemical group of natural anti-microbials occurring in the plants. Among the different kinds of tannins, ellagitannins represent the group less studied manly due to their diversity and chemical complexity. The general outline of this work includes information on tannins, their classification and properties, biodegradation, ellagic acid production, and potential applications. In addition, it describes molecular, catalytic, and functional information. Special attention has been focused on the biodegradation of ellagitannins describing the possible role of microbial enzymes in the production of ellagic acid. PMID:18157721

  13. A Novel Ellagic Acid Derivative from Desbordesia glaucescens.

    PubMed

    DongmoMafodong, Faustine L; Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Awouafack, Maurice D; Roland, Tchuenguem T; Dzoyem, Jean P; Tane, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    One novel ellagic acid derivative, desglauside (1), was isolated from the leaves of Desbordesia glaucescens together with three known compounds [3',4'-di-O-methylellagic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3) and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4)]. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and MS analysis, and by comparison with related published data. The crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds showed no activity against four yeast strains [Candida albicans (ATCC 9002), C. parapsilopsis (ATCC22019), C. tropicalis (ATCC750), Cryptococcus neoformans (IP95026) and one isolate of Candida guilliermondii]. PMID:26669108

  14. Ellagic acid derivatives from Syzygium cumini stem bark: investigation of their antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Simes-Pires, Claudia A; Vargas, Sandra; Marston, Andrew; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Paulo, Maral Q; Matheeussen, An; Maes, Louis

    2009-10-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) bark decoction for antiplasmodial activity was performed, leading to the isolation of three known ellagic acid derivatives (ellagic acid, ellagic acid 4-O-alpha-L-2"-acetylrhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid 3'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside), as well as the new derivative 3-O-methylellagic acid 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Activity investigation was based on the reduction of P. falciparum (PfK1) parasitaemia in vitro and the inhibition of beta-hematin formation, a known mechanism of action of some antimalarial drugs. Among the investigated ellagic acid derivatives, only ellagic acid was able to reduce P. falciparum parasitaemia in vitro and inhibit beta-hematin formation, suggesting that free hydroxyl groups are necessary for activity within this class of compounds. PMID:19911574

  15. Natural flavonoids as antidiabetic agents. The binding of gallic and ellagic acids to glycogen phosphorylase b.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, Efthimios; Stravodimos, George A; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2015-07-01

    We present a study on the binding of gallic acid and its dimer ellagic acid to glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Ellagic acid is a potent inhibitor with Kis of 13.4 and 7.5 ?M, in contrast to gallic acid which displays Kis of 1.7 and 3.9 mM for GPb and GPa, respectively. Both compounds are competitive inhibitors with respect to the substrate, glucose-1-phoshate, and non-competitive to the allosteric activator, AMP. However, only ellagic acid functions with glucose in a strongly synergistic mode. The crystal structures of the GPb-gallic acid and GPb-ellagic acid complexes were determined at high resolution, revealing that both ligands bind to the inhibitor binding site of the enzyme and highlight the structural basis for the significant difference in their inhibitory potency. PMID:25980608

  16. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ismail; Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Bayrak, Yksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 ?g/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  17. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ismail; Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Bayrak, Yksel

    2014-09-15

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 ?g/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH scavenging, ABTS+ scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties. PMID:24813273

  18. Utilization of acorn fringe for ellagic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae and Endomyces fibuliger.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Li, Zhenshan; Niu, Hai; Li, Lulu; Lin, Wensheng; Yang, Jinshui

    2008-06-01

    Conversion of acorn fringe extract into ellagic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae and Endomyces fibuliger were investigated. The results showed that ellagic acid production was maximized when co-fermentation of the two fungi was performed at 30 degrees C and pH 5.0 with 5.7 g/l of initial substrate concentration, which were close to the optimal values for both fungi to yield an appropriate consortium of hydrolytic enzymes. Meanwhile, it was found that the co-fermentation could compensate the deficiencies in the level of polyphenol oxidase activity from pure A. oryzae and the levels of ellagitannin acyl hydrolase and beta-glucosidase activities from pure E. fibuliger, resulting in. 0.91 g/l of biomass concentration containing 1.84 g/l of ellagic acid. The research not only demonstrates that the co-fermentation is an effective approach to utilize forest byproduct for ellagic acid production, but also provides more evidences for understanding evolution of ellagic acid production with enzymes actions, which is important for process control of ellagic acid production in industrial application. PMID:17826988

  19. Colonic catabolism of ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and raspberry anthocyanins: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Barrio, Roco; Edwards, Christine A; Crozier, Alan

    2011-09-01

    Red raspberries contain principally anthocyanins and ellagitannins. After ingestion of raspberries by humans, trace levels of anthocyanins, absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract, are excreted in urine in amounts corresponding to <0.1% of intake. Urine also contains urolithin-O-glucuronides derived from colonic metabolism of the ellagitannins. Raspberry feedings with ileostomists show that substantial amounts of the anthocyanin and ellagitannin intake are excreted in ileal fluid. In subjects with an intact functioning colon, these compounds would pass to the large intestine. The aim of this study was to identify raspberry-derived phenolic acid catabolites that form in the colon and those that are subsequently excreted in urine. In vitro anaerobic incubation of ellagitannins with fecal suspensions demonstrated conversion to ellagic acid and several urolithins. Fecal suspensions converted 80% of added ellagic acid to urolithins. In vivo, urolithins are excreted in urine as O-glucuronides, not aglycones, indicating that the colonic microflora convert ellagitannins to urolithins, whereas glucuronidation occurs in the wall of the large intestine and/or postabsorption in the liver. Unlike ellagitannins, raspberry anthocyanins were converted in vitro to phenolic acids by anaerobic fecal suspensions. Urinary excretion of phenolic acids after ingestion of raspberries indicates that after formation in the colon some phenolic acids undergo phase II metabolism, resulting in the formation of products that do not accumulate when anthocyanins are degraded in fecal suspensions. There is a growing realization that colonic catabolites such as phenolic acids and urolithins may have important roles in the protective effects of a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet. PMID:21622625

  20. Strawberry processing does not affect the production and urinary excretion of urolithins, ellagic acid metabolites, in humans.

    PubMed

    Truchado, Pilar; Larrosa, Mar; Garca-Conesa, Mara Teresa; Cerd, Begoa; Vidal-Guevara, Mara Luisa; Toms-Barbern, Francisco A; Espn, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-13

    The study of fruit and vegetable processing and its effects on the levels of health-promoting constituents and their bioavailability and metabolism is very relevant to understanding the role of these constituents in human health. Strawberry polyphenols, and particularly ellagitannins and ellagic acid, have been associated with the health benefits of this berry for humans. These compounds are transformed into urolithins by the gut microbiota, and these metabolites exert several biological activities that could be responsible for the health effects of strawberries. Processing potentially increases the extraction of ellagitannins from the strawberry achenes and the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins. It is of interest to evaluate the effect of processing on strawberry ellagitannin microbial metabolism compared with fresh strawberries. This study shows that no significant differences in the production and excretion of urolithins were found between the intake of fresh strawberries and that of a thermally processed strawberry puree containing the same amount of strawberries. Processing increases the amount of free ellagic acid 2.5-fold, but this had no effect on the transformation in urolithins by the gut microbiota or in the excretion of urolithin metabolites (urolithin glucuronides) in urine, showing that the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins is not a relevant factor affecting the microbial metabolism. All of the volunteers produced urolithin A, but only 3 of 20 volunteers produced and excreted urolithin B. It is confirmed that some volunteers were efficient producers of urolithins, whereas other produced much lower amounts. These results show that processing does not modify the potential health effects of strawberry polyphenols. PMID:22126674

  1. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 10 -10 to 4.0 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Ellagic Acid In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Guo, Xin; Dawuti, Gulina; Aibai, Silafu

    2015-07-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. In Uighur traditional medicine, Euphorbia humifusa Willd is used to treat fungal diseases, and recent studies suggest that it is the EA content which is responsible for its therapeutic effect. However, the effects of EA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of EA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (M38-A and M27-A2) standard method in vitro. EA had a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, with MICs for all the tested dermatophyte strains between 18.75 and 58.33 µg/ml. EA was also active against two Candida strains, with MICs between 25.0 and 75.0 µg/ml. It was inactive against Candida glabrata. The susceptibility of six species of dermatophytes to EA was comparable with that of the commercial antifungal, fluconazole. The most sensitive filamentous species was Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 18.75 µg/ml). Studies on the mechanism of action using an HPLC-based assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that EA inhibited ergosterol biosynthesis and reduced the activity of sterol 14α-demethylase P450 (CYP51) in the Trichophyton rubrum membrane, respectively. An in vivo test demonstrated that topical administration of EA (4.0 and 8.0 mg/cm(2) ) significantly enhanced the cure rate in a guinea-pig infection model of Trichophyton rubrum. The results suggest that EA has the potential to be developed as a natural antifungal agent. PMID:25919446

  3. Ellagic acid ameliorates lung injury after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Byk, Abdullah; nder, Akin; Kapan, Murat; Gm?, Metehan; F?rat, U?ur; Ba?aral?, Mustafa Kemal; Alp, Harun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with ellagic acid (EA) on lung injury after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury using biochemical and histopatological approaches. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were divided into four groups as control, control + EA, I/R, and I/R + EA. The control and control + EA groups were also anesthetized and subjected to laparotomy, but without clamp application. The control + EA and I/R + EA groups were given EA (85 mg/kg) orally prior to experiment. The I/R and I/R + EA groups underwent 30 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion. In all groups, serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. TAC, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in lung tissue were measured. Lung tissue histopathology was also evaluated by light microscopy. Results: TAC levels were higher in control, EA, and I/R + EA groups while TOS, OSI, and MDA levels were lower in these groups compared with I/R group. Serum MDA levels were significantly higher in I/R + EA group than that of control group. Lung tissue TAC levels were lower in I/R + EA group while OSI values were higher in that groups compared with EA group. Histological tissue damage was milder in the EA treatment group than in the I/R group. Conclusion: These results suggest that EA treatment protected the rats lung tissue against intestinal I/R injury. PMID:21969793

  4. Efficacy of ellagic acid and sildenafil in diabetes-induced sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Vishwanath, Manikanta; Gangadarappa, Suma Kallahalli; Razdan, Rema; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes induced sexual dysfunction is a leading cause of male sexual disorder and an early indicator of cardiovascular complication. Reactive oxygen species generated in body during diabetes is a main causative factor for erectile dysfunction, a sexual dysfunction. Adjuvant antioxidant therapy along with phosphodiesterases type 5 enzyme inhibitor (PDE5i) is more effective than PDE5i alone. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate efficacy of ellagic acid a known antioxidant and sildenafil in diabetes induced erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced in male rats and rats were treated with ellagic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of ellagic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and sildenafil (5 mg/kg, p.o.), a PDE5i for 28 days. Sexual function was observed in diabetic rat and compared with those of treatment group and normal rats. Effect of ellagic acid was studied on advanced glycation end products (AGE) and isolated rat corpus cavernosum in vitro. Results: Sexual function of diabetic rats was found to be reduced and ellegic acid treatment could preserve sexual function of diabetic rats to some extent. Ellagic acid + sildenafil treatment was more efficient in management of diabetes induced sexual dysfunction. Ellagic acid inhibited (AGE) in vitro implying its role in reducing oxidative stress in diabetes. The polyphenol could not increase sexual function in normal rats and relax isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle significantly. Conclusion: The study proves usefulness of adjuvant antioxidant therapy in the management of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:25298678

  5. Design of biodegradable nanoparticles: a novel approach to encapsulating poorly soluble phytochemical ellagic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, I.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hariharan, S.; Sitterberg, J.; Bakowsky, U.; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi

    2005-12-01

    Nanosizing of poorly water soluble drugs or incorporating them into nanoparticles to increase their solubility and thereby the bioavailability has become a favoured approach today. This work describes a novel method for encapsulating poorly water soluble phytochemical ellagic acid that is also sparingly soluble/insoluble in routine solvents used to prepare nanoparticles.

  6. Biological Significance of Urolithins, the Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derived Metabolites: The Evidence So Far

    PubMed Central

    Espín, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits attributed to pomegranate have been associated with its high content in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins. This is also the case for other ellagitannin-containing fruits and nuts including strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, walnuts, and muscadine grapes. The bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid is however very low. These molecules suffer extensive metabolism by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that are much better absorbed. Urolithins circulate in plasma as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates at concentrations in the range of 0.2–20 μM. It is therefore conceivable that the health effects of ellagitannin-containing products can be associated with these gut-produced urolithins, and thus the evaluation of the biological effects of these metabolites is essential. Recent research, mostly based on in vitro testing, has shown preliminary evidence of the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiglycative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of urolithins, supporting their potential contribution to the health effects attributed to pomegranate and ellagitannin-rich foods. The number of in vivo studies is still limited, but they show preventive effects of urolithins on gut and systemic inflammation that encourage further research. Both in vivo and mechanistic studies are necessary to clarify the health effects of these metabolites. Attention should be paid when designing these mechanistic studies in order to use the physiologically relevant metabolites (urolithins in gut models and their conjugated derivatives in systemic models) at concentrations that can be reached in vivo. PMID:23781257

  7. Ellagic acid inhibits non-enzymatic glycation and prevents proteinuria in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Raghu, G; Jakhotia, Sneha; Yadagiri Reddy, P; Anil Kumar, P; Bhanuprakash Reddy, G

    2016-03-16

    The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a characteristic feature of diabetic tissues and accumulation of these products has been implicated in the pathogenesis of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Compelling evidence suggests that AGEs mediate progressive alteration in the renal architecture and loss of renal function whereas inhibitors of AGEs prevent the progression of experimental DN. We have investigated the potential of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenol present abundantly in fruits and vegetables, to prevent in vivo accumulation of AGE and to ameliorate renal changes in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed with either 0.2% or 2% of EA in the diet for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of EA to diabetic rats prevented the glycation mediated RBC-IgG-cross-links and HbA1c accumulation. EA inhibited the accumulation of N-carboxymethyl lysine (CML), a predominant AGE in the diabetic kidney. Further, EA also prevented the AGE-mediated loss of expression of podocyte slit diaphragm proteins: nephrin and podocin. By inhibiting CML formation, EA improved renal function in rats as evidenced by urinary albumin and creatinine levels. In conclusion, EA inhibited AGE accumulation in the diabetic rat kidney and ameliorated AGE-mediated pathogenesis of DN. PMID:26902315

  8. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 ; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  9. Ellagic Acid and Resveratrol Prevent the Development of Cisplatin Resistance in the Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    PubMed Central

    Engelke, Laura H.; Hamacher, Alexandra; Proksch, Peter; Kassack, Matthias U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Several studies have shown that natural compounds like resveratrol or ellagic acid have anticancer and antioxidant properties and can stimulate apoptosis in many cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to elucidate if resveratrol or ellagic acid, respectively, could improve the efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Methods. As a cellular resistance model, the epithelial ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant subclone A2780CisR were used. A2780CisR was obtained by intermittent treatment of A2780 with cisplatin for 26 weekly cycles and showed a 4-6-fold increased resistance towards cisplatin compared to A2780. Results. Pretreatment with resveratrol or ellagic acid 48 h prior to treatment with cisplatin showed a moderate enhancement of cisplatin cytotoxicity in A2780CisR cells (shift factors were 1.6 for ellagic acid and 2.5 for resveratrol). However, intermittent treatment of A2780 with cisplatin for 26 weekly cycles in permanent presence of resveratrol or ellagic acid, respectively, completely prevented the development of cisplatin resistance. The generated cell lines named A2780Resv and A2780Ellag displayed functional characteristics (migration, proliferation, apoptosis, activation of ErbB3, ROS generation) similar to the parental cell line A2780. Conclusion. In conclusion, weekly intermittent treatment cycles of cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cells with cisplatin retain cisplatin chemosensitivity in permanent presence of ellagic acid or resveratrol, respectively, whereas clinically relevant cisplatin chemoresistance develops in the absence of ellagic acid or resveratrol. Use of natural phenolic compounds may thus be a promising approach to prevent cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. PMID:26918049

  10. Inclusion complex of ellagic acid with β-cyclodextrin: Characterization and in vitro anti-inflammatory evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulani, Vipin D.; Kothavade, Pankaj S.; Kundaikar, Harish S.; Gawali, Nitin B.; Chowdhury, Amrita A.; Degani, Mariam S.; Juvekar, Archana R.

    2016-02-01

    Freeze-dried inclusion complex of ellagic acid/β-cyclodextrin (EACD) was investigated both in solution and solid state by means of aqueous solubility, in vitro dissolution, absorption, fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular modeling methods. The phase solubility study showed that ellagic acid formed 1:2 stoichiometric inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The FTIR study indicates that carbonyl group of ellagic acid interact with β-CD. The NMR results demonstrate that ellagic acid was partly included into the β-CD from the wider side of the cavity. Molecular modeling studies revealed that hydrogen bonding interactions played an important role in the inclusion process and higher negative values for the complexation energies imply that 1:2 complex was more stable than 1:1 complex. The solubility and in vitro dissolution of ellagic acid was significantly enhanced by complexation with β-CD as compared to the free ellagic acid. Additionally, the complexation of EACD positively influences it's in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by protecting from protein denaturation and lysis of erythrocyte membrane.

  11. Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species.

    PubMed

    Selma, Mara V; Beltrn, David; Garca-Villalba, Roco; Espn, Juan C; Toms-Barbern, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Ellagitannin and ellagic acid metabolism to urolithins in the gut shows a large human interindividual variability and this has been associated with differences in the colon microbiota. In the present study we describe the isolation of one urolithin-producing strain from the human faeces of a healthy volunteer and the ellagic acid transformation to different urolithin metabolites by two species of intestinal bacteria. The isolate belongs to a new species described as Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, sp. nov. The type strain of the Gordonibacter genus, Gordonibacter pamelaeae DSM 19378(T), was also demonstrated to produce urolithins. Both human intestinal bacteria grew similarly in the presence and absence of ellagic acid at 30 ?M concentration. Ellagic acid catabolism and urolithin formation occurred during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-MS analyses showed the sequential production of pentahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-5), tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-6) and trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C), while dihydroxy-urolithins (urolithin A and isourolithin A), and monohydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not produced in pure cultures. Consequently, either other bacteria from the gut or the physiological conditions found in vivo are necessary for completing metabolism until the final urolithins (dihydroxy and monohydroxy urolithins) are produced. This is the first time that the urolithin production capacity of pure strains has been demonstrated. The identification of the urolithin-producing bacteria is a relevant outcome as urolithin implication in health (cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties) has been supported by different bioassays and urolithins can be used in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study represents an initial work that opens interesting possibilities of describing enzymatic activities involved in urolithin production that can help in understanding both the human interindividual differences in polyphenol metabolism, the microbial pathways involved, and the role of polyphenols in human health. The presence of urolithin producing bacteria can indirectly affect the health benefits of ellagitannin consumption. PMID:24909569

  12. Antiviral activity and possible mode of action of ellagic acid identified in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves toward human rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cause billions of USD annually in medical visits and school and work absenteeism. An assessment was made of the cytotoxic and antiviral activities and possible mode of action of the tannin ellagic acid from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa toward HeLa cells and three rhinoviruses, HRV-2, -3, and -4. Methods The antiviral property and mechanism of action of ellagic acid were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with SYBR Green dye. Results were compared with those of the currently used broad-spectrum antiviral agent, ribavirin. Results As judged by 50% inhibitory concentration values, natural ellagic acid was 1.8, 2.3, and 2.2 times more toxic toward HRV-2 (38 μg/mL), HRV-3 (31 μg/mL), and HRV-4 (29 μg/mL) than ribavirin, respectively. The inhibition rate of preincubation with 50 μg/mL ellagic acid was 17%, whereas continuous presence of ellagic acid during infection led to a significant increase in the inhibition (70%). Treatment with 50 μg/mL ellagic acid considerably suppressed HRV-4 infection only when added just after the virus inoculation (0 h) (87% inhibition), but not before -1 h or after 1 h or later (<20% inhibition). These findings suggest that ellagic acid does not interact with the HRV-4 particles and may directly interact with the human cells in the early stage of HRV infections to protect the cells from the virus destruction. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that 50 μg/mL ellagic acid strongly inhibited the RNA replication of HRV-4 in HeLa cells, suggesting that ellagic acid inhibits virus replication by targeting on cellular molecules, rather than virus molecules. Conclusions Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on L. speciosa leaf-derived materials containing ellagic acid as potential anti-HRV products or a lead molecule for the prevention or treatment of HRV infection. PMID:24885569

  13. Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of stabilized ellagic acid-phospholipid complex with improved dissolution and permeability.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Patel, Vijay G

    2015-07-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a plant polyphenol known for its wide-range of health benefits has limited use due to its low oral bioavailability. In this study, a new self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS), based on the phospholipid complex technique, was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid-phospholipid complex was prepared by an anti-solvent method and characterized. Enhanced lipophilicity after the formation of ellagic acid-phospholipid complex was verified through solubility studies. Preliminary screening was carried out to select oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. Formulations were optimized on the basis of globule size, cloud point and robustness to dilution. The optimized SNEDDS of ellagic acid-phospholipid complex showed mean globule size of 1060.198nm and cloud point at 83-85C. The in vitro drug release from SNEDDS was found to be higher compared to EA suspension and complex, while ex vivo studies showed increased permeation from SNEDDS compared to EA suspension. Moreover, SNEDDS overcome the food effect which was shown by EA suspension. Thus, SNEDDS were found to be influential in improving the release performance of EA, indicating their potential to improve the oral bioavailability of EA. PMID:26106276

  14. Ellagic acid improves electrocardiogram waves and blood pressure against global cerebral ischemia rat experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Nejad, Khojasteh Hoseiny; Dianat, Mahin; Sarkaki, Alireza; Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Badavi, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global cerebral ischemia (GCIR) arises in patients that are shown a variety of clinical difficulty including cardiac arrest, asphyxia, and shock. In spite of advances in understanding of the brain, ischemia and protective effects to improve ischemic injury still remain unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) pretreatment in the rat models of global cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Physiology Research Center of the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. Adult male Wistar rats (250–300 g) were used in this study. GCIR was induced by bilateral vertebral and common carotid arteries occlusion (4-VO). 32 rats were divided randomly to four groups: 1) So (Sham) received normal saline as vehicle of EA, 2) EA, 3) normal saline + GCIR, and 4) EA + GCIR. After anesthesia (a mix of xylazine and ketamine), animal subjected to 20 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion in related groups. EA (100 mg/kg, dissolved in normal saline) or 1.5 ml/kg normal saline was administered (gavage, 10 days) to the related groups. EEG was recorded from NTS in GCIR treated groups. Results: Present data showed that: 1) EEG in GCIR treated groups was flattened; 2) Blood pressure, voltage of QRS and P-R interval were reduced significantly in the ischemic groups compared to before ischemia, and pretreatment with EA prevented this reduction; and 3) MDA level and heart rate was increased by GCIR and pretreatment with EA reduced MDA level and restored the HR to normal level. Conclusion: Results indicate that global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion impairs certain heart functions and ellagic acid as an antioxidant can restore these parameters. The results of this study suggest the possible utility of ellagic acid in patients with brain stroke. PMID:26396728

  15. Simultaneous analysis of ellagic acid and coenzyme Q(10) by derivative spectroscopy and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, D Venkat; Bhardwaj, V; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2006-09-15

    Antioxidants are gaining tremendous interest as chemopreventive as well as chemotherapeutic agents. Ellagic acid (EA) is a plant derived compound with very poor solubility in water and very low octanol/water partition coefficient and coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is a highly lipophilic compound, which is synthesized in the body and can be derived from food supplements as well. The new insights in the combination therapy are promising a better future in many challenging diseases. Synergism is among the key advantages of combination therapy apart from decreased intensity of unwanted effects of a compound, increased patient compliance and reduction in cost of therapy. EA and CoQ(10) supplementation in combination will be beneficial in strengthening the weakened antioxidant defense system in many diseases related to oxidative stress. Here we report first derivative UV spectroscopic and HPLC methods for the simultaneous analysis of these two agents in pharmaceutical preparations. Results obtained indicate that the derivative spectroscopy is as efficient as HPLC method in quantitative analysis. Retention of ellagic acid can be increased using PEG bonded column which is poorly retained on C(18) column. PEG column can be used for rapid simultaneous analysis of EA and CoQ(10), which are having diverse physicochemical properties. PMID:18970780

  16. Two ellagic acid glycosides from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. with antifungal activity on Magnaporthe grisea.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zhou L; Li D; Jiang W; Qin Z; Zhao S; Qiu M; Wu J

    2007-04-01

    Two ellagic acid glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the antimicrobial ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract from Gleditsia sinensis spines, and identified as 3-O-methylellagic acid-4'-(5''-acetyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (1) and 3-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2). Both compounds were isolated from this plant species for the first time, and 1 is a new compound. The two compounds showed significant antifungal activity against the spore germination of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, with an IC(50) value of 13.56 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 16.14 microg mL(-1) for 2.

  17. Noninnocently Behaving Bridging Anions of the Widely Distributed Antioxidant Ellagic Acid in Diruthenium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Abhishek; Grupp, Anita; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2015-10-19

    Dinuclear compounds [L2Ru(?-E)RuL2](n) where L is acetylacetonate (acac(-), 2,4-pentanedionate), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), or 2-phenylazopyridine (pap) and EH4 is ellagic acid, an antioxidative bis-catechol natural product, were studied by voltammetric and spectroelectrochemical techniques (UV-vis-NIR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)). The electronic structures of the isolated forms (NBu4)2[(acac)2Ru(?-E)Ru(acac)2] ((NBu4)2[1]), [(bpy)2Ru(?-E)Ru(bpy)2]ClO4 ([2]ClO4), and [(pap)2Ru(?-E)Ru(pap)2] ([3]) were characterized by density functional theory (DFT) in conjunction with EPR and UV-vis-NIR measurements. The crystal structure of (NBu4)2[1] revealed the meso form and a largely planar Ru(?-E)Ru center. Several additional charge states of the compounds were electrochemically accessible and were identified mostly as complexes with noninnocently behaving pap(0/-) or bridging ellagate (E(n-)) anions (n = 2, 3, 4) but not as mixed-valence intermediates. The free anions E(n-), n = 1-4, were calculated by time-dependent DFT to reveal NIR transitions for the radical forms with n = 1 and 3 and a triplet ground state for the bis(o-semiquinone) dianion E(2-). PMID:26441246

  18. Modeling the scavenging activity of ellagic acid and its methyl derivatives towards hydroxyl, methoxy, and nitrogen dioxide radicals.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Phool Chand

    2013-12-01

    The reaction mechanisms involved in the scavenging of hydroxyl (OH()), methoxy (OCH?()), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ()) radicals by ellagic acid and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives were investigated using the transition state theory and density functional theory. The calculated Gibbs barrier energies associated with the abstraction of hydrogen from the hydroxyl groups of ellagic acid and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives by an OH radical in aqueous media were all found to be negative. When NO?() was the radical involved in hydrogen abstraction, the Gibbs barrier energies were much larger than those calculated when the OH() radical was involved. When OCH?() was the hydrogen-abstracting radical, the Gibbs barrier energies lay between those obtained with OH() and NO?() radicals. Therefore, the scavenging efficiencies of ellagic acid and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives towards the three radicals decrease in the order OH() > OCH?() > NO?(). Our calculated rate constants are broadly in agreement with those obtained experimentally for hydrogen abstraction reactions of ellagic acid with OH and NO? radicals. PMID:24202233

  19. Pharmacodynamics of ellagic acid on cardiac troponin-T, lyosomal enzymes and membrane bound ATPases: mechanistic clues from biochemical, cytokine and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Mari Kannan, M; Darlin Quine, S

    2011-09-01

    The anti lipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of ellagic acid against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats were reported previously. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of ellagic acid on the levels of cardiac troponin-T, lysosomal enzymes, and membrane bound ATPases along with the role of pro inflammatory cytokine. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with ellagic acid (7.5 and 15 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 10 days. After the pretreatment period isoproterenol (100mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to rats twice at an interval of 24h. The protective effects of pretreatment with ellagic acid were measured by biochemical analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Evidence of myocardial infarction in isoproterenol induced rats included significant increase in the serum level of cardiac troponin-T and decreased levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in heart tissue homogenate .The pretreatment with ellagic acid restored the levels of cardiac markers in the serum and heart tissue homogenates. The activities of lysosomal enzymes (β-d-glucuronidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsin-d and acid phosphatase) were increased significantly in the serum and heart tissue of isoproterenol-induced rats. The activity of Na(+)/K(+)ATPase declined while the activities of Ca(2+)ATPase and Mg(2+)ATPase were increased significantly in the heart of isoproterenol-induced rats. Pretreatment with ellagic acid restored the activities of lysosomal enzymes and membrane bound ATPases. The higher expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α in the isoproterenol-induced rats were controlled by the pretreatment with ellagic acid. Our results imply that oral pretreatment with ellagic acid protects the heart lysosomal membrane against isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage. The observed effects might be due to the free radical scavenging, membrane stabilizing and anti-inflammatory properties of ellagic acid. PMID:21762681

  20. Altered sensitivity to ellagic acid in neuroblastoma cells undergoing differentiation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Alfredsson, Christina Fjraa; Rendel, Filip; Liang, Qui-Li; Sundstrm, Birgitta E; Nnberg, Eewa

    2015-12-01

    Ellagic acid has previously been reported to induce reduced proliferation and activation of apoptosis in several tumor cell lines including our own previous data from non-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The aim of this study was now to investigate if in vitro differentiation with the phorbol ester 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or the vitamin A derivative all-trans retinoic acid altered the sensitivity to ellagic acid in SH-SY5Y cells. The methods used were cell counting and LDH-assay for evaluation of cell number and cell death, flow cytometric analysis of SubG1- and TUNEL-analysis for apoptosis and western blot for expression of apoptosis-associated proteins. In vitro differentiation was shown to reduce the sensitivity to ellagic acid with respect to cell detachment, loss of viability and activation of apoptosis. The protective effect was phenotype-specific and most prominent in all-trans retinoic acid-differentiated cultures. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of Bcl-2 and integrin expression is introduced as possible protective mechanisms. The presented data also point to a positive correlation between proliferative activity and sensitivity to ellagic-acid-induced cell detachment. In conclusion, the presented data emphasize the need to consider degree of neuronal differentiation and phenotype of neuroblastoma cells when discussing a potential pharmaceutical application of ellagic acid in tumor treatment. PMID:26653548

  1. Research progress on the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of ellagic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hao; Xu, Hao; Chen, Wen-Wen; Tao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer treatments by chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation have not been highly effective in reducing the incidence of cancers and increasing the survival rate of cancer patients. In recent years, plant-derived compounds have attracted considerable attention as alternative cancer remedies for enhancing cancer prevention and treatment because of their low toxicities, low costs, and low side effects. Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenolic constituent. Recent in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that EA elicits anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, breaking DNA binding to carcinogens, blocking virus infection, and disturbing inflammation, angiogenesis, and drug-resistance processes required for tumor growth and metastasis. This review enumerates the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of EA. It also discusses future directions on the applications of EA. PMID:25009751

  2. Punicalagin and Ellagic Acid Demonstrate Antimutagenic Activity and Inhibition of Benzo[a]pyrene Induced DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Aqil, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Punicalagin (PC) is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA) are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97%) at 40 μM by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50–500 μM) exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer. PMID:24949451

  3. Investigation of the biological and anti-cancer properties of ellagic acid-encapsulated nano-sized metalla-cages.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Abhishek; Park, Dae Won; Kwon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Taegeun; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Se Chan; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2015-01-01

    Three new large hexanuclear metalla-prisms 9-11 incorporating 1,3, 5-tris(pyridin-4-ylethynyl)benzene (tpeb) 4 and one of the dinuclear arene ruthenium clips [Ru2(p-iPrC6H4Me)2(OO?OO)][CF3SO3]2 (OO?OO =2,5-dioxydo-1,4-benzoquinonato [dobq] 1, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthaquinonato (donq) 2, and 6,11-dihydroxy-5,12-naphthacenedionato [dotq] 3), which encapsulate the guest molecule ellagic acid (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione, 5) were prepared. All complexes were isolated as triflate salts in good yields and were fully characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The photophysical properties of these metalla-prisms were also investigated. Compounds 9 and 10 showed potent antioxidant activity, but 10 had the superior ORACPE value (1.30 0.020). Ellagic acid (5) and compound 11 showed weaker activity than that of Trolox. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that the metalla-prism compounds exhibit anticancer properties in vitro. Compound 10 inhibited the growth of all cancer cell lines at micromolar concentrations, with the highest cytotoxicity observed against A549 human lung cancer cells (IC50 =25.9 ?M). However, these compounds had a lower anti-cancer activity than that of doxorubicin. In a tumoricidal assay, ellagic acid (5) and compound 10 induced cytotoxicity in tumor cells, while doxorubicin did not. While free ellagic acid had no effect on the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted protein, the encapsulated metalla-prism 10 stimulated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and reduced regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted protein expression in the RAW264.7 macrophage line. Our results show that ellagic acid encapsulated in metalla-prisms inhibited cancer cells via the modulation of mRNA induction and protein expression levels of the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted protein in macrophages. PMID:26366074

  4. Investigation of the biological and anti-cancer properties of ellagic acid-encapsulated nano-sized metalla-cages

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Abhishek; Park, Dae Won; Kwon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Taegeun; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Se Chan; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2015-01-01

    Three new large hexanuclear metalla-prisms 911 incorporating 1,3, 5-tris(pyridin-4-ylethynyl)benzene (tpeb) 4 and one of the dinuclear arene ruthenium clips [Ru2(p-iPrC6H4Me)2(OO?OO)][CF3SO3]2 (OO?OO =2,5-dioxydo-1,4-benzoquinonato [dobq] 1, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthaquinonato (donq) 2, and 6,11-dihydroxy-5,12-naphthacenedionato [dotq] 3), which encapsulate the guest molecule ellagic acid (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione, 5) were prepared. All complexes were isolated as triflate salts in good yields and were fully characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The photophysical properties of these metalla-prisms were also investigated. Compounds 9 and 10 showed potent antioxidant activity, but 10 had the superior ORACPE value (1.300.020). Ellagic acid (5) and compound 11 showed weaker activity than that of Trolox. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that the metalla-prism compounds exhibit anticancer properties in vitro. Compound 10 inhibited the growth of all cancer cell lines at micromolar concentrations, with the highest cytotoxicity observed against A549 human lung cancer cells (IC50 =25.9 ?M). However, these compounds had a lower anti-cancer activity than that of doxorubicin. In a tumoricidal assay, ellagic acid (5) and compound 10 induced cytotoxicity in tumor cells, while doxorubicin did not. While free ellagic acid had no effect on the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted protein, the encapsulated metalla-prism 10 stimulated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and reduced regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted protein expression in the RAW264.7 macrophage line. Our results show that ellagic acid encapsulated in metalla-prisms inhibited cancer cells via the modulation of mRNA induction and protein expression levels of the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted protein in macrophages. PMID:26366074

  5. Ellagic acid: Pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms involved in liver protection.

    PubMed

    Garca-Nio, Wylly Ramss; Zazueta, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    Traditional drugs or therapies rarely have effects on regression of chronic liver diseases, which result in many cases from sustained oxidative stress. In recent years, ellagic acid (EA) has gained attention due to its multiple biological activities and several molecular targets. This is the first review focused on the pharmacological properties and on the molecular mechanisms activated by EA in terms of liver protection. EA possesses antioxidant, antihepatotoxic, antisteatosic, anticholestatic, antifibrogenic, antihepatocarcinogenic and antiviral properties that improves the hepatic architectural and functions against toxic and pathological conditions. The molecular mechanisms that EA activates include the scavenging of free radicals, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, modulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines synthesis, the regulation of biochemical pathways involved in the synthesis and degradation of lipids as well as the maintenance of essential trace elements levels. EA also inhibits hepatic stellate cells and mast cells activation, the proliferation of transformed cells, as well as viral replication by increasing antioxidant response, induction of apoptosis, downregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and angiogenesis, and stimulation of cellular immune response. Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of EA as an innovative pharmacological strategy, the number of phase I and II trials in patients is scarce, precluding its clinical application. In these sense, the use of new delivery systems that enhances EA bioavailability would improve the results already obtained. Also it remains to be determined if treatment with urolithins instead of EA would represent a better strategy in hepatic disease treatment. PMID:25941011

  6. Ellagic Acid Directed Growth of Au-Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Their Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, Stacey N.; Sarker, Nazmul H.; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we report the facile formation of bimetallic nanoparticles of Au-Pt in the presence of the plant polyphenol ellagic acid (EA). It was found that EA formed micro-fibrillar assemblies, which aggregated into micro-bundles under aqueous conditions. Those micro-bundles acted as templates for the growth of Au nanoparticles, as well as bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles biomimetically. At higher concentrations of EA, it was observed that in addition to forming fibrous micro-bundles, columnar assemblies of EA were formed in the presence of the metal nanoparticles. The formation of the assemblies was found to be concentration dependent. It appears that upon binding to metal ions and subsequent formation of the nanoparticles, morphological changes occur in the case of EA assemblies. The morphological changes observed were probed by electron microscopy. Further, the ability of the materials to degrade the toxic aromatic nitro compound 2-methoxy-4-nitroaniline was explored, where 50% degradation was observed within 15 min, indicating that such hybrid materials may have potential applications in environmental remediation.

  7. Endotoxin, epinephrine, and ellagic acid effects on the radiation-sensitized walker 256 rat carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M D; Bale, W F

    1968-10-01

    A radiation exposure of 1500 R to the Walker 256 rat tumor was found to sensitize this tumor to the effect of a sublethal dose of endotoxin (Sarratia marcescens lipopolysaccharide) given 2 days later so that complete or almost complete destruction of the tumor resulted. Histological. study showed rapidly developing massive necrosis of tumor tissue. Tracer experiments with 131I-labeled antibody to rat fibrin indicated an absence of blood circulation in the treated tumor. These results suggest that the lesion may be secondary to blood coagulation occurring in the vascular bed of the tumor. Apparently identical lesions were also produced by epinephrine and ellagic acid, alone or in combination. It is known that even untreated tumors are often the site of fibrin deposition. Presumably radiation, by injury to tumor cells, enhances the release of coagulation-producing substances into the vascular bed. It is postulated that the effect of subsequent treatment with the drugs listed above is produced by circulatory stasis induced in the tumor. This may be associated with Hageman factor activation or release of platelet factor 3. PMID:17387937

  8. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Hussaini, Jamal; Khor, Goot Heah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w.) of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ), to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV). The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg) orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E) was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction. PMID:25485304

  9. Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Hsiu-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lee, Shin-Da; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Cheng; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2010-10-15

    Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

  10. Effects of Ellagic Acid on Angiogenic Factors in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Cardile, Venera; Abraham, Nader G.; Sorrenti, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase system (HO) have emerged as important modulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: The anti-angiogenic effects of EA were investigated in the human prostatic cancer cell line LnCap. HO-1, HO-2, CYP2J2 and soluble epoxyde hydrolase (sEH) expressions were evaluated by western blotting. Levels of VEGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined in the culture supernatant using an ELISA assay, while CYP mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: EA treatment induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HO-1, HO-2 and CYP2J2 expression, and in VEGF and OPG levels. Similarly CYP2J2, CYP4F2 and CYPA22 mRNAs were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by EA treatment. The decrease in CYP2J2 mRNA was associated with an increase in sEH expression. Conclusions: Results reported in the present study highlighted the ability of EA to modulate a new pathway, in addition to anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation properties, via a mechanism that involves a decrease in eicosanoid synthesis and a down-regulation of the HO system in prostate cancer. PMID:24216999

  11. Determination of nucleic acid by its enhancement effect on the fluorescence of Ellagic acid - Cationic surfactant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yanwei; Tang, Bo

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, nucleic acid can greatly enhance the fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) in the presence of cetylpyridine bromide (CPB). Experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of nucleic acid in the range of 5.0 × 10 -9-3.5 × 10 -5 g mL -1 for hsDNA, 5.0 × 10 -9-3.5 × 10 -5 g mL -1 for ctDNA and 5.0 × 10 -9-3.5 × 10 -5 g mL -1 for yRNA. Their detection limits (S/N = 3) are 7.6 × 10 -9 g mL -1, 8.6 × 10 -9 g mL -1 and 6.1 × 10 -9 g mL -1, respectively. The method has been satisfactorily used for the determination of nucleic acid in actual samples. Resonance Light Scattering, Ultraviolet and other means are used to discuss its mechanism. It is considered that the charge-transfer complex EA-CPB aggregate in the extended nucleic acids by hydrogen bond and electric attraction. The hydrophobic microenvironment of nucleic acid makes the fluorescence intensity of EA-CPB-nucleic acid system much stronger.

  12. High-resolution bioactivity profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR: α-Glucosidase inhibitors and acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides from Myrcia palustris DC. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Moresco, Henrique H; Tahtah, Yousof; Brighente, Inês M C; Staerk, Dan

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an endocrine metabolic disease with a worldwide prevalence of more than 8%, and an expected increase close to 50% in the next 15-20years. T2D is associated with severe and life-threatening complications like retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular diseases, and therefore improved drug leads or functional foods containing α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed for management of blood glucose. In this study, leaves of Myrcia palustris were investigated by high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. This led to identification of casuarinin, myricetin 3-O-β-d-(6″-galloyl)galactopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside, myricetin, and quercetin as α-glucosidase inhibitors. In addition, four acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides, i.e., 4-O-(2″,4″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(2″,3″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(3″,4″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 4-O-(2″,3″,4″-O-triacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid were identified. PMID:25935545

  13. Investigation of the protective effect of ellagic acid for preventing kidney injury in rats exposed to nicotine during the fetal period.

    PubMed

    Akkoyun, H T; Karadeniz, A

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the possible protective effects of ellagic acid on rat kidneys exposed to nicotine during the fetal period. Twenty pregnant female rats were divided randomly into four groups: control (C), nicotine (N), ellagic acid (EA) and nicotine + ellagic acid (N + EA). Nicotine and ellagic acid treatments were continued throughout the pregnancies and for 15 days after delivery. On day 15, all neonatal pups were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for biochemical and histopathological examination. The nicotine treatment significantly decreased body weight, total glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the N group compared to controls. EA treatment ameliorated decreased body weight, GSH, GSH-Px and SOD activities, and increased MDA and NO levels in group N + EA compared to group N (p < 0.05). Nicotine caused kidney damage as shown by incomplete development of glomeruli and Bowman's capsules. Nicotine also caused greater apoptosis in group N compared to group C. Ellagic acid treatment produced histological kidney structure that was closer to normal and it exerted an anti-apoptotic effect in the N + EA group compared to the N group. EA played a protective role against nicotine-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats owing to its antioxidant, radical scavenging and anti-apoptotic effects. PMID:26529089

  14. Protective effect of ellagic acid against TCDD-induced renal oxidative stress: modulation of CYP1A1 activity and antioxidant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Kalai Selvi, Palaniswamy; Sravani, Samadi

    2014-07-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) belongs to toxicologically important class of poly halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and produce wide variety of adverse effects in humans. The present study investigated the protective effect of ellagic acid, a natural polyphenolic compound against TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity was reflected in marked changes in the histology of kidney, increase in levels of kidney markers (serum urea, serum creatinine) and lipid peroxides. A significant increase in activity of phase I enzyme CYP1A1 with concomitant decline in the activities of phase II enzymes [non-enzymic antioxidant and various enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase] was also observed. In addition, TCDD treated rats showed alterations in ATPase enzyme activities such as Na(+) K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase and Ca(2+) ATPase. Oral pre-treatment with ellagic acid prevented TCDD-induced alterations in levels of kidney markers. Ellagic acid pre-treatment significantly counteracted TCDD-induced oxidative stress by decreasing CYP1A1 activity and enhancing the antioxidant status. Furthermore, ellagic acid restored TCDD-induced histopathological changes and alterations in ATPase enzyme activities. The results of the present study show that significant protective effect rendered by ellagic acid against TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity might be attributed to its antioxidant potential. PMID:24566691

  15. Ellagic acid induces a dose- and time-dependent depolarization of mitochondria and activation of caspase-9 and -3 in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Alfredsson, Christina Fjraa; Ding, Menglei; Liang, Qiu-Li; Sundstrm, Birgitta E; Nnberg, Eewa

    2014-02-01

    The polyphenol ellagic acid is found in many natural food sources and has been proposed as a candidate compound for clinical applications due to its anti-oxidative capacity and as a potential anti-tumorigenic compound. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity to and possible apoptosis mechanism induced by ellagic acid in neuronal tumor cells. As a model the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was used. The methods applied were bright field and phase contrast microscopy, XTT- and LDH-assays, western blot, and flow cytometric analysis of DNA degradation and mitochondrial membrane potential. Ellagic acid treatment was found to induce a reduction in cell number preceded by alterations of the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and -3, DNA-fragmentation and cell death by apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death studied was not due to anoikis since it was significant in the adherent fraction of the cells. We conclude that ellagic acid induces dose- and time-dependent apoptosis, at least partly by the mitochondrial pathway, in an embryonal neuronal tumor cell system. This finding is in agreement with previously reported data on adult carcinoma cells thus suggesting a more general effect of ellagic acid on tumor cells. PMID:24051122

  16. Ellagic acid promoted biomimetic synthesis of shape-controlled silver nanochains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, Stacey N.; Yu, Samantha M.; Fath, Karl R.; Tsiola, Areti; Khalpari, Omid; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, was utilized for the biomimetic synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles, which over a period of time formed extended branched nanochains of hexagonal-shaped silver nanoparticles. It was found that EA not only has the capability of reducing silver ions, resulting in the formation of Ag nanoparticles, due to its extended polyphenolic system, but also appears to recognize and affect the Ag nanocrystal growth on the (111) face, leading to the formation of hexagon-shaped Ag nanocrystals. Initially, various Ag nanocrystal shapes were observed; however, over a longer period of time, a majority of hexagonal-shaped nanocrystals were formed. Although the exact mechanism of formation of the nanocrystals is not known, it appears that EA attaches to the silver nuclei, leading to lower surface energy of the (111) face. Further, the nanocrystals fuse together, forming interfaces among the aggregates, and, with time, those interfaces become lesser, and the nanoparticles merge together and share the same single crystallographic orientation, which leads to the formation of long elongated chains of hexagonal nanoparticles. This biomimetic approach may be developed as a green synthetic method to prepare building blocks with tunable properties for the development of nanodevices. Further, we explored the antibacterial properties and found that the tandem of EA-Ag nanochains substantially enhanced the antibacterial properties of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria compared to silver nanoparticles or EA alone. Additionally, the materials were also utilized for imaging of mammalian NRK (normal rat kidney) cells.

  17. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Improve Response to Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Estévez-Carmona, Miriam; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hobby, Gerren; Hendrickson, Howard; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. Methodology/Principal Findings This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50–200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530–1040 µg/mL). This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:22242149

  18. Biodistribution of, antimutagenic efficacies in Salmonella typhimurium of, and inhibition of P450 activities by ellagic acid and one analogue.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, A; Boukharta, M; Teel, R

    1998-11-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) is generated by hydrolysis of ellagitannins present in fruit berries and edible nuts and grapes. Large doses of EA prevent lung tumorigenesis induced by the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in A/J mice. In this study, we document the efficacies of the EA structural analogue (3,4,7,8-tetrahydroxy-6H-benzo[b,d]pyran-6-one) (analogue 1) to inhibit specific P450 activities, pulmonary metabolism of NNK in A/J mice, and NNK-induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. Mouse lung microsomes metabolized benzyloxyresorufin, a marker of cytochrome P450 2B1 activity, more extensively than methoxyresorufin or ethoxyresorufin. The EA analogue was more effective than EA in inhibiting dealkylation of the three alkoxyresorufins, suggesting that it is a nonspecific inhibitor of P450s. Mouse lung microsomes hydroxylate testosterone in the 7alpha and 6beta positions, suggesting contributions of P450 2A1 and P450 3A2 isozymes, respectively. Inhibition of both pathways was more effective with the EA analogue than with EA. Mouse lung explants metabolized NNK by alpha-carbon hydroxylation (activation) and pyridine N-oxidation (deactivation). Both pathways were inhibited when 100 microM EA was added to the culture medium. The EA analogue was a better inhibitor of the activation of NNK to electrophilic species than EA. Mouse lung microsomes activate NNK to intermediates mutagenic to S. typhimurium. Inhibition of NNK mutagenicity by EA or the EA analogue was 20 or 65%, respectively. The distribution of the EA analogue in lung and liver was determined following gavage with 1.7 mmol of the EA analogue. In the lung, a maximal level of EA analogue corresponding to 105 nmol was observed 30 min after administration of the analogue. The level in liver tissues was 4-fold lower than in the lung. Results of this study demonstrate that the EA analogue is more effective than EA in inhibiting the pulmonary activation of NNK and suggest that the EA analogue could be effective in preventing lung tumorigenesis. PMID:9815185

  19. The effects of ellagic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid on N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E M; Stoner, G D

    1991-02-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (CRA), both alone and in combination, were tested for their ability to inhibit N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine-induced tumors in the rat esophagus. Groups of male rats were fed AIN-76A diet containing EA (4 g/kg), CRA (240 mg/kg), or a combination of EA and CRA (4 g/kg and 240 mg/kg), respectively, for 25 weeks. Two weeks after initiation of the diets, NBMA (0.5 mg/kg per injection) was administered s.c. once weekly for 15 weeks. After 25 weeks on the diets, the animals were necropsied. The incidence of esophageal tumors was 97-100% in all NBMA-treated groups. The multiplicity of tumors in NBMA-treated groups was reduced significantly by EA (60%), but not by CRA, or by EA + CRA. These results demonstrate that EA and CRA do not act synergistically to inhibit NBMA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis. PMID:1998940

  20. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Berkban, Thewarid; Boonprom, Pattanapong; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat

    2015-07-01

    The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased heart rate (HR), hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR) and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability. PMID:26133972

  1. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berkban, Thewarid; Boonprom, Pattanapong; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Umka Welbat, Jariya; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by N?-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased heart rate (HR), hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR) and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability. PMID:26133972

  2. The Comparison of the Effects of Ellagic Acid and Diclofenac Sodium on Intra-Abdominal Adhesion: An In Vivo Study in the Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdi, Tulay Diken; Allahverdi, Ertu?rul; Yayla, Sad?k; Deprem, Turgay; Merhan, O?uz; Vural, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions are seen frequently after abdominal surgery and can cause serious complications. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the oral use of diclofenac sodium and ellagic acid on formation of postoperative adhesions in rats Studies have shown that agents with anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidant substances can prevent adhesion by decreasing oxidative stress. We compared and evaluated the effects of ellagic acid that has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac sodium on peritoneal adhesion development in our experimental study. Laparotomy was performed with a midline incision under general anesthesia and an adhesion model was created on the antimesenteric side of the cecum in Groups I, II, and III. Group I received 85 mg/kg ellagic acid and Group II, 50 mg/kg diclofenac sodium through the nasogastric catheter while Group III received no medication. Only laparotomy was performed in Group IV. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the 14th day. Following macroscopic scoring, tissue samples were removed and subjected to biochemical and histopathologic evaluation. The degree of adhesion and the malondialdehyde level were decreased (P < 0.05), and glutathione level increased (P < 0.05) in Group I compared to Group II and Group III. The effects of ellagic acid on the prevention of peritoneal adhesion were found to be stronger than diclofenac sodium. This can be explained by the fact that ellagic acid is a strong antioxidant and decreases oxidative stress with anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects. PMID:25216418

  3. Protective effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio during malathion exposure.

    PubMed

    Ural, M ?; Yonar, M E; Mi?e Yonar, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine protective efficiency of ellagic acid (EA) on malathion toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1 mg/L), and EA (100 mg per kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered for 14 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), and glutathioneStransferase (GST) activities were evaluated in liver, kidney and gills, which were collected at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrated that malathion caused oxidative stress and negative alterations on the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. However, this toxic effect was neutralised by the administration of EA. Thus, the present results suggest that simultaneous treatment with EA (100 mg per kg of fish weight) may alleviate malathioninduced oxidative stress. PMID:26516111

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01-0.11  μ g/mL and 0.03-0.36  μ g/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19-103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38-0.73% and 0.49-2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r (2) values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

  5. Ellagic acid & gallic acid from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. inhibit HIV-1 infection through inhibition of HIV-1 protease & reverse transcriptase activity

    PubMed Central

    Nutan; Modi, Manoj; Goel, Tanvi; Das, Tiyasa; Malik, Shweta; Suri, Samiksha; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Sharad Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh; Malhotra, Swadesh; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used as traditional medicines and are effective in controlling diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV property of the extracts prepared from the leaves and stems of banaba, and further purification and characterization of the active components. Methods: Aqueous and 50 per cent ethanolic extracts were prepared from leaves and stems of banaba and were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV activity using in vitro reporter gene based assays. Further, three compounds were isolated from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract of banaba leaves using silica gel column chromatography and characterization done by HPLC, NMR and MS analysis. To delineate the mode of action of the active compounds, reverse transcriptase assay and protease assay were performed using commercially available kits. Results: All the extracts showed a dose dependent inhibition of HIV-1-infection in TZM-bl and CEM-GFP cell lines with a maximum from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract from leaves (IC50= 1 to 25 μg/ml). This observation was confirmed by the virus load (p24) estimation in infected CEM-GFP cells when treated with the extracts. Gallic acid showed an inhibition in reverse transcriptase whereas ellagic acid inhibited the HIV-1 protease activity. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a novel anti-HIV activity of banaba. The active components responsible for anti-HIV activity were gallic acid and ellagic acid, through inhibition of reverse transcriptase and HIV protease, respectively and hence could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:23640562

  6. Site-specific accumulation of the cancer preventive dietary polyphenol ellagic acid in epithelial cells of the aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Alexander C; Sweet, Douglas H; Walle, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenol present in berries, has been demonstrated to prevent oesophageal and colon cancer in animals. To better understand the site-specificity of these effects, we studied the accumulation and transport of [14C]EA in rat aerodigestive epithelial cells in-vivo and in cultured human cells. When [14C]EA was administered to rats by gavage, a high content of EA was found in the oesophagus and small intestine at 0.5 h after oral administration and in the colon at 12 h, with very low amounts in plasma and peripheral tissues. Studies in human intestinal Caco-2 and human oesophageal HET-1A cells found very limited transcellular transport (Caco-2) of EA but high accumulation (Caco-2 and HET-1A) in the cells. In more detailed studies in the Caco-2 cells, accumulation of EA displayed ATP- and Na+-dependency. Multiple interventions permitted the exclusion of a number of transporters as mediators of this uptake. A dramatically reduced transport of EA at low pH (5.5) compared with high pH (7.4) suggested an important role for the negative charge of EA. This was supported by the organic anion transport inhibitors 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid and bromosulfophthalein. The latter produced as much as 78% inhibition at the 100 microM concentration. Finally, Caco-2 cells were shown to express organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4) mRNA, as was the human large intestine. EA appears to be accumulated along the aerodigestive tract using OAT-like transporters, one of which might be OAT4. PMID:16945178

  7. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin. PMID:23320085

  8. Ellagic acid improves hyperalgesia and cognitive deficiency in 6-hydroxidopamine induced rat model of Parkinsons disease

    PubMed Central

    Dolatshahi, Mojtaba; Farbood, Yaghoob; Sarkaki, Alireza; Mansouri, Seyed Mohammad Taqhi; Khodadadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Parkinsons disease (PD) is known for motor impairments. But often, there are non-motor symptoms such as cognitive deficiency and pain misperception, owing to possible role of nigrostriatal pathway. Antioxidants have protective effect on free radical-induced neuronal damage in PD. To further address, we examined the effects of ellagic acid (EA) in a rat model of PD induced by 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA). Materials and Methods: Right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) was lesioned by injecting 6-OHDA (16 g/2 l), in PDanimals. Sham operated animals received vehicle instead of 6-OHDA. PD was approved by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotation. EA (50 mg/kg/2 ml, PO, for 10 days) was administered to PD-EA group. Some PD-animals received pramipexole (PPX; 2 mg/kg/2 ml, PO) as a positive control group. Analgesia was measured by tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Passive avoidance task was measured by shuttle box apparatus to record the initial and step-through latency. Spatial cognition task was evaluated by Morris water maze test, measuring the escape latency time, path length, swimming speed and time spent in target quadrant. Results: MFB-lesioned rats showed hyperalgesic responses to the stimulus in tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Also they showed memory and learning deficit in cognitive tests. These effects reversed by EA treatment. Conclusion: 6-OHDA can induce oxidative stress and can disrupt the neural mechanisms underlying proper integration of painful stimuli and cognitive processes in MFB-lesioned rats. Consequently, nigrostriatal pathway can play possible role in nociception and cognition. EA, a natural antioxidant, has neuroprotective effect on this pathway and can ameliorate this defect and be considered in PD management. PMID:25810874

  9. A chitosan/beta-glycerophosphate thermo-sensitive gel for the delivery of ellagic acid for the treatment of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwoo; Nishimoto, Satoru K; Bumgardner, Joel D; Haggard, Warren O; Gaber, M Waleed; Yang, Yunzhi

    2010-05-01

    We report here the development of a chitosan/beta-glycerophosphate(Ch/beta-GP) thermo-sensitive gel to deliver ellagic acid (EA) for cancer treatment. The properties of the Ch/beta-GP gels were characterized regarding chemical structure, surface morphology, and viscoelasticity. In vitro EA release rate from the EA loaded Ch/beta-GP gel and chitosan degradation rate were investigated. The anti-tumor effect of the EA loaded Ch/beta-GP gel on brain cancer cells (human U87 glioblastomas and rat C6 glioma cells) was evaluated by examining cell viability. Cell number and activity were monitored by the MTS assay. The Ch/beta-GP solution formed a heat-induced gel at body temperature, and the gelation temperature and time were affected by the final pH of the Ch/beta-GP solution. The lysozyme increased the EA release rate by 2.5 times higher than that in the absence of lysozyme. Dialyzed chitosan solution with final pH 6.3 greatly reduced the beta-GP needed for gelation, thereby significantly improving the biocompatibility of gel (p < 0.001). The chitosan gels containing 1% (w/v) of ellagic acid significantly reduced viability of U87 cells and C6 cells compared with the chitosan gels at 3 days incubation (p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). PMID:20185170

  10. A Comparative Study for the Evaluation of Two Doses of Ellagic Acid on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30?mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30?mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30?mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

  11. Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L.

    PubMed

    Colaric, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Solar, Anita; Hudina, Metka; Stampar, Franci

    2005-08-10

    Phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, ellagic, and syringic acid) as well as syringaldehyde and juglone were identified in ripe fruits of 10 walnut cultivars: Adams, Cisco, Chandler, Franquette, Lara, Fernor, Fernette, Alsoszentivani 117 (A-117), Rasna, and Elit. Analyses were done using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector. Significant differences in the contents of identified phenolics were observed among cultivars. Phenolics were determined separately in the kernel and in the thin skin of the walnut, termed the pellicle. Not only in the kernel but also in the pellicle did syringic acid, juglone, and ellagic acid predominate (average values of 33.83, 11.75, and 5.90 mg/100 g of kernel; and 1003.24, 317.90, and 128.98 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively), and the contents of ferulic and sinapic acid (average values of 0.06 and 0.05 mg/100 g of kernel and 2.93 and 2.17 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively) were the lowest in all cultivars. The highest differences in the sum of all identified phenolics were observed between Rasna and Fernette fruits; in Rasna there were >2-fold higher contents of identified phenolics in both kernel and pellicle. It was found that the walnut pellicle is the most important source of walnut phenolics. The ratio between the contents in pellicle and kernel varied by at least 14.8-fold for caffeic acid (cv. Adams) and by up to 752.0-fold for p-coumaric acid (cv. Elit). PMID:16076123

  12. Tolerance and efficacy of a product containing ellagic and salicylic acids in reducing hyperpigmentation and dark spots in comparison with 4% hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Oresajo, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is the benchmark prescription agent for skin lightening. However, HQ use is recently banned in Europe and in parts of Asia because of potential long-term consequences, including carcinogenesis when orally consumed. This has resulted in development of alternative skin-lightening agents with comparable efficacy to HQ, but better safety profiles. This study examined the skin-lightening ability of a topical product containing 0.5% ellagic acid and 0.1% salicylic acid and compared its efficacy with that of a prescription generic 4% HQ product. Fifty-four multiethnic subjects were randomly assigned to use the topical test formulation or generic 4% HQ twice daily for 12 weeks to evaluate product tolerability and efficacy. Under the conditions of this double-blinded clinical study, the test product demonstrated comparable tolerance and efficacy to that of a benchmark product 4% HQ, as assessed by clinical grading, physical measurement of spot size using image analysis, and questionnaire response analysis. This study suggests that this new product provided comparable skin depigmentation benefit to the benchmark product. In addition, the product appears to have better esthetics (texture, pleasantness to use, skin feel) than the 4% HQ product. PMID:23377328

  13. In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of urolithin A, the colonic metabolite of ellagic acid, on hepatocellular carcinomas HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Qiu, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Benhong; Liu, Cong; Ruan, Jinlan; Yan, Qiujin; Liao, Jianming; Zhu, Fan

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal metabolites of ellagic acid (EA), urolithins are known to effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation. This study investigates antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of urolithin A (UA) on cell survival of the HepG2 hepatic carcinomas cell line. The antiproliferative effects of UA (0-500 ?M) on HepG2 cells were determined using a CCK assay following 12-36 h exposure. Effects on ?-catenin and other factors of expression were assessed by using real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that UA showed potent antiproliferative activity on HepG2 cells. When cell death was induced by UA, it was found that the expression of ?-catenin, c-Myc and Cyclin D1 were decreased and TCF/LEF transcriptional activation was notably down-regulated. UA also increased protein expression of p53, p38-MAPK and caspase-3, but suppressed expression of NF-?B p65 and other inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, the antioxidant assay afforded by UA and EA treatments was associated with decreases in intracellular ROS levels, and increases in intracellular SOD and GSH-Px activity. These results suggested that UA could inhibit cell proliferation and reduce oxidative stress status in liver cancer, thus acting as a viably effective constituent for HCC prevention and treatment. PMID:25910917

  14. A combination of ellagic acid and tetracycline inhibits biofilm formation and the associated virulence of Propionibacterium acnes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Chandran; Maruthupandiyan, Shanmugam; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; James, Prabhanand Bhaskar; Krishnan, Venkat; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2016-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an opportunistic pathogen which has become notorious owing to its ability to form a recalcitrant biofilm and to develop drug resistance. The current study aimed to develop anti-biofilm treatments against clinical isolates of P. acnes under in vitro and in vivo conditions. A combination of ellagic acid and tetracycline (ETC; 250 μg ml(-1) + 0.312 μg ml(-1)) was determined to effectively inhibit biofilm formation by P. acnes (80-91%) without affecting its growth, therefore potentially limiting the possibility of the bacterium attaining resistance. In addition, ETC reduced the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (20-26%), thereby making P. acnes more susceptible to the human immune system and antibiotics. The anti-biofilm potential of ETC was further substantiated under in vivo conditions using Caenorhabditis elegans. This study reports a novel anti-biofilm combination that could be developed as an ideal therapeutic agent with broad cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applicability in the era of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26930280

  15. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied. PMID:26158321

  16. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of urolithins for their determination in biological samples after the intake of foods containing ellagitannins and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Garca-Villalba, Roco; Espn, Juan Carlos; Toms-Barbern, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    Ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA) are metabolized by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that could be responsible for the health effects attributed to ellagitannin-containing food products. Several urolithin aglycones could be present in fecal samples while glucuronide and sulphate conjugates are mainly found in plasma and urine. So far, the lack of available standards has made difficult their correct identification and quantification. In the present study, UV and MS spectra characteristics of urolithins and their phase II metabolites have been determined using different systems based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with diode-array or mass spectrometer detectors with different analyzers (triple quadrupole (QqQ) and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Poroshell C18 column (3100mm, 2.7?m). Elution order, characteristic UV spectra, and relative response factors (RRFs) with respect to their parental compound (EA) and the most common metabolite urolithin A (Uro-A) were determined. This contribution, along with the most important mass spectra characteristics (MRM transitions, qualifier/quantifier ratio, accurate mass and fragmentation pattern) will allow the determination of urolithin metabolites in different biological samples and their quantification even if not all metabolites are commercially available. The methods developed in the three systems have been fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, recovery, matrix effect, selectivity and stability. After that, they were successfully applied to complex biological matrices (urine, feces and plasma) from two human studies in which volunteers consumed ellagitannin-containing foods, such as walnuts and pomegranate extracts. PMID:26341594

  17. A study of the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of ellagic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Rezaie, Anahita; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ellagic acid (EA) has shown antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzymes and also cytokines play a key role in many inflammatory conditions. This study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of EA. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model was used for induction of inflammation. Results: The results showed that intraplantar injection of carrageenan led to time-dependent development of peripheral inflammation, which resulted in a significant increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) β, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and also iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed paw. However, systemic administration of EA (1–30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws with ED50 value 8.41 (5.26–14.76) mg/kg. It decreased the serum concentration of NO, PGE2, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and suppress the protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 enzymes, and attenuated the formation of PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1 β in inflamed paw tissue. We also demonstrated that EA significantly decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in liver at 5 h after carrageenan injection. Moreover, histopathological studies indicated that EA significantly diminished migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into site of inflammation, as did indomethacin. Conclusions: Collectively, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EA might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA, iNOS, and COX-2 in the edema paw via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL1 β), NO and PGE2 overproduction. PMID:26069367

  18. Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Hellstrm, Jarkko; Trrnen, Riitta

    2006-09-20

    The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082

  19. Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.; Mulcahy, F.; Somayajula, K.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

  20. Fruit Age and Changes in Abscisic Acid Content, Ethylene Production, and Abscission Rate of Cotton Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of fruit age, abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, ethylene evolution, and abscission rates were studied in an effort to determine why cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cv. Deltapine 16) fruits rarely abscise more than 15 days after anthesis. Because abscission of cotton fruits is increased by conditions that limit photosynthesis, greenhouse-grown plants with fruits of various ages were placed in dim light for 3 days to induce high rates of fruit abscission. Abscission rates, ABA concentrations, and ethylene evolution rates were determined for fruits of various ages. Almost all of the young fruits abscised, but abscission rate declined with age until almost no abscission was observed in fruits that were 15 or more days past anthesis. Dim light increased the ABA concentrations of fruits that were 6 to 11 days old but did not increase ABA concentrations in fruits that were younger or older. The concentration of ABA declined with fruit age from peak values at 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Dim light also increased ethylene evolution from fruits up to 10 days old but had little effect on ethylene production or abscission of fruits more than 11 days old. Ethylene evolution declined with fruit age from peak values at 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Fruits of various ages (from plants not exposed to dim light) were sliced to induce high rates of wound ethylene production. The results indicated that the capacity for ethylene production declined with fruit age, parallel with a decline in abscission rate. Decreases in ABA concentration and ethylene evolution with fruit age indicate that change in the capacity to synthesize these hormones, especially in response to stress, is one cause of the decline in abscission rates as cotton fruits become older. PMID:16662207

  1. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

  2. Uncovering co-expression gene network regulating fruit acidity in diverse apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidity is a major contributor to fruit quality. Several organic acids are present in apple fruit, but malic acid is predominant and determines fruit acidity. The trait is largely controlled by the Malic acid (Ma) locus, underpinning which Ma1 that encodes an Aluminum-activated Malate Transporter1 (...

  3. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Oszmiański, Jan; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Wojdyło, Aneta; Cebulak, Tomasz; Oklejewicz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones). In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%), flavonols (max. 44%) and anthocyanins (max. 29%), than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE) method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:26132562

  4. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits.

    PubMed

    Oszmia?ski, Jan; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Miros?awa; Wojdy?o, Aneta; Cebulak, Tomasz; Oklejewicz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones). In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%), flavonols (max. 44%) and anthocyanins (max. 29%), than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE) method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:26132562

  5. Evaluation of different extraction methods from pomegranate whole fruit or peels and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the polyphenolic fraction.

    PubMed

    Masci, Alessandra; Coccia, Andrea; Lendaro, Eugenio; Mosca, Luciana; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Cesa, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Pomegranate is a functional food of great interest, due to its multiple beneficial effects on human health. This fruit is rich in anthocyanins and ellagitannins, which exert a protective role towards degenerative diseases. The aim of the present work was to optimize the extraction procedure, from different parts of the fruit, to obtain extracts enriched in selected polyphenols while retaining biological activity. Whole fruits or peels of pomegranate cultivars, with different geographic origin, were subjected to several extraction methods. The obtained extracts were analyzed for polyphenolic content, evaluated for antioxidant capacity and tested for antiproliferative activity on human bladder cancer T24 cells. Two different extraction procedures, employing ethyl acetate as a solvent, were useful in obtaining extracts enriched in ellagic acid and/or punicalagins. Antioxidative and antiproliferative assays demonstrated that the antioxidant capability is directly related to the phenolic content, whereas the antiproliferative activity is to be mainly attributed to ellagic acid. PMID:26920266

  6. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acids are one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavor compounds. However, the molecular-genetic control of acid accumulation in fruit is poorly understood and, to date, no genes responsible for acid accumulation in fleshy fruit have been function...

  7. Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound, selectively induces ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancerous B-lymphocytes of CLL patients by directly targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Ahmad; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Sadeghi, Leila; Mohseni, Alireza; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pirahmadi, Nahal; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects ofellagic acid (EA) on the cytotoxicity, B-lymphocytes isolated from CLL patients and healthy individuals. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the percentage of apoptosis versus necrosis, intracellular active oxygen radicals (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the caspase-3 activity and then mitochondria were isolated from both groups B-lymphocytes and parameters of mitochondrial toxicity was investigated. Based on our results EA decreased the percentage of viable cells and induced apoptosis. EA increased ROS formation, mitochondria swelling, MMP decrease and cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from CLL BUT NOT healthy B-lymphocytes while pre-treatment with cyclosporine A and Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) prevented these effects. Our results suggest that EA can act as an anti cancer candidate by directly and selectively targeting mitochondria could induce apoptosis through mitochondria pathway with increasing ROS production which finally ends in cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation and apoptosis in cancerous B-lymphocytes isolated from CLL patients. PMID:26418626

  8. Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound, selectively induces ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancerous B-lymphocytes of CLL patients by directly targeting mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Ahmad; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Sadeghi, Leila; Mohseni, Alireza; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pirahmadi, Nahal; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects ofellagic acid (EA) on the cytotoxicity, B-lymphocytes isolated from CLL patients and healthy individuals. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the percentage of apoptosis versus necrosis, intracellular active oxygen radicals (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the caspase-3 activity and then mitochondria were isolated from both groups B-lymphocytes and parameters of mitochondrial toxicity was investigated. Based on our results EA decreased the percentage of viable cells and induced apoptosis. EA increased ROS formation, mitochondria swelling, MMP decrease and cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from CLL BUT NOT healthy B-lymphocytes while pre-treatment with cyclosporine A and Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) prevented these effects. Our results suggest that EA can act as an anti cancer candidate by directly and selectively targeting mitochondria could induce apoptosis through mitochondria pathway with increasing ROS production which finally ends in cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation and apoptosis in cancerous B-lymphocytes isolated from CLL patients. PMID:26418626

  9. Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of stabilized ellagic acid–phospholipid complex with improved dissolution and permeability

    PubMed Central

    Avachat, Amelia M.; Patel, Vijay G.

    2014-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a plant polyphenol known for its wide-range of health benefits has limited use due to its low oral bioavailability. In this study, a new self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS), based on the phospholipid complex technique, was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid–phospholipid complex was prepared by an anti-solvent method and characterized. Enhanced lipophilicity after the formation of ellagic acid–phospholipid complex was verified through solubility studies. Preliminary screening was carried out to select oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. Formulations were optimized on the basis of globule size, cloud point and robustness to dilution. The optimized SNEDDS of ellagic acid–phospholipid complex showed mean globule size of 106 ± 0.198 nm and cloud point at 83–85 °C. The in vitro drug release from SNEDDS was found to be higher compared to EA suspension and complex, while ex vivo studies showed increased permeation from SNEDDS compared to EA suspension. Moreover, SNEDDS overcome the food effect which was shown by EA suspension. Thus, SNEDDS were found to be influential in improving the release performance of EA, indicating their potential to improve the oral bioavailability of EA. PMID:26106276

  10. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  11. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2007-11-30

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

  12. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  13. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  14. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. PMID:25466077

  15. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2014-01-01

    Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

  16. Pericarp browning and quality management of litchi fruit by antioxidants and salicylic acid during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Daya Shankar; Chakraborty, Binayak; Kumar, Prabhat

    2013-08-01

    Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to overcome pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at ambient storage. It was found that 0.5% salicylic acid, 1% isoascorbic acid and 1% N-acetyl cysteine performed better over sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation for most of the parameters under study. Application of 0.5% salicylic acid found superior to reduce the pericarp browning, relative leakage rate, and decay percentage. It was effective in reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity and improvement of anthocyanin pigments of the fruit pericarp over other treatments. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of the litchi fruits were recorded highest with the application of 1% isoascorbic acid followed by 0.5% salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, 0.5% salicylic acid and 1% isoascorbic could be used as an alternative of SO2 fumigation for quality retention of litchi fruits. PMID:24425984

  17. Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of both the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which along with other phenylpropanoids are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid...

  18. Evolution of the aroma volatiles of pear fruits supplemented with fatty acid metabolic precursors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Gaihua; Tao, Shutian; Zhang, Huping; Huang, Wenjiang; Wu, Juyou; Xu, Yiliu; Zhang, Shaoling

    2014-01-01

    To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored "Nanguoli" fruits than in green-flavored "Dangshansuli" fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in "Dangshansuli" fruits were higher than in "Nanguoli" fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in "Dangshansuli" was approximately three times that in "Nanguoli". The higher contents of hexyl esters in "Dangshansuli" may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented. PMID:25474290

  19. INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF CHLORINE WITH MALIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, AND VARIOUS FRUIT JUICES, A SOURCE OF MUTAGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...

  20. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. PMID:25577050

  1. Concentrations of Abscisic Acid and Indoleacetic Acid in Cotton Fruits and Their Abscission Zones in Relation to Fruit Retention

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene; Brummett, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to determine the effects of drought and an increase in available photosynthate on the abscisic acid (ABA) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) contents of 3-day-old bolls and their abscission zones. Photosynthate availability was manipulated by removing about two-thirds of the plants to permit increased irradiance, and thus photosynthesis, in the plant canopy. The demand for photosynthate was decreased by removing all bolls from the remaining plants. The thinning and defruiting operations were performed about 3 weeks after first flower. Control plants were neither thinned nor defruited. Effects of water deficit were observed by making three harvests at different times during a 2-week irrigation cycle. Increasing the availability of photosynthate increased boll retention, but had relatively little effect on the concentrations of ABA and IAA in bolls. However, it did increase the concentration of IAA in abscission zones. Water deficit increased the ABA content of bolls and abscission zones and decreased the IAA content of bolls and abscission zones. Across all treatments, the IAA content of abscission zones was positively correlated, and the ABA content of bolls was negatively correlated, with boll retention. The results indicate that stresses change the hormonal balance in ways that are consistent with observed increases in fruit abscission. PMID:16665202

  2. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ?1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. PMID:25019249

  3. Isolation and characterization of six peach cDNAs encoding key proteins in organic acid metabolism and solute accumulation: involvement in regulating peach fruit acidity.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Christelle; Moing, Annick; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Raymond, Philippe; Monet, Ren; Rothan, Christophe

    2002-02-01

    As in many other fleshy fruits, the predominant organic acids in ripe peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit are malic and citric acids. The accumulation of these metabolites in fruit flesh is regulated during fruit development. Six peach fruit-related genes implicated in organic acid metabolism (mitochondrial citrate synthase; cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase, and cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase) and storage (vacuolar proton translocating pumps: one vacuolar H+-ATPase, and two vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatases) were cloned. Five of these peach genes were homologous to genes isolated from fruit in other fleshy fruit species. Phylogenetic and expression analyses suggested the existence of a particular vacuolar pyrophosphatase highly expressed in fruit. The sixth gene was the first cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase gene isolated from fruit. Gene expression was studied during the fruit development of two peach cultivars, a normal-acid (Fantasia) and a low-acid (Jalousia) cultivar. The overall expression patterns of the organic acid-related genes appeared strikingly similar for the two cultivars. The genes involved in organic acid metabolism showed a stronger expression in ripening fruit than during the earlier phases of development, but their expression patterns were not necessarily correlated with the changes in organic acid contents. The tonoplast proton pumps showed a biphasic expression pattern more consistent with the patterns of organic acid accumulation, and the tonoplast pyrophosphatases were more highly expressed in the fruit of the low-acid cultivar during the second rapid growth phase of the fruit. PMID:11903973

  4. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. PMID:21128945

  5. New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

  6. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  7. Light avoidance reduces ascorbic acid accumulation in the peel of Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Lado, Joanna; Als, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Mara Jess; Zacaras, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Citrus fruits are highly consumed worldwide and represent one of the most important sources of ascorbic acid (AsA). However, information about the molecular mechanisms regulating AsA accumulation in Citrus fruit and the effects of environmental factors is scarce. In this study we have investigated the effect of fruit shading on AsA content and the expression of AsA biosynthetic, degrading and recycling genes in fruits of different Citrus species. Immature-green fruits were covered at the end of the cell enlargement phase and AsA concentration in the flavedo declined and remained at low levels as compared with light-exposed fruits. Fruit shading marginally altered the expression of genes from the l-galactose pathway and this effect was variable in the four Citrus species. However, specific isoforms (GalUR8 or GalUR12) from the l-galacturonic acid pathway were significantly repressed paralleling the reduction in AsA concentration. No significant effect of shading was detected in transcription of genes of the myo-inositol and l-gulose pathways as well as recycling and degradation. Collectively, results indicate that light avoidance inhibited accumulation of AsA in the flavedo of Citrus fruits and suggest that the l-galacturonic acid pathway has a relevant contribution to AsA content in this tissue. PMID:25575999

  8. Phenotypic and fine genetic characterization of the D locus controlling fruit acidity in peach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Acidity is an essential component of the organoleptic quality of fleshy fruits. However, in these fruits, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that control fruit acidity remain unclear. In peach the D locus controls fruit acidity; low-acidity is determined by the dominant allele. Using a peach progeny of 208 F2 trees, the D locus was mapped to the proximal end of linkage group 5 and co-localized with major QTLs involved in the control of fruit pH, titratable acidity and organic acid concentration and small QTLs for sugar concentration. To investigate the molecular basis of fruit acidity in peach we initiated the map-based cloning of the D locus. Results In order to generate a high-resolution linkage map in the vicinity of the D locus, 1,024 AFLP primer combinations were screened using DNA of bulked acid and low-acid segregants. We also screened a segregating population of 1,718 individuals for chromosomal recombination events linked to the D locus and identified 308 individuals with recombination events close to D. Using these recombinant individuals we delimited the D locus to a genetic interval of 0.4 cM. We also constructed a peach BAC library of 52,000 clones with a mean insert size of 90 kb. The screening of the BAC library with markers tightly linked to D locus indicated that 1 cM corresponds to 250 kb at the vicinity of the D locus. Conclusion In the present work we presented the first high-resolution genetic map of D locus in peach. We also constructed a peach BAC library of approximately 15 genome equivalent. This fine genetic and physical characterization of the D locus is the first step towards the isolation of the gene(s) underlying fruit acidity in peach. PMID:19445673

  9. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2010-01-01

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

  10. Low temperature storage affects the ascorbic acid metabolism of cherry tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Delis, Costas; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Aivalakis, Georgios

    2014-11-01

    Tomato fruits are an important source of l-Ascorbic acid, which is an essential compound of human diet. The effect of the widespread practice of cold storing (5-10 °C) tomato fruits was monitored to determine its impact on the concentration and redox status of l-Ascorbic acid. Total l-Ascorbic acid levels were well maintained in both attached fruits and cold treated fruits, while in other treatments its levels were considerably reduced. However, low temperature storage conditions enhanced the expression of most genes coding for enzymes involved in l-Ascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox reactions. The findings suggest that the transcriptional up-regulation under chilling stress conditions of most genes coding for l-Ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, GDP-d-mannose 3,5-epimerase but also for the isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase enzyme, glutathione reductase that are strongly correlated to the l-Ascorbic redox status. Moreover, fruits stored at 10 °C exhibited higher levels of transcript accumulation of MDHAR2, DHAR1, DHAR2, GR1 and GR2 genes, pointing to a better ability to manage chilling stress in comparison to fruits stored at 5 °C. PMID:25282013

  11. Fruit acids do not enhance sodium lauryl sulphate-induced cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit acids and SLS did not enhance cumulative skin irritation. PMID:16040403

  12. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    PubMed

    Nawirska-Olsza?ska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sok?-??towska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species. PMID:24262577

  13. Fruit antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total phenol, quercetin, and carotene of Irwin mango fruits stored at low temperature after high electric field pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo

    2004-03-10

    Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes. PMID:14995134

  14. Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Riahi, Leila; Maaroufi, Abderrazak; Hasnaoui, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conceived to evaluate the essential fatty acids, secondary metabolites, antiradical and antimicrobial activities of unexploited Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. The obtained results indicated that the major components of fatty acids were oleic acid (88.12%) and elaidic acid (7.88%). Leaves contained higher amount of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins than fruits, although both methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activities. Significant correlations were observed between the total phenol or flavonoid contents in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activity estimated by using both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic radical-scavenging methods. In addition, both methanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition zone diameters and the minimal inhibition concentration values were in the range of 10-17 mm and 3.1-50 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24805194

  15. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  16. Secondary plant substances in various extracts of the leaves, fruits, stem and bark of Caraipa densifolia Mart.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, C V; Trevisan, M T S; Rios, J B; Erben, G; Haubner, R; Pfundstein, B; Owen, R W

    2010-06-01

    Thirty secondary plant substances were detected in various extracts of the leaves, fruits, stem and bark of Caraipadensifolia Mart. Phenolic compounds were preliminarily identified and quantitated by HPLC-ESI-MS and the structures of the compounds, purified by semi-preparative HPLC, were further characterized by nano-ESI-MS-MS. The presence of gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, methyl gallate, p-coumaric acid quinate, epicatechin, procaynidin dimer B(2), procyanidin trimer C(1), syringic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetragallate glucoside, 1,3,4,6-tetragallate glucoside, corilagin, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, two apigenin-C-glycosides (vitexin and isovitexin) and two luteolin-C-glycosides (orientin and isoorientin) are reported in this species for the first time. In addition, the previously reported following terpenoids, lupeol, lupenone, betulinic acid, betulin, friedelin and a previously non-characterized terpenoid in this species, friedelinol were identified and quantitated by GC-MS. A previously identified sterol was beta-sitosterol along with stigmasterol in this species for the first time. The vitamins alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol were also identified in extracts of the leaves of Caraipa species for the first time. The data shows that the botanical parts of C. densifolia Mart. has a much richer spectrum of secondary plant substances than previously reported. PMID:20347919

  17. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum. PMID:26808096

  18. Target selection in designing pasteurization processes for shelf-stable high-acid fruit products.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipa V M; Gibbs, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study is focused on the search for targets and criteria for the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products, such as juices, nectars, pastes, purees, concentrates, jams, jellies, etc. First, an overview of pasteurization is presented and then, frequently used targets for pasteurization processes are reviewed Enzymes naturally present in fruits, in decreasing order of heat resistance, were pectinesterase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase, and they may be used as pasteurization targets. The heat resistance of each enzyme is strongly dependent on its fruit origin. The most heat resistant micro-organisms capable of spoiling high acid fruit products include ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys nivea, Talaromyces flavus, Eupenicillium javanicum, and Byssochlamys fulva moulds, as well as bacterial spores of Clostridium butyricum, Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus megaterium. These micro-organisms, spores, and enzymes were, in general, less heat resistant than the spores of a particular spoilage micro-organism named Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, which has been causing problems in the fruit industry. Therefore, the use of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores as a reference micro-organism in the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products is suggested. PMID:15540648

  19. New fatty acid, aromatic ester and monoterpenic benzyl glucoside from the fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections in the indigenous system of medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of W. coagulans fruits led to the isolation of a new fatty acid, an aromatic ester and a monoterpenic benzyl glucoside characterised as n-octatriacont-17-enoic acid (3), geranilan-10-olyl dihydrocinnamoate (4) and geranilan-8-oic acid-10-olyl salicyloxy-2-O-?-D-glucofuranosyl-(6??1?)-O-?-D-glucofuranosyl-6?-n-octadec-9?',11?'-dienoate (5) along with two known fatty acids, n-dotriacont-21-enoic acid (1) and n-tetratriacontanoic acid (2). The structures of isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, FT-IR, UV, and MS data and chemical means. PMID:25674818

  20. Cancer-Related Constituents of Strawberry Jam as Compared with Fresh Fruit.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The health awareness recently shown by consumers has led to a demand for health beneficial products. In particular, researchers are currently focusing their studies on the search for foods for cancer prevention activity. In the present work, we study comparatively the effect of two different processing methods on the contents of phenolic compounds (i.e., ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) with antioxidant and antitumor properties in strawberry jams. In turn, the results obtained were compared with those of unprocessed fruit. Additionally carcinogenic heat-induced compounds formed by the two jam making methods were evaluated. Decreases of total ellagic acid from 138.4 µg/g to 86.5 µg/g were measured in jam as compared with the intact fruit. Even higher losses of up to 90% of total flavonols were found in strawberry after the jam-making process. A comparison between the two processing methods proved shorter heating periods (around 60 min) even at temperatures as high as 100 °C enabled losses of antioxidant phenolics to be minimized. Carcinogenic heat-induced volatile compounds, mainly Maillard reaction products, were formed as a result of thermal treatment during jam processing. However, shorter heating periods also helped reduce the formation of these harmful compounds. These results are deeply discussed. From a practical standpoint, the processing conditions here proposed can be used by industry to obtain strawberry jam with higher content of antioxidant flavonoids and, at the same time, reduced amounts of carcinogenic compounds. PMID:26784230

  1. Cancer-Related Constituents of Strawberry Jam as Compared with Fresh Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The health awareness recently shown by consumers has led to a demand for health beneficial products. In particular, researchers are currently focusing their studies on the search for foods for cancer prevention activity. In the present work, we study comparatively the effect of two different processing methods on the contents of phenolic compounds (i.e., ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) with antioxidant and antitumor properties in strawberry jams. In turn, the results obtained were compared with those of unprocessed fruit. Additionally carcinogenic heat-induced compounds formed by the two jam making methods were evaluated. Decreases of total ellagic acid from 138.4 µg/g to 86.5 µg/g were measured in jam as compared with the intact fruit. Even higher losses of up to 90% of total flavonols were found in strawberry after the jam-making process. A comparison between the two processing methods proved shorter heating periods (around 60 min) even at temperatures as high as 100 °C enabled losses of antioxidant phenolics to be minimized. Carcinogenic heat-induced volatile compounds, mainly Maillard reaction products, were formed as a result of thermal treatment during jam processing. However, shorter heating periods also helped reduce the formation of these harmful compounds. These results are deeply discussed. From a practical standpoint, the processing conditions here proposed can be used by industry to obtain strawberry jam with higher content of antioxidant flavonoids and, at the same time, reduced amounts of carcinogenic compounds. PMID:26784230

  2. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

  3. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

  4. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S.; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J.; White, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes (RR) showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase. PMID:26322038

  5. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J; White, James F

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes (RR) showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase. PMID:26322038

  6. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. )

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  7. ?-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-15

    The results from this study showed that treatment with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 ?g/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen. PMID:24767023

  8. Chili pepper fruits: presumed precursors of fatty acids characteristic for capsaicinoids.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Roland; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2008-06-11

    Capsaicin is a molecule unique to fruits from the genus Capsicum. It is responsible for the pungent sensation and displays valuable pharmacological properties. Despite the fruits' economic importance and decades of research, the regulation of the content of capsaicinoids in individual fruits is not completely elucidated, and no agricultural cultivation of chili of defined pungency is assured. Precursor candidates of the fatty acid moiety of the capsaicinoids, especially for the unique 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid, were examined. Thioesters, acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA, were isolated from the placenta of Capsicum fruits by means of DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, selectively converted to the corresponding N-butylamides, and analyzed by GC-MS. Fatty acid moieties characteristic for capsaicinoids were identified. In two different varieties ( Capsicum chinense var. Habanero orange and Capsicum annuum var. Jalapeno) it was shown that the fatty acid pattern corresponds to the distribution pattern of the capsaicinoids formed up to this time. The acyl-thioester fractions contained already the 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid. PMID:18489121

  9. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  10. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

    2014-08-01

    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  11. Metabolite profiling of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and other dark-colored fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    Many dark-colored fruit juices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH() and ABTS(+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264

  12. Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brckner, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil()-L-Val and Lipodex() E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), ?-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (<70 mg/kg DM) of L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, ?-alanine, and in some samples (<20 mg/kg DM) of (S)-?-aminoisobutyric acid and (<10 mg/kg DM) L-allo-isoleucine. In one date fruit, traces of ?-aminoadipic acid could be determined. Enantiomeric analysis of 6 M DCl/D2O hydrolysates of AAs using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of very low amounts of D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Glu, D-Ser and D-Phe (1.2-0.4%, relative to the corresponding L-enantiomers), besides traces (0.2-1%) of other D-AAs. The possible relevance of non-proteinogenic amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed. PMID:24938763

  13. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Turner, Charlotta; Chapman, Mary H; McKeon, Thomas A

    2004-01-28

    In this study, we analyzed fatty acid and carotenoid composition of fruit tissues, including seed (which are surrounded by a bright red, oily aril) of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac in Vietnam. Carotenoid content was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, using a C(30) column and a method separating cis- and trans-isomers of the major carotenoids in this fruit. Mean values obtained in aril tissues were 1342 microg trans-, 204 microg cis-, and 2227 microg total lycopene; 597 microg trans-, 39 microg cis-, and 718 microg total beta-carotene; and 107 microg alpha-carotene/g FW. Mesocarp contained 11 microg trans-, 5 microg cis-beta-carotene/g FW, trace amounts of alpha-carotene, and no lycopene. Gac aril contained 22% fatty acids by weight, composed of 32% oleic, 29% palmitic, and 28% linoleic acids. Seeds contained primarily stearic acid (60.5%), smaller amounts of linoleic (20%), oleic (9%), and palmitic (5-6%) acids, and trace amounts of arachidic, cis-vaccenic, linolenic, and palmitoleic, eicosa-11-enoic acids, and eicosa-13-enoic (in one fruit only) acids. PMID:14733508

  14. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus domestica) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)-'McIntosh', 'Gala' and 'Mutsu'-were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of 'McIntosh' and the flesh of 'Mutsu'. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  15. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus domestica) cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)McIntosh, Gala and Mutsuwere harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of McIntosh and the flesh of Mutsu. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  16. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  17. PHENOLIC ACID CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF EGGPLANT FRUIT IN A GERMPLASM CORE SUBSET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of potential health promoting effects have been ascribed to plant phenolic phytochemicals. We report here a first evaluation of phenolic acid constituents in eggplant fruit from accessions in the USDA eggplant core subset. The core subset includes 101 accessions of the cultivated eggplant...

  18. Absorption spectral analysis of proteins and free amino acids in Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyshyn, S.; Gorshynska, I.; Guminetsky, S. G.

    2002-02-01

    The paper deals with the results of spectrophotometric studies of the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies, grown in natural conditions in different habitats of Chernivtsy region, in the spectral interval of 215 - 340 nm. It is shown that the samples reveal considerable difference both in free amino acid content and reserved protein content of albumins, globulins, prolamins, glutelins.

  19. A tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that affects tomato fruit amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Christopher J; Thomas, Benjamin; Baxter, Charles J; Smith, J Andrew C; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-03-01

    Vacuolar accumulation of acidic metabolites is an important aspect of tomato fruit flavour and nutritional quality. The amino acids Asp and Glu accumulate to high concentrations during ripening, while γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shows an approximately stoichiometric decline. Given that GABA can be catabolised to form Glu and subsequently Asp, and the requirement for the fruit to maintain osmotic homeostasis during ripening, we hypothesised the existence of a tonoplast transporter that exports GABA from the vacuole in exchange for import of either Asp or Glu. We show here that the tomato vacuolar membrane possesses such a transport property: transport of Glu across isolated tonoplast vesicle membranes was trans-stimulated in counterexchange mode by GABA, Glu and Asp. We identified SlCAT9 as a candidate protein for this exchanger using quantitative proteomics of a tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Transient expression of a SlCAT9-YFP fusion in tobacco confirmed a tonoplast localisation. The function of the protein was examined by overexpression of SlCAT9 in transgenic tomato plants. Tonoplast vesicles isolated from transgenic plants showed higher rates of Glu and GABA transport than wild-type (WT) only when assayed in counterexchange mode with Glu, Asp, or GABA. Moreover, there were substantial increases in the content of all three cognate amino acids in ripe fruit from the transgenic plants. We conclude that SlCAT9 is a tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that strongly influences the accumulation of these amino acids during fruit development. PMID:25602029

  20. Candidate genes and quantitative trait loci affecting fruit ascorbic acid content in three tomato populations.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Rebecca; Buret, Michel; Duff, Philippe; Garchery, Ccile; Baldet, Pierre; Rothan, Christophe; Causse, Mathilde

    2007-04-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables are a major source of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an important antioxidant for the human diet and also for plants. Ascorbic acid content in fruit exhibits a quantitative inheritance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ascorbic acid content have been mapped in three tomato populations derived from crosses between cultivated tomato varieties (Solanum lycopersicum accessions) and three related wild species or subspecies. The first population consists of a set of introgression lines derived from Solanum pennellii, each containing a unique fragment of the wild species genome. The second population is an advanced backcross population derived from a cross between a cultivated tomato and a Solanum habrochaites (formerly Lycopersicum hirsutum) accession. The third population is a recombinant inbred line population derived from the cross between a cherry tomato line and a large fruited line. Common regions controlling ascorbic acid content have been identified on chromosomes 2, 8, 9, 10, and 12. In general, the wild alleles increased ascorbic acid content, but some improvement could also be provided by S. lycopersicum. Most QTLs appeared relatively stable over years and in different environments. Mapping of candidate genes involved in the metabolism of ascorbic acid has revealed a few colocations between genes and QTLs, notably in the case of a monodehydroascorbate reductase gene and a QTL present in two of the populations on chromosome 9 (bin 9-D), and a previously mapped GDP-mannose epimerase and a QTL on chromosome 9 (bin 9-J). PMID:17277090

  1. Candidate Genes and Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Fruit Ascorbic Acid Content in Three Tomato Populations

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Rebecca; Buret, Michel; Duff, Philippe; Garchery, Ccile; Baldet, Pierre; Rothan, Christophe; Causse, Mathilde

    2007-01-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables are a major source of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an important antioxidant for the human diet and also for plants. Ascorbic acid content in fruit exhibits a quantitative inheritance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ascorbic acid content have been mapped in three tomato populations derived from crosses between cultivated tomato varieties (Solanum lycopersicum accessions) and three related wild species or subspecies. The first population consists of a set of introgression lines derived from Solanum pennellii, each containing a unique fragment of the wild species genome. The second population is an advanced backcross population derived from a cross between a cultivated tomato and a Solanum habrochaites (formerly Lycopersicum hirsutum) accession. The third population is a recombinant inbred line population derived from the cross between a cherry tomato line and a large fruited line. Common regions controlling ascorbic acid content have been identified on chromosomes 2, 8, 9, 10, and 12. In general, the wild alleles increased ascorbic acid content, but some improvement could also be provided by S. lycopersicum. Most QTLs appeared relatively stable over years and in different environments. Mapping of candidate genes involved in the metabolism of ascorbic acid has revealed a few colocations between genes and QTLs, notably in the case of a monodehydroascorbate reductase gene and a QTL present in two of the populations on chromosome 9 (bin 9-D), and a previously mapped GDP-mannose epimerase and a QTL on chromosome 9 (bin 9-J). PMID:17277090

  2. Abscisic acid plays an important role in the regulation of strawberry fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai-Feng; Chai, Ye-Mao; Li, Chun-Li; Lu, Dong; Luo, Jing-Jing; Qin, Ling; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2011-09-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in fruit development, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking. Here, we report that ABA promotes strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit ripening. Using a newly established Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing technique in strawberry fruit, the expression of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene (FaNCED1), which is key to ABA biosynthesis, was down-regulated, resulting in a significant decrease in ABA levels and uncolored fruits. Interestingly, a similar uncolored phenotype was observed in the transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) fruits, in which the expression of a putative ABA receptor gene encoding the magnesium chelatase H subunit (FaCHLH/ABAR) was down-regulated by virus-induced gene silencing. More importantly, the uncolored phenotype of the FaNCED1-down-regulated RNAi fruits could be rescued by exogenous ABA, but the ABA treatment could not reverse the uncolored phenotype of the FaCHLH/ABAR-down-regulated RNAi fruits. We observed that down-regulation of the FaCHLH/ABAR gene in the RNAi fruit altered both ABA levels and sugar content as well as a set of ABA- and/or sugar-responsive genes. Additionally, we showed that exogenous sugars, particularly sucrose, can significantly promote ripening while stimulating ABA accumulation. These data provide evidence that ABA is a signal molecule that promotes strawberry ripening and that the putative ABA receptor, FaCHLH/ABAR, is a positive regulator of ripening in response to ABA. PMID:21734113

  3. Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chist, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesu Verglio; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2014-12-15

    Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818 ?g/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2,070 ?g/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1,603 ?g/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10 ?g/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9 ?g/g extracts) and all-trans-?-carotene (4-6 ?g/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry. PMID:25038660

  4. Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

    2015-04-15

    Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation. PMID:25466081

  5. Purification and Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid N-Malonyltransferase from Tomato Fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M. N.; Saftner, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) can be oxidized to ethylene or diverted to the conjugate 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) by an ACC N-malonyltransferase. We developed a facile assay for the ACC N-malonyltransferase that resolved [14C]MACC from [14C]ACC by thin-layer chromatography and detected and quantified them using a radioisotope-imaging system. Using this assay, we showed that ACC N-malonyltransferase activity has developmental and tissue-specific patterns of expression in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit. In the pericarp, activity was elevated for several days postanthesis, subsequently declined to a basal level, increased 3-fold at the onset of ripening, and again declined in overripe fruit. In the seed, activity increased throughout embryogenesis, maturation, and desiccation. Treatment of fruit with ethylene increased activity 50- to 100-fold in the pericarp. ACC N-malonyltransferase was purified 22,000-fold to a specific activity of 22,000 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DyeMatrex Green A affinity, anion-exchange, Cibacron Blue 3GA affinity, hydrophobic interaction, and molecular filtration chromatography. Native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured enzyme showed molecular masses of 38 kD, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme exhibited a Km for ACC of 500 [mu]M, was not inhibited by D- or L-amino acids, and did not conjugate [alpha]-aminoisobutyric acid or L-amino acids. PMID:12228541

  6. Dynamics of fatty-acid composition of neutral acylglycerols in maturing euonymus fruits.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

    2014-04-01

    The dynamics of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of neutral acylglycerols (NAGs) composed of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAGs) and 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acDAGs) was determined in the fruit seeds and arils of three Euonymus L. species at three stages of their maturity. The NAG composition comprised 29 FAs, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and ?-linolenic acids being predominant. Noticeable amounts of other FAs, such as lauric, myristic, hexadec-9-enoic, stearic, (Z)-vaccenic, and arachidic acid, etc., could also be present. In the course of maturation, the qualitative composition of major FAs remained nearly unchanged, while the unsaturation index of FAs in seeds and in TAGs, as well as, but to a lesser extent, in arils and in acDAGs, respectively, always decreased. This decline was brought about by a sharp fall of the ?-linolenate level, a decrease of the linoleate content, and a corresponding rise in the oleate content. It is suggested that, in both seeds and arils, both classes of NAGs were formed at the expense of the same FA pool; the quantitative composition of this pool was characteristic of a given fruit part and strongly changed during maturation. The accumulation of TAGs in E. europaeus fruits was accompanied by a conversion of hexadec-9-enoic acid into (Z)-vaccenic acid via the C2 -elongation reaction. PMID:24706628

  7. A new caffeoylgluconic acid derivative from the nearly ripe fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Li, Jie; Wu, Hong-Hua; Chai, Xin; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    A new caffeoylgluconic acid derivative, trans-caffeoyl-6-O-D-gluconic acid methyl ester (1), together with two known compounds named trans-caffeoyl-6-O-D-glucono-?-lactone (2) and trans-caffeoyl-6-O-D-gluconic acid (3), was isolated from the nearly ripe fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.. These compounds were isolated by various separation methods associated with the UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. PMID:25801682

  8. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power. PMID:18785051

  9. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets. PMID:23539474

  10. A co-expression gene network associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-01

    Apple fruit acidity, which affects the fruit's overall taste and flavor to a large extent, is primarily determined by the concentration of malic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that the major QTL malic acid (Ma) on chromosome 16 is largely responsible for fruit acidity variations in apple. Recent advances suggested that a natural mutation that gives rise to a premature stop codon in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT)-like genes (called Ma1) is the genetic causal element underlying Ma. However, the natural mutation does not explain the developmental changes of fruit malate levels in a given genotype. Using RNA-seq data from the fruit of 'Golden Delicious' taken at 14 developmental stages from 1 week after full-bloom (WAF01) to harvest (WAF20), we characterized their transcriptomes in groups of high (12.2 ± 1.6 mg/g fw, WAF03-WAF08), mid (7.4 ± 0.5 mg/g fw, WAF01-WAF02 and WAF10-WAF14) and low (5.4 ± 0.4 mg/g fw, WAF16-WAF20) malate concentrations. Detailed analyses showed that a set of 3,066 genes (including Ma1) were expressed not only differentially (P FDR < 0.05) between the high and low malate groups (or between the early and late developmental stages) but also in significant (P < 0.05) correlation with malate concentrations. The 3,066 genes fell in 648 MapMan (sub-) bins or functional classes, and 19 of them were significantly (P FDR < 0.05) co-enriched or co-suppressed in a malate dependent manner. Network inferring using the 363 genes encompassed in the 19 (sub-) bins, identified a major co-expression network of 239 genes. Since the 239 genes were also differentially expressed between the early (WAF03-WAF08) and late (WAF16-WAF20) developmental stages, the major network was considered to be associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity in 'Golden Delicious'. PMID:25576355

  11. Variation in the contents of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and three quercetin glycosides in leaves and fruits of Rowan (Sorbus) species and varieties from collections in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gaivelyte, Kristina; Jakstas, Valdas; Razukas, Almantas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2013-08-01

    Our research aim was to investigate the quantitative composition of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin in leaves and fruit of introduced rowan plants to Lithuania using a HPLC method. In leaf and fruit samples, quantitative estimation of neochlorogenic acid (in leaf samples 1.11-11.49 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.93-5.43 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (in leaf samples 2.74-21.91 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.55-7.50 mg/g), rutin (in leaf samples 0.03-4.88 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-0.39 mg/g), hyperoside (in leaf samples 0.15-7.44 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-1.19 mg/g) and isoquercitrin (in leaf samples 0.75-5.24 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-0.65 mg/g) was performed. In leaf samples, the total content of identified phenolic compounds ranged from 7.18 to 35.74 mg/g. In fruit, raw material total content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and identified flavonoids varied from 2.24 to 11.19 mg/g. Comparison of raw material samples of Sorbus species according to their quantitative composition of identified phenolic compounds using cluster analysis singularized S. commixta leaf and fruit samples. These contained the highest contents of chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and isoquercitrin, but also the lowest contents of neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The highest contents of neochlorogenic acid were recorded for S. lancifolia leaves, and of rutin for S. anglica leaves. PMID:24079179

  12. Digallic acid from Pistascia lentiscus fruits induces apoptosis and enhances antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Bhouri, Wissem; Skandrani, Ines; Sghair, Mohamed Ben; Franca, Marie-Genevive Djoux; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira, Leila Chekir

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant and apoptotic activities of digallic acid, isolated from the fruits of Pistascia lentiscus, were investigated. The study demonstrated that digallic acid possessed pro-apoptotic effects, as shown by provoking DNA fragmentation of K562 cells. It also revealed a significant antioxidant potential and effective scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH) and O?? radicals, and reduced cupric ions. We conclude that this integrated approach to apoptotic and antioxidant assessment may be useful to maximize the beneficial effects associated with using P. lentiscus derivatives as medicinal and dietary compounds. PMID:21780210

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zisheng; Mou, Wangshu; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker) treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA) and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of β-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and β-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient’s biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA’s role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future. PMID:26053069

  14. Simultaneous determination of acidic pesticides in vegetables and fruits by liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shida, Shizuka S; Nemoto, Satoru; Matsuda, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and efficient method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 73 multi-class acidic pesticides, such as phenoxy acid and sulfonylurea herbicides, in vegetables and fruits. The sample preparation procedure was carefully optimized for the efficient removal of co-extracted matrix components. The method involves extraction of acidic pesticides with acetonitrile containing hydrochloric acid, removal of water from crude extract by salting out, and sequential cleanup by octadecylsilyl silica gel and silica gel columns. For samples containing high amounts of pigments, such as spinach, additional cleanup using a graphitized carbon column was performed prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Recovery tests were performed for five times for each sample of cabbage, spinach, potato, eggplant, orange, and apple fortified at 0.01 mg kg-1. Out of the 73 tested pesticides, 70 for cabbage, 67 for spinach, 69 for potato, 67 for eggplant, 64 for orange, and 70 for apple were within the range of 70-120%, with relative standard deviations below 25%. Nitenpyram and pyrasulfotole showed low recoveries for all the samples tested, probably due to low recoveries from silica gel column. The developed method effectively removed co-extracted matrix components and was highly selective, with no interfering peaks found in the chromatograms of blank samples. The overall results indicate that the developed method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of acidic pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. PMID:25602148

  15. The genetic architecture of branched-chain amino acid accumulation in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kochevenko, Andrej; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies of the genetic architecture of fruit metabolic composition have allowed us to identify four strongly conserved co-ordinate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). This study has been extended here to encompass the other 23 enzymes described to be involved in the pathways of BCAA synthesis and degradation. On coarse mapping the chromosomal location of these enzymes, it was possible to define the map position of 24 genes. Of these genes eight co-localized, or mapped close to BCAA QTL including those encoding ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD), and isopropylmalate dehydratase (IPMD). Quantitative evaluation of the expression levels of these genes revealed that the S. pennellii allele of IPMD demonstrated changes in the expression level of this gene, whereas those of KARI and DHAD were invariant across the genotypes. Whilst the antisense inhibition of IPMD resulted in increased BCAA, the antisense inhibition of neither KARI nor DHAD produced a clear effect in fruit BCAA contents. The results are discussed both with respect to the roles of these specific enzymes within plant amino acid metabolism and within the context of current understanding of the regulation of plant branched-chain amino acid metabolism. PMID:21436187

  16. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with potential protective culture characteristics from fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Nurul Huda; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are also known as beneficial microorganisms abundantly found in fermented food products. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fresh cut fruits obtained from local markets. Throughout the isolation process from 11 samples of fruits, 225 presumptive lactic acid bacteria were isolated on MRS agar medium. After catalase and oxidase tests, 149 resulted to fit the characteristics of lactic acid bacteria. Further identification using Gram staining was conducted to identify the Gram positive bacteria. After this confirmation, the fermentation characteristics of these isolates were identified. It was found that 87 (58.4%) isolates were heterofermentative, while the rest of 62 (41.6%) are homofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Later, all these isolates were investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus using agar spot assay method. Seven (4.7%) isolates showed strong antagonistic capacity, while 127 (85.2%) and 8 (5.4%) isolates have medium and weak antagonistic capacity, respectively. The other 7 (4.7%) isolates indicated to have no antagonistic effect on S. aureus. Results support the potential of LAB isolated in this study which showed strong antagonistic activity against S. aureus may be manipulated to become protective cultures in food products. While the homofermentative or heterofermentative LAB can be utilized in fermentation of food and non-food products depending on the by-products required during the fermentation.

  17. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    PubMed

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35g/100g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31g/100g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43g/100g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38g/100g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33mg/100g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54g) and vitamin E (0.78mg/100g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  18. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  19. Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from delta-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits

    SciTech Connect

    El-Rayes, D.E.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new pathway for ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) biosynthesis, which utilizes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production to 232% of the control. The C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and radioactivity from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO/sub 2/ but not in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/. However, radioactivity from (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in CO/sub 2/, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ showed any radioactivity when (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA or (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and ACC.

  20. Evidence for light-stimulated fatty acid synthesis in soybean fruit

    PubMed

    Willms; Salon; Layzell

    1999-08-01

    In leaves, the light reactions of photosynthesis support fatty acid synthesis but disagreement exists as to whether this occurs in green oilseeds. To address this question, simultaneous measurements of the rates of CO(2) and O(2) exchange (CER and OER, respectively) were made in soybean (Glycine max L.) fruits. The imbalance between CER and OER was used to estimate the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR) in the equation: DRUR = 4 x (OER + CER). This yielded a quantitative measure of the rate of synthesis of biomass that is more reduced per unit carbon than glucose (in photosynthesizing tissues) or than the substrates of metabolism (in respiring tissues). The DRUR increased by about 2.2-fold when fruits were illuminated due to a greater increase in OER than decrease in CER. This characteristic was shown to be a property of the seed (not the pod wall), to be present in fruits at all developmental stages, and to reach a maximal response at relatively low light. When seeds were provided with (13)CO(2), light reduced (12)CO(2) production but had little effect on (13)CO(2) fixation. When they were provided with (18)O(2), light stimulated (16)O(2) production but had no effect on (18)O(2) uptake. Together, these findings indicate that light stimulates fatty acid synthesis in photosynthetic oilseeds, probably by providing both ATP and carbon skeletons. PMID:10444095

  1. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  2. Occurrence of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters in fruits of Celastraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

    2013-06-01

    Small amounts of a mixture of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters (FASCAEs) were obtained from the fruits of twelve plant species of Celastraceae family, and in five of them the FASCAEs were present not only in the arils but also in the seeds. These mixtures contained 32 individual FASCAE species, which formed four separate fractions, viz. FA methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and butyl esters (FAMEs, FAEEs, FAIPEs, and FABEs, resp.). The FASCAE acyl components included the residues of 16 individual C??-C?? saturated, mono-, di-, and trienoic FAs. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, and, in some cases, also ?-linolenic acid predominated in FAMEs and FAEEs, while myristic acid was predominant in FAIPEs. It can be suggested that, in the fruit arils of some plant species, FAMEs and FAEEs were formed at the expense of a same FA pool characteristic of a given species and were strongly different from FAIPEs and FABEs esters regarding the mechanism of their biosynthesis. However, as a whole, the qualitative and quantitative composition of various FASCAE fractions, as well as their FA composition, varied considerably depending on various factors. Therefore, separate FASCAE fractions seem to be synthesized from different FA pools other than those used for triacylglycerol formation. PMID:23776017

  3. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fentons reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

  4. Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively. PMID:23247371

  5. Effective Trapping of Fruit Flies with Cultures of Metabolically Modified Acetic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yuri; Akasaka, Naoki; Goda, Itsuko; Sakoda, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Acetoin in vinegar is an attractant to fruit flies when combined with acetic acid. To make vinegar more effective in attracting fruit flies with increased acetoin production, Komagataeibacter europaeus KGMA0119 was modified by specific gene disruption of the acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase gene (ilvC). A previously constructed mutant lacking the putative ligand-sensing region in the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (KeLrp, encoded by Kelrp) was also used. The ilvC and Kelrp disruptants (KGMA5511 and KGMA7203, respectively) produced greater amounts of acetoin (KGMA5511, 0.11%; KGMA7203, 0.13%) than the wild-type strain KGMA0119 (0.069%). KGMA7203 produced a trace amount of isobutyric acid (0.007%), but the other strains did not. These strains produced approximately equal amounts of acetic acid (0.7%). The efficiency of fruit fly attraction was investigated with cultured Drosophila melanogaster. D. melanogaster flies (approximately 1,500) were released inside a cage (2.5 m by 2.5 m by 1.5 m) and were trapped with a device containing vinegar and a sticky sheet. The flies trapped on the sticky sheet were counted. The cell-free supernatant from KGMA7203 culture captured significantly more flies (19.36 to 36.96% of released flies) than did KGMA0119 (3.25 to 11.40%) and KGMA5511 (6.87 to 21.50%) cultures. Contrastingly, a 0.7% acetic acid solution containing acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%), which mimicked the KGMA7203 supernatant, captured significantly fewer flies (0.88 to 4.57%). Furthermore, the KGMA0119 supernatant with additional acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%) captured slightly more flies than the original KGMA0119 supernatant but fewer than the KGMA7203 supernatant, suggesting that the synergistic effects of acetic acid, acetoin, isobutyric acid, and unidentified metabolites achieved the efficient fly trapping of the KGMA7203 supernatant. PMID:25595769

  6. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in fruit juices using hydrophilic magnetic imprinted nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75μgmL(-1), respectively). PMID:26830581

  7. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  8. [Changes in amino acid and fatty acid contents as well as activity of some related enzymes in apple fruit during aroma production].

    PubMed

    Nie, Lan-Chun; Sun, Jian-She; Di, Bao

    2005-12-01

    Aroma volatiles from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. var. Starkrimson) fruit at different stages of maturity were collected by solid adsorbent-Tenax-GC and determined by thermodesorption and GC-MS. Production of propyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate and total ester volatiles and changes in concentration of the precursors of aroma biosynthsis--free amino acids and fatty acids and activities of lipoxygenases (LOX) and alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT) in apple fruits during ripening were studied. The results showed that propyl acetate and total esters were very low when the endogenous ethylene formation of the fruit was very low. At the stage of the increase in ethylene production, the rate of formation of propyl acetate and total esters increased. Butyl acetate appeared at the beginning of ethylene rise and increased thereafter. Ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate was produced at the beginning of climacteric stage and then increased sharply (Figs.1). These facts suggest that the aroma production is closely related to ethylene production. Among the 14 free amino acids detected in fruit, isoleucine which is considered to be the biosynthetic precursor of some branched chain esters showed a great increase during fruit ripening while the others decreased or remained stable (Table 1). The accumulation of isoleucine suggested that isoleucine supply in fruit may not limit the biosynthesis of esters with branched chain alkyl groups. Concentrations of free fatty acids such as palmitic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, stearic acids increased before the increase of aroma production, decreased with the increase of aroma production and showed an increase at postclimacteric stages (Fig.2). LOX activity increased at climacteric stages and declined rapidly thereafter. AAT activity increased sharply at the early stage of fruit maturity when the aroma was very low and remained at a stable high level during fruit ripening (Fig.3) indicating that the AAT activity is not the limiting factor for aroma formation in apple fruit. PMID:16361796

  9. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (24 C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (46 C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 C) and elevated (35/20 C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (410 C above controls) during pre-vraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at vraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 46 C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  10. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  11. The arbuscular mycorrhizal status has an impact on the transcriptome profile and amino acid composition of tomato fruit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is the most widespread association between plant roots and fungi in natural and agricultural ecosystems. This work investigated the influence of mycorrhization on the economically relevant part of the tomato plant, by analyzing its impact on the physiology of the fruit. To this aim, a combination of phenological observations, transcriptomics (Microarrays and qRT-PCR) and biochemical analyses was used to unravel the changes that occur on fruits from Micro-Tom tomato plants colonized by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. Results Mycorrhization accelerated the flowering and fruit development and increased the fruit yield. Eleven transcripts were differentially regulated in the fruit upon mycorrhization, and the mycorrhiza-responsive genes resulted to be involved in nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in regulation and signal transduction. Mycorrhization has increased the amino acid abundance in the fruit from mycorrhizal plants, with glutamine and asparagine being the most responsive amino acids. Conclusions The obtained results offer novel data on the systemic changes that are induced by the establishment of AM symbiosis in the plant, and confirm the work hypothesis that AM fungi may extend their influence from the root to the fruit. PMID:22452950

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Lchaudel, Mathieu; Gnard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

  13. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).

    PubMed

    Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

    2014-11-15

    Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10μM MJ, 2mM SA or 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD. PMID:25216124

  14. Study of genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of the digallic acid isolated from Pistacia lentiscus fruits.

    PubMed

    Bhouri, Wissem; Derbel, Safa; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Ines; Sghaier, Mohamed B; Kilani, Soumaya; Mariotte, Anne M; Dijoux-Franca, Marie G; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-03-01

    The digallic acid obtained from the fruit Pistacia lentiscus exhibits an inhibitory activity against nitrofurantoine and B[a]P induced genotoxicity when tested by the SOS chromotest bacterial assay system in the presence of Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. The antioxidant activity of the tested compound was determined by its ability to scavenge the free radical ABTS(+), to inhibit the xanthine oxidase, involved in the generation of free radicals, and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that digallic acid shows an important free radical scavenging activity towards the ABTS(+) radical (99%) and protection against lipid peroxidation (68%). PMID:19563883

  15. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role. PMID:25983222

  16. Anti-diabetic effects of the Indian indigenous fruit Emblica officinalis Gaertn: active constituents and modes of action.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Jason Jerome; D'souza, Prema Pancy; Fazal, Farhan; Kumar, Ashish; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-04-01

    Dietary constituents are shown to play an important role in the development of diabetes. Studies have shown that the fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, colloquially known as Indian gooseberry or amla and/or some of its important constituents (including gallic acid, gallotanin, ellagic acid and corilagin), possess anti-diabetic effects through their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Amla has also been reported to prevent/reduce hyperglycemia, cardiac complications, diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, cataractogenesis and protein wasting. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and preliminary. For the first time this review summarizes the anti-diabetic affects of amla and also addresses the mechanisms mediating these properties. PMID:24577384

  17. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3μM while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

  18. Role of Indoleacetic Acid and Abscisic Acid in the Correlative Control by Fruits of Axillary Bud Development and Leaf Senescence 1

    PubMed Central

    Tamas, Imre A.; Engels, Carol J.; Kaplan, Stuart L.; Ozbun, Jim L.; Wallace, Donald H.

    1981-01-01

    When fully filled pods of bean plants were deseeded, the rate of axillary bud growth and the chlorophyll content of leaves were increased. Application of 0.1% indoleacetic acid (IAA) in lanolin on the deseeded pods caused abscission of axillary buds, inhibited growth of the remaining buds, and decreased leaf chlorophyll content. The response of bud development to fruit-applied IAA was concentration dependent between 0.001 and 0.1% IAA (representing from 2 to 200 micrograms IAA per fruit) resulting in greater growth inhibition at higher IAA concentrations. When plants were defruited so that the number of fruits per plant was adjusted to 0, 6, 12, or 18, a dosage effect of fruits on photosynthesis was observed. Removal of all fruits caused a rise in the CO2-exchange rate (CER). With increasing fruit dosage, plants showed leaf senescence of increasing intensity and a corresponding decline in CER. In contrast to the effect of fruit-applied IAA on leaves and buds, it delayed the senescence of treated fruits. When axillary buds were treated directly with aqueous solutions of IAA, no growth inhibition occurred. Abscisic acid (AbA) applied on deseeded pods, up to a concentration of 0.1% AbA in lanolin, failed to inhibit axillary bud development or to cause leaf senescence. The results support the hypothesis that the correlative control of axillary bud development and leaf senescence by fruits involves the participation of both IAA and AbA. IAA, released by the seeds, may play the role of the correlative signal that moves from the fruit to the target organ, where it stimulates the synthesis or accumulation of AbA. AbA, in turn, may be responsible for the inhibition of axillary bud development and the enhancement of leaf senescence. PMID:16661940

  19. Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Chebulagic Acid from the Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Na; Zhao, Dong-Dong; Gao, Bo; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Wang-Jun; Jia, Li-Rong; Gao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we firstly compared rat intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity by different ethanol-aqueous extractions from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. The enzymatic assay showed that the 80% ethanol extract was more potent against maltase activity than both 50% and 100% ethanol extracts. By HPLC analysis, it was determined that the 80% ethanol extract had a higher content of chebulagic acid than each of 50% or 100% ethanol extract. Next, we investigated how efficiently chebulagic acid could inhibit sugar digestion by determining the glucose level on the apical side of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The result showed that the maltose-hydrolysis activity was down-regulated by chebulagic acid, which proved to be a reversible inhibitor of maltase in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, chebulagic acid showed a weak inhibition of sucrose-hydrolysis activity. Meanwhile, chebulagic acid did not have an obvious influence on intestinal glucose uptake and was not effective on glucose transporters. Further animal studies revealed that the oral administration of chebulagic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels by 11.1% in maltose-loaded Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats compared with the control group, whereas the oral administration of chebulagic acid did not show a suppressive effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in sucrose- or glucose-loaded SD-rats. The results presented here suggest that chebulagic acid from T. chebula can be used to control blood glucose and manage type 2 diabetes, although clinical trials are needed. PMID:22754367

  20. Healing Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Masoumi, Samira; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Erjaee, Hoda; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Rahimikazerooni, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistacia atlantica and lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistacia atlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 22020 g) were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%). Group 1 (Asacol), group 2 (base gel) and group 7 (without treatment) were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml) and group 4 (600 mg/ml) received Pistacia atlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel) and group 6 (20% gel) received Pistacia atlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results: All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001). Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54)=76.61, P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the meanSD score of Asacol treated group (1.570.045) was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.620.024) and 6 (1.580.028). Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis. PMID:25429174

  1. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Bridelia retusa Methanolic Fruit Extract in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tekeshwar; Jain, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials of methanolic extract of Bridelia retusa fruit (BRME) were evaluated against different animal models in rodents. Antinociceptive effects of BRME were assessed in mice using the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test. Anti-inflammatory effects of BRME in three different doses, namely, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, were evaluated by utilizing different animal models representing various changes associated with inflammation, namely, carrageenan-induced paw oedema, histamine and serotonin-induced paw oedema, arachidonic acid-induced paw oedema, formalin-induced paw oedema, TPA-induced ear oedema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, total WBC count in paw fluid, and myeloperoxidase assay. Also BRME was phytochemically evaluated using chromatographic method. The BRME did not exhibit any signs of toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The extract showed statistical significant inhibition of induced nociception and inflammation in dose dependent manner. The higher dose of extract significantly inhibited pain and inflammation against control (P < 0.001). HPLC results revealed the presence of gallic acid and ellagic acid as phytoconstituents in BRME and it was proven as anti-inflammatory agents. The present study scientifically demonstrated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of fruit of B. retusa methanolic extract. These effects may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic phytoconstituents in the extract. PMID:25506619

  2. Anthocyanins, phenolic acids and antioxidant properties of Juara fruits (Euterpe edulis M.) along the on-tree ripening process.

    PubMed

    Bicudo, Milene Oliveira Pereira; Ribani, Rosemary Hoffmann; Beta, Trust

    2014-06-01

    Juara (Euterpe edulis M.) fruits are an interesting source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, making them valuable to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Juara fruits were harvested along the on-tree ripening process between March and June as practiced in Paran state, Brazil and examined for their total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), total phenolic acid (TPA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAA). Overall, TAC increased (91.52-236.19mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/100gdm) whereas TPC (81.69-49.09mg GAE/gdm) and TPA (44.27-30.95mg/100gdm) decreased during ripening of juara fruits. Use of tandem mass spectrometry allowed the identification of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside for the first time in juara fruits. The analysis of the phenolic acids by HPLC-MS/MS indicated the presence of gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, sinapinic and ferulic acids. The high antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging capacity (655.89-745.32?mol TE/gdm) and ORAC assays (1088.10-2071.55?mol TE/gdm) showed that juara fruits have potential as a source of novel natural antioxidants for disease prevention and health promotion, and also as natural food additives for developing new functional food products. PMID:24570272

  3. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits

    PubMed Central

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH? IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 ?g/ml) to inactive (389 ?g/ml). PMID:21340048

  4. Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2014-09-01

    Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

  5. A natural mutation led truncation in Ma1, one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter like genes at the Ma locus, is associated with low fruit acidity in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidity levels greatly affect fruit taste and flavor, thereby the consumer’s acceptance and market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the nearly exclusive organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity ...

  6. High efficiency joint CZE determination of sugars and acids in vegetables and fruits.

    PubMed

    Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Roselló, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    In this work, an improved CE method for the medium-throughput determination of main organic acids (oxalate, malate, citrate), the amino acid glutamate and the sugars fructose, glucose and sucrose in several food matrices is described. These compounds have been identified as key components in the taste intensity of fruit and vegetable crops. Using a running buffer with 20 mM 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid pH 12.1 and 0.1% hexadimethrine bromide, replacing it every 5 h to avoid pH decrease, and optimizing capillary conditioning between runs with 58 mM SDS during 2 min at 20 psi, it is possible to effectively quantify these compounds while increasing medium throughput repeatability. This procedure resolves problems such as increases in migration time and reduction of resolution between problematic peaks (malate/citrate and fructose/glucose) detected in a previous method. The new procedure even considerably reduced time analysis down to 12 min. Under optimal conditions, a large number of injections (200) could be administered without any disturbances in the same capillary. The reliability of the proposed method was further investigated with several food matrix samples, including tomato, pepper, muskmelon, winter squash, and orange. This method is recommended for routine analysis of large number of samples typical of production quality systems or plant breeding programs. PMID:22887163

  7. Direct determination of gibberellic acid in tomato and fruit by using photochemically induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Murillo Pulgarn, Jos A; Garca Bermejo, Luisa F; Becedas Rodrguez, Sonia

    2013-10-16

    A simple, sensitive method for determining gibberellic acid based on photochemically induced fluorescence detection was developed to determine this plant growth regulator in a technical formulation, tomato, and fruit samples. The principle for the determination is the photochemical reactivity of the gibberellic acid, being consistent with the occurrence of photoaromatization and photochemical dimerization with loss of carbon dioxide, and with the likely formation of various fluorescent photoproducts. Six min of UV (mainly at 253.7 nm) irradiation in a solution containing 50% (v/v) methanol and buffer at pH 5 provided the best results. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 50-150 ng mL(-1), and the limit of detection was 1.7 ng mL(-1). The method is useful to determine gibberellic acid in samples with background fluorescence such as plum and tomato without the need for labor-intensive preparation as a result of UV irradiation suppressing the fluorescent background. PMID:24102243

  8. Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

    2013-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4. PMID:23709290

  9. Optimization of a method for determination of phenolic acids in exotic fruits by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fukuji, Tatiana S; Tonin, Fernando G; Tavares, Marina F M

    2010-01-20

    In this work, the separation of nine phenolic acids (benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, syringic, and vanillic acid) was approached by a 3(2) factorial design in electrolytes consisting of sodium tetraborate buffer (STB) in the concentration range of 10-50 mmol L(-1) and methanol in the volume percentage of 5-20%. Derringer's desirability functions combined globally were tested as response functions. An optimal electrolyte composed by 50 mmol L(-1) tetraborate buffer at pH 9.2, and 7.5% (v/v) methanol allowed baseline resolution of all phenolic acids under investigation in less than 15 min. In order to promote sample clean up, to preconcentrate the phenolic fraction and to release esterified phenolic acids from the fruit matrix, elaborate liquid-liquid extraction procedures followed by alkaline hydrolysis were performed. The proposed methodology was fully validated (linearity from 10.0 to 100 microg mL(-1), R(2)>0.999; LOD and LOQ from 1.32 to 3.80 microg mL(-1) and from 4.01 to 11.5 microg mL(-1), respectively; intra-day precision better than 2.8% CV for migration time and 5.4% CV for peak area; inter-day precision better than 4.8% CV for migration time and 4.8-11% CV for peak area; recoveries from 81% to 115%) and applied successfully to the evaluation of phenolic contents of abiu-roxo (Chrysophyllum caimito), wild mulberry growing in Brazil (Morus nigra L.) and tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea). Values in the range of 1.50-47.3 microg g(-1) were found, with smaller amounts occurring as free phenolic acids. PMID:19545963

  10. Acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal fractionation of empty fruit bunches for high hemicellulosic sugar recovery with low byproducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Um, Byung Hwan; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2015-07-01

    Xylose, mannose, and galactose (xmg) recovery from empty fruit bunches using acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal (AAH) fractionation method was investigated. Acetic acid has been demonstrated to be effective in xmg recovery in comparison with the liquid hot-water (LHW) fractionation. The maximum xmg recovery yield (50.7 %) from the empty fruit bunch (EFB) was obtained using AAH fractionation at optimum conditions (6.9 wt.% acetic acid at 170 C and for 18 min); whereas, only 16.2 % of xmg recovery was obtained from the LHW fractionation at the same reaction conditions (170 C and 18 min). Releasing out the glucose from EFB was kept at low level (<1.0 %) through all tested conditions and consequently negligible 5-HMF and formic acid were analyzed in the hydrolyzate. The production of furfural was also resulted with extremely low level (1.0 g/L). PMID:25962829

  11. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid — A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yu; Cheng, Dai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Cao, Jiankang; Jiang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp) on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple (‘Golden Delicious’) pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L-1 CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol). Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence. PMID:26756813

  12. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Thins Pear Fruits by Inhibiting Pollen Tube Growth via Ca(2+)-ATPase-Mediated Ca(2+) Efflux.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Li, Jie; Duan, Chunhui; Liu, Longbo; Sun, Yongping; Cao, Rongxiang; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Chemical fruit thinning has become a popular practice in modern fruit orchards for achieving high quality fruits, reducing costs of hand thinning and promoting return bloom. However, most of the suggested chemical thinners are often concerned for their detrimental effects and environmental problems. 5-Aminolevulic acid (ALA) is a natural, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environment-friendly plant growth regulator. One of its outstanding roles is improving plant photosynthesis and fruit quality. Here, results showed that applying 100-200 mg/L ALA at full bloom stage significantly reduced pear fruit set. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that ALA significantly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. ALA decreased not only cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) but also "tip-focused" [Ca(2+)]cyt gradient, indicating that ALA inhibited pollen tube growth by down-regulating calcium signaling. ALA drastically enhanced pollen Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, suggesting that ALA-induced decrease of calcium signaling probably resulted from activating calcium pump. The significant negative correlations between Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and pollen germination or pollen tube length further demonstrated the critical role of calcium pump in ALA's negative effect on pollen germination. Taken together, our results suggest that ALA at low concentrations is a potential biochemical thinner, and it inhibits pollen germination and tube growth via Ca(2+) efflux by activating Ca(2+)-ATPase, thereby thinning fruits by preventing fertilization. PMID:26904082

  13. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid - A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yu; Cheng, Dai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Cao, Jiankang; Jiang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp) on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious') pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L-1 CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol). Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, ?-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence. PMID:26756813

  14. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Thins Pear Fruits by Inhibiting Pollen Tube Growth via Ca2+-ATPase-Mediated Ca2+ Efflux

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Li, Jie; Duan, Chunhui; Liu, Longbo; Sun, Yongping; Cao, Rongxiang; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Chemical fruit thinning has become a popular practice in modern fruit orchards for achieving high quality fruits, reducing costs of hand thinning and promoting return bloom. However, most of the suggested chemical thinners are often concerned for their detrimental effects and environmental problems. 5-Aminolevulic acid (ALA) is a natural, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environment-friendly plant growth regulator. One of its outstanding roles is improving plant photosynthesis and fruit quality. Here, results showed that applying 100–200 mg/L ALA at full bloom stage significantly reduced pear fruit set. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that ALA significantly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. ALA decreased not only cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) but also “tip-focused” [Ca2+]cyt gradient, indicating that ALA inhibited pollen tube growth by down-regulating calcium signaling. ALA drastically enhanced pollen Ca2+-ATPase activity, suggesting that ALA-induced decrease of calcium signaling probably resulted from activating calcium pump. The significant negative correlations between Ca2+-ATPase activity and pollen germination or pollen tube length further demonstrated the critical role of calcium pump in ALA's negative effect on pollen germination. Taken together, our results suggest that ALA at low concentrations is a potential biochemical thinner, and it inhibits pollen germination and tube growth via Ca2+ efflux by activating Ca2+-ATPase, thereby thinning fruits by preventing fertilization. PMID:26904082

  15. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed. PMID:26703531

  16. Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of α-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products. PMID:22264421

  17. The ascorbic acid content of tomato fruits is associated with the expression of genes involved in pectin degradation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High levels of ascorbic acid (AsA) in tomato fruits provide health benefits for humans and also play an important role in several aspects of plant life. Although AsA metabolism has been characterized in detail, the genetic mechanisms controlling AsA accumulation in tomatoes are poorly understood. The transcriptional control of AsA levels in fruits can be investigated by combining the advanced genetic and genomic resources currently available for tomato. A comparative transcriptomic analysis of fruit tissues was carried out on an introgression line containing a QTL promoting AsA accumulation in the fruit, using a parental cultivar with lower AsA levels as a reference. Results Introgression line IL 12-4 (S. pennellii in a S. lycopersicum background) was selected for transcriptomic analysis because it maintained differences in AsA levels compared to the parental genotypes M82 and S. pennellii over three consecutive trials. Comparative microarray analysis of IL 12-4 and M82 fruits over a 2-year period allowed 253 differentially-expressed genes to be identified, suggesting that AsA accumulation in IL 12-4 may be caused by a combination of increased metabolic flux and reduced utilization of AsA. In particular, the upregulation of a pectinesterase and two polygalacturonases suggests that AsA accumulation in IL12-4 fruit is mainly achieved by increasing flux through the L-galactonic acid pathway, which is driven by pectin degradation and may be triggered by ethylene. Conclusions Based on functional annotation, gene ontology classification and hierarchical clustering, a subset of the 253 differentially-expressed transcripts was used to develop a model to explain the higher AsA content in IL 12-4 fruits in terms of metabolic flux, precursor availability, demand for antioxidants, abundance of reactive oxygen species and ethylene signaling. PMID:20691085

  18. Utilization of fluorogenic assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in acidic fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Pao, Steven; Davis, Craig L; Friedrich, Loretta M; Parish, Mickey E

    2002-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate interference by acids commonly found in fruit juice in Escherichia coli assays involving the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme reaction. Fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated (P < 0.001) with the volume of fresh citrus juice tested by the lauryl tryptose broth (LST)-MUG assay, and the permissible sample sizes were limited to 0.3 and 0.5 ml for fresh citrus juices with pHs of 3.3 and 3.9, respectively. In addition, false-negative results were visually observed under UV light when the E*Colite assay was used to test large volumes (5 to 10 ml per test) of fresh citrus juice or when the test broth used for the LST-MUG assay was supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acid at 2 to 4 g/liter. These results suggest that the size and pH of acidic samples should be controlled in MUG-based fluorogenic assays. The inhibitory effect on fluorescence was due to high acidity, which reduces fluorescence from 4-methylumbelliferone. Buffering improved the assays. When sodium bicarbonate was incorporated in the enrichment broth at 10 g/liter, the permissible sample sizes for fresh grapefruit juice (pH 3.1) increased from 0.3 to 1 ml for the LST-MUG (with 9.9 ml of broth) assay and from 3 to 10 ml for the E*Colite (with 99 ml of broth) assay. PMID:12495014

  19. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  20. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SlZFP2 Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  1. Phytonutrient intakes in relation to European fruit and vegetable consumption patterns observed in different food surveys.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R; Davidson, Julia; Day, Andrea J

    2014-10-14

    Fruit and vegetables make an important contribution to health, partly due to the composition of phytonutrients, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of fruit and vegetables across different European countries using food consumption data of increasing complexity: food balance sheets (FBS); the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive Database; individual food consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Across Europe, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables ranged from 192 to 824 g/d (FBS data). Based on EFSA data, nine out of fourteen countries consumed < 400 g/d (recommended by the WHO), although even in the highest-consuming countries such as Spain, 36 % did not reach the target intake. In the UK, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables was 310 g/d (NDNS data). Generally, phytonutrient intake increased in accordance with fruit and vegetable intake across all European countries with the exception of lycopene (from tomatoes), which appeared to be higher in some countries that consumed less fruit and vegetables. There were little differences in the average intake of flavanols, flavonols and lycopene in those who did or did not meet the 400 g/d recommendation in the UK. However, average intakes of carotenoid, flavanone, anthocyanidin and ellagic acid were higher in those who consumed >400 g/d of fruit and vegetables compared with those who did not. Overall, intakes of phytonutrients are highly variable, suggesting that while some individuals obtain healthful amounts, there may be others who do not gain all the potential benefits associated with phytonutrients in the diet. PMID:25108299

  2. Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Trias, Rosalia; Baeras, Llus; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and Botrytis cinerea. The antagonistic activity of 496 LAB strains was tested in vitro and all tested microorganisms except P. expansum were inhibited by at least one isolate. The 496 isolates were also analyzed for the inhibition of P. expansum infection in wounds of Golden Delicious apples. Four strains (TC97, AC318, TM319, and FF441) reduced the fungal rot diameter of the apples by 20%; only Weissella cibaria strain TM128 decreased infection levels by 50%. Cell-free supernatants of selected antagonistic bacteria were studied to determine the nature of the antimicrobial compounds produced. Organic acids were the preferred mediators of inhibition but hydrogen peroxide was also detected when strains BC48, TM128, PM141 and FF441 were tested against E. carotovora. While previous reports of antifungal activity by LAB are scarce, our results support the potential of LAB as biocontrol agents against postharvest rot. PMID:19204894

  3. Phenolic composition, ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-06-15

    The interest in Ziziphus jujube is growing because it is an excellent source of nutrients and phytochemicals, and can contribute to a healthy diet. Nutritional compounds (phenolic compounds and l-ascorbic acid), and antioxidant capacity of 4 Spanish jujube cultivars were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. A total of 25 polyphenolic compounds were identified and classified as 10 flavan-3-ols, 13 flavonols, 1 flavanone, and 1 dihydrochalcone. The content of total polyphenols (TP) ranged from 1442 to 3432mg/100g dry matter (dm) in fruits of the cultivars 'DAT' and 'PSI', respectively. Flavan-3-ols, the major group of polyphenols in jujube represented ∼92% of the TP content, whereas flavonols only amounted for about ∼8% each. The content of l-ascorbic acid was very high and took values in the range of 387-555mg/100g fresh weight (fw). Some Spanish jujube cultivars, especially 'PSI' and 'MSI', may be selected to promote the growth of cultivars with valuable nutritional and phytochemical beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26868581

  4. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. PMID:26761593

  5. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae).

    PubMed

    Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

    2011-01-01

    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg(-1)?day(-1), p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders. PMID:19770265

  6. Bile acid-binding activity of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit and its hypolipidemic effect in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2010-02-01

    The hypolipidemic effects and bile acid-binding properties of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit were examined. In an animal experiment, male C57BL/6.Cr mice (n = 5) were fed an AIN-76-modified high fat diet supplemented with 2% or 5% (w/w) dried young persimmon fruit (YP) for 10 weeks. The intake of YP significantly enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and lowered the concentration of hepatic lipids and plasma cholesterol. Analysis of gene expression in liver tissue showed that 2% or 5% YP up-regulated the expression of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 gene. In the 5% group, there were increased expressions of the genes for cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Next, the bile acid-binding ability of YP was analysed in vitro using cholic acid (CA). In 100-2000 microM CA solutions, 1% (w/v) YP adsorbed approximately 60% of CA, while dried mature persimmon fruit adsorbed approximately 20% of CA. The positive control, cholestyramine, adsorbed approximately 80% of CA in the 100-2000 microM CA solutions. A crude tannin extract from YP, which contained 54.7% condensed tannins, adsorbed approximately 78% of CA in the 2000 microM CA solutions. These results suggest that the ability of YP to bind bile acid contributes to its hypolipidemic effect in mice. PMID:19585467

  7. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-20

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, <0.1 to 16.7 micromol Trolox equiv/g puree, and 2.1 to 620.2 microg gallic acid equiv/g puree, respectively. The TAA, TDF, and pectin ranged from 7.5 to 188.8 mg/100 g, 0.9 to 7.2 g/100 g, and 0.20 to 1.04 g/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities, TSP, TAA, TDF, and pectin were influenced by cultivar (papaya, guava, and dragon fruit) and ripening stage (papaya and/or mango). Antioxidant activity showed high correlations with levels of TSP compounds (r = 0.96) but low correlations with levels of ascorbic acid (r = 0.35 and 0.23 for ORAC and DPPH data, respectively). The antioxidant activities evaluated by both ORAC and DPPH showed similar trends where red guava and carambola exhibited the highest and sapodilla and green papaya exhibited the lowest levels. Guava and mamey sapote exhibited the highest TDF and pectin levels. Many of the tropical fruits were shown to contain an abundance of hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid conjugates, and flavone glycosides. Preliminary descriptions are given of the phenols in red/white pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature. PMID:16968105

  8. Transcriptome Profiling of Tomato Fruit Development Reveals Transcription Factors Associated with Ascorbic Acid, Carotenoid and Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jie; Hu, Tixu; Yang, Congmei; Li, Hanxia; Yang, Mingze; Ijaz, Raina; Ye, Zhibiao; Zhang, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development; however, while it is an important dietary source of antioxidant nutrients, the transcriptional regulation of genes that determine nutrient levels remains poorly understood. Here, the transcriptomes of fruit at seven developmental stages (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days after flowering) from two tomato cultivars (Ailsa Craig and HG6-61) were evaluated using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 26,397 genes, which were expressed in at least one developmental stage, were detected in the two cultivars, and the expression patterns of those genes could be divided into 20 groups using a K-mean cluster analysis. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis indicated that genes involved in RNA regulation, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism and cell wall metabolism were the most highly differentially expressed genes during fruit development and ripening. A co-expression analysis revealed several transcription factors whose expression patterns correlated with those of genes associated with ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This transcriptional correlation was confirmed by agroinfiltration mediated transient expression, which showed that most of the enzymatic genes in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis were regulated by the overexpression of each of the three transcription factors that were tested. The metabolic dynamics of ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid were investigated during fruit development and ripening, and some selected transcription factors showed transcriptional correlation with the accumulation of ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid. This transcriptome study provides insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and presents candidate transcription factors involved in secondary metabolism. PMID:26133783

  9. Elemental composition and fatty acid profile of the edible fruits of Amatungula (Carissa macrocarpa) and impact of soil quality on chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Roshila; Koorbanally, Neil; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-06-12

    The Amatungula fruit, from Carissa macrocarpa, is commonly consumed by the local people of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Levels of elements in the fruit were determined to assess if they conform to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) and to assess for potential toxicities. Soils and fruit samples from nine sites in eastern KZN were investigated. Concentrations of elements in the fruit were found to be in the order of Ca>Mg>Fe>Mn≈Cu≈Pb>Se>Cr>Ni>Zn. For the elements in focus, except for Pb, all of the elements found in the fruit contribute significantly towards the RDAs. Lipid profiling was also done to determine the fruits potential as a source of essential fatty acids. The fruit was rich in monounsaturated and essential fatty acids with the linoleic acid to α-linolenic acid ratio conforming to the recommended range for cardiac health. Concentrations of elements in soil had no significant effect on plant concentrations, but competition between elements in soil influenced their availability. Total soil concentrations of most metals studied have significantly correlated Pb availability, indicating the impact of these metals on Pb availability. The Amatungula fruit showed tendency to accumulate Pb, with Pb levels in fruit at all sites being toxic to human health. Site location had a major effect on plant concentrations however uptake and distribution was primarily dependent on the plants inherent controls, as evidenced by the accumulation and exclusion of elements, to meet its physiological requirements. PMID:22632042

  10. Calcium partitioning and allocation and blossom-end rot development in tomato plants in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid treatments

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto de Freitas, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as well as to analyse the effect of changes in Ca2+ partitioning and allocation on fruit susceptibility to the Ca2+ deficiency disorder blossom-end rot (BER) under water stress conditions. Tomato plants of the cultivar Ace 55 (Vf) were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to low Ca2+ conditions during fruit growth and development. Starting 1 day after pollination (DAP), the following treatments were initiated: (i) whole plants were sprayed weekly with deionized water (control) or (ii) with 500mg l?1 ABA; or fruit on each plant were dipped weekly (iii) in deionized water (control) or (iv) in 500mg l?1 ABA. At 15 DAP, BER was completely prevented by whole-plant or fruit-specific ABA treatments, whereas plants or fruit treated with water had 1619% BER incidence. At 30 DAP, BER was prevented by the whole-plant ABA treatment, whereas fruit dipped in ABA had a 16% and water-treated plants or fruit had a 3640% incidence of BER. The results showed that spraying the whole plant with ABA increases xylem sap flow and Ca2+ movement into the fruit, resulting in higher fruit tissue and water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations that prevent BER development. Although fruit-specific ABA treatment had no effect on xylem sap flow rates or Ca2+ movement into the fruit, it increased fruit tissue water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations and reduced fruit susceptibility to BER to a lesser extent. PMID:24220654

  11. Determination of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts obtained from fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Laghari, Abdul Hafeez; Memon, Shahabuddin; Nelofar, Aisha; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Yasmin, Arfa

    2011-06-15

    In this study, determination of phenolic acids as well as investigation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album is described. Extracts were subjected to acidic hydrolysis in order to obtain total free phenolic acids. However, some of phenolic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The results were confirmed by LC-MS equipped with MS-ESI. In addition, Folin-Ciocalteu method was applied to determine the total phenolic contents. The antioxidant activity of C. album extracts was examined by using DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity assays. Results revealed that the leaves extract exhibits better performance in antioxidant assays and in the higher total phenolic contents (3066mg of GAE/100g) when compared to fruits extract (1385mg of GAE/100g). From these results it has been revealed that the methanolic extracts of C. album from fruits and leaves have great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:25213967

  12. Comparison of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of European commercial fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Thirty six commercial European fruit juices were tested to ascertain their antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition. Six of the products were labelled 100% pomegranate juice, the others included 20 brands of diluted pomegranate juice or pomegranate blended with other fruit juices and 10 different non-pomegranate fruit juices. The antioxidant capacity of all the juices was determined while anthocyanin, ellagitannin and ellagic acid profiles of the 26 pomegranate juices and pomegranate juice blends were obtained using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Additional analysis was conducted on seven of the juices using HPLC with an on-line antioxidant detection system. Three of the "pure" pomegranate juices had the highest ellagitannin content and the highest antioxidant capacity. Only one of these three juices was rich in anthocyanins. The other "pure juices" had differences in their HPLC "pomegranate" fingerprint and also had a lower antioxidant capacity, in some cases lower than that of some of the blended juices. Vitamin C rather than phenolic compounds was the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity for some of the juices. Statistical analysis of both the antioxidant assay and the HPLC on-line antioxidant data demonstrated that the ellagitannins were the major antioxidants in the pomegranate juices. The complexity of the polyphenolic profile of pomegranates necessitates the use of HPLC-PDA-MS(2) for a thorough evaluation of juice composition and authenticity. PMID:21776457

  13. Quantification and histochemical localization of ascorbic acid in 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji' apple fruit during on-tree development and cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit are subject to multiple stressors during pre- and post-harvest development. Stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be detrimental to the fruit, and ascorbic acid (AsA) is involved in many of the antioxidant pathways that detoxify ROS. An inclusive study to characterize AsA dy...

  14. Lipid and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and seed of avocado fruits harvested at northern range in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, Fumio; Matsuyama, Kaori; Abe, Shin; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Itoh, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    The lipid and fatty acid composition of the mesocarp and seed of avocado fruit grown and harvested in Japan, which is located at the northern range of the avacado, was investigated and compared to an imported avocado purchased commercially. The potential of the avocado mesocarp as an agricultural product in Japan was also explored. Total lipids (TL) accounted for approximately 20% of the mesocarp. Further analysis showed that the neutral lipid (NL) fraction accounted for at least 95% of the TL, and almost 90% of NL was triacylglycerol. Monoenoic acids accounted for at least 65% of the total fatty acids, and oleic acid, which is regarded as an especially important functional component of avacado accounted for approximately 50% of the monounsaturated fatty acids. A comparison of the Japanese avocado cultivars and an imported avocado cultivar in the present study revealed no significant differences in the lipid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, production of avocado fruit, which is rich in various nutritional components, is expected to be increased on a larger number of farms in Japan in the future. It is believed to be necessary to carry out further verification, such as the establishment of a cultivation technique adoptable to Japan, examination of optimal soil and land features, and cultivar selection. PMID:18838831

  15. Production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid from empty palm fruit bunches by Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.

    PubMed

    Hong, Won-Kyung; Yu, Anna; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kim, Chul Ho; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Yang, Ji-Won; Kondo, Akihiko; Seo, Jeong-Woo

    2013-07-01

    The oleaginous microalga Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 was cultivated in enzymatic hydrolysates of alkali-pretreated empty palm fruit bunches (EFBs), without prior detoxification process. The maximal levels of lipid and docosahexaenoic acid synthesized were 12.5 and 5.4 g L? after cultivation for 36 h. Similar lipid levels were also obtained via simultaneous saccharification and cultivation. The results suggested that EFB is a promising source for production of useful lipids by the microalgal strain. PMID:23053417

  16. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ?-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Hernndez, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martnez-Rivas, Jos M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ?-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ?-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ?-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ?-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. PMID:26514651

  17. Genetic dissection of the (poly)phenol profile of diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) fruits using a NIL collection.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Maria; Schwab, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Thomas; Monfort, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been recognized as a model species for applied research of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) that is one of the most economically important crops. Berries, particularly strawberries, are known for their high antioxidant capacity due to a high concentration of (poly) phenolic compounds. Studies have already characterized the phenolic composition of fruits from sets of cultivated strawberries but the quantification of phenolics in a Fragaria mapping population has not been reported, yet. The metabolite profiling of a F. vesca near isogenic line (NIL) collection by LC-MS allowed the unambiguous identification of 22 (poly)-phenols, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and ellagic acid in the diploid strawberry fruit. The variability in the collection revealed that the genetic factor was more decisive than the environmental factor for the accumulation of 18 of the 24 compounds. Genotyping the NIL collection with the Axiom® IStraw90® SNPs array, we were able to map 76 stable QTLs controlling accumulation of the (poly)-phenolic compounds. They provide a powerful new tool to characterise candidate genes to increase the antioxidant capacity of fruits and produce healthier strawberries for consumers. PMID:26566833

  18. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Martnez-Espl, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; Garca-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, Mara

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (?45% more anthocyanins and ?20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  19. Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. )

    1990-05-01

    There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

  20. Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippopha rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trpanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-03-28

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippopha rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152). PMID:22397621

  1. Global analysis of gene expression during development and ripening of citrus fruit flesh. A proposed mechanism for citric Acid utilization.

    PubMed

    Cercs, Manuel; Soler, Guillermo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Gadea, Jos; Forment, Javier; Taln, Manuel

    2006-11-01

    Microarrays of cDNA have been used to examine expression changes of 7000 genes during development and ripening of the fruit flesh of self-incompatible Citrus clementina, a non-climateric species. The data indicated that 2243 putative unigenes showed significant expression changes. Functional classification revealed that genes encoding for regulatory proteins were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated gene clusters. The transcriptomic study together with the analyses of selected metabolites highlighted key physiological processes occurring during citrus fruit development and ripening such as water accumulation, carbohydrate build-up, acid reduction, pigment substitutions (carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll decreases) and ascorbic acid diminution. Often, the combined analyses strongly suggested prevalence of specific metabolic alternatives. This observation has been exemplified with the proposal for a mechanism for citrate utilization, a process of much importance in citrus industry. Microarray data validated by real-time RT-PCR suggested that citrate was sequentially metabolyzed to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate. Thereafter, glutamate was both utilized for glutamine production and catabolyzed through the gamma-aminobutirate (GABA) shunt (GABA --> succinate semialdehyde --> succinate). This last observation appears to be of special relevance since it links the proton consuming reaction glutamate + H(+)--> GABA + CO(2) with high acid levels. GG-MS determinations showed that glutamate was constant while GABA levels decreased at ripening in agreement with a feasible activation of the GABA shunt during acid catabolism. This suggestion provides a convincing explanation for the strong reduction of both citrate and cytoplasmatic acidity that takes place in citrus fruit flesh during development and ripening. PMID:16897468

  2. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.

    PubMed

    Elfalleh, Walid; Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Yahia, Yassine; Hannachi, Hdia; Chaira, Nizar; Ying, Ma; Ferchichi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to determine the phenolic, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant capacities from fruits (juices, peels, and seed oils) of 6 Tunisian pomegranate ecotypes. Total anthocyanins were determined by a differential pH method. Hydrolyzable tannins were determined with potassium iodate. The tocopherol (?-tocopherol, ?-tocopherol, and ?-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 165.77, 107.38, and 27.29 mg/100 g from dry seed. Four phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in pomegranate peel and pulp using the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method: 2 hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic and ellagic acids) and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and p-coumaric acids). Juice, peel, and seed oil antioxidants were confirmed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The highest values were recorded in peels with 25.63 mmol trolox equivalent/100 g and 22.08 mmol TE/100 g for FRAP and ORAC assay, respectively. Results showed that the antioxidant potency of pomegranate extracts was correlated with their phenolic compound content. In particular, the highest correlation was reported in peels. High correlations were also found between peel hydroxybenzoic acids and FRAP ORAC antioxidant capacities. Identified tocopherols seem to contribute in major part to the antioxidant activity of seed oil. The results implied that bioactive compounds from the peel might be potential resources for the development of antioxidant function dietary food. PMID:22417416

  3. Estimation of Bioactive Compound, Maslinic Acid by HPTLC, and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity on Fruit Pulp of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Cultivars in India

    PubMed Central

    Rajopadhye, Anagha; Upadhye, Anuradha S.

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (family: Rhamnaceae), known as Indian jujube or “Ber,” are of potential nutritional and medicinal value. The objectives of the present study were to estimate bioactive compound maslinic acid by HPTLC method and to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of eight cultivars of Indian jujube. Maslinic acid and the fruit pulp of various cultivars of Indian jujube, namely, Gola, Sannur, Umaran, Mehrun, and Chhuhara, exhibited significantly high antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. HPTLC-densitometric method was developed for quantification of maslinic acid from fruits of Indian jujube cultivars. The trend of occurrence of maslinic acid in fruits pulp extracts was as follows: Gola > Sannur > Umaran > Mehrun > Chhuhara > Wild > Kadaka > Apple. A significant correlation was shown by maslinic acid content and prevention of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 in liver slice culture cell treated with extract. Maslinic acid along with its other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid may act as a possible therapeutic agent for preventing hepatotoxicity caused by oxidative stress generated due to the prooxidants like CCl4. This is the first report of fruit pulp extracts of Z. jujube cultivars in India and maslinic acid preventing CCl4 induced damage in liver slice culture cell of mice. PMID:26904143

  4. Isolation and characteristics of protocatechuic acid from Paenibacillus elgii HOA73 against Botrytis cinerea on strawberry fruits.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Young Seong; Moon, Jae Hak; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kil Yong

    2015-05-01

    This study was undertaken to describe purification, identification, and characteristics of protocatechuic acid (PCA) isolated for the first time from Paenibacillus elgii HOA73 against Botrytis cinerea (the cause of gray mold disease on strawberry fruit). PCA was purified by different chromatographic techniques and identified as PCA (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) by nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. PCA displayed potent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. However, the antifungal activities were not sufficient to inhibit mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici and Fusarium oxysporum. The minimum inhibitory concentration of PCA to inhibit any visible mycelial growth of both B. cinerea and R. solani was 64?g?ml(-1) . Most B. cinerea conidia displayed altered shape and absence of germination, or were degraded after treatment with 50 and 100?g?ml(-1) PCA, respectively. Moreover, gray mold formation on strawberry fruit was almost or completely inhibited by these PCA concentrations 7 days following infection with B. cinerea conidia, respectively. PCA may be a promising alternative to chemical fungicides as a potential biofungicide to prevent growth of B. cinerea in strawberry fruit disease management. PMID:25081931

  5. Determination of ascorbic acid content of some fruit juices and wine by voltammetry performed at pt and carbon paste electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Pop, Aneta; Negulescu, Gheorghe Petre; Pisoschi, Aurel

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in fruit juices and wine by differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 530 mV (versus SCE) on a Pt strip working electrode and at about 470 mV on a carbon paste working electrode. The influence of the operational parameters like the pulse amplitude and the pulse period on the analytical signal was investigated. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between the peak height and ascorbic acid concentration within the range 0.31-20 mM with a Pt working electrode, and within the range 0.07-20 mM with a carbon paste working electrode. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 21.839x + 35.726, r = 0.9940, when a Pt strip electrode was used (where y represents the value of the current intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as A and x the analyte concentration, as mM). R.S.D. = 2.09%, n = 10, C(ascorbic acid) = 2.5 mM. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 3.4429x + 5.7334, r = 0.9971, when a carbon paste electrode was used (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as A and x the analyte concentration, as mM). R.S.D. = 2.35%, n = 10, C(ascorbic acid) = 2.5 mM. The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juices and wine. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged between 6.83 mg/100 mL juice for soft drinks (Fanta Madness) and 54.74 mg/100 mL for citrus (lemon) juices obtained by squeezing fruit. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.74 and 104.97%. The results of ascorbic acid assessment by differential pulse voltammetry were compared with those obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:21285920

  6. A novel aspartic acid protease gene from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus): cloning, characterization and relation to postharvest chilling stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Soler, Alain; Cruz de Carvalho, Maria H

    2013-11-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative aspartic acid protease (AcAP1) was isolated for the first time from the flesh of pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit. The deduced sequence of AcAP1 showed all the common features of a typical plant aspartic protease phytepsin precursor. Analysis of AcAP1 gene expression under postharvest chilling treatment in two pineapple varieties differing in their resistance to blackheart development revealed opposite trends. The resistant variety showed an up-regulation of AcAP1 precursor gene expression whereas the susceptible showed a down-regulation in response to postharvest chilling treatment. The same trend was observed regarding specific AP enzyme activity in both varieties. Taken together our results support the involvement of AcAP1 in postharvest chilling stress resistance in pineapple fruits. PMID:23838125

  7. The Hypoglycemic and Synergistic Effect of Loganin, Morroniside, and Ursolic Acid Isolated from the Fruits of Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Song, Shanghua; Zou, Zongyao; Feng, Min; Wang, Dezhen; Wang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemic activity-guided separation of ethanol extracts from the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (CO) led to the isolation of loganin, morroniside, and ursolic acid. The antidiabetic capacity of CO extracts and related compounds was further investigated in diabetes mellitus mice. The results suggested that both CO extracts and pure compounds could ameliorate diabetes-associated damages and complications. Oral administration of loganin and morroniside decreased fasting blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus mice. Ursolic acid exhibited the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging activity and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Notably, we noticed an interesting synergistic effect between loganin and ursolic acid. Given these favorable hypoglycemic properties, C.?officinalis, a food and medicinal plant in China, may be used as a valuable food supplement for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26619955

  8. Voltammetric iodometric titration of ascorbic acid with dead-stop end-point detection in fresh vegetables and fruit samples.

    PubMed

    Verdini, R A; Lagier, C M

    2000-07-01

    The present work describes a method for determining ascorbic acid, which combines iodometry with a voltammetric technique to detect the end point of the titration. In addition, the validity of the method applied to natural vegetable or fruit samples was assessed. The results were compared with those obtained by an accurate method such as HPLC using UV detection. Similar values of ascorbic acid for different natural samples were obtained by means of this approach (p > 0.05). The limit of quantification was 0.1 mg. This technique presents the advantage of other electroanalytical methods such as avoiding filtration or ultracentrifugation steps, with the additional benefit of using the platinum electrodes, which are routinely used in the laboratory. These facts allow a rapid and efficient quantification of ascorbic acid with very low cost of reagents and equipment. PMID:10898627

  9. Integration of metabolomics and subcellular organelle expression microarray to increase understanding the organic acid changes in post-harvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohua; Zhu, Andan; Liu, Shuzhen; Sheng, Ling; Ma, Qiaoli; Zhang, Li; Nishawy, Elsayed Mohamed Elsayed; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Ma, Zhaocheng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2013-11-01

    Citric acid plays an important role in fresh fruit flavor and its adaptability to post-harvest storage conditions. In order to explore organic acid regulatory mechanisms in post-harvest citrus fruit, systematic biological analyses were conducted on stored Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis) fruits. High-performance capillary electrophoresis, subcellular organelle expression microarray, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and conventional physiological and biochemical analyses were undertaken. The results showed that the concentration of organic acids in HBP underwent a regular fluctuation. GC-MS-based metabolic profiling indicated that succinic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamine contents increased, but 2-oxoglutaric acid content declined, which further confirmed that the GABA shunt may have some regulatory roles in organic acid catabolism processes. In addition, the concentration of organic acids was significantly correlated with senescence-related physiological processes, such as hydrogen peroxide content as well as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, which showed that organic acids could be regarded as important parameters for measuring citrus fruit post-harvest senescence processes. PMID:23758915

  10. Enantioselective determination of carboxyl acid amide fungicide mandipropamid in vegetables and fruits by chiral LC coupled with MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Wang, Xiangyun; Wang, Xinquan; Qian, Mingrong; Xu, Mingfei; Xu, Hao; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Qiang; Zhuang, Shulin

    2014-02-01

    An efficient enantioselective method for the determination of mandipropamid in vegetables and fruits was presented by LC coupled with MS/MS. The mandipropamid residues in samples (potato, pepper, grape, and watermelon) were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid. An aliquot was cleaned up with primary and secondary amine and C18 sorbent. Complete enantioseparation of mandipropamid enantiomers in <4 min was obtained on a Lux Cellulose-2 column at 25C using methanol with 0.1% formic acid/0.1% aqueous formic acid solution (85:15, v/v) as mobile phase. Good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.5-250 ?g/L for each enantiomer in the standard solution and sample matrix calibration curves. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves. The interday mean recoveries, intraday repeatability, and inter-day reproducibility varied from 76.4 to 97.1%, 3.4 to 9.4%, and 3.5 to 11.4%, respectively. The limits of quantification for mandipropamid enantiomers in vegetables and fruits were both 1 ?g/kg. Moreover, the absolute configuration of mandipropamid enantiomers was determined by the combination of experimental and predicted electronic circular dichroism spectra, and the first eluted enantiomer was confirmed as (R)-mandipropamid on five chiral columns. PMID:24243861

  11. Experimental fertilization increases amino acid content in floral nectar, fruit set and degree of selfing in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, Pieter; Ceulemans, Tobias; Van den Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Floral traits have evolved to maximize reproductive success by attracting pollinators and facilitating pollination. Highly attractive floral traits may, however, also increase the degree of self-pollination, which could become detrimental for plant fitness through inbreeding depression. Floral nectar is a trait that is known to strongly mediate pollinator attraction and plant reproductive success, but the particular role of the nectar amino acid (AA) composition is poorly understood. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated the nectar AA composition and abundance of the Lepidoptera-pollinated orchid Gymnadenia conopsea through soil fertilization, and we quantified AA content and AA composition through high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Mixed models were then used to evaluate differences in pollinia removal, fruit set, seed set and degree of selfing between fertilized and control individuals. Selfing rates were estimated using microsatellite markers. We found that fertilized individuals had a significantly higher nectar AA content and an altered AA composition, whereas plant height, number of flowers, nectar volume and sugar concentration remained unchanged. Fertilized individuals also had significantly more pollinia removed and a higher fruit set, whereas control plants that did not receive the fertilization treatment had significantly fewer selfed seeds, and more viable seeds. Although we cannot exclude a role of changes in floral scent following the fertilization treatment, our results strongly suggest a relation among nectar AA composition, fruiting success and selfing rates. Our results also indicate potential consequences of nutrient pollution for plant reproductive success, through the induced changes in nectar AA composition. PMID:26149746

  12. Changes in the abscisic acid levels and related gene expression during fruit development and ripening in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).

    PubMed

    Karppinen, Katja; Hirvel, Elina; Nevala, Tiina; Sipari, Nina; Suokas, Marko; Jaakola, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural plant hormone playing an important role in many physiological processes including fruit ripening and is also recently found to be potential for biomedical applications. This study was aimed to measure ABA levels and its biosynthesis in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which is one of the best sources of anthocyanins. Five ABA biosynthetic genes were isolated from bilberry and their expression profiles were studied in bilberry tissues, particularly during berry development. The level of ABA highly increased at the onset of bilberry fruit ripening, at the stage when expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (VmCHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (VmANS), also increased. In fully ripe berries and leaves, ABA levels were lower but none was detected in bilberry stem or rhizome. The expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VmNCED1) and putative neoxanthin synthase (VmNSY) was high in berry tissues and their expression increased markedly at the onset of berry ripening along with the accumulation of ABA. In contrast, the expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase (VmZEP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (VmSDR/ABA2) and aldehyde oxidase (VmAO) were most highly associated with leaf tissues with no obvious relation to ABA content during berry development. The obtained results indicate that the ABA biosynthesis may play an important role in the regulation of ripening of non-climacteric bilberry fruits through transcriptional regulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes. PMID:23850079

  13. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25C and then stored at low temperature (100.5C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

  14. Effect of tannic acid on iron absorption in straw-colored fruit bats(Eidolon helvum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. It is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; however, manufacturing a diet with commonly available foodst...

  15. A reliable methodology for quantitative extraction of fruit and vegetable physiological amino acids and their subsequent analysis with commonly available HPLC systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography of dabsyl derivatives of amino acids was employed for quantification of physiological amino acids in selected fruits and vegetables. This method was found to be particularly useful because the dabsyl derivatives of glutamine and citrulline were sufficiently se...

  16. Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Ptzold, Ralf; Brckner, Hans

    2005-12-14

    Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs. PMID:16332121

  17. Determination of triterpenic acids in fruits by a novel high performance liquid chromatography method with high sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shijuan; Sun, Yuanpeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiaoyan; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2014-03-01

    A novel and interesting pre-column derivatisation method was developed for the analysis of triterpenic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Each triterpenic acid produced two HPLC peaks with similar peak areas after derivatising with chiral 1-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) propan-2-yl-methanesulfonate (CPMS), while the fatty acid derivative of CPMS had only one peak. This phenomenon greatly increased the confidence in analyte confirmation. Compound with only one peak or two peaks differing greatly in their peak areas could be excluded from the target compound list. CPMS was compared with five other derivatising reagents, four of which produced only one peak for one triterpenic acid, to study the possible mechanism. Analytes with different behaviours were also studied to better interpret the mechanism. The proposed method also showed the merits of high sensitivity and less sample consumption. It was successfully applied to the analysis of triterpenic acids in fruit peels and flesh. There is no prior report on the two peak phenomenon of triterpenic acids. The information provided in this study will be helpful for those who are also engaged in derivatisation study. PMID:24176341

  18. Effect of Maturation Degree on Composition of Fatty Acids and Tocopherols of Fruit Oil from Pistacia atlantica Growing Wild in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Guenane, Hamid; Bombarda, Isabelle; OuldElhadj, Mohamed Didi; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Pistacia atlantica fruit oil has been used for a long time by local populations for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, the fatty acid composition and tocopherol content were determined in twelve samples of P. atlantica fruit oil at three stages of maturation (immature, intermediate maturity and mature) collected in three different sites from the region of Laghouat. The results indicated a significant difference between the oil of mature fruits (green and black) and the immature ones (light red), which were distinguished by richness in unsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols. The oil from fruits of intermediate maturity (dark red) seems to combine these properties with those of the mature group, including oil yields. Such data emphasize the value of this oil, which needs further investigation. PMID:26669112

  19. Conversion of acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch to L-lactic acid by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans JI12.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lidan; Hudari, Mohammad Sufian Bin; Zhou, Xingding; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-06-01

    Cost-effective conversion of lignocellulose hydrolysate to optically pure lactic acid is commercially attractive but very challenging. Bacillus coagulans JI12 was isolated from natural environment and used to produce L-lactic acid (optical purity?>?99.5 %) from lignocellulose sugars and acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) at 50 C and pH 6.0 without sterilization of the medium. In fed-batch fermentation with 85 g/L initial xylose and 55 g/L xylose added after 7.5 h, 137.5 g/L lactic acid was produced with a yield of 98 % and a productivity of 4.4 g/L?h. In batch fermentation of a sugar mixture containing 8.5 % xylose, 1 % glucose, and 1 % L-arabinose, the lactic acid yield and productivity reached 98 % and 4.8 g/L?h, respectively. When EFB hydrolysate was used, 59.2 g/L of lactic acid was produced within 9.5 h at a yield of 97 % and a productivity of 6.2 g/L?h, which are the highest among those ever reported from lignocellulose hydrolysates. These results indicate that B. coagulans JI12 is a promising strain for industrial production of L-lactic acid from lignocellulose hydrolysate. PMID:23504058

  20. Accumulation of Glycoconjugates of 3-Methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic Acid in Fruits, Leaves, and Shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following Foliar Applications of Oak Extract or Oak Lactone.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2015-05-13

    Grapevines are capable of absorbing volatile compounds present in the vineyard during the growing season, and in some cases, volatiles have been found to accumulate in fruits or leaves in glycoconjugate forms, that is, with one or more sugar moieties attached. The presence of oak lactone in wine is usually attributable to oak maturation, but oak lactone has been detected in wines made with fruit from grapevines treated with oak extract or oak lactone. This study investigated the accumulation of glycoconjugates of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid (i.e., the ring-opened form of oak lactone) in the fruits, leaves, and shoots of Monastrell grapevines following foliar application of either oak extract or oak lactone at approximately 7 days postveraison. Fruits, leaves, and shoots were collected at three different time points, including at maturity. The oak lactone content of fruit was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with declining concentrations observed in fruit from grapevines treated with oak lactone with ripening. The concentrations of a β-d-glucopyranoside of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid in fruits, leaves, and shoots was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the highest oak lactone glucoside levels observed in leaves of grapevines treated with oak lactone. A glucose-glucose disaccharide was also tentatively identified. These results demonstrate both ring-opening and glycosylation of oak lactone occurred after experimental treatments were imposed. PMID:25912091

  1. Cytotoxic chalcones and antioxidants from the fruits of a Syzygium samarangense (Wax Jambu)

    PubMed Central

    Simirgiotis, Mario J.; Adachi, Seiji; To, Satoshi; Yang, Hui; Reynertson, Kurt A.; Basile, Margaret J.; Gil, Roberto R.; Weinstein, I. Bernard; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts of the pulp and seeds of the fruits of Syzygium samarangense Merr. & Perry (Blume) led to the identification of four cytotoxic compounds and eight antioxidants on the basis of HPLC-PDA analysis, MS, and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Three C-methylated chalcones, 2′,4′-dihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethyl-6′-methoxychalcone (1), 2′,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methyl-6′-methoxychalcone (stercurensin, 2), and 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (cardamonin, 3), were isolated and displayed cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 10, 35, and 35 μM, respectively) against the SW-480 human colon cancer cell line. Also a number of known antioxidants were obtained including six quercetin glycosides: reynoutrin (4), hyperin (5), myricitrin (6), quercitrin (7), quercetin (9), and guaijaverin (10), one flavanone: (S)-pinocembrin (8), and two phenolic acids: gallic acid (11) and ellagic acid (12). PMID:22359426

  2. Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).

    PubMed

    Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%). PMID:24630370

  3. Development of a rapid and direct method for the determination of organic acids in peach fruit using LC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Sandín-España, Pilar; Mateo-Miranda, M; López-Goti, Carmen; De Cal, A; Alonso-Prados, José Luis

    2016-02-01

    An accurate, simple and rapid liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for the determination of organic acids in peach fruit has been developed. Direct injection and sample clean-up with a mixed-mode sorbent was compared. The best results for the determination of gluconic, oxalic, malic, citric and fumaric acids were obtained with only a simple dilution and filtration step, and nylon filters should be avoided since some organic acids are retained by them. It is the first time that gluconic acid has been determined in peach fruit. Different parameters involved in the separation and detection process have been optimized. Since matrix effects were observed in the peach commodity, organic acids were quantified by the standard addition method. All validation parameters of the method were found acceptable of all organic acids. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of samples of peach from two cultivars. PMID:26304346

  4. Suppression of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase, Which Encodes a Key Enzyme in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis, Alters Fruit Texture in Transgenic Tomato1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), ?-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-?-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp). PMID:22108525

  5. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry).

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Sun, Y; Deng, S; Schlecht, S M; Zheng, W; Nikolic, D; Mahady, G; van Breemen, R B; Fong, H H S; Pezzuto, J M; Bolton, J L; Farnsworth, N R

    2004-01-01

    A methanol extract of chaste-tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus L.) was tested for its ability to displace radiolabeled estradiol from the binding site of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). The extract at 46 +/- 3 microg/ml displaced 50% of estradiol from ERalpha and 64 +/- 4 microg/ml from ERbeta. Treatment of the ER+ hormone-dependent T47D:A18 breast cancer cell line with the extract induced up-regulation of ERbeta mRNA. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was upregulated in the Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. However, chaste-tree berry extract did not induce estrogen-dependent alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in Ishikawa cells. Bioassay-guided isolation, utilizing ER binding as a monitor, resulted in the isolation of linoleic acid as one possible estrogenic component of the extract. The use of pulsed ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is an affinity-based screening technique, also identified linoleic acid as an ER ligand based on its selective affinity, molecular weight, and retention time. Linoleic acid also stimulated mRNA ERbeta expression in T47D:A18 cells, PR expression in Ishikawa cells, but not AP activity in Ishikawa cells. These data suggest that linoleic acid from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus can bind to estrogen receptors and induce certain estrogen inducible genes. PMID:14974442

  6. Sucrose and Malic Acid as the Compounds Exported to the Apical Bud of Pea following 14CO2 Labeling of the Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Douglas A.; Davies, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The G2 line of peas (Pisum sativum L.) displays senescence and death of the apical bud only in long days and in the presence of fruit. As the removal of fruit prevents senescence, one possible mechanism by which fruits induce senescence is that the fruits produce some `senescence factor' under long day conditions, which is then transported to the apical bud. Allowing developing fruits to photosynthesize in the presence of 14CO2 results in the recovery of label in the apical bud. In order to determine the chemical nature of this radiolabeled material, fruits of G2 peas, growing under long days, were exposed to 14CO2 at the time when the first senescence symptoms start to appear. The radiolabeled material from apical buds was then extracted, purified, and identified. Using HPLC and GC-MS the major labeled compound found in the apical bud following exposure of pea fruits to 14CO2 was identified as sucrose, while malic acid was identified as the major ethyl acetate-soluble compound. These compounds accounted for about 73 and 16%, respectively, of the radioactivity in the apical bud. No other compounds were present in significant amounts. As neither of these chemicals is likely to have any kind of senescence effect, we report no evidence for a senescence factor. PMID:16666328

  7. Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Hilton, R; Basoalto, E; Stelinski, L L

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to assess glacial acetic acid (GAA) with various host plant volatiles (HPVs) and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8, 10-dodecadien-1-ol, of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), as lures in traps for tortricid pests that often co-occur in tree fruits in the western United States. In addition to codling moth, field trapping studies were conducted with oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the eyespotted budmoth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermller). HPVs included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, (E)-?-ocimene, (E)-?-farnesene, and farnesol. Three types of GAA co-lures differing in a 10-fold range in weekly evaporation rates were tested. The evaporation rate of GAA co-lures was an important factor affecting moth catches. The highest rate tested captured fewer codling moth but more leafrollers and eyespotted budmoth. GAA co-lures caught both sexes of each species. The field life of butyl hexanoate and (E)-?-ocimene lures were much shorter than pear ester or sex pheromone lures. Adding GAA to pear ester or to (E)-?-ocimene significantly increased the catches of only codling moth or oriental fruit moth, respectively. Combining pear ester or (E)-?-ocimene with GAA did not affect the catch of either species compared with the single more attractive HPV. Adding HPVs to GAA did not increase the catches of either leafroller species or eyespotted budmoth. Traps baited with pear ester, sex pheromone, and GAA for monitoring codling moth were also effective in classifying pest pressure of both leafroller species within orchards. PMID:25268327

  8. Hyaluronic acid depolymerization by ascorbate-redox effects on solid state cultivation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in cashew apple fruit bagasse.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Andr Casimiro; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

    2012-05-01

    The cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) has been used as a promising agricultural resource for the production of low-molecular weight (M(W)) hyaluronic acid (HA) (10(4)-10(5) Da). The cashew juice is a rich source of vitamin C containing, 1.2-2.0 g L(-1). This work explores the effects of the initial concentration of the ascorbate on the solid fermentation of the juice-moisturized bagasse from the cashew apple fruit. The results show that the M(W) reduction of HA is proportional to the initial ascorbate concentration. The presence of ascorbate did not influence the Streptococcus zooepidemicus metabolism. However, the HA productivity was increased from 0.18 to 0.28 mg g(-1) h(-1) when the ascorbate concentration ranged from 1.7 to 10 mg mL(-1). These findings contribute to the controlled production of HA in a low M(W) range, which is important in cell signalization, angiogenesis and nanoparticles production. PMID:22806044

  9. Deciphering ascorbic acid regulatory pathways in ripening tomato fruit using a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Ju, Zheng; Li, Shan; Zuo, Jinhua; Fu, Daqi; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2013-11-01

    Genotype is generally determined by the co-expression of diverse genes and multiple regulatory pathways in plants. Gene co-expression analysis combining with physiological trait data provides very important information about the gene function and regulatory mechanism. L-Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is an essential nutrient component for human health and plant metabolism, plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle, cell expansion, stress resistance, hormone synthesis, and signaling. Here, we applied a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach based on gene expression values and AsA content data in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit with different AsA content levels, which leads to identification of AsA relevant modules and vital genes in AsA regulatory pathways. Twenty-four modules were compartmentalized according to gene expression profiling. Among these modules, one negatively related module containing genes involved in redox processes and one positively related module enriched with genes involved in AsA biosynthetic and recycling pathways were further analyzed. The present work herein indicates that redox pathways as well as hormone-signal pathways are closely correlated with AsA accumulation in ripening tomato fruit, and allowed us to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies to dissect this interplay at the biochemical and molecular level. PMID:23718676

  10. A comparative study of thermal and acid inactivation kinetics in fruit juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg grown at acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2009-11-01

    Acid and heat inactivation in orange and apple juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (i.e., Spanish Type Culture Collection) 443 (CECT 443) (Salmonella Typhimurium) and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg CECT 4384 (Salmonella Senftenberg) grown in buffered brain heart infusion (pH 7.0) and acidified brain heart infusion up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic, and hydrochloric acids was evaluated. Acid adaptation induced an adaptive response that increased the subsequent resistance to extreme pH conditions (pH 2.5) and to heat, although the magnitude of these responses differed between the two isolates and fruit juices. The acid resistance in orange juice for acid-adapted cells (D-values of 28.3-34.5 min for Salmonella Senftenberg and 30.0-39.2 min for Salmonella Typhimurium) resulted to be about two to three times higher than that corresponding to non-acid-adapted cells. In apple juice, acid-adapted Salmonella Senftenberg cells survived better than those of Salmonella Typhimurium, obtaining mean D-values of 114.8 +/- 12.3 and 41.9 +/- 2.5 min, respectively. The thermotolerance of non-acid-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in orange (D(58)-value: 0.028 min) and apple juices (D(58)-value: 0.10 min) was approximately double for acid-adapted cells. This cross-protection to heat was more strongly expressed in Salmonella Senftenberg. D(58)-values obtained for non-acid-adapted cells in orange (0.11 min) and apple juices (0.19 min) increased approximately 10 and 5 times, respectively, after their growth in acidified media. The conditions prevailing during bacterial growth and heat treatment did not significantly influence the z-values observed (6.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Typhimurium and 7.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg). The enhanced acid resistance found for both isolates could enable them to survive for prolonged time periods in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the risk of illness. Further, it should be taken into account that microbial growth in acidified media also induces a cross-protection response against heat that should also be considered for the design of pasteurization processes for acid foods. PMID:19694554

  11. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard. PMID:12891827

  12. Changes in Amide-Linked and Ester Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Cotton Fruiting Forms during Their Development

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene; Brummett, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of free indoleacetic acid (IAA) is high in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fruiting forms before anthesis, but is low at and for a few days after anthesis. Amide-linked and ester IAA were measured in fruiting forms at 9, 6, and 3 days before anthesis; at anthesis; and at 2, 4, 7, and 9 days after anthesis to determine if free IAA decreased because it was converted to a conjugated form. That did not appear to be the case. While the major decrease in free IAA occurred during the 6 days before anthesis, ester IAA increased only a small amount and amide-linked IAA decreased even more than free IAA. During the 6 days before anthesis free IAA decreased from 0.62 to 0.12 micrograms per gram and amide-linked IAA decreased from 19.14 to 1.16 micrograms per gram dry weight. No evidence was found that a large amount of amide-linked IAA was converted to an insoluble form; flowers contained less than 1 microgram per gram of insoluble IAA. The free and amide-linked IAA must have been converted to other forms, perhaps by oxidation. Soluble amide-linked IAA remained low after anthesis. No ester IAA was detected 6 days before anthesis and only 0.08 microgram per gram dry weight was measured at anthesis. The concentration of ester IAA increased thereafter to 4.43 micrograms per gram at 9 days after anthesis. Therefore, amide-linked IAA was the major form of IAA in flower buds and ester IAA was the major form in young fruits (bolls). Minimum concentrations of free and total IAA occurred during the 4 days after anthesis, a stage when cotton fruiting forms are most likely to abscise. The large decreases in free and amide-linked IAA during the 6 days before anthesis may indicate a rapid turnover of IAA in flower buds. But, the decrease in free IAA was not accompanied by a comparable increase in ester or amide-linked IAA. PMID:16666645

  13. Oral administration of veratric acid, a constituent of vegetables and fruits, prevents cardiovascular remodelling in hypertensive rats: a functional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Murugesan; Raja, Boobalan; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Prahalathan, Pichavaram; Kumar, Subramanian; Mishra, Santosh Kumar

    2015-11-14

    In our previous studies, veratric acid (VA) shows beneficial effect on hypertension and its associated dyslipidaemia. In continuation, this study was designed to investigate the effect of VA, one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits, on cardiovascular remodelling in hypertensive rats, primarily assessed by functional studies using Langendorff isolated heart system and organ bath system. Hypertension was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) (40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) in drinking water for 4 weeks. VA was orally administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. l-NAME-treated rats showed impaired cardiac ventricular and vascular function, evaluated by Langendorff isolated heart system and organ bath studies, respectively; a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides in aorta; and a significant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E in aorta. Fibrotic remodelling of the aorta and heart were assessed by Masson's Trichrome staining and Van Gieson's staining, respectively. In addition, l-NAME rats showed increased heart fibronectin expression assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. VA supplementation throughout the experimental period significantly normalised cardiovascular function, oxidative stress, antioxidant status and fibrotic remodelling of tissues. These results of the present study conclude that VA acts as a protective agent against hypertension-associated cardiovascular remodelling. PMID:26346559

  14. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity. PMID:20069869

  15. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:23110485

  16. Procerenone: a Fatty Acid Triterpenoid from the Fruit Pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum (Sapotaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ngamgwe, Rosine Fotsing; Yankam, Raoul; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Lanz, Christian; Furrer, Julien; Schrch, Stefan; Kaiser, Marcel; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Ngouela, Silvre; Tsamo, Etienne; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the fruit pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum which exhibited antiplasmodial activity during preliminary screening led to the isolation of the new fatty ester triterpenoid 3?-hexadecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1), together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of the new compound as well as those of the known compounds was established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 1- 4 were evaluated in-vitro for their cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines and antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi (species responsible for human malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively). The tested compounds showed weak to moderate antiprotozoal activity and, no significant effect was detected regarding their cytotoxic potency. PMID:25587333

  17. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43C and retained activity over 25-50C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. PMID:25382689

  18. Procerenone: a Fatty Acid Triterpenoid from the Fruit Pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Ngamgwe, Rosine Fotsing; Yankam, Raoul; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Lanz, Christian; Furrer, Julien; Schürch, Stefan; Kaiser, Marcel; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the fruit pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum which exhibited antiplasmodial activity during preliminary screening led to the isolation of the new fatty ester triterpenoid 3β-hexadecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1), together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of the new compound as well as those of the known compounds was established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 1- 4 were evaluated in-vitro for their cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines and antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi (species responsible for human malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively). The tested compounds showed weak to moderate antiprotozoal activity and, no significant effect was detected regarding their cytotoxic potency. PMID:25587333

  19. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit and seeds from the jujube plant (Ziziphus jujuba) possess nutritional and medicinal including antimicrobial properties. We measured free amino acid content by ion-exchange chromatography, individual phenolic content by HPLC, UV, and mass spectral methods, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocal...

  20. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  1. Determination of Shikimic Acid in Fruits of Illicium Species and Various Other Plant Samples by LC-UV and LC-ESI-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and specific analytical method for the quantitative determination of shikimic acid from the methanol extract of the fruits of Illicium species and from various plant samples was developed. The LC–UV separation was achieved by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column with potassium dihy...

  2. Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) Fruits: Comparision of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoids profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and to compare various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, querceti...

  3. Evaluation of chemical constitute, fatty acids and antioxidant activity of the fruit and seed of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) grown wild in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Keramatollah; Alirezalu, Abolfazl; Akbari, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this investigation, the chemical compositions of berries from sea buckthorn were studied. The amount of ascorbic acid and ?-carotene determined by HPLC was 170mg/100g FW and 0.20mg/g FW, respectively. Total phenols, anthocyanins, acidity and total soluble solids (TSS) contents were 247mgGAE/100gFW, 3mg/L (cyanidin-3-glucoside), 5.32% and 13.8%, respectively. Fruit antioxidant activity determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method was 24.85mMFe/100gFW. Results confirmed the presence of six dominant fatty acids (determined by GC) in fruit including linoleic (34.2%), palmitoleic (21.37%), palmitic (17.2%), oleic (12.8%), linolenic (5.37%) and stearic acid (1.67%). Five dominant fatty acids of the seeds were linoleic (42.36%), linolenic (21.27%), oleic (21.34%), palmitic (6.54%) and stearic acid (2.54%). The nitrogen content was 3.96%. The P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cl contents of fruit were 491, 1674, 1290, 990, 291, 29.77, 108.37, 17.87, 0.021 and 2.18mg/kgDW, respectively. PMID:26214249

  4. Lignin preparation from oil palm empty fruit bunches by sequential acid/alkaline treatment--A biorefinery approach.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jesus David Coral; Woiciechowski, Adenise; Zandona Filho, Arion; Noseda, Miguel D; Kaur, Brar Satinder; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is an important raw material for the sustainable biorefineries and also the forerunner of high-value added products, such as biocomposite for chemical, pharmaceutical and cement industries. Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) were used for lignin preparation by successive treatment with 1% (w/w) H2SO4 at 121°C for 60 min and 2.5% NaOH at 121°C for 80 min resulting in the high lignin yield of 28.89%, corresponding to 68.82% of the original lignin. The lignin obtained was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results indicated a lignin with molecular masses ramping from 4500 kDa to 12,580 kDa. FTIR and NMR of these lignins showed more syringyl and p-hydroxyphenyl than guaiacyl units. Moderate acid/alkaline treatment provided lignin with high industrial potential and acid hydrolyzates rich in fermentable sugars and highly porous cellulosic fibers. PMID:26188560

  5. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON APPLE TREE PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed o...

  6. An analysis on organic acids contents in ripe fruits of fifteen Mao Luang (Antidesma bunius) cultivars, harvested from dipterocarp forest of Phupan Valley in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-04-01

    This experiment was carried out in the rainy season (May-October) of the 2006 at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Thailand to analyse organic acids contents in ripe fruits of fifteen Mao Luang cultivars harvested from dipterocarp forest, Phupan Valley, Sakon Nakhon, Northeast Thailand. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The fifteen Mao Luang cultivars were used as treatments. The results showed that there were two groups of organic acids contents in ripe fruits of Mao Luang cultivars i.e., major and minor. The major group of organic acids includes: tartaric acid (7.97-12.16 mg g(-1) of fresh weight), ascorbic acid (10.01-16.55 mg g(-1) of fresh weight), citric acid (4.44-11.73 mg g(-1) of fresh weight) and benzoic acid (8.13-17.43 mg g(-1) of fresh weight) and the minor group includes malic acid (3.05-4.52 mg g(-1) of fresh weight), lactic acid (1.12-4.09 mg g(-1) of fresh weight), oxalic acid (1.00-1.45 mg g(-1) of fresh weight) and acetic acid (0.19-0.69 mg g(-1) of fresh weight). Khumlhai cultivar gave the highest amount of ascorbic acid followed by Lompat, Phuchong, Sangkrow 2 and Maelookdog cultivars. Sangkrow 2 and Phuchong cultivars gave the highest ratio between tartaric and malic acids. Total soluble solid content (TSS%) was highest with Sangkrow 5 cultivar, whilst Total Organic Acids (TOA) was highest with Phuchong cultivar and ratio between TSS:TOA was highest with Sangkrow 2 cultivar. Juice % was highest with both Sangkrow 2 and 3 cultivars, whilst Fapratan and Lompat cultivars ranked the second. PMID:18810965

  7. The hydroxycinnamic acid content of barley and brewers' spent grain (BSG) and the potential to incorporate phenolic extracts of BSG as antioxidants into fruit beverages.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Aoife L; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Neugart, Susanne; Piggott, Charles O; Connolly, Alan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Krumbein, Angelika; Schreiner, Monika; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2013-12-01

    The hydroxycinnamic acid (HA) content of starting barley for brewers' spent grains (BSG), whole BSG and phenolic extracts from BSG was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and correlated with antioxidant potential. The effect of BSG phenolic extracts on antioxidant activity of fruit beverages was also assessed (using the total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays). The concentration of HA present in barley extract and BSG was in the order of ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (p-CA) derivatives, FA derivatives, p-CA, caffeic acid (CA) and CA derivatives. Results suggested that brewing and roasting decreased the HA content. Antioxidant activity was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with caffeic acid (R(2)=0.8309) and total HA (R(2)=0.3942) concentrations. Addition of extracts to fruit beverages resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in antioxidant activity of cranberry juice, measured by the FRAP assay. In vitro digestion significantly (P<0.05) reduced TPC, DPPH and FRAP activity of the fruit beverages. PMID:23870996

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in canned fruit juices, cordials, and soft drinks with iron(III) and 1,10-phenanthroline as reagents.

    PubMed

    Lau, O W; Luk, S F

    1987-01-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in canned fruit juices, cordials, and soft drinks, based on the reduction of iron(III) by ascorbic acid to iron(II), which is then complexed with 1,10-phenanthroline. Background correction is necessary for most samples and can be achieved by copper(II)-catalyzed oxidation of the acid. The calibration graph was linear from 0 to 8 micrograms/mL of ascorbic acid with a slope of 0.12/ppm. The precision for the determination of ascorbic acid in a lemon drink containing 210 micrograms/mL of the acid was 0.9%. Many ingredients commonly found in fruit juices, cordials, and soft drinks do not interfere; however, tannic acid, pyrogallol, and sulfite interfere with the method. A wide range of samples was analyzed for ascorbic acid content by the proposed method. The samples included mango and lemon tea drinks and also grapefruit juices, for which no background correction is needed. PMID:3610966

  9. Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W.

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

  10. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    PubMed

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. PMID:26775020

  11. [Phenolic acid intake of adults in a Bavarian subgroup of the national food consumption survey].

    PubMed

    Radtke, J; Linseisen, J; Wolfram, G

    1998-06-01

    Phenolic acids, essentially hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids, are secondary plant products and commonly found in plant derived foodstuff. The antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties of phenolic acids could be one of the facts to explain the inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and the incidence of coronary heart disease and cancer, respectively, as found in epidemiologic studies. Phenolic acids are rarely listed in food composition tables and there are no dietary intake data available. Consequently, a data base containing the phenolic acid content of foods (literatur data) was built and 7-d dietary protocols of 63 women and 56 men of a Bavarian subpopulation (age 19-49 years) of the German National Food Consumption Survey (NVS) were evaluated. The average phenolic acid intake of men and women is 222 mg/d within a large range. The dominating one within all the phenolic acids is clearly caffeic acid (206 mg/d); the intake of the other phenolic acids amounts to 0.2 (gentisic acid) up to 5.2 mg/d (ellagic acid). The sum of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids amounts to 11 mg/d and 211 mg/d, respectively. Significant sex differences are found for some of the phenolic acids. Especially, the average intake of caffeic acid of women (229 mg/d) is higher than that of men (179 mg/d) caused by the high amount of coffee consumption. The age group "25-49 years" is consuming more coffee than the age group "19-24 years" and, therefore, reveals a significantly higher intake of caffeic acid. The major sources of phenolic acids are coffee with 92% of the caffeic acid intake and fruits (including fruit products and juices) with 75% of the salycilic acid and 59% of the p-coumaric acid intake. Consequently, phenolic acids are consumed in considerable amounts with food. Since antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties of phenolic acids are already proven in in vitro as well as in animal experiments, epidemiologic studies will show whether a high phenolic acid intake goes ahead with a reduced risk for coronary heart disease or cancer in humans. PMID:9698647

  12. Quality control of fruit juices by using organic acids determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated bubble cell capillaries.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    An enhanced method for the determination of organic acids in several fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV-Vis detection has been developed in this work. First, a study with simulated real juice samples was done to find the best separation conditions. Next, several commercial fruit juices were analyzed, and the organic acid contents were quantified in less than 12 min using a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated fused-silica 'bubble cell' capillary. The present method is reliable, fast and provides detection limits comprised between 0.1 and 2.5 μg mL(-1). Moreover, different chemometric techniques, based on CZE data, were examined. Linear discriminant analysis allowed the differentiation of fruit juices according to the fruit type, whereas multiple linear regression models predicted the percentages of orange and pineapple juices in binary blends with grape. Thus, the present methodology is of utmost interest for routine and quality control purposes in food industries. PMID:26041236

  13. Functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Qing; Xu, Xiangbin; Meng, Xianghong; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2008-11-01

    We report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) at different maturity stages. The results demonstrated that SA enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against Penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. Based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after SA treatment at earlier (A) and later (B) maturity stage, respectively. Seven antioxidant proteins and three pathogenesis related-proteins were identified at both A and B stages, while five heat shock proteins and four dehydrogenases were only detected at B stage. SA treatment also stimulated higher transcript levels of peroxidase, but repressed that of catalase. Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at later maturity stages. PMID:18924108

  14. Anti-Glycation Effects of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit Extract and Its Components in Vivo and in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yuya; Nakatani, Sachie; Onodera, Hideaki; Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Matsuura, Yoichi; Kobata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) leads to various diseases such as diabetic complications and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we examined the effect of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) and its constituent polyphenols on AGE formation in vivo and in vitro. PFE, fed with a high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) diet to KK-A(y) mice, significantly reduced glycation products such as glycoalbumin (22.0 2.4%), hemoglobin A1c (5.84 0.23%), and serum AGEs (8.22 0.17 ?g/mL), as compared to a control HFS group (30.6 2.6%, 7.45 0.12%, and 9.55 0.17 ?g/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). In antiglycation assays, PFE, punicalin, punicalagin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid suppressed the formation of AGEs from bovine serum albumin and sugars. In this study, we discuss the mechanism of the antiglycation effects of PFE and its components in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26242637

  15. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. PMID:23299756

  16. Two-stage, acetic acid-aqueous ammonia, fractionation of empty fruit bunches for increased lignocellulosic biomass utilization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of EFB was conducted in two consecutive steps using a batch reaction system: hemicellulose hydrolysis using acetic acid (AA; 3.0-7.0 wt.%) at 170-190C for 10-20 min in the first stage, and lignin solubilization using ammonium hydroxide (5-20 wt.%) at 140-220C for 5-25 min in the second stage. The two-stage process effectively fractionated empty fruit bunches (EFB) in terms of hemicellulose hydrolysis (53.6%) and lignin removal (59.5%). After the two-stage treatment, the fractionated solid contained 65.3% glucan. Among three investigated process parameters, reaction temperature and ammonia concentration had greater impact on the delignification reaction in the second stage than reaction time. The two-stage fractionation processing improved the enzymatic digestibility to 72.9% with 15 FPU of cellulase/g of glucan supplemented with 70 pNPG of ?-glycosidase (Novozyme 188)/g-glucan, which was significantly enhanced from the equivalent digestibility of 28.3% for untreated EFB and 45.7% for AAH-fractionated solid. PMID:26419963

  17. Broad-spectrum antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria and their application in fruit models.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Sarah; Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-07-01

    A large-scale screen of some 7,000 presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from animal, human, or plant origin, identified 1,149 isolates with inhibitory activity against the food-spoilage mould Penicillium expansum. In excess of 500 LAB isolates were subsequently identified to produce a broad spectrum of activity against P. expansum, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium notatum, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing of 94 broad spectrum isolates revealed that the majority of antifungal producers were strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. The remaining population was composed of Weissella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceous isolates. Characterization of six selected broad-spectrum antifungal LAB isolates revealed that antifungal activity is maximal at a temperature of 30C, a pH of 4.0 and is stable across a variety of salt concentrations. The antifungal compound(s) was shown to be neither proteinaceous nor volatile in nature. P. pentosaceous 54 was shown to have protective properties against P. expansum spoilage when applied in pear, plum and grape models, therefore representing an excellent candidate for food-related applications. PMID:23160868

  18. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fun...

  19. Role of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vasodilator Effect of Ursolic Acid and Uvaol from Black Cherry Prunus serotina Fruits.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vzquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, Csar; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; Lpez-Vallejo, Fabin H; Sols-Gutirrez, Mariana; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Rivero-Cruz, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    The present research aimed to isolate the non-polar secondary metabolites that produce the vasodilator effects induced by the dichloromethane extract of Prunus serotina (P. serotina) fruits and to determine whether the NO/cGMP and the H?S/KATP channel pathways are involved in their mechanism of action. A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of P. serotina fruits led to the isolation of ursolic acid and uvaol as the main non-polar vasodilator compounds. These compounds showed significant relaxant effect on rat aortic rings in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), dl-propargylglycine (PAG) and glibenclamide (Gli). Additionally, both triterpenes increased NO and H?S production in aortic tissue. Molecular docking studies showed that ursolic acid and uvaol are able to bind to endothelial NOS and CSE with high affinity for residues that form the oligomeric interface of both enzymes. These results suggest that the vasodilator effect produced by ursolic acid and uvaol contained in P. serotina fruits, involves activation of the NO/cGMP and H?S/KATP channel pathways, possibly through direct activation of NOS and CSE. PMID:26771591

  20. Seasonal Abscisic Acid Signal and a Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor, DkbZIP5, Regulate Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Persimmon Fruit1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Takashi; Katayama-Ikegami, Ayako; Kobayashi, Shozo; Sato, Akihiko; Kono, Atsushi; Yonemori, Keizo

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to plant protection and crop quality. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) has a unique characteristic of accumulating large amounts of PAs, particularly in its fruit. Normal astringent-type and mutant nonastringent-type fruits show different PA accumulation patterns depending on the seasonal expression patterns of DkMyb4, which is a Myb transcription factor (TF) regulating many PA pathway genes in persimmon. In this study, attempts were made to identify the factors involved in DkMyb4 expression and the resultant PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in differential changes in the expression patterns of DkMyb4 and PA biosynthesis in astringent-type and nonastringent-type fruits depending on the development stage. To obtain an ABA-signaling TF, we isolated a full-length basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF, DkbZIP5, which is highly expressed in persimmon fruit. We also showed that ectopic DkbZIP5 overexpression in persimmon calluses induced the up-regulation of DkMyb4 and the resultant PA biosynthesis. In addition, a detailed molecular characterization using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient reporter assay indicated that DkbZIP5 recognized ABA-responsive elements in the promoter region of DkMyb4 and acted as a direct regulator of DkMyb4 in an ABA-dependent manner. These results suggest that ABA signals may be involved in PA biosynthesis in persimmon fruit via DkMyb4 activation by DkbZIP5. PMID:22190340

  1. Antioxidant property and [Formula: see text]-glucosidase, [Formula: see text]-amylase and lipase inhibiting activities of Flacourtia inermis fruits: characterization of malic acid as an inhibitor of the enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alakolanga, A G A W; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Flacourtiaceae), is a moderate sized tree cultivated in Sri Lanka for its fruits known as Lovi. The current study was undertaken to study the biological activity of extracts of the fruits in an attempt to increase the value of the under exploited fruit crops. Fruits of F. inermis were found to be rich in phenolics and anthocyanins. Polyphenol content of the fruits was determined to be 1.28 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit and anthocyanin content was estimated as 108 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruits. The EtOAc extract showed moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 value of 66.2 ppm. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the fruits also exhibited inhibitory activities toward α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase enzymes with IC50values ranging from 549 to 710 ppm, 1021 to 1949 ppm and 1290 to 2096 ppm, respectively. The active principle for the enzyme inhibition was isolated through activity-guided fractionation and was characterized as (S)-malic acid. The results of this study indicate that F. inermis fruits have the potential to be used in health foods and in nutritional supplements. PMID:26604419

  2. Comparison of the effect of high fruit and soybean products diet and standard diet interventions on serum uric acid in asymptomatic hyperuricemia adults: an open randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Gao, Yuxia; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high fruit and soybean products diet and standard diet interventions on serum uric acid (SUA) in asymptomatic hyperuricemia adults. A total of 187 Chinese adults (20-59 years old) with asymptomatic hyperuricemia participated in this randomized trial and were assigned to receive the standard diet recommended by guideline (group 1) and high fruit and soybean products diet (group 2) for 3 months. The outcome of SUA was assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. After 3 months, the SUA in group 1 and group 2 was significant reduced, whereas the SUA was not significantly changed in-between groups. These data suggest that over a 3-month period, although the high fruit and soybean products diet and standard diet interventions yield no different effects on SUA, the high fruit and soybean products dietary intervention could be an effective alternative to a standard diet for achieving clinically important reductions in SUA for asymptomatic hyperuricemia patients. PMID:26940151

  3. Two Pear Glutathione S-Transferases Genes Are Regulated during Fruit Development and Involved in Response to Salicylic Acid, Auxin, and Glucose Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Xing; Chen, Liang; Xiang, Di-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Two genes encoding putative glutathione S-transferase proteins were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated PpGST1 and PpGST2. The deduced PpGST1 and PpGST2 proteins contain conserved Glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain (GST_N) and Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain (GST_C). Using PCR amplification technique, the genomic clones corresponding to PpGST1 and PpGST2 were isolated and shown to contain two introns and a singal intron respectively with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that PpGST1 belonged to Phi class of GST superfamilies and had high homology with apple MdGST, while PpGST2 was classified into the Tau class of GST superfamilies. The expression of PpGST1 and PpGST2 genes was developmentally regulated in fruit. Further study demonstrated that PpGST1 and PpGST2 expression was remarkably induced by glucose, salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) treatments in pear fruit, and in diseased fruit. These data suggested that PpGST1 and PpGST2 might be involved in response to sugar, SA, and IAA signaling during fruit development of pear. PMID:24587129

  4. Comprehensive insights on how 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid retards senescence in post-harvest citrus fruits using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiaoli; Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Zhang, Li; Wei, Qingjiang; Cheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Lingling; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Auxin-like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a high-efficiency anti-stalling agent for the post-harvest fresh fruit industry, has had its use restricted due to environmental concerns. However, no other substitutes for 2,4-D are available to the post-harvest industry. Insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of 2,4-D on fruit quality preservation will provide a theoretical basis for exploring new safe and effective anti-stalling agents. This study comprehensively analysed changes in the peel of Olinda Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] induced by 500 ppm 2,4-D using 'omic'-driven approaches. Transcriptional profiling revealed that transcriptional factor (mainly AP2/ERF, WRKY, and NAC family members), transport, and hormone metabolism genes were over-represented and up-regulated within 24h post-treatment (HPT). Stress defence genes were up-regulated, while cell wall metabolism genes were down-regulated after 48 HPT. However, secondary metabolism genes, especially phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis-related genes, were over-represented at all the time points. Comparative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of proteins implicated in stress responses (25%), hormone metabolism, and signal transduction (12%) significantly accumulated at the post-transcriptional level. Hormone levels detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 2,4-D significantly increased, while ethylene production (detected by gas chromatography) decreased after 2,4-D treatment. In addition, lignin and water content in the fruit peel also increased and the epicuticle wax ultrastructure was modified. In conclusion, 2,4-D retarded fruit senescence by altering the levels of many endogenous hormones and by improving stress defence capabilities by up-regulating defence-related genes and proteins. PMID:24215076

  5. Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of acid glycoside from Spondias mangifera fruit against physically and chemically challenged albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Muhammad; Fareed, Sheeba; Rahman, Md. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of fruit Spondias mangifera (EEFSM) and its isolated compound (Sm-01) were evaluated. The structure of Sm-01 was also elucidated. Materials and Methods: EEFSM at two different doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (bw)/day and Sm-01 at dose of 10 mg/kg (bw)/day were screened for in vivo stress relaxant activity using anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression model and in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) model. The levels of Hb, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) along with organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide were estimated. The structure of Sm-01 was elucidated by spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR],13 C-NMR and mass spectrometry) and chemical analyses. Results: Sm-01 was structurally elucidated as propan-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6’→1”)-β-D-glucofuranoside. It was found that EEFSM and Sm-01 significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and duration of stay on rotarod and normalized the levels of Hb, RBC, and WBC along with altered organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide. EEFSM and Sm-01 also exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL with obtained IC50 of 0.32 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that extract and Sm-01 both possess significant stress relaxant and antioxidant activities favoring its use as adaptogens. The activities of the extract may be due to the Sm-01. PMID:26957871

  6. Purification and partial characterization of an acidic ?-glucan-protein complex from the fruiting body of Pleurotus sajor-caju and its effect on macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Satitmanwiwat, Saranya; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Kyu, Khin Lay

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to purify an acidic ?-glucan-protein complex from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor-caju by using the cell wall-degrading enzymes, xylanase and cellulase. The acidic glucan-protein complex was separated from a polysaccharide extract by using DEAE Toyopearl 650M anion-exchange and Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. Its homogeneity was ensured by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and agarose gel electrophoresis. The acidic glucan-protein complex had a molecular weight of approximately 182 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the acidic glucan-protein complex revealed an ?-glycosidic bond and the typical characteristics of polysaccharides and proteins. The amino acid composition of the protein moiety was dominated by proline, glycine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, indicating that the protein was highly flexible and had a negative charge. Atomic force microscopy proved that the acidic ?-glucan-protein complex existed in a spherical conformation. The acidic ?-glucan-protein complex stimulated the activation of macrophages, including the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-?. PMID:23047100

  7. Bolus consumption of a specifically designed fruit juice rich in anthocyanins and ascorbic acid did not influence markers of antioxidative defense in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ellinger, Sabine; Gordon, Andr; Krten, Mira; Jungfer, Elvira; Zimmermann, Benno F; Zur, Berndt; Ellinger, Jrg; Marx, Friedhelm; Stehle, Peter

    2012-11-14

    Exotic fruits such as aai, camu-camu, and blackberries rich in natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, anthocyanins) are marketed as "functional" foods supporting a pro-/antioxidant balance. Confirming data from human studies are lacking. Within a randomized controlled crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested 400 mL of a blended juice of these fruits or a sugar solution (control). Blood was drawn before and afterward to determine antioxidants in plasma, markers of antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC)] and oxidative stress [isoprostane, DNA strand breaks in leukocytes in vivo], and their resistance versus H?O?-induced strand breaks. Compared with sugar solution, juice consumption increased plasma ascorbic acid and maintained TOSC and partly Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (both P values < 0.05). Strand breaks in vivo increased after ingestion of both beverages (P < 0.001), probably due to postprandial and/or circadian effects. This anthocyanin-rich fruit juice may stabilize the pro-/antioxidant balance in healthy nonsmokers without affecting markers of oxidative stress. PMID:23072538

  8. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits are an essential part of our daily diets. Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium and calories. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and they do not contain cholesterol. Some fruits have laxative effects, prevent uri...

  9. Determination of spirocyclic tetronic/tetramic acid derivatives and neonicotinoid insecticides in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Belda, Marta; Garrido, Isabel; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2016-07-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used to preconcentrate three spirocyclic tetronic/tetramic acid derivatives (spirotetramat, spiromesifen and spirodiclofen) and five neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam, chlotianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid) insecticides previously extracted from fruit and vegetable matrices with acetonitrile. The organic enriched phase was evaporated, reconstituted in 25μL acetonitrile and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole in selected reaction monitoring mode. Enrichment factors in the 15-100 range were obtained. A matrix effect was observed, the detection limits varying between 0.025 and 0.5ngg(-1), depending on the compound and the sample matrix. The developed method was applied to the analysis of 25 samples corresponding to five different fruit and vegetable matrices. Only thiamethoxam was detected in a lemon sample at a concentration close to the quantification limit, and spiromesifen and spirotetramat at concentrations between 11.6 and 54.5ngg(-1). PMID:26920309

  10. Long aculeus and behavior of Anastrepha ludens render gibberellic acid ineffective as an agent to reduce 'ruby red' grapefruit susceptibility to the attack of this pestiferous fruit fly in commercial groves.

    PubMed

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martn; Greany, Patrick; Bigurra, Everardo; Prez-Staples, Diana; McDonald, Roy

    2006-08-01

    Treating Mexican grapefruit with gibberellic acid (GA3) before color break, significantly delayed peel color change and increased peel puncture resistance, but it did not reduce grapefruit susceptibility to Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) attack under natural conditions. Despite GA3 treatments, larval infestation levels increased with higher fruit fly populations, which also increased as the season progressed. Late in the season, infestation levels were even higher in GA3-treated fruit compared with untreated fruit, possibly because treated fruit were in better condition at that stage. Egg clutch size was significantly greater in very unripe, hard, GA3-treated fruit at the beginning of the harvest season and in December, compared with control fruit. Under laboratory conditions, egg injection into different regions of the fruit suggested that A. ludens eggs are intoxicated by peel oil content in the flavedo region. However, A. ludens' long aculeus allows females to oviposit eggs deeper into the peel (i.e., albedo), avoiding toxic essential oils in the flavedo. This makes A. ludens a particularly difficult species to control compared with other citrus-infesting species such as Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (fly species with significantly shorter aculei), which can be effectively managed with GA3 sprays. We discuss our findings in light of their practical implications and with respect to the oviposition behavior of various fruit flies attacking citrus. PMID:16937671

  11. Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment. PMID:24662312

  12. Production of humic acids from oil palm empty fruit bunch by submerged fermentation with Trichoderma viride: cellulosic substrates and nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Motta, F L; Santana, M H A

    2013-01-01

    The novelty of this study was to produce humic acids by submerged fermentation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) with Trichoderma viride and to investigate the effects of the cellulosic substrates and the organic sources of nitrogen on the biotechnological production of these acids. The results obtained indicate the potential application of EFB, a waste of oil palm processing, for humic acids production. Because EFB contains cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, fermentations were also performed using these polymers as carbon sources, separately or in combination. After 120 h of fermentation, significant production of humic acids was observed only in cultures containing either EFB or a mixture of the three polymers. Use of either potato peptone or yeast extract as a nitrogen source yielded nearly identical patterns of fungal growth and production of humic acids. The data obtained from microscopic imaging of T. viride growth and sporulation in EFB, coupled with the determined rates of production of humic acids indicated that the production of these acids is related to T. viride sporulation. PMID:23564497

  13. Anti-secretory and cyto-protective effects of chebulinic acid isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula on gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vaibhav; Agrawal, Manali; Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Madhur, Gaurav; Rastogi, Preeti; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Palit, Gautam; Narender, Tadigoppula

    2013-04-15

    In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, the gastro protective mechanism of chebulinic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit was investigated. Chebulinic acid was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity of chebulinic acid was observed against CRU (62.9%), AS (55.3%), AL (80.67%) and PL (66.63%) induced ulcer models. The reference drug omeprazole (10 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 77.73% protection against CRU, 58.30% against AS and 70.80% against PL model. Sucralfate, another reference drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 65.67% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Chebulinic acid significantly reduced free acidity (48.82%), total acidity (38.29%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 59.75% respectively. Further, chebulinic acid significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC50 of 65.01 ?g/ml as compared to the IC50 value of omeprazole (30.24 ?g/ml) confirming its anti-secretory activity. PMID:23462212

  14. The hypocholesterolemic activity of Momordica charantia fruit is mediated by the altered cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating gene expression in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Sho; Yamane, Takumi; Takita, Toshichika; Oishi, Yuichi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo

    2013-07-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic activity of Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd fruit (BGF), the relative hypocholesterolemic mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that BGF alters hepatic gene expression of cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating proteins to improve blood cholesterol profiles. To clarify the mechanism, we fed 7-week-old male Wistar rats a high-cholesterol (HC) diet containing 5% BGF for 4 weeks and determined the cholesterol levels in the serum, liver and feces, concentrations of the fecal total bile acid, and the expression level of cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating genes. The HC diet with BGF supplementation showed a significant serum hypocholesterolemic activity compared with the HC diet without BGF. BGF intake also significantly increased the levels of fecal total bile acid, suggesting that BGF inhibited the reabsorption of bile acids into the intestine. Hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver receptor homolog-1, which are both involved in cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) regulation, were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, by BGF intake. In addition, BGF tended to increase the hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level. Taken together, these results suggest that BGF not only decreases the reabsorption of bile acids into the intestine but also increases the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by CYP7A1 up-regulation through the down-regulation of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor/SHP pathway. PMID:23827133

  15. Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Rambutan Fruit cv. Rongrian by HPLC-ELSD and Separation of GABA from Rambutan Fruit Using Dowex 50W-X8 Column.

    PubMed

    Meeploy, Maneerat; Deewatthanawong, Rujira

    2016-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was validated for the determination of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rambutan fruit without any sample pretreatment or derivatization. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.0 mg/mL GABA, the ELSD response was linear with a correlation coefficient (r) >0.999. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.7 and 2.0 µg/mL, respectively. The method enabled the complete separation of GABA in the aqueous extract of rambutan flesh from the impurity peaks at 45.7 min. The recoveries of sample added GABA were obtained in the range of 92.0-99.3%. Intraday and interday relative standard deviations were <5.3%. Repeatability of the extraction process showed the acceptable precision. From the analysis of GABA content in rambutan flesh, 0.71 ± 0.23 mg of GABA was found in 1 g fresh weight. The recovery of GABA after passing through the Dowex 50W-X8 column was 96.65%. The analytical methodology could be potentially applied to the detection and quantification of GABA in other fruits and complex matrices when a sufficient quantity is available. PMID:26590236

  16. Use of oleic-acid functionalized nanoparticles for the magnetic solid-phase microextraction of alkylphenols in fruit juices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viñas, Pilar; Pastor-Belda, Marta; Torres, Aitor; Campillo, Natalia; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite with oleic acid as the surfactant (CoFe2O4/oleic acid) were used as sorbent material for the determination of alkylphenols in fruit juices. High sensitivity and specificity were achieved by liquid chromatography and detection using both diode-array (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode of the negative fragment ions for alkylphenols (APs) and in positive mode for ethoxylate APs (APEOs). The optimized conditions for the different variables influencing the magnetic separation procedure were: mass of magnetic nanoparticles, 50mg, juice volume, 10mL diluted to 25mL with water, pH 6, stirring for 10min at room temperature, separation with an external neodymium magnet, desorption with 3mL of methanol and orbital shaking for 5min. The enriched organic phase was evaporated and reconstituted with 100µL acetonitrile before injecting 30µL into a liquid chromatograph with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile/0.1% (v/v) formic acid under gradient elution. Quantification limits were in the range 3.6 to 125ngmL(-1). The recoveries obtained were in the 91-119% range, with RSDs lower than 14%. The ESI-MS/MS spectra permitted the correct identification of both APs and APEOs in the fruit juice samples. PMID:26946030

  17. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    PubMed Central

    Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant. PMID:25153628

  18. The effect of fiber bleaching treatment on the properties of poly(lactic acid)/oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber composites.

    PubMed

    Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant. PMID:25153628

  19. Terpenes and sterols from the fruits of Prunus mume and their inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation by suppressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi-Tao; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Li, Wei; Jang, Hae-Dong; Kim, Young-Ho

    2015-02-01

    The fruits of Prunus mume are a common commercial product and a valuable source of food and medicinal material in Eastern Asian countries. Our phytochemical investigation of the P. mume fruit led to the isolation of nine terpenes, including three ursane-type triterpenes (1-3), two cycloartane-type triterpenes (4 and 5), and four tocopherols (10-13), as well as four sterols (6-9). Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and ESI-MS, and the majority of these compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The anti-osteoporosis activities of 1-13 were evaluated by measuring their inhibitory effects on tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 2-7 and 9-12 significantly suppressed TRAP activity down to 47.96 2.45-86.45 3.07 % relative to the control at a concentration of 1 ?M. These results suggest that the fruits of P. mume could be an excellent source of anti-osteoporosis phytochemicals that may be developed as natural nutraceuticals and functional foods. PMID:24771352

  20. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  1. Gene Expression and Metabolite Profiling of Developing Highbush Blueberry Fruit Indicates Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Metabolism and Activation of Abscisic Acid Metabolism1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Zaharia, L. Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P.; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Kennedy, James A.; Constabel, C. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3′-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3′5′-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of blueberry flavonoid biosynthesis. PMID:22086422

  2. Fruit Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  3. The concentration of some metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) and delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) living near lead and zinc smelter ``Trepa'' in Kosova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elezaj, I. R.; Letaj, K. Rr.; Selimi, Q. I.; Zhushi-Etemi, F.

    2003-05-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu, ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALA-D: EC.4.2.1.24) hemoglobin and protein amount have been determined in three different populations of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) caught at two urban sites (Mitrovica town, which is situated close to smelter of Trepa don close and Prishtina the capital of Kosova) and in Luki village as uncontaminated area. The results show that in the fruit fly of Mitrovica the concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn was significantly higher (P<0.00l) in comparison with that on the f-Liit fly of Prishtina and Luki. The concentration of Pb of fruit fly from Mitrovica was 3.1 times higher in comparison with that on fruit fly of Prishtina and 4.9 times higher in comparison with uncontaminated group of fruit fly. The ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited in the homogenate of fruit fly from Mitrovica in comparison with Prishtina and Luki localities (P<0.00l). ALA-D activity was also inhibited in the homogenate of Prishtina fruit fly in comparison with Luki group (P<0.00l). The amount of proteins was significantly lower in Mitrovica fruit fly in comparison with that in control and Prishtina group. The hemoglobin value was relatively unchanged.

  4. Ellagitannins of the fruit rind of pomegranate (Punica granatum) antagonize in vitro the host inflammatory response mechanisms involved in the onset of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The sun-dried rind of the immature fruit of pomegranate (Punica granatum) is presently used as a herbal formulation (OMARIA, Orissa Malaria Research Indigenous Attempt) in Orissa, India, for the therapy and prophylaxis of malaria. The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, a complication of the infection by Plasmodium falciparum, is an inflammatory cytokine-driven disease associated to an up-regulation and activity of metalloproteinase-9 and to the increase of TNF production. The in vitro anti-plasmodial activity of Punica granatum (Pg) was recently described. The aim of the present study was to explore whether the anti-malarial effect of OMARIA could also be sustained via other mechanisms among those associated to the host immune response. Methods From the methanolic extract of the fruit rind, a fraction enriched in tannins (Pg-FET) was prepared. MMP-9 secretion and expression were evaluated in THP-1 cells stimulated with haemozoin or TNF. The assays were conducted in the presence of the Pg-FET and its chemical constituents ellagic acid and punicalagin. The effect of urolithins, the ellagitannin metabolites formed by human intestinal microflora, was also investigated. Results Pg-FET and its constituents inhibited the secretion of MMP-9 induced by haemozoin or TNF. The effect occurred at transcriptional level since MMP-9 mRNA levels were lower in the presence of the tested compounds. Urolithins as well inhibited MMP-9 secretion and expression. Pg-FET and pure compounds also inhibited MMP-9 promoter activity and NF-kB-driven transcription. Conclusions The beneficial effect of the fruit rind of Punica granatum for the treatment of malarial disease may be attributed to the anti-parasitic activity and the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory mechanisms involved in the onset of cerebral malaria. PMID:20642847

  5. Effects of irrigation regimes on fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antifungal properties of volatiles from fruits of Koroneiki cultivar grown under Tunisian conditions.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Faten; Chehab, Hechmi; Flamini, Guido; Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Mastouri, Maha; Hammami, Mohamed

    2013-11-15

    The olive tree is generally grown under rain-fed conditions. However, since the yield response to irrigation is great, even with low amounts of water, there is increasing interest in irrigated agriculture. The main goal of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes on olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Koroneiki) obtained from an intensively-managed orchard in a semi-arid area with a Mediterranean climate in Tunisia. Different irrigation treatments 50% ETc, 75% ETc and 100% ETc were applied to the olive orchard. Accordingly, the effects of three irrigation regimes on volatile compounds, fatty acid composition and biological activities of Koroneiki cultivar were studied. The total profile of the volatile constituents of all samples revealed the predominance of 3-ethenylpyridine (from 14.9-19.6%), phenylethyl alcool (from 7.8-19.2%) and benzaldehyde (from 9.0 to 13.8%). During watering level treatments studied, the major fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic. Antioxidant activity of the fresh fruit volatiles cultivated at a watering level of 100% ETc was higher than that obtained under 50 and 75% Etc. The results of antifungal activity showed that the fruits volatiles of the three irrigation treatments had varying degrees of growth inhibition against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24511688

  6. Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effects and Potential Mechanisms of Action of the Caffeoylquinic Acid-Rich Pandanus tectorius Fruit Extract in Hamsters Fed a High Fat-Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haifeng; Sheng, Linghui; Su, Yan; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Tian, Yu; Ji, Yubin; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD). The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b) was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-c) and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol) in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPARα and PPARα-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPARγ was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPARα and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities. PMID:23613974

  7. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations. PMID:25529719

  8. Eburicoic Acid, an Active Triterpenoid from the Fruiting Bodies of Basswood Cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea, Induces ER Stress-Mediated Autophagy in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Chun-Ting; Chu, Yung-Lin; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a Taiwan-specific medicinal mushroom, can manipulate biological activities, including hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-hepatitis B virus activity, anticancer activity, etc. In this study, the anti-liver cancer activity and molecular mechanisms of eburicoic acid, the second most abundant triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea was investigated using the human hepatoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that eburicoic acid effectively reduced Hep 3B cell viability within 24 hours, and the IC50 was 18.4 ?M, which was equivalent to 8.7 ?g/mL. Besides, eburicoic acid induced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and a large number of autophagosomes/autolysosomes formation. In depth investigation for the molecular mechanisms, revealed that eburicoic acid firstly promoted reactive oxygen species generation and ATP depletion, leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress, followed by elevated cytosolic calcium ion concentration and BiP expression, downregulated phosphorylation of DAPK, upregulated phosphorylation of Beclin-1, JNK, and Bcl-2, and finally induced autophagy in Hep 3B cells. These results indicate that eburicoic acid has significant anti-liver cancer effects and more distinctive mechanisms. PMID:24716146

  9. Eburicoic Acid, an Active Triterpenoid from the Fruiting Bodies of Basswood Cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea, Induces ER Stress-Mediated Autophagy in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Chun-Ting; Chu, Yung-Lin; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-10-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a Taiwan-specific medicinal mushroom, can manipulate biological activities, including hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-hepatitis B virus activity, anticancer activity, etc. In this study, the anti-liver cancer activity and molecular mechanisms of eburicoic acid, the second most abundant triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea was investigated using the human hepatoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that eburicoic acid effectively reduced Hep 3B cell viability within 24 hours, and the IC50 was 18.4 ?M, which was equivalent to 8.7 ?g/mL. Besides, eburicoic acid induced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and a large number of autophagosomes/autolysosomes formation. In depth investigation for the molecular mechanisms, revealed that eburicoic acid firstly promoted reactive oxygen species generation and ATP depletion, leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress, followed by elevated cytosolic calcium ion concentration and BiP expression, downregulated phosphorylation of DAPK, upregulated phosphorylation of Beclin-1, JNK, and Bcl-2, and finally induced autophagy in Hep 3B cells. These results indicate that eburicoic acid has significant anti-liver cancer effects and more distinctive mechanisms. PMID:24716146

  10. The antimicrobial activity of fruits from some cultivar varieties of Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Ha?asa, R; G?d, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orze?, A

    2014-10-01

    Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid. PMID:25131001

  11. Bioaccessibility of tocopherols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid from milk- and soy-based fruit beverages: influence of food matrix and processing.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Alegra, Amparo; de Ancos, Begoa; Snchez-Moreno, Concepcin; Cano, M Pilar; Plaza, Luca; Clemente, Gonzalo; Lagarda, Mara J; Barber, Reyes

    2012-07-25

    A study was made of the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatment (TT) on plant bioactive compounds (tocopherols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) in 12 fruit juice-milk beverages and of how the food matrix [whole milk (JW), skimmed milk (JS), and soy milk (JSy)] modulates their bioaccessibility (%). HPP (400 MPa/40 C/5 min) produced a significant decrease in carotenoid and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility in all three beverages and maintained the bioaccessibility of tocopherols in JW and JS while decreasing it in JSy. TT (90 C/30 s) produced a significant decrease in tocopherol and carotenoid bioaccessibility in all three beverages and increased the bioaccessibility of ascorbic acid. With regard to the food matrix, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was greatest in JW beverages and lowest in JSy beverages, whereas no significant differences were found among the three beverages in terms of carotenoid bioaccessibility. HPP-treated samples showed higher tocopherol and carotenoid bioaccessibility than TT-treated samples, thus indicating that HPP combined with a milk matrix positively modulates the bioaccessibility of certain types of bioactive components of food, mainly those of a lipophilic nature. PMID:22738607

  12. Determination and pharmacokinetics of geniposidic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Gardenia jasminoides fruit crude extract and Zhi-zi-chi decoction.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhimin; Zhang, Ruowen; Zhao, Xu; Meng, Xia; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2013-06-01

    A simple and efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of geniposidic acid in rat plasma. After the addition of internal standard salidroside and acidification (0.1% formic acid, pH = 3.2), plasma samples were carried out by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and separated on a Kromasil C18 column (150 4.6 mm, 5 m) within a run time of 9.0 min. Analysis was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with a positive electrospray ionization interface. No endogenous interference was observed at retention times of the analytes because of the high specificity of selected ion monitoring mode. The linear range was 0.02-4.0 g/mL and the lower limit of quantification was 0.02 g/mL. The mean extraction recoveries of geniposidic acid and internal standard from rat plasma were all >88.0% and the matrix effects were within acceptance criteria (90-110%). The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of geniposidic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of G. jasminoides fruit crude extract and Zhi-zi-chi decoction, respectively. PMID:23420755

  13. Efficient production of fermentable sugars from oil palm empty fruit bunch by combined use of acid and whole cell culture-catalyzed hydrolyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxin; Ng, Wei Ting; Puah, Sze Min; Bhaskar, Ravindran Vijay; Soh, Loon Siong; Macbeath, Calum; Parakattil, Pius; Green, Phil; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-12-12

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm trees was converted to fermentable sugars by the combined use of dilute acids and whole fungal cell culture catalyzed hydrolyses. EFB (5%, w/v) was hydrolyzed in the presence of 0.5% H2 SO4 and 0.2% H3 PO4 at 160C for 10 min. The solid fraction was separated from the acid hydrolysate by filtration and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50C using the whole cell culture of Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 (2%, w/v), which was prepared by cultivating at 30C for 7 days to reach its maximal cellulase activity. The combined hydrolyses of EFB gave a total sugar yield of 82.0%. When used as carbon sources for cultivating E. coli in M9 medium at 37C, the combined EFB hydrolysates were shown to be more favorable or at least as good as pure glucose for cell growth in terms of the higher (1.1 times) optical density of E. coli cells. The byproducts generated during the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis seemed not to obviously affect the cell growth. The combined use of acid and whole cell culture hydrolyses might be a commercially promising method for pretreatment of lignocellulose to get fermentable sugars. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:24329860

  14. Efficient determination of protocatechuic acid in fruit juices by selective and rapid magnetic molecular imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

    2014-08-13

    Magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have been prepared as solid phase material to selectively extract protocatechuic acid (PCA) from fruit juices with high capacity and fast binding kinetics. The resulting MMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and VSM. The adsorption process between PCA and MMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 7.5 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding kinetics (equilibrium time at 40 min). In addition, the prepared MMIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and reusability (retained 94.9% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMIPs were successfully applied for selective enrichment and determination of PCA from fruit juices (0.45 ?g/mL in grape juice but not detected in apple juice, pineapple juice, orange juice, and peach juice) with satisfactory recoveries (92-107%). The results indicated that synthesized MMIPs can be used for efficient and selective extraction of PCA from complex matrices. PMID:25075753

  15. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mesoporous activated carbon prepared from H3PO4-activated langsat empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Njoku, V O; Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-05-01

    The removal of toxic herbicide from wastewater is challenging due to the availability of suitable adsorbents. The Langsat empty fruit bunch is an agricultural waste and was used in this study as a cheap precursor to produce activated carbon for the adsorption of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at different initial concentrations ranging from 50 to 400mg/L. The produced Langsat empty fruit bunch activated carbon (LEFBAC) was mesoporous and had high surface area of 1065.65m(2)/g with different active functional groups. The effect of shaking time, temperature and pH on 2,4-D removal were investigated using the batch technique. The adsorption capacity of 2,4-D by LEFBAC was decreased with increase in pH of solution whereas adsorption capacity increased with temperature. The adsorption data was well described by Langmuir isotherm followed by removal capacity of 261.2mg/g at 30C. The results from this work showed that LEFBAC can be used as outstanding material for anionic herbicide uptake from wastewater. PMID:25721981

  16. Salicylic acid, ethephon, and methyl jasmonate enhance ester regeneration in 1-MCP-treated apple fruit after long-term cold storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Peng; Xu, Yun-Feng; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Li-Xia; Hu, Xiao-Li; Li, De-Quan; Shu, Huai-Rui

    2006-05-31

    Volatile esters, primarily synthesized in peel tissues, are major aromatic components of apple fruits [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The use of cold storage combined with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment prolongs the life of apples but represses the regeneration of esters during poststorage ripening. In this study, the regeneration of total esters was significantly increased in apple fruits treated with salicylic acid (SA) and Ethephon (ETH) that had been treated once or twice with 1-MCP. However, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment resulted in regeneration of total esters after a single 1-MCP treatment. To determine the mechanism by which SA, ETH, and MeJA regulate ester regeneration, the apple alcohol acyltransferase gene (MdAAT2) was investigated at the mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels. Genes associated with ethylene perception were also investigated by RT-PCR. The results suggest that MdAAT2 controls ester regeneration and that MdETR1 plays a key role in ethylene perception and regulation of downstream MdAAT2 gene expression during poststorage. Ester compounds and concentrations differed in peels treated with different signal molecules, indicating that regulation of the pathway upstream of straight-chain ester biosynthesis depended on the regulation of lipoxygenase (LOX) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity by SA, ETH, and MeJA during poststorage ripening. PMID:16719511

  17. Constituents from Piper marginatum fruits.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Chaves, M C; de Oliveira Santos, B V

    2002-10-01

    The hexane extract of the dried fruits of Piper marginatum yielded 1-(1Z-propenyl)-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene, a new natural product, besides 3-farnesyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:12385887

  18. Solid-state fermentation for humic acids production by a Trichoderma reesei strain using an oil palm empty fruit bunch as the substrate.

    PubMed

    Motta, F L; Santana, M H A

    2014-02-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB), an underutilized waste product of oil palm processing, was studied as a substrate for the production of humic acids (HA) by a Trichoderma reesei strain by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in Raimbault columns. HA have attracted the attention of many investigators due to their applications in agriculture, industry, the environment, and biomedicine. Commercial HA are currently chemically extracted from peat and coal, which are nonrenewable carbon sources. Biotechnological processes are important for their sustainable and controlled production, with SSF being especially promising for mimicking the natural habitat of fungi. Trichoderma sporulation and HA production are related, and the results of this study showed that SSF stimulated fast sporulation. The productivity related to HA was much higher than that of the biomass, indicating an efficient utilization of EFB. These findings, added to the low cost of EFB, make SSF an attractive process for HA production. PMID:24343369

  19. Merging a sensitive capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection method with chemometric exploratory data analysis for the determination of phenolic acids and subsequent characterization of avocado fruit.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernndez, Elena; Contreras-Gutirrez, Paulina K; Cuadros-Rodrguez, Luis; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegra; Fernndez-Gutirrez, Alberto

    2013-12-15

    Herein we present the development of a powerful CE-UV method able to detect and quantify an important number of phenolic acids in 13 varieties of avocado fruits at 2 ripening stages. All the variables involved in CE separation were exhaustively optimized and the best results were obtained with a capillary of 50 ?m i.d. 50 cm effective length, sodium tetraborate 40 mM at a pH of 9.4, 30 kV, 25 C, 10s of hydrodynamic injection (0.5 psi) and UV detection at 254 nm. This optimal methodology was fully validated and then applied to different avocado samples. The number of phenolic acids determined varied from 8 to 14 compounds; in general, they were in concentrations ranging from 0.13 ppm to 3.82 ppm, except p-coumaric, benzoic and protocatechuic acids, which were found at higher concentrations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to highlight the differences between varieties and ripening degrees, looking for the most influential analytes. PMID:23993512

  20. Whole slurry fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production not necessitating a detoxification process.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-04-01

    The yield of ethanol from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) was increased on exploiting maleic acid pretreatment combined with fermentation of the pretreated whole slurry. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to expose EFB to a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short time duration (3 min ramping to the set temperature with no holding) in a microwave digester. An enzymatic digestibility of 60.9 % (based on theoretical glucose yield) was exhibited using pretreated and washed EFB after 48 h of hydrolysis. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the whole slurry of pretreated EFB for 48 h resulted in 61.3 % theoretical yield of ethanol based on the initial amount of glucan in untreated EFB. These results indicate that maleic acid is a suitable catalyst not requiring detoxification steps for whole slurry fermentation of EFB for ethanol production, thus improving the process economics. Also, the whole slurry fermentation can significantly increase the biomass utilization by converting sugar from both solid and liquid phases of the pretreated slurry. PMID:23982450

  1. FRUIT SPLIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...

  2. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  3. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthus, Bertrand; zcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3g/100g, while in linseed oil mainly ?-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as ?- and ?-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  4. Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.

    PubMed

    Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

  5. A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Li, Mingjun; Fazio, Gennaro; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2012-08-01

    Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma for low pH or high acidity in apple. PMID:22806345

  6. CULTURAL SYSTEM AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN STRAWBERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) vs. matted row (MR)] and genotypes interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid and citric acid content were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also ...

  7. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in some samples and absence in the others. Regiospecific analysis showed a non-random fatty acids distribution. Petroselinic acid was predominantly located at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. PMID:26633337

  8. Development and validation of a predictive model for the influences of selected product and process variables on ascorbic acid degradation in simulated fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Alonzo A; Cayabyab, Jochelle Elysse C; Tan, Athalie Kaye L; Corook, Mark Lester F; Ables, Errol John O; Tiangson-Bayaga, Cecile Leah P

    2015-06-15

    A predictive response surface model for the influences of product (soluble solids and titratable acidity) and process (temperature and heating time) parameters on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AA) in heated simulated fruit juices (SFJs) was established. Physicochemical property ranges of freshly squeezed and processed juices, and a previously established decimal reduction times of Escherichiacoli O157:H7 at different heating temperatures were used in establishing a Central Composite Design of Experiment that determined the combinations of product and process variable used in the model building. Only the individual linear effects of temperature and heating time significantly (P<0.05) affected AA reduction (%AAr). Validating systems either over- or underestimated actual %AAr with bias factors 0.80-1.20. However, all validating systems still resulted in acceptable predictive efficacy, with accuracy factor 1.00-1.26. The model may be useful in establishing unique process schedules for specific products, for the simultaneous control and improvement of food safety and quality. PMID:25660889

  9. Effects of acerola fruit extract on sensory and shelf-life of salted beef patties from grinds differing in fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Guàrdia, M D; Díaz, I; García-Regueiro, J A; Arnau, J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of added acerola fruit extract on sensory and shelf-life of beef patties were evaluated. Ground beef was obtained from young bulls fed one of four diets (CON: control, LIN: linseed, CLA: conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: LIN plus CLA). Pre-salted (1.8% w/w) beef patties (7.7% fat) with (0.15% w/w) or without acerola were packed in modified atmosphere (80%O2:20%CO2) and displayed in a retail case for 8days. There were no interactions between diet and antioxidant treatments. LIN and/or CLA had no effect on color and lipid stability during display. However, LIN increased n-3 fatty acids in beef and tended to increase intensity of rancid flavor. Addition of acerola extended shelf-life by at least 3 days by improving color and lipid stability and a decreased trend in intensity of rancid flavor of patties without affecting microbial counts. Thus, the use of acerola as a natural antioxidant can be considered an effective method to retard color and lipid oxidation in beef patties. PMID:25280358

  10. Antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of phenolic acid and flavonol fractions of fruits of 'Amari' and 'Hallawi' date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. Two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'Amari' and 'Hallawi', by solid phase extraction on C18. The fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation, and enhancement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. All four fractions exhibited variable capacities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge radicals, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Flavonol fractions were considerably better inhibitors of LDL oxidation compared to phenolic acid fractions, with IC50's of 9-31 nmol GAE mL(-1) compared to 85-116 nmol GAE mL(-1), respectively. Only the flavonol fractions stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Within each subgroup, the levels of all the activities varied with fraction composition. The results demonstrated strong structure-activity relationships for date phenolics and identified date flavonols as potential antiatherogenic bioactives. PMID:25765921

  11. An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T.; Fedder, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4–8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1′S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets containing preparations of pomegranate fruit extract and rhizome of greater galangal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01357044 PMID:25275520

  12. Structure-Activity Relationships of Antimicrobial Gallic Acid Derivatives from Pomegranate and Acacia Fruit Extracts against Potato Bacterial Wilt Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A; Salah El Dine, Riham; Fahmy, Sherifa; Yassin, Aymen; Porzel, Andrea; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial wilts of potato, tomato, pepper, and or eggplant caused by Ralstonia solanacearum are among the most serious plant diseases worldwide. In this study, the issue of developing bactericidal agents from natural sources against R. solanacearum derived from plant extracts was addressed. Extracts prepared from 25 plant species with antiseptic relevance in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for their antimicrobial properties against the potato pathogen R. solancearum by using the disc-zone inhibition assay and microtitre plate dilution method. Plants exhibiting notable antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogen include extracts from Acacia arabica and Punica granatum. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of A. arabica and P. granatum resulted in the isolation of bioactive compounds 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid and gallic acid, in addition to epicatechin. All isolates displayed significant antimicrobial activities against R. solanacearum (MIC values 0.5-9 mg/ml), with 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid being the most effective one with a MIC value of 0.47 mg/ml. We further performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for the inhibition of R. solanacearum growth by ten natural, structurally related benzoic acids. PMID:26080741

  13. A Penicillium expansum glucose oxidase-encoding gene, GOX2, is essential for gluconic acid production and acidification during colonization of deciduous fruit.

    PubMed

    Barad, Shiri; Horowitz, Sigal Brown; Moscovitz, Oren; Lichter, Amnon; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov

    2012-06-01

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest maceration of fruit through secretion of total, d-gluconic acid (GLA). Two P. expansum glucose oxidase (GOX)-encoding genes, GOX1 and GOX2, were analyzed. GOX activity and GLA accumulation were strongly related to GOX2 expression, which increased with pH to a maximum at pH 7.0, whereas GOX1 was expressed at pH 4.0, where no GOX activity or extracellular GLA were detected. This differential expression was also observed at the leading edge of the decaying tissue, where GOX2 expression was dominant. The roles of the GOX genes in pathogenicity were further studied through i) development of P. expansum goxRNAi mutants exhibiting differential downregulation of GOX2, ii) heterologous expression of the P. expansum GOX2 gene in the nondeciduous fruit-pathogen P. chrysogenum, and iii) modulation of GLA production by FeSO(4) chelation. Interestingly, in P. expansum, pH and GLA production elicited opposite effects on germination and biomass accumulation: 26% of spores germinated at pH 7.0 when GOX activity and GLA were highest whereas, in P. chrysogenum at the same pH, when GLA did not accumulate, 72% of spores germinated. Moreover, heterologous expression of P. expansum GOX2 in P. chrysogenum resulted in enhanced GLA production and reduced germination, suggesting negative regulation of spore germination and GLA production. These results demonstrate that pH modulation, mediated by GLA accumulation, is an important factor in generating the initial signal or signals for fungal development leading to host-tissue colonization by P. expansum. PMID:22352719

  14. Pome fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  16. Novel approach for mono-segmented flow micro-titration with sequential injection using a lab-on-valve system: a model study for the assay of acidity in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Jakmunee, Jaroon; Pathimapornlert, Lop; Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap; Grudpan, Kate

    2005-03-01

    A new concept for micro-titration using a "lab-on-valve"(LOV) system with sequential injection of mono-segmented flow is proposed. The performance of the system was demonstrated by the assay of acidity in fruit juices which is based on acid-base neutralization. A standard/sample solution containing citric acid, indicator, sodium hydroxide, were sandwiched between air segments and were aspirated in microliter volumes through a selection valve into a holding coil. The acid, indicator, and base were mixed by flow reversal. After removing air segments, the solution was pushed to the detector for monitoring of the change in absorbance of the indicator color, which depended on the concentration of the remaining base. With LOV, microliter volumes of the solution can be detected without dispersion of the color zone. A calibration graph (plot of absorbance vs. acidity value) in the range of 0.2-1.2% (w/v) as citric acid was established. Sample throughput of 30 sample h(-1) and good reproducibility (RSD = 1.2%, n= 11 for 0.6% acidity) were achieved. The procedure has been applied to determine acidity in fruit juices. PMID:15724157

  17. Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Dong, Ai-Jun; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0 ?g L(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0 ?g mL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance. PMID:24206704

  18. New compounds from acid hydrolyzed products of the fruits of Momordica charantia L. and their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatas 1B.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke; He, Yan-Ni; Yang, Di; Cao, Jia-Qing; Xia, Xi-Chun; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Bi, Xiu-Li; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2014-06-23

    Four new cucurbitane-type triterpene sapogenins, compounds 1-4, together with other eight known compounds were isolated from the acid-hydrolyzed fruits extract of Momordica charantia L. Their chemical structures were established by NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated as a key target for therapy against type II diabetes. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9 were shown inhibitory activities of 77%, 62%, 62% 60% and 68% against PTP1B, respectively. All of these tested compounds were exhibited higher PTP1B inhibition activities than that of the Na3VO4, a known PTP1B inhibitor used as positive control in present study. Structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that the inhibition activity of PTP1B was associated with the presence and number of -OH groups. PMID:24836069

  19. Effect of alpha-cyclodextrin-cinnamic acid inclusion complexes on populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Truong, Vy T; Boyer, Renee R; McKinney, Julie M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Williams, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamic acid (CA), a naturally occurring organic acid found in fruits and spices, has antimicrobial activity against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, but low aqueous solubility limits its use. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of solubility-enhancing alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complexes against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars suspended in apple cider or orange juice at two different incubation temperatures (4 and 26 degrees Celsius). Two concentrations (400 and 1,000 mg/liter) of alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complex were aseptically added to apple cider inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7 log CFU/ml) and orange juice inoculated with a cocktail of six Salmonella enterica serovars (7 log CFU/ml). Samples were extracted at 0 min, at 2 min, and at 24-h intervals for 7 days, serially diluted in 0.1 % peptone, spread plated in duplicate onto tryptic soy agar, and incubated at 35 degrees Celsius for 24 h. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider were significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) during the 7-day sampling period in all solutions regardless of temperature. Compared with the controls, populations were significantly reduced by the addition of 400 and 1,000 mg/liter inclusion complex, but reductions were not significantly different (P > or = 0.05) between the two treatment groups (400 and 1,000 mg/liter). Salmonella was significantly reduced in all solutions regardless of temperature. There were significant differences between the control and each inclusion complex concentration at 4 and 26 degrees Celsius. Coupled with additional processing steps, alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complexes may provide an alternative to traditional heat processes. PMID:20051210

  20. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine. PMID:18819615

  1. Hydrophilic gallic acid-imprinted polymers over magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres with excellent molecular recognition ability in aqueous fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Li, Hui; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

    2015-07-15

    Hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for gallic acid (GA) were prepared with excellent recognition ability in an aqueous solution. The proposed MIPs were designed by self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on magnetic mesoporous silica (Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2, MMS) using GA as template. Resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2@MIPs (MMS-MIPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and evaluated by adsorption isotherms/kinetics and competitive adsorption. The adsorption behavior between GA and MMS-MIPs followed Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherms with a maximum adsorption capacity at 88.7 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding (equilibrium time at 100 min). In addition, MMS-MIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and stability (retained 95.2% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMS-MIPs were applied for the selective extraction and determination of GA from grape, apple, peach and orange juices (4.02, 3.91, 5.97, and 0.67 ?g/g, respectively). Generally, the described method may pave the way towards rationally designing more advanced hydrophilic MIPs. PMID:25722156

  2. FRUIT RIPENING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exact nature of fruit modifications associated with ripening varies depending on the species examined. However, ripening generally includes modification of cell wall utltrastructure, conversion of starch to sugars, increase in susceptibility to post-harvest pathogens, changes in the accumulatio...

  3. Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

  4. The Abundant Class III Chitinase Homolog in Young Developing Banana Fruits Behaves as a Transient Vegetative Storage Protein and Most Probably Serves as an Important Supply of Amino Acids for the Synthesis of Ripening-Associated Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L.; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a β-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

  5. Aqueous thermal degradation of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow Boles, Jennifer; Crerar, David A.; Grissom, Grady; Key, Tonalee C.

    1988-02-01

    Aqueous thermal degradation experiments show gallic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic carboxylic compound, decomposes rapidly at temperatures between 105 and 150C, with an activation energy of 22.9 or 27.8 kcal/ mole, depending on pH of the starting solution. Pyrogallol is the primary product identified, indicating degradation via decarboxylation and a carbanion transition state. Relatively rapid degradation of vanillic, phthalic, ellagic and tannic acids has also been observed, suggesting that these and perhaps other aromatic acids could be short-lived in deep formation waters.

  6. Fatty acid binding proteins 4 and 5 in overweight prepubertal boys: effect of nutritional counselling and supplementation with an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Canas, Jose A; Damaso, L; Hossain, J; Balagopal, P Babu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) may play a role in obesity and co-morbidities. The role of nutritional interventions in modulating these levels remains unclear. The aim of this post hoc study was to determine the effect of overweight (OW) on FABP4 and FABP5 in boys in relation to indices of adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation, and to investigate the effects of a 6-month supplementation with an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate (FVJC) plus nutritional counselling (NC) on FABP levels. A post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of children recruited from the general paediatric population was performed. A total of thirty age-matched prepubertal boys (nine lean and twenty-one OW; aged 6-10 years) were studied. Patients received NC by a registered dietitian and were randomised to FVJC or placebo capsules for 6 months. FABP4, FABP5, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose-induced acute insulin response (AIR), lipid-corrected ?-carotene (LC?C), adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6 and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined before and after the intervention. FABP were higher (P<001) in the OW v. lean boys and correlated directly with HOMA-IR, abdominal fat mass (AFM), hs-CRP, IL-6, and LC?C (P<005 for all). FABP4 was associated with adiponectin and AIR (P<005). FVJC plus NC reduced FABP4, HOMA-IR and AFM (P<005 for all) but not FABP5. OW boys showed elevated FABP4 and FABP5, but only FABP4 was lowered by the FVJC supplement. PMID:26688725

  7. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 ?g/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26197530

  8. Toxicological Evaluation of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract and its Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

    PubMed Central

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Lokesh, Prakash; Yardi, Varsha; Mojamdar, Lavanya; Keni, Deepthi Sudhir; Babu, Dinesh; Usha, Talambedu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Indian gooseberry or “Amla” in India, is used in Ayurveda as “rejuvenating herb” since ancient times. Objective: This study was carried out to estimate toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative property of MEO was assessed by in vitro assays such as phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azino-bis and 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (DPPH and ABTS method) and lipid peroxidation assay (LPO). The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats by measuring rat paw volume at different time intervals and toxicological analysis using mice. Results and Discussion: High performance liquid chromatography studies revealed the presence of gallic acid (2.10%), mucic acid (4.90%), ellagic acid (2.10%), quercetin (28.00%), rutin (3.89%), and β-glucogallin (1.46%). MEO showed highest antioxidant activities by using DPPH (17.33–89.00%), ABTS (23.03–94.16%), nitric oxide scavenging activity (12.94–70.16%), LPO (56.54%), and phosphomolybdenum assay (142 ± 6.09 μg/ml). The LD50 was found to be approximately 1125 mg/kg (p.o). High dose of MEO showed significant reduction (72.71%) in the inflammation after 4 h of treatment, which was comparable to diclofenac (10 mg/kg) (61.57%) treated group. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) markers were also observed (57.25% and 35.41%, respectively) in serum of MEO treated animals as compared to control. Conclusion: Taken together, phenolic compounds of MEO may serve as a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation due to their modulatory action on free radicals. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) has potent antioxidant activity as assessed by DPPH, ABTS and LPO assaysMEO has potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema modelThe phenolic compounds of MEO might be a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation. Abbreviations used: ROS, reactive oxygen species; RNS, reactive nitrogen species, LPO, lipid peroxidation, NO, nitric oxide, IL, interleukin; TNF α tumor necrosis factor alpha; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs; AA, ascorbic acid; MEO, methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit; ABTS+; 2,2’ azino bis 3 ethylbenzthiazoline 6 sulphonic acid; DPPH, 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; MDA, malondialdehyde; DMSO, dimethyl sulphoxide; ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. PMID:26929577

  9. Food safety and berry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although berries have enjoyed a relatively good record of food safety, berries have been found to be the source of several foodborne pathogenic outbreaks in recent years. It was assumed the acidity of the fruit (pH 3.0-4.5) would deter the existence of pathogenic organisms. However, cleaning harvest...

  10. Studying Current-Potential Curves Using a Bipotentiometric Lodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Voltammetry principles are introduced to students by means of a bipotentiometric method to determine vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. The aim is to draw attention to voltammetric methods, particular to the study of current-potential curves, stressing the potential applicability in areas of food quality control.

  11. Molecular regulation of fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

  12. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. PMID:26169681

  13. Influence of acid tolerance responses on survival, growth, and thermal cross-protection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidified media and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J H; Beuchat, L R

    1998-12-22

    A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with lactic acid, acid-adapted cells were more tolerant than acid-shocked cells which, in turn, were more tolerant than control cells. The ability of the three types of cells to grow after inoculation into acidified TSB, then plated on tryptic soy agar containing sodium chloride was determined. Tolerance of acid-adapted cells and, less markedly, acid-shocked cells to sodium chloride was diminished, compared to control cells. The pathogen showed extraordinary tolerance to the low pH of apple cider and orange juice held at 5 or 25 degrees C for up to 42 days. Growth occurred in one brand of apple cider (pH 3.98) incubated at 25 degrees C. Regardless of test parameters, there was no indication that cell types differed in tolerance to the acidic environment in apple cider or orange juice. Survival of control, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells heated in apple cider and orange juice was studied. Within each apple cider or orange juice, D(52 degrees C)-values of acid-adapted cells were considerably higher than those of acid-shocked or control cells, which indicates that heat tolerance can be substantially enhanced by acid adaptation compared to acid shock. PMID:9926995

  14. A fruit-specific phospho enolpyruvate carboxylase is related to rapid growth of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Guillet, Carine; Just, Daniel; Bnard, Nathalie; Destrac-Irvine, Agns; Baldet, Pierre; Hernould, Michel; Causse, Mathilde; Raymond, Philippe; Rothan, Christophe

    2002-03-01

    Malic and citric acids accumulate in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit during the period of rapid growth, from the end of cell division to the onset of ripening. The involvement of phospho enolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase, EC 4.1.1.31) in organic acid accumulation and tomato fruit development was investigated. Two PEPCases, named LYCes;Ppc1 and LYCes;Ppc2 and mapped to chromosomes 12 and 7, respectively, were shown to be differentially expressed during tomato fruit development. LYCes;Ppc1 mRNA was present in all fruit tissues and in all other plant organs examined. In contrast, LYCes;Ppc2 was strongly and specifically expressed in fruit from the end of cell division to ripening. No LYCes;Ppc2 expression was detected by northern blot in other plant tissues. In fruit, the increase in LYCes;Ppc2 mRNA was closely followed by an increase in fruit PEPCase protein and activity, and was coincident with the increased accumulation of malate and citrate during the initial period of rapid growth rate, from 8 to 20 days post anthesis. Localization of LYCes;Ppc2 mRNA in young tomato fruit by in situ hybridization revealed that LYCes;Ppc2 is preferentially expressed in large cells of the pericarp and in enlarging cells of the gel surrounding the seeds. Examination of the kinetic and regulatory properties of the PEPCases of growing and ripening fruit further showed that PEPCase in growing fruit is less sensitive to low pH and malate inhibition, indicating a high phosphorylation state and/or the presence of a PEPCase isoform with these characteristics. Taken together, these results indicate that in developing tomato fruit PEPCase is probably important in permitting the synthesis of organic acids to provide the turgor pressure necessary for cell expansion. PMID:11882940

  15. Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit.

    PubMed Central

    D'Aoust, M A; Yelle, S; Nguyen-Quoc, B

    1999-01-01

    The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA (TOMSSF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was only slight in the endosperm and was undetectable in the embryo, shoot, petiole, and leaf tissues. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in parallel with that of SuSy, but acid invertase activity did not increase in response to the reduced SuSy activity. The only effect on the carbohydrate content of young fruit was a slight reduction in starch accumulation. The in vitro sucrose import capacity of fruits was not reduced by SuSy inhibition at 23 days after anthesis, and the rate of starch synthesized from the imported sucrose was not lessened even when SuSy activity was decreased by 98%. However, the sucrose unloading capacity of 7-day-old fruit was substantially decreased in lines with low SuSy activity. In addition, the SuSy antisense fruit from the first week of flowering had a slower growth rate. A reduced fruit set, leading to markedly less fruit per plant at maturity, was observed for the plants with the least SuSy activity. These results suggest that SuSy participates in the control of sucrose import capacity of young tomato fruit, which is a determinant for fruit set and development. PMID:10590167

  16. Direct determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid, in fruits and vegetables by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Xue; Cao, Zhao-Yun; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Wei

    2013-01-11

    A novel method was developed for the direct, sensitive, and rapid determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in fruit and vegetable samples by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography (HILIC/WAX) coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Homogenized samples were extracted with water, without derivatization or further clean-up, and the extracts were injected directly onto the Asahipak NH2P-50 4E column (250 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m). The best results were obtained when the column was operated under mixed-mode HILIC/WAX elution conditions. An initial 10-min washing step with acetonitrile/water (10:90, v/v) in HILIC mode was used to remove potentially interfering compounds, and then the analytes were eluted in WAX mode with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1 molL(-1) ammonium hydroxide under gradient elution for the ESI analysis in negative ion mode. Limits of quantification of glyphosate and AMPA were 5 ?gkg(-1) and 50 ?gkg(-1), respectively, with limits of detection as low as 1.2 ?gkg(-1) for glyphosate and 15 ?gkg(-1) for AMPA. The linearity was satisfactory, with correlation coefficients (r)>0.9966. Recovery studies were carried out on spiked matrices (6 vegetables, 3 fruits) with glyphosate at four concentrations and AMPA at three concentrations. The mean recoveries for glyphosate and AMPA were 75.3-110% and 76.1-110%, respectively, with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.1-13.8%. The intra-day precision (n=7) for glyphosate and AMPA in vegetable and fruit samples spiked at an intermediate level between 5.9% and 7.5%, and the inter-day precision over 11 days (n=11) was between 7.0% and 13%. PMID:23261284

  17. Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moo-Huchin, Vctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-Len, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Ivn A; Ortiz-Vzquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, Mxico: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 ?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 ?M Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

  18. Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fzfai, Zsfia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovcs, Etelka; Molnr-Perl, Ibolya

    2004-12-15

    Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

  19. Comparative analyses of seeds of wild fruits of Rubus and Sambucus species from Southern Italy: fatty acid composition of the oil, total phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the methanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Alessia; Plastina, Pierluigi; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2013-10-15

    Fruit seeds are byproducts from fruit processing. Characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in seeds and evaluation of their potential biological properties is therefore of particular importance in view of a possible valorisation of seeds as a source of health beneficial components. In this work, we have analysed the seeds of Sambucus and Rubus species in order to identify their bioactive components and to determine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts. We first analysed their oil content, in order to assess the fatty acid profile and tocopherol content. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of the seeds were analysed for their total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. Polyphenols were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the production of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators (NO, CCL-20) in RAW 264.7 cells. Our findings show that the methanolic extracts from Rubus seeds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and could therefore represent an attractive source of bioactive compounds for food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23692771

  20. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... experiment with fruit at dinner, too At dinner, add crushed pineapple to coleslaw, or include orange sections, dried cranberries, or grapes in a tossed salad. Try fruit salsa on top of fish. 9 snack on fruits Dried fruits make great ...

  1. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Quality of Fruits Pretreated with Ascorbic Acid or SnCl2

    PubMed Central

    Argyri, Anthoula A.; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Samaras, Fotios; Mallidis, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix) solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture) during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g) and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products. PMID:25295275

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on microbiological shelf-life and quality of fruits pretreated with ascorbic acid or SnCl2.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Samaras, Fotios; Mallidis, Constantinos; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22Brix) solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture) during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g) and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products. PMID:25295275

  3. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C.gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. PMID:25377514

  4. HUMAN WELLNESS COMPOUNDS IN HONEYDEW FRUIT: INFLUENCE OF CULTIVAR AND ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of cultivar, fruit size, soil type and year on total ascorbic acid (TAA), free ascorbic acid (AA), dehydroascorbic acid (DAA) folic acid (FA) and potassium (K) in [Cucumis melo L. (Inodorous Group)] was determined. Fully mature (abscised) commercial size fruit: 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 (fru...

  5. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. PMID:23553505

  6. BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

  7. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  8. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they

  9. The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.

    PubMed

    Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinad

    2014-08-01

    Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

  10. Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Chang, Q; Zhu, M; Huang, Y; Ho, W K.K.; Chen, Z -Y.

    2001-03-01

    Hawthorn fruit extract has been shown to have many health benefits including being cardiovascular protective, hypotensive and hypocholesterolemic. The present study was carried out to characterize further the antioxidants of hawthorn fruit and their effect on the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and alpha-tocopherol. The dry hawthorn fruit was extracted successively with ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The ethyl acetate fraction was only effective in inhibition of Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. The column chromatographic separation led to isolation of eight pure compounds; namely, ursolic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin and protocatechuic acid. All of these phenolic compounds, except ursolic acid, were protective to human LDL from Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. They were also effective in preventing the peroxy free radical-induced oxidation of alpha-tocopherol in human LDL. The inhibitory effect of these compounds on oxidation of LDL and alpha-tocopherol was dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 M. In addition, supplementation of 2% hawthorn fruit powder significantly elevated serum alpha-tocopherol by 18-20% in rats fed a 30% polyunsaturated canola oil diet, as compared with the control. The present results suggest that part of the mechanism for cardiovascular protective effects of hawthorn fruit might also involve the direct protection to human LDL from oxidation or indirect protection via maintaining the concentration of alpha-tocopherol in human LDL. PMID:11257463

  11. Influence of Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the Fruit Composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir: Free Amino Acids, Sugars, and Organic Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual free amino acids, yeast assimilable amino acid (YAN) content, ammonium, organic acids, and simple sugars of berries from GLRaV-2 or GLRaV-3 infected vines were compared with paired vines free of these viruses. Samples were taken from two commercial vineyards during two growing seasons (20...

  12. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented. PMID:8841165

  13. Production of nanocrystalline cellulose from an empty fruit bunches using sulfuric acid hydrolysis: Effect of reaction time on the molecular characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dulaimi, Ahmed A.; R, Rohaizu; D, Wanrosli W.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from OPEFB pulp via sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The influence of reaction time to the molecular weight and surface charge of the NCC was investigated. Characterization of the product was carried out using zeta potential measurement and gel permeation chromatography test. Zeta potential measurement showed that the surface negative charge significantly increases with increasing reaction time. Gel permeation chromatography test indicates that molecular weight of NCC change variably with increasing of hydrolysis time. (Keywords: Nanocrystalline cellulose; acid hydrolysis; sulfate content; molecular weight)

  14. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

  15. Metabolic profiling of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) during fruit development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Wang, Xin; Yu, Oliver; Tang, Juanjuan; Gu, Xungang; Wan, Xiaochun; Fang, Congbing

    2011-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch), a fruit of economic and nutritional importance, is also a model species for fleshy fruits and genomics in Rosaceae. Strawberry fruit quality at different harvest stages is a function of the fruit's metabolite content, which results from physiological changes during fruit growth and ripening. In order to investigate strawberry fruit development, untargeted (GC-MS) and targeted (HPLC) metabolic profiling analyses were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to explore the non-polar and polar metabolite profiles from fruit samples at seven developmental stages. Different cluster patterns and a broad range of metabolites that exerted influence on cluster formation of metabolite profiles were observed. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found in both fruits turning red and fruits over-ripening in comparison with red-ripening fruits. The levels of free amino acids decreased gradually before the red-ripening stage, but increased significantly in the over-ripening stage. Metabolite correlation and network analysis revealed the interdependencies of individual metabolites and metabolic pathways. Activities of several metabolic pathways, including ester biosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the shikimate pathway, and amino acid metabolism, shifted during fruit growth and ripening. These results not only confirmed published metabolic data but also revealed new insights into strawberry fruit composition and metabolite changes, thus demonstrating the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit quality formation, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops. PMID:21041374

  16. Effect of sample preparation on the measurement of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols in apple fruit by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Sylvie; Scibisz, Iwona; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2012-04-11

    The objectives of this study were (i) to test different conditions of freezing, thawing, and grinding during sample preparation and (ii) to evaluate the possibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy for analyzing the composition of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols in apples. Seven commercial apple cultivars were chosen for their large variability in composition (total polyphenols from 406 to 1033 mg kg(-1) fresh weight). The different conditions of sample preparation affected only the phenolic compounds and not sugars or organic acids. The regression models of the mid-infrared spectra showed a good ability to estimate sugar and organic acid contents (R(2) ? 0.96), except for citric acid. Good predictions were obtained for total phenolic, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidins (R(2) ? 0.94) provided oxidation was avoided during sample preparation. A rapid and simple procedure was then proposed for phenolic compounds using sodium fluoride during sample homogenization at ambient temperature and freeze-drying before spectra acquisition. PMID:22409403

  17. Pharmacological studies of gardenia fruit. V. Mechanisms of inhibitory effect of genipin on gastric acid secretion and its facilitatory effect on bile secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Aburada, M; Takeda, S; Sakurai, M; Harada, M

    1980-08-01

    In the experiment on continuous perfusion of rat stomach in vivo, genipin inhibited only the gastric acid secretion induced by carbachol, but not by tetragastrin, or histamine. In the experiment on isolated organs, genipin showed a weak competitive anti-acetylcholine action on the intestinal contraction. Based on these facts and results reported previously, it is conceivable that anti-cholinergic action at least partly contributes to the genipin-induced inhibitory effect on gastric functions. Erythritol clearance was increased with the increase in bile flow by administration of genipin. Genipin showed a significant choleretic action, and just then the concentration of biliary bile acid was decreased inversely. In the relationship between bile flow and biliary bile acid excretion rate, the slope of regression line obtained from genipin-treated group was not significantly different from that of control, and these lines were approximately parallel to each other. Genipin did not affect the concentration of sodium, potassium, chloride, or bicarbonate in the bile collected during the initial stage, in which bile flow was increased, after administration. It is concluded from these results that genipin-induced choleretic action proceeds by a mechanism wherein water is driven along osmotic gradient which originates in the transport of bile acid-independent fraction from hepatocytes into canaliculi, mainly through active Na+ transport. PMID:7205548

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  19. Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2014-01-01

    Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

  20. Fungi, quality and safety issues in fresh fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Moss, M O

    2008-05-01

    The role of moulds in the spoilage of fresh fruits and vegetables is discussed. Although the major problems are economic with a significant loss of useful food materials, there are a few examples implicating a role for mycotoxins in the safety of fresh fruits. The significance of the mycotoxins patulin, ochratoxin and tenuazonic acid will be reviewed. PMID:18217939

  1. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  2. Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness

    PubMed Central

    Matteucci, M.; D'Angeli, S.; Errico, S.; Lamanna, R.; Perrotta, G.; Altamura, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The olive tree lacks dormancy and is low temperature sensitive, with differences in cold tolerance and oil quality among genotypes. The oil is produced in the drupe, and the unsaturated fatty acids contribute to its quality. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship among development, cold response, expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes, and unsaturated fatty acid composition in drupes belonging to genotypes differing in leaf cold tolerance, but producing good oil (i.e. the non-hardy Moraiolo, the semi-hardy Frantoio, and the hardy Canino). In all genotypes, cold sensitivity, evaluated by cold-induced transient increases in cytosolic calcium, was high in the epi-mesocarp cells before oil body formation, and decreased during oil biogenesis. However, genotype-dependent differences in cold sensitivity appeared at the end of oil production. Genotype-dependent differences in FAD2.1, FAD2.2, FAD6, and FAD7 expression levels occurred in the epi-mesocarp cells during the oleogenic period. However, FAD2.1 and FAD7 were always the highest in the first part of this period. FAD2.2 and FAD7 increased after cold applications during oleogenesis, independently of the genotype. Unsaturated fatty acids increased in the drupes of the non-hardy genotype, but not in those of the hardy one, after cold exposure at the time of the highest FAD transcription. The results show a direct relationship between FAD expression and lipid desaturation in the drupes of the cold-sensitive genotype, and an inverse relationship in those of the cold-resistant genotype, suggesting that drupe cold acclimation requires a fine FAD post-transcriptional regulation. Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed. PMID:21357772

  3. NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS IN SELECT FLORIDA TROPICAL FRUITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), total fib...

  4. An Auxin-Conjugated Strawberry Fruit Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry fruit contain indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) covalently attached to specific strawberry proteins. Immunoblotting using a specific antibody to IAA-glycine linked to BSA detected IAA proteins in both achenes and receptacles. Protein-conjugated IAA accounts for the majority of the total IAA pool...

  5. Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry is one of the major fresh market commodities in Florida. Strawberry must be harvested at the proper time, to keep its fruit quality and shelf life. Generally, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity and/or color are the major indices for fruity quality control. However, the...

  6. Inhibition of Nonenzymatic Protein Glycation by Pomegranate and Other Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ∼90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  7. Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  8. Acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for extraction of three classes of pesticides from fruit juice samples.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-29

    A sample preparation method involving acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorous detection has been developed for the analysis of three classes of pesticides in juice samples. In this method, a basic organic solvent (p-chloroaniline) is used as an extraction solvent. It is dissolved in acidified deionized water and then injected into an alkaline aqueous sample solution. After injection, an acid-base reaction occurs and deprotonation of the organic solvent leads to formation of tiny droplets of the extractant and subsequent extraction of the analytes from sample solution. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed low limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.05-0.43ngmL(-1) and 0.17-1.43ngmL(-1), respectively. Extraction recoveries and enrichment factors were between 39.2 and 84.1% and between 548 and 1178, respectively. Relative standard deviations of less than 8.6% for the extraction of 2.0ngmL(-1) of each pesticide were obtained for intra- (n=6) and inter-day (n=4) precisions. Finally, different juice samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, and penconazole, diniconazole, triadimenol, and acetamiprid were determined in some samples at ngmL(-1) levels. PMID:26755415

  9. EDIBLE COATINGS AND OTHER SURFACE TREATMENTS TO MAINTAIN COLOR OF LYCHEE FRUIT IN STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bright red pericarp of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit quickly turns brown after harvest due to peel dehydration, anthocyanin degradation, and fungal growth on the fruit surface. Lychee fruit, cv. ‘Brewster’ and ‘Mauritius’ in Florida, and ‘Juckapat’ in Thailand, were dipped in acidic tre...

  10. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  11. Fruit and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased by more than 30% over the last few decades in the U.S. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on mi...

  12. Tropical Fruit Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rambutan disease surveys were conducted and a variety of fungal pathogens were isolated and identified as the causal agents of fruit and leaf leasions. Our overall goal is to gain a better understanding of what fungi affect rambutan fruit quality and determine if pathogen management practices can r...

  13. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  14. Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine Dorothe; Terry, Leon Alexander

    2009-08-12

    The ripeness degree of climacteric fruits, such as avocado ( Persea americana Mill.), can be correlated with rheological properties. However, there remains little information on not only the postharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins but also the spatial variation within fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and composition of fatty acids and major nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of fruit tissue during ripening is unknown. The texture of different horizontally cut slices from individual fruits within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. The composition of fatty acids and NSCs in fruit mesocarp tissue was determined. The composition of fatty acids and oil and dry matter contents varied significantly according to origin. Significant changes in texture, mannoheptulose and perseitol contents, and linoleic acid percentage were found in avocado fruit flesh during ripening. Spatial variation within fruit was detected in both textural and biochemical characteristics. PMID:19580285

  15. Phenolic acids in the flowers and leaves of Grindelia robusta Nutt. and Grindelia squarrosa Dun. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Nowak, S?awomira; Rychli?ska, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    2D-TLC and RP-HPLC methods were applied to qualitatively determinate free phenolic acids and those liberated by acid and alkaline hydrolysis in the flowers and leaves of G. robusta and G. squarrosa. The presence of eleven phenolic acids, namely: caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic salicylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and ellagic acids was determined. Quantitative estimate of phenolic acids, expressed as caffeic acid, has been analyzed by the method described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII. The content of phenolic acids in G. robusta reached 7.33 mg/g and 6.23 mg/g for flowers and leaves, respectively. The flowers and leaves of G. squarrosa were characterized by similar level of phenolic acids, namely 6.81 mg/g and 6.59 mg/g, respectively. PMID:22876612

  16. Sucrose Synthase, Starch Accumulation, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F.; Sanz, A.; Brenner, M. L.; Smith, A.

    1993-01-01

    Contrasting evidence has accumulated regarding the role of acid invertase and sucrose synthase in tomato fruit sink establishment and maintenance. In this work the relationships among the activities of sucrose synthase and acid invertase, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv UC-82B fruit growth, and starch accumulation were analyzed in fruit at 0 to 39 d after anthesis. Sucrose synthase, but not acid invertase, was found to be positively correlated with tomato fruit relative growth rate and with starch content in the pericarp tissue. A similar association between sucrose synthase activity and starch accumulation was also evident in the basal portion of the stem. Heat-shock treatments, which inhibited the increase in sucrose synthase activity at the beginning of the light period and had no effect on acid invertase activity, were used to examine the importance of sucrose synthase in relation to sucrose metabolism and starch synthesis. After the heat-shock treatment, concomitantly with the suppressed sucrose synthase activity relative to the controls, there was a reduction in sucrose cleavage and starch accumulation. These data substantiate the conclusion that, during the early phases of tomato fruit development, sucrose synthase rather than acid invertase is the dominant enzyme in metabolizing imported sucrose, which in turn plays a part in regulating the import of sucrose into the fruit. PMID:12231688

  17. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  18. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  19. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  20. Modeling C and N Transport to Developing Soybean Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Layzell, David B.; LaRue, Thomas A.

    1982-01-01

    Xylem sap and phloem exudates from detached leaves and fruit tips were collected and analyzed during early pod-fill in nodulated soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Wilkin) grown without (?N) and with (+N) NH4NO3. Ureides were the predominant from (91%) of N transported in the xylem of ?N plants, while amides (45%) and nitrate (23%) accounted for most of the N in the xylem of +N plants. Amino acids (44%) and ureides (36%) were the major N forms exported in phloem from leaves in ?N plants, but amides (63%) were most important in +N plants. Based on the composition of fruit tip phloem, ureides (55% and 33%) and amides (26% and 47%) accounted for the majority of N imported by fruits of ?N and +N plants, respectively. C:N weight ratios were lowest in xylem exudate (1.37 and 1.32), highest in petiole phloem (24.5 and 26.0), and intermediate in fruit tip exudate (12.6 and 12.1) for the ?N and +N treatments, respectively. The ratios were combined with data on fruit growth and respiration to construct a model of C and N transport to developing fruits. The model indicates xylem to phloem transfer provides 35% to 52% of fruit N. Results suggest the phloem entering fruits oversupplies their N requirement so that 13% of the N imported is exported from fruit in the xylem. PMID:16662669

  1. Formation of Amadori compounds in dehydrated fruits.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M L; del Castillo, M D; Corzo, N; Olano, A

    2001-11-01

    The presence of Amadori compounds in commercial dehydrated fruits has been shown through HPLC analysis of the corresponding 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids obtained by acid hydrolysis. Furosine (2-furoylmethyl-lysine) was the main 2-furoylmethyl derivative observed in dried figs and apricot samples, whereas in prunes and dates similar amounts of furosine and 2-furoylmethyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid were detected. A considerable variation of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acid contents among commercial raisin samples was observed. 2-Furoylmethyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid and 2-furoylmethyl-arginine, the most abundant 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids, ranged between 9.9 and 75.8 mg/100 g sample and 10.0 and 62.5 mg/100 g sample, respectively. Most of the Amadori compounds present in raisins seem to have originated during the commercial shelf life period rather than during processing. Determination of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids could be used as a method of controlling commercial dehydrated fruit and selecting storage conditions. PMID:11714308

  2. Sink Metabolism in Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Yelle, Serge; Chetelat, Roger T.; Dorais, Martin; DeVerna, Joseph W.; Bennett, Alan B.

    1991-01-01

    Fruit of domesticated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) accumulate primarily glucose and fructose, whereas some wild tomato species, including Lycopersicon chmielewskii, accumulate sucrose. Genetic analysis of progeny resulting from a cross between L. chmielewskii and L. esculentum indicated that the sucrose-accumulating trait could be stably transferred and that the trait was controlled by the action of one or two recessive genes. Biochemical analysis of progeny resulting from this cross indicated that the sucrose-accumulating trait was associated with greatly reduced levels of acid invertase, but normal levels of sucrose synthase. Invertase from hexose-accumulating fruit was purified and could be resolved into three isoforms by chromatofocusing, each with isoelectric points between 5.1 and 5.5. The invertase isoforms showed identical polypeptide profiles on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, consisting of a primary 52 kilodalton polypeptide and two lower molecular mass polypeptides that appear to be degradation products of the 52 kilodalton polypeptide. The three invertase isoforms were indistinguishable based on pH, temperature, and substrate concentration dependence. Immunological detection of invertase indicated that the low level of invertase in sucrose-accumulating fruit was due to low levels of invertase protein rather than the presence of an invertase inhibitor. Based on comparison of genetic and biochemical data we speculate that a gene either encoding tomato fruit acid invertase or one required for its expression, plays an important role in determining sucrose accumulation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 10 PMID:16668087

  3. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

  4. Comparison of nutrient content in fruit of commercial cultivars of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant is one of the most popular common major vegetable crops worldwide. This study evaluated the nutritional content of seven commercial eggplant fruits in terms of fatty acid, mineral, sugar, organic acids, amino acids, and polyamine contents. The most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid (ran...

  5. [Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flvio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam Jos; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function. PMID:25055366

  6. Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of (3H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats

    PubMed Central

    Prez, L. Yohani; Menndez, Roberto; Ms, Rosa; Gonzlez, Rosa M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acidsmainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundantthat has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. Objective: The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of (3H)-oleic acid 0.16 ?Ci/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 ?Ci) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 ?L), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100?L) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in ?gEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces, and urine samples of rats that did not receive (3H)-oleic acid were used as controls. Excretion was expressed as the percentage of the radioactivity excreted via each route with respect to the total radioactive dose administered to each rat. Results: A total of 50 rats were included in the experiment (mean age, 4 weeks; mean weight, 310 g). Absorption was rapid; mean Cmax was 195.56 (31.12) ?gEq/mL, and mean Tmax was 2 hours. Thereafter, a biphasic decay of TR was found: a rapid first phase (t1/2?, 1.33 hours), followed by a slower second elimination phase (t1/2?, 36.07 hours). Radioactivity was rapidly and broadly distributed throughout the tissues, with more accumulating in the prostate than elsewhere. In the first 8 hours, accumulation of TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by the liver, small intestine, and plasma. Subsequently, TR increased in the small intestine, while it decreased in the liver and plasma. In contrast, over the periods of 24 and 144 hours after administration, TR increased in the adipose tissue, while it decreased in the other tissues and plasma. During those intervals, TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by adipose tissue. Mean peak radioactivity in the prostate (562.41 ?gEq/g) was reached at 4 hours and decreased slowly thereafter. The prostate had the highest values of t1/2? and cumulative AUC compared with the other tissues and plasma. Mean (SD) TR was similar in feces (33.48% [4.90%]) and urine (28.96% [5.32%]), with total excretion being 62.40% (5.90%) of the administered dose. Conclusions: In this experimental study, after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid in rats, TR was rapidly and widely distributed across the tissues, with the prostate having the highest accumulation of radioactivity. Excretion of TR was limited, with similar amounts being excreted in feces and urine. The broad distribution of radiolabeled oleic acid and/or its metabolites suggests (SD) pharmacokinetic rationale for the effectiveness of D-004 in

  7. Composition and biological activities of hydrolyzable tannins of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoru; Liu, Pengzhan

    2014-01-22

    Fruits of emblic leafflower have been used as food and traditional medicine in Asia. A wide range of biological activities have been shown in modern research suggesting potential of the fruits as healthy food and raw material for bioactive ingredients of food. Hydrolyzable tannins are among the major bioactive components of the fruits. Mucic acid gallate, mucic acid lactone gallate, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, putranjivain A, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, elaeocarpusin, and chebulagic acid are the most abundant hydrolyzable tannins. The compositional profiles of tannins in the fruits vary depending on the cultivars as well as ripening stages. Fruits and tannin-rich extracts of fruits have shown antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immune-regulating activities in vitro and in animal studies. The fruits and fruit extracts have manifested protective effects on organs/tissues from damages induced by chemicals, stresses, and aging in animal models. The fruits and fruit extracts have potential in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and reducing DNA damage induced by chemicals and radiation. Antioxidative activities are likely among the mechanisms of the biological activities and physiological effects. Human intervention/clinical studies are needed to investigate the bioavailability and metabolism of the tannins and to substantiate the health benefits in humans. Emblic leafflower may be a potential raw material for natural food preservatives. PMID:24369850

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  9. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876

  10. Water deficit effects on tomato quality depend on fruit developmental stage and genotype.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Julie; Urban, Laurent; Brunel, Béatrice; Bertin, Nadia

    2016-01-15

    Many studies have advocated that water deficit (WD) may exert beneficial effects on fruit quality. However, the fruit response to WD at specific developmental stages was seldom investigated, although different mechanisms could be involved at each stage and lead to different effects on final fruit quality. In the present study, a moderate WD (-60% of water supply compared to control) was applied during each of the three major phases of fruit development, namely cell division (CD), cell expansion (CE) and maturation (MT). Two cocktail tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes were studied, one producing poor quality fruits (LA1420), and the other one producing tasty fruits (PlovdivXXIVa named Plovdiv). Contrasted responses were observed between the two genotypes. For both of them, fruit fresh mass and size were not significantly reduced by WD, whatever the developmental phase affected. Osmotic regulations were likely involved in the CD treatment for LA1420 fruits, which accumulated more sugars (both on a dry and fresh matter basis) and less acids (on a dry matter basis). In the CE treatment, other adaptive strategies involving sugar metabolism and sub-cellular compartmentation were suggested. In contrast, the composition of Plovdiv fruits changed only under the MT treatment, with less sugars, acids and carotenoids compared to control fruits (both on a dry and fresh matter basis). Total ascorbic acid (AsA) was not significantly influenced by treatments in both genotypes. On their whole, results suggest that, depending on genotypes, fruits are sweeter and less acidic under WD, but that the nutritive value related to vitamin and carotenoid contents may be lessened. The sensitivity of each developmental phase highly depends on the genotype. All phases were sensitive to WD for LA1420, but only the ripening phase for Plovdiv. Interestingly, major changes in fruit composition were observed in LA1420 which presents poor fruit quality under control conditions. This suggests the onset of fast adaptive response to WD at the fruit level in this genotype. PMID:26629612

  11. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  12. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  13. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  14. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  15. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  16. Metabolomic analysis of avocado fruits by GC-APCI-TOF MS: effects of ripening degrees and fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernández, E; Pacchiarotta, T; Mayboroda, O A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate avocado fruit ripening, nontargeted GC-APCI-TOF MS metabolic profiling analyses were carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to explore the metabolic profiles from fruit samples of 13 varieties at two different ripening degrees. Mannoheptulose; pentadecylfuran; aspartic, malic, stearic, citric and pantothenic acids; mannitol; and β-sitosterol were some of the metabolites found as more influential for the PLS-DA model. The similarities among genetically related samples (putative mutants of "Hass") and their metabolic differences from the rest of the varieties under study have also been evaluated. The achieved results reveal new insights into avocado fruit composition and metabolite changes, demonstrating therefore the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit ripening development, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops. PMID:25381615

  17. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.

    PubMed

    Megas-Prez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. PMID:24360417

  18. A dynamic interplay between phytohormones is required for fruit development, maturation, and ripening

    PubMed Central

    McAtee, Peter; Karim, Siti; Schaffer, Robert; David, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Plant species that bear fruit often utilize expansion of an ovary (carpel) or accessory tissue as a vehicle for seed dispersal. While the seed(s) develop, the tissue(s) of the fruit follow a common progression of cell division and cell expansion, promoting growth of the fruit. Once the seed is fully developed, the fruit matures and the surrounding tissue either dries or ripens promoting the dissemination of the seed. As with many developmental processes in plants, plant hormones play an important role in the synchronization of signals between the developing seed and its surrounding fruit tissue(s), regulating each phase of fruit development. Following pollination, fruit set is achieved through a de-repression of growth and an activation of cell division via the action of auxin and/or cytokinin and/or gibberellin. Following fruit set, growth of the fruit is facilitated through a relatively poorly studied period of cell expansion and endoreduplication that is likely regulated by similar hormones as in fruit set. Once the seeds reach maturity, fruit become ready to undergo ripening and during this period there is a major switch in relative hormone levels of the fruit, involving an overall decrease in auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin and a simultaneous increase in abscisic acid and ethylene. While the role of hormones in fruit set and ripening is well documented, the knowledge of the roles of other hormones during growth, maturation, and some individual ripening components is sketchy. PMID:23616786

  19. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

  20. Quantification by UHPLC of total individual polyphenols in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Daz-Garca, M C; Obn, J M; Castellar, M R; Collado, J; Alacid, M

    2013-06-01

    The present work proposes a new UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence method able to identify and quantify the main polyphenols present in commercial fruit juices in a 28-min chromatogram. The proposed method improve the IFU method No. 71 used to evaluate anthocyanins profiles of fruit juices. Fruit juices of strawberry, American cranberry, bilberry, sour cherry, black grape, orange, and apple, were analysed identifying 70 of their main polyphenols (23 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids, 14 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanones, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavan-3-ols and 2 stilbenes). One standard polyphenol of each group was used to calculate individual polyphenol concentration presents in a juice. Total amount of polyphenols in a fruit juice was estimated as total individual polyphenols (TIP). A good correlation (r(2)=0.966) was observed between calculated TIP, and total polyphenols (TP) determined by the well-known colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. In this work, the higher TIP value corresponded to bilberry juice (607.324 mg/100mL fruit juice) and the lower to orange juice (32.638 mg/100mL fruit juice). This method is useful for authentication analyses and for labelling total polyphenols contents of commercial fruit juices. PMID:23411199

  1. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening and non-climacteric fruit ripening in general. PMID:23245313

  2. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Memon, Mushtaq A.; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Akbar, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneficial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents. PMID:25317174

  3. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    PubMed

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence mechanisms. These food-health concepts would probably spur the large-scale oil palm (and monoculture) plantations, which are already seen to be a major cause of deforestation and replacement of diverse ecosystems in many countries. However, the environmental advantages of palm phytonutrients are that they are prepared from the readily available raw material from palm oil milling processes. Palm fruit, one of only a few fatty fruits, is likely to have an increasingly substantiated place in human health, not only through the provision of acceptable dietary fats, but also its characteristic protective phytonutrients. PMID:14506002

  4. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find

  5. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  6. The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

    2014-09-01

    Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

  7. Can fruit-form be a marker for argan oil production?

    PubMed

    Gharby, Sad; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Denhez, Clment; Hilali, Miloudi; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation is an important matter for the argan forest whose preservation necessitates planting trees. Macroscopic parameters are urgently needed to identify trees presenting good potential as oil producers. This study demonstrates that argan oil produced from kernels of apiculate fruit is richer in d-tocopherol, whereas oil produced from spherical fruit is richer in linoleic acid, and that produced from fusiform fruit is richer in oleic acid. Therefore, the use of fruit-form as a marker could permit an easy organic production of "naturally enriched" oils. PMID:23472452

  8. Recommended Amounts of Total fruits

    Cancer.gov

    Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

  9. Pesticides on fruits and vegetables

    MedlinePLUS

    ... option, you may want to buy and serve organic produce. Organic growers do not use pesticides on their fruits ... To remove harmful bacteria, you must wash both organic and nonorganic fruits and vegetables.

  10. Blueberry Fruit Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry fruit drop is the name given to a new disease of blueberry that has been observed during the past few years in several blueberry fields in Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, Canada and recently in New York state. The plants flower normally, though the young leaves and flowers have ...

  11. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  12. Ethylene and Fruit Ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments designed to down-regulate specific tomato ethylene receptor isoforms using antisense suppression have been reported for LeETR1, NR and LeETR4. Down-regulation of LeETR1 expression in transgenic plants did not alter fruit ripening but resulted in plants with shorter internodes and reduce...

  13. IMPROVING FRUIT-SET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit-drop in pecan can occur due to insufficient nickel nutrition. Timely foliar sprays of Ni can prevent loss. Nut yield loss to pollination related factors is likely far more significant in many orchards than commonly recognized. Pollination studies in the southeastern U.S. pecan belt, where t...

  14. FRUIT DROP IN PECAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most dropped fruit of pecan are associated with the first and second drops of the four drop periods typical of most pecan varieties. The first drop is most commonly due to insufficient tree energy reserves as a consequence of physiological stresses during the previous growing season. The second dr...

  15. Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Exhibits as a Novel Anti-Hyperuricaemia Agent.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yeu-Ching; Lin, Kai-Sian; Jhai, Yi-Fen; Lee, Bao-Hong; Han, Yifan; Cui, Zhibin; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Wu, She-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) belongs to the Sapotaceae family. It can change flavors on taste buds, transforming acidic tastes to sweet. We evaluated various miracle fruit extracts, including water, butanol, ethyl acetate (EA), and hexane fractions, to determine its antioxidant effects. These extracts isolated from miracle fruit exerted potential for reduction of uric acid and inhibited xanthine oxidase activity in vitro and in monosodiumurate (MSU)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, we also found that the butanol extracts of miracle fruit attenuated oxonic acid potassium salt-induced hyperuricaemia in ICR mice by lowering serum uric acid levels and activating hepatic xanthine oxidase. These effects were equal to those of allopurinol, suggesting that the butanol extract of miracle fruit could be developed as a novel anti-hyperuricaemia agent or health food. PMID:26821007

  16. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Lara; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha; Forney, Charles F.; Eaton, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 107, 119 29 and 543 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (10111060 mg/100 DW). Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 20 mg/100 DW), and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.79.5 mg/100 mg DW) was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits. PMID:26784460

  17. Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6 ± 8.2 g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9 ± 31.7 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

  18. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Park, Ae Ran; Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  19. Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito L.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ingrid M; Lpez, Isis; Petersen, Jennifer J; Anaya, Natalia; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Potter, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainitoL.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics: The process of domestication is understudied and poorly known for many tropical fruit tree crops. The star apple or caimito tree (Chrysophyllum cainito L., Sapotaceae) is cultivated throughout the New World tropics for its edible fruits. We studied this species in central Panama, where it grows wild in tropical moist forests and is also commonly cultivated in backyard gardens. Using fruits collected over two harvest seasons, we tested the hypothesis that cultivated individuals of C. cainito show distinctive fruit and seed characteristics associated with domestication relative to wild types. We found that cultivated fruits were significantly and substantially larger and allocated more to pulp and less to exocarp than wild fruits. The pulp of cultivated fruits was less acidic; also, the pulp had lower concentrations of phenolics and higher concentrations of sugar. The seeds were larger and more numerous and were less defended with phenolics in cultivated than in wild fruits. Discriminant Analysis showed that, among the many significant differences, fruit size and sugar concentration drove the great majority of the variance distinguishing wild from cultivated classes. Variance of pulp phenolics among individuals was significantly higher among wild trees than among cultivated trees, while variance of fruit mass and seed number was significantly higher among cultivated trees. Most traits showed strong correlations between years. Overall, we found a clear signature of a domestication syndrome in the fruits of cultivated caimito in Panama. PMID:20543881

  20. Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito L.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lpez, Isis; Petersen, Jennifer J.; Anaya, Natalia; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Potter, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainitoL.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics: The process of domestication is understudied and poorly known for many tropical fruit tree crops. The star apple or caimito tree (Chrysophyllum cainito L., Sapotaceae) is cultivated throughout the New World tropics for its edible fruits. We studied this species in central Panama, where it grows wild in tropical moist forests and is also commonly cultivated in backyard gardens. Using fruits collected over two harvest seasons, we tested the hypothesis that cultivated individuals of C. cainito show distinctive fruit and seed characteristics associated with domestication relative to wild types. We found that cultivated fruits were significantly and substantially larger and allocated more to pulp and less to exocarp than wild fruits. The pulp of cultivated fruits was less acidic; also, the pulp had lower concentrations of phenolics and higher concentrations of sugar. The seeds were larger and more numerous and were less defended with phenolics in cultivated than in wild fruits. Discriminant Analysis showed that, among the many significant differences, fruit size and sugar concentration drove the great majority of the variance distinguishing wild from cultivated classes. Variance of pulp phenolics among individuals was significantly higher among wild trees than among cultivated trees, while variance of fruit mass and seed number was significantly higher among cultivated trees. Most traits showed strong correlations between years. Overall, we found a clear signature of a domestication syndrome in the fruits of cultivated caimito in Panama. PMID:20543881

  1. Tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids occur in fruits and fruit juices. Activity as antioxidants and radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomas; Galisteo, Juan

    2003-11-19

    Tetrahydro-beta-carbolines are biologically active alkaloids that occur and accumulate in mammalian tissues, fluids, and brain, but their ultimate origin or biological role is still uncertain. Four tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids: 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline, and 6-hydroxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline, are found as naturally occurring substances in some fruit and fruit juices. These compounds occur in the microg/g level in those products, and a characteristic and distinct profile appears to exist depending on the type of fruit and juice involved. Thus, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline may appear in tomato, tomato juice, and kiwi; 6-hydroxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline in bananas, pineapple, tomato, and their corresponding juices; and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in oranges and grapefruits, although it also occurred in most juices. Fruit-occurring tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids acted as antioxidants and free radical scavengers in the ABTS assay when compared with ascorbic acid and Trolox. This suggests that tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids might act as antioxidants when absorbed and accumulated in the body, contributing to the antioxidant effect of fruit products containing these compounds. PMID:14611187

  2. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured. PMID:25348501

  3. Effect of Salinity on Tomato Fruit Ripening 1

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Yosef

    1982-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants from various cultivars growing on half-strength Hoagland solution were exposed at anthesis to 3 or 6 grams per liter NaCl. Salinity shortened the time of fruit development by 4 to 15%. Fruits of salt-treated plants were smaller and tasted better than did fruits of control plants. This result was obtained both for ripe fruits tested on the day of picking and for those picked at 100% development and allowed to ripen at room temperature for 9 days. Percentage of dry weight, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity; content of reducing sugars, Cl?, Na+, and various pericarp pigments; and electrical conductivity of the juice were higher in fruits of saline-treated plants than they were in those of control plants, while the pH was lower. Ethylene and CO2 evolution rates during ripening; as well as the activities of pectin methyl esterase, polymethylgalacturonase, and polygalacturonase; were also higher in fruits of the saline-treated plants. The treatment with 6 grams per liter NaCl shortened the fruit shelf life considerably. PMID:16662327

  4. Variation of bioactive compounds content of 14 oriental strawberry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Kyeom; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Dae Young; Chun, Changhoo

    2015-10-01

    Variation in bioactive compounds content was assessed in antioxidant rich June-bearing strawberry cultivars. Ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, and ellagic acid content were analyzed in ripe fruits of 14 cultivars. The bioactive content in strawberry fruit was found to vary significantly among cultivars and from year to year. The highest ascorbic acid content was found in 'Sugyeong'. The 'Red Pearl' and 'Sachinoka' had three to fourfold higher amounts of pelargonidin 3-glucoside than other cultivars. For cyanidin 3-glucoide and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, two other characterized anthocyanins, 'Dahong' and 'Keumhyang' had the highest contents among all the tested cultivars. The ellagic acid content of 'Dahong' was generally all within the upper ranges. These results can be used for the validation of fruit antioxidant capacity and in addition, provide useful information for breeding programs looking to enhance the antioxidant capacity in strawberry fruit. PMID:25872444

  5. Polyphenolic and hydroxycinnamate contents of whole coffee fruits from China, India, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mullen, W; Nemzer, B; Stalmach, A; Ali, S; Combet, E

    2013-06-01

    Air-dried whole coffee fruits, beans, and husks from China, India, and Mexico were analyzed for their chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine, and polyphenolic content. Analysis was by HPLC and Orbitrap exact mass spectrometry. Total phenol, total flavonol, and antioxidant capacity were measured. The hydroxycinnamate profile consisted of caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids. A range of flavan-3-ols as well as flavonol conjugates were detected. The CGA content was similar for both Mexican and Indian coffee fruits but was much lower in the samples from China. Highest levels of flavan-3-ols were found in the Indian samples, whereas the Mexican samples contained the highest flavonols. Amounts of CGAs in the beans were similar to those in the whole fruits, but flavan-3-ols and flavonols were not detected. The husks contained the same range of polyphenols as those in the whole fruits. The highest levels of caffeine were found in the Robusta samples. PMID:23650984

  6. Changes in aroma volatile compounds and ethylene production during "Hujingmilu" peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Hui-Juan

    2005-02-01

    Changes in ethylene production rate, respiration rate, and aroma volatile composition was determined from the immature to mature stage in "Hujingmilu" peach (Prunus presica) fruit. Flesh firmness, fruit size, ground color of skin, and total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) in juice were analyzed, and ACC, ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities were measured. With the increase of fruit maturity, fruit size, L* value, and TSS and major reducing sugar contents increased, whereas fruit firmness, skin hue angle (h degrees ), and juice TA and organic acid contents decreased. In immature fruits, a C(6)-aldehydes (trans-2-hexenal) and C(6)-alcohols (cis-3-hexenol) were the major components, corresponding to the low ethylene production and high respiration rates. With increasing of fruit maturity, the C(6)-C(12) lactonic compounds, particularly gamma- and delta-lactones became the dominant volatile constituents, which increased significantly at the climacteric stage. These facts suggest that ethylene production may be involved in the regulation of lactones production in maturing peach fruit. The activity of ACC synthase in the mesocarp declined during the climacteric rise of ethylene. ACC level and ACC oxidase activity in mesocarp were consistent with the onset of ethylene production in fruit. Major aroma volatiles are thought to form in conjunction with the initiation of climacteric rises in respiration and ethylene production. Detection of changes in aroma volatile compound synthesis rate in peach may be useful as index of maturity reflecting the current physiological stage of peach fruit development. PMID:15692177

  7. Fruit quality, antioxidant contents and activity, and antiproliferative activity of strawberry fruit stored in elevated CO2 atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y; Ryu, J A; Liu, R H; Nock, J F; Polar-Cabrera, K; Watkins, C B

    2008-08-01

    The effects of CO2 in the storage atmosphere on color, firmness, ascorbic acid (AA), anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolics, total antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of strawberry fruit have been investigated. "Northeaster" and "Earliglow" strawberries were stored in air or in 20% CO2 (in air) at 3 degrees C for 20 d. Color changes in Northeaster were delayed more by CO2 treatment than in Earliglow. Firmness of CO2-stored fruit increased slightly compared with those stored in air. The increases in total and reduced AA concentrations during air storage were usually prevented by CO2 storage in both cultivars. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) concentrations increased during CO2 storage. Anthocyanins and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity of both cultivars were higher in air-stored fruit than in CO2-stored fruit. The total phenolic concentration was lower in CO2-stored Earliglow fruit than in air, but storage treatment did not affect that of Northeaster. A 40 mg/mL concentration of Northeaster strawberry extract inhibited about 80% of HepG2 human liver cancer cell proliferation. CO2 treatment did not affect the antiproliferative activity of strawberry fruits, but antiproliferative activity was greater at harvest than after storage. PMID:19241580

  8. Long argan fruit drying time is detrimental for argan oil quality.

    PubMed

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Sad; Kartah, Badr Eddine; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom

    2010-11-01

    Argan oil is extracted from the kernels of argan fruits that have been sun-dried for either a few days or up to several weeks. The influence of the fruit drying time on the quantity, quality, and preservation of solvent-extracted argan oil was compared with press-extracted argan oil. Quantitatively, the time necessary for efficient fruit peeling and the amount of extracted oil were determined with regard to the fruit drying time (0 to 28 days). Argan oil quality was studied using, as markers, moisture content, specific extinction, acid index, peroxide index, fatty acid composition, and Rancimat oxidative stability. Oil from fresh fruit presents a high moisture content, high acidity and peroxide values, and short shelf life. Ten to fourteen days of sun-drying is optimum to obtain high quality argan oil. PMID:21213985

  9. Antimicrobial activity of an Amazon medicinal plant (Chancapiedra) (Phyllanthus niruri L.) against Helicobacter pylori and lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ranilla, Lena Glvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2012-06-01

    The potential of water extracts of the Amazon medicinal plant Chancapiedra (Phyllanthus niruri L.) from Ecuador and Peru for antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori and different strains of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. H. pylori was inhibited by both water extracts in a dose dependent manner, whereas lactic acid bacterial growth was not affected. Both extracts contained ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and exhibited high free radical scavenging linked-antioxidant activities (89%). However, gallic acid was detected only in the Ecuadorian extract. Preliminary studies on the mode of action of Chancapiedra against H. pylori revealed that inhibition may not involve proline dehydrogenase-based oxidative phosphorylation inhibition associated with simple mono-phenolics and could involve ellagitannins or other non-phenolic compounds through a yet unknown mechanism. This study provides evidence about the potential of Chancapiedra for H. pylori inhibition without affecting beneficial lactic acid bacteria. PMID:22034238

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Broussonetia papyrifera Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Liu, Shao-fang; Zhang, Chu-shu; Yu, Li-na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Qing-li

    2012-01-01

    Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs) was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC–MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products. PMID:22389678

  11. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 4.5?mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 3.1?RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 1.2% and 85 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

  12. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-?-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits. PMID:26566837

  13. Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.).

    PubMed

    Tran, Xuan T; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh H

    2016-03-01

    The aril around the seeds of Gac fruit is rich in fatty acids and carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene). Understanding how these qualities are affected by fruit maturity at harvest may identify indices for quality assessment. Some physical and chemical properties of Gac fruit were determined for fruit harvested between 8 and 16 weeks after pollination (WAP). Fruit respiration rates and ethylene production rates were assessed after harvest and up to 20 days in storage at 20°C. Fruit harvested at 14 WAP had the highest oil (0.27 ± 0.02 g/g DW), lycopene content (0.45 ± 0.09 mg/g FW), and β-carotene content (0.33 ± 0.05 mg/g FW) which declined by 16 WAP. External skin color and aril TSS were indicative of oil and carotenoid contents in aril. Skin color, TSS and potentially firmness were good indices of fruit quality. Harvesting less mature fruit at 12 WAP would be practical as the fruit were firmer and more capable of transport; however, quality during postharvest ripening may be limited. Fruits continued to ripen after they were harvested and an ethylene peak in the least mature fruit may reflect a climacteric behavior but this needs further investigation. PMID:27004120

  14. The structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins: a general review.

    PubMed

    Lipi?ska, Lidia; Klewicka, El?bieta; Sjka, Micha?

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with the structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins. Ellagitannins belong to the class of hydrolysable tannins, they are esters of hexahydroxydiphenoic acid and monosaccharide (most commonly glucose). Ellagitannins are slowly hydrolysed in the digestive tract, releasing the ellagic acid molecule. Their chemical structure determines physical and chemical properties and biological activity. Ellagitannins occur naturally in some fruits (pomegranate, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry), nuts (walnuts, almonds), and seeds. They form a diverse group of bioactive polyphenols with anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral) activity. Furthermore, they improve the health of blood vessels. The paper discusses the metabolism and bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid. Ellagitannins are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal microbiota. They are stable in the stomach and undergo neither hydrolysis to free ellagic acid nor degradation. In turn, ellagic acid can be absorbed in the stomach. This paper shows the role of cancer cell lines in the studies of ellagitannins and ellagic acid metabolism. The biological activity of these compounds is broad and thus the focus is on their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. Ellagitannins exhibit antimicrobial activity against fungi, viruses, and importantly, bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24887944

  15. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Mary de Fátima Guedes; Mamede, Rosa Virginia Soares; Rufino, Maria do Socorro Moura; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã) were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucumã (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid·100g−1), total carotenoids in the case of tucumã and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg·100g−1), and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg·100g−1). As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC) (194.67 µM·Trolox·g−1), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (47.46 g·pulp·g−1 DPPH), and β-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I) methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits. PMID:26783846

  16. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Mary de Ftima Guedes; Mamede, Rosa Virginia Soares; Rufino, Maria do Socorro Moura; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Alves, Ricardo Elesbo

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inaj, pupunha, and tucum) were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucum (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid100g(-1)), total carotenoids in the case of tucum and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg100g(-1)), and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg100g(-1)). As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC) (194.67 MTroloxg(-1)), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (47.46 gpulpg(-1) DPPH), and ?-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I) methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits. PMID:26783846

  17. ANTIOXIDANT, FIBER AND PHENOLIC CONTENT OF SELECT TROPICAL FRUITS GROWN IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits and vegetables play a significant role in the human diet providing protection against cellular damage caused by exposure to high levels of free radicals. Tropical fruits from south Florida were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), tota...

  18. Detection of methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG) and hypoglycin A in litchi fruit (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Methylenecyclopropylalanine (hypoglycin A), an unusual amino acid, is known to occur in the fruit of Blighia sapida Koenig. Known as ackee fruit, this member of the family Sapindaceae (soapberry family) is associated with a hypoglycemic malady, and Jamaican vomiting sickness. Another f...

  19. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  20. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

  1. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (?10-30mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68?molm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. PMID:26706059

  2. Mushroom fruiting and climate change.

    PubMed

    Kauserud, Håvard; Stige, Leif Christian; Vik, Jon Olav; Okland, Rune H; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2008-03-11

    Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using approximately 34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940-2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario. PMID:18310325

  3. The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bastas, Adriana; Osorio, Sonia; Casaretto, Jos A.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatographytime of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato. PMID:24659489

  4. The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Bastas, Adriana; Yaez, Mnica; Osorio, Sonia; Arbona, Vicent; Gmez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Fernie, Alisdair R; Casaretto, Jos A

    2014-06-01

    Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato. PMID:24659489

  5. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    PubMed

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

  6. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (C. chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent C. annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16–20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

  7. Classification of fruits based on anthocyanin types and relevance to their health effects.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of water-soluble pigments that confer the blue, purple, and red color to many fruits. Anthocyanin-rich fruits can be divided into three groups based on the types of aglycones of their anthocyanins: pelargonidin group, cyanidin/peonidin group, and multiple anthocyanidins group. Some fruits contain a major anthocyanin type and can serve as useful research tools. Cyanidin glycosides and peonidin glycosides can be metabolically converted to each other by methylation and demethylation. Both cyanidin and peonidin glycosides can be metabolized to protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside is metabolized to 4-hydroxybenoic acid. On the other hand, phenolic acid metabolites of delphinidin, malvidin, and petunidin glycosides are unstable and can be further fragmented into smaller molecules. A literature review indicates berries with higher cyanidin content, such as black raspberries, chokeberries, and bilberries are more likely to produce an antiinflammatory effect. This observation seems to be consistent with the hypothesis that one or more stable phenolic acid metabolites contribute to the antiinflammatory effects of anthocyanin-rich fruits. More studies are needed before we can conclude that fruits rich in cyanidin, peonidin, or pelargonidin glycosides have better antiinflammatory effects. Additionally, fruit polyphenols other than anthocyanins could contribute to their antiinflammatory effects. Furthermore, blueberries could exert their health effects with other mechanisms such as improving intestinal microbiota composition. In summary, this classification system can facilitate our understanding of the absorption and metabolic processes of anthocyanins and the health effects of different fruits. PMID:26250485

  8. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples. PMID:25393892

  9. Efficacy of alkaline washing for the decontamination of orange fruit surfaces inoculated with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Davis, C L; Kelsey, D F

    2000-07-01

    The effectiveness of washing treatments to decontaminate orange fruit surfaces inoculated with Escherichia coli was evaluated. Washing on roller brushes with fruit cleaners or sanitizers followed by potable water rinse reduced E. coli by 1.9 to 3.5 log cycles. Prewetting fruit for 30 s before washing provided no significant benefit in most cases. Additional sanitizing treatments either with chlorine or acid sanitizers did not enhance the results of alkaline washing. In general, high pH washing solutions (pH 11.8) applied with an adequate spray volume effectively reduced the surface contamination of fruit that lowered the microbial load of fresh juice as well. PMID:10914669

  10. IONIZING RADIATION PROCESSING OF FRUITS AND FRUIT PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food irradiation is a physical treatment in which food is exposed to ionizing radiation, i.e., radiation of high enough energy to expel electrons from atoms and to ionize molecules. Irradiation may be used to control the physiology of fruits, or to eliminate harmful bacteria from fruit products. Thi...

  11. FRUIT QUALITY OF THE USDA OPUNTIA GERMPLASM COLLECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of several Opuntia species (prickly pear) are a good source of calcium, potassium, and ascorbic acid and are consumed fresh or processed as juices or preserves. Plants of Opuntia may be grown in arid and semiarid environments on marginal soils. Various cultivars, particularly in the speci...

  12. Ammonia Formulations and Capture of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted in numbers to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principle components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important ...

  13. New traps and lures for tree fruit pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted at the USDA, ARS Laboratory in Wapato, WA to develop new monitoring tools for key pests of tree fruits in the western United States are reviewed. Traps baited with pear ester, and acetic acid caught low numbers of tortricid leafrollers and these counts were well correlated with loc...

  14. New traps, baits, and lures for tree fruit IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted at the USDA, ARS Laboratory in Wapato, WA to develop new monitoring tools for key pests of tree fruits in the western United States are reviewed. The combination of pear ester, sex pheromone, and acetic acid was shown to be highly effective in orchards treated with sex pheromones f...

  15. Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...

  16. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  17. RNAi strategies to suppress insects of fruit and tree crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, to reduce plant feeding Hemiptera in fruit tree and grapevines. The successful use of RNAi strategies to reduce insect pests, psyllids and leafhoppers was demonstrated. An RNAi bioassay which absorbs dsRNA into plant tissues provided up to 40 days of act...

  18. Processes of temperate fruit development regulated by ethylene action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of ethylene action by 1-MCP in climacteric tree fruit including apple and pear has confirmed a number of ripening and senescence processes are regulated by ethylene. For apple, respiration and acid loss, softening, volatile production, and chlorophyll metabolism are slowed in the absence...

  19. Ammonia as a component of fruit fly attractants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principal components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important Ana...

  20. Characterization of phenolic compounds of thorny and thornless blackberries.

    PubMed

    Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sok?-??towska, Anna; Fecka, Izabela

    2015-03-25

    The aim of this study was to identify and compare the contents of phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, and flavonoid glycosides in thorny and thornless blackberries. Five thorny and nine thornless cultivars were used for this study. Thirty-five phenolic compounds were determined in the examined fruits, and one phenolic acid, three ellagic acid derivatives, one anthocyanin, and six flavonols were characterized for the first time in blackberries. The thornless fruits were characterized by a higher content of anthocyanins (mean = 171.23 mg/100 g FW), ellagitannins (mean = 3.65 mg/100 g FW), and ellagic acid derivatives (mean = 2.49 mg/100 g FW), in comparison to thorny ones. At the same time, in thorny fruits, the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids (mean = 1.42 mg/100 g FW) and flavonols (mean = 5.70 mg/100 g FW) were higher. PMID:25764069

  1. Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health.

    PubMed

    Carughi, Arianna; Feeney, Mary Jo; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Fulgoni, Victor; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bull, Mnica; Webb, Densie

    2016-01-01

    Certain dietary patterns, in which fruits and nuts are featured prominently, reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, estimated fruit consumption historically in the U.S. has been lower than recommendations. Dried fruit intake is even lower with only about 6.9% of the adult population reporting any consumption. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee identified a gap between recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and the amount the population consumes. Even fewer Americans consume tree nuts, which are a nutrient-dense food, rich in bioactive compounds and healthy fatty acids. Consumption of fruits and nuts has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. An estimated 5.5 to 8.4% of U.S. adults consume tree nuts and/or tree nut butter. This review examines the potential of pairing nuts and dried fruit to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors and focuses on emerging data on raisins and pistachios as representative of each food category. Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of both could help improve Americans' nutritional status and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. PMID:26944400

  2. Mycotoxins in botanicals and dried fruits: a review.

    PubMed

    Trucksess, M W; Scott, P M

    2008-02-01

    Botanicals are used in many countries for medicinal and general health-promoting purposes. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in botanicals and dried fruits have been reported. Aflatoxins or ochratoxin A (OTA) have been found in botanicals such as ginseng, ginger, liquorice, turmeric, and kava-kava in the USA, Spain, Argentina, India, and some other countries, while fumonisins have been found in medicinal wild plants in South Africa and in herbal tea and medicinal plants in Turkey. Zearalenone was identified in ginseng root. Dried fruits can be contaminated with aflatoxins, OTA, kojic acid, and, occasionally, with patulin or zearalenone. One main area of concern is aflatoxins in dried figs; bright greenish yellow fluorescence under ultraviolet light is associated with aflatoxin contamination. OTA in dried vine fruits (raisins, sultanas, and currants) is another concern. There are also reports of aflatoxins in raisins and OTA in dried figs, apricots, dried plums (prunes), dates, and quince. Maximum permitted levels in the European Union include 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins in dried fruit intended for direct consumption and 10 microg kg(-1) for OTA in dried vine fruit. This review discusses the occurrence of mycotoxins in botanicals and dried fruits and analytical issues such as sampling, sample preparation, and methods for analysis. Fungal contamination of these products, the influence of sorting, storage, and processing, and prevention are also considered. PMID:18286408

  3. New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits

    PubMed Central

    Fayek, Nesrin M.; Monem, Azza R. Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y.; Meselhy, Meselhy R.

    2013-01-01

    ?-amyrin-3-(3-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities. PMID:23798877

  4. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  5. Anthocyanins Present in Some Tropical Fruits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits was determined by ion trap mass spectrometry. Fruits studied included acero...

  6. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  7. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  8. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  9. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  10. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  11. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  12. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The

  13. Ethanol determination in frozen fruit pulps: an application of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    da Silva Nunes, Wilian; de Oliveira, Caroline Silva; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of five types of industrial frozen fruit pulps (acerola, cashew, grape, passion fruit and pineapple fruit pulps) and compares them with homemade pulps at two different stages of ripening. The fruit pulps were characterized by analyzing their metabolic profiles and determining their ethanol content using quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR). In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract more information from the NMR data. We detected ethanol in all industrial and homemade pulps; and acetic acid in cashew, grape and passion fruit industrial and homemade pulps. The ethanol content in some industrial pulps is above the level recommended by regulatory agencies and is near the levels of some post-ripened homemade pulps. This study demonstrates that qNMR can be used to rapidly detect ethanol content in frozen fruit pulps and food derivatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26578064

  14. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tariqul Islam Shajib, Mohammad; Kawser, Mahbuba; Nuruddin Miah, Mohammad; Begum, Parveen; Bhattacharjee, Lalita; Hossain, A; Fomsgaard, Inge S; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2013-10-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatures, book and United States Department of Agriculture-National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Ascorbic acid was highest in Wood apple and lowest in Roselle. Monkey jack contained the highest amount of carotenoids, zinc and copper. Content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorous were found highest in Antidesma velutinum. Potassium was the highest in Wood apple followed by in Moneky jack. It was noted that most of the minor fruits have much higher amount of ascorbic acid than the national fruit - Jack fruit ripe, the king fruit - Mango ripe of Bangladesh and exotic fruits - Apple and Grapes. The nutrient values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity. PMID:23601393

  15. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities

    PubMed Central

    Diamante, Lemuel M.; Bai, Xue; Busch, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20%) has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious. PMID:26904618

  16. Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in the fruit processing environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Catharina E; Cameron, Michelle; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2011-05-14

    Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for reconstituted fruit beverages to compete with beverages that are made from fresh fruits. In recent years, Alicyclobacillus spp. have become a major concern to the beverage industry worldwide as many high-acid, concentrated fruit products have been found to be contaminated with these spoilage microbes. The thermo-acidophilic nature of alicyclobacilli and highly resistant endospores allows for their survival during the production of concentrated fruit products. Under favourable conditions, endospores can germinate and multiply to numbers high enough to cause spoilage and product deterioration through the production of chemical taint compounds. It is imperative to understand the nature of Alicyclobacillus within the fruit concentrate processing environment so as to develop effective control strategies and to prevent spoilage in juice and beverage products that are reconstituted from fruit concentrates. This paper reviews the occurrence of alicyclobacilli in the fruit processing environment, control measures, as well as detection, identification and standardised test methods that are currently used for Alicyclobacillus in concentrated fruit products. PMID:21463910

  17. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins. PMID:25990484

  18. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  19. The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism.

    PubMed

    Katz, E; Fon, M; Lee, Y J; Phinney, B S; Sadka, A; Blumwald, E

    2007-09-01

    Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood. Although the different species share common pathways; developmental programs, physiological, anatomical, biochemical composition and structural differences must contribute to the operation of unique pathways, genes and proteins. Citrus has a non-climacteric fruit ripening behavior and has a unique anatomical fruit structure. For the last few years a citrus genome-wide ESTs project has been initiated and consists of 222,911 clones corresponding to 19,854 contigs and 37,138 singletons. Taking advantage of the citrus database we analyzed the citrus proteome. Using LC-MS/MS we analyzed soluble and enriched membrane fractions of mature citrus fruit to identify the proteome of fruit juice cells. We have identified ca. 1,400 proteins from these fractions by searching NCBI-nr (green plants) and citrus ESTs databases, classified these proteins according to their putative function and assigned function according to known biosynthetic pathways. PMID:17541628

  20. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.