Sample records for fruit ellagic acid

  1. Ellagic acid, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents and radical scavenging capacity affected by freezing and frozen storage in raspberry fruit.

    PubMed

    de Ancos, B; González, E M; Cano, M P

    2000-10-01

    The ellagic acid, total phenolic, and vitamin C contents in four raspberry cultivars (Heritage, Autumn Bliss, Rubi, and Zeva) grown in Spain were detected and quantified by HPLC in fresh, just frozen, and stored fruits at -20 degrees C for a one year period. Ellagic acid [207-244 mg kg(-)(1) of fresh weight (fw)], total phenolic (137-1776 mg kg(-)(1) of fw), and vitamin C (221-312 mg kg(-)(1) of fw) contents in raw material were higher in the late cultivars Zeva and Rubi than in the early cultivars Autumn Bliss and Heritage. The freezing process slightly affected the values of extracted ellagic acid, total phenolic, and vitamin C content. At the end of long-term frozen storage (12 months), no significant change of total phenolic content extracted was observed, but significant decreases of 14-21% in ellagic acid and of 33-55% in vitamin C were quantified. Free radical scavenging capacity measured as antiradical efficiency (AE) depends on the seasonal period of harvest. Late cultivars, Rubi (6.1 x 10(-)(4)) and Zeva (10.17 x 10(-)(4)), showed higher AE than early cultivars, Heritage (4.02 x 10(-)(4)) and Autumn Bliss (4.36 x 10(-)(4)). The freezing process produced a decrease of AE values in the four cultivars ranging between 4 and 26%. During the frozen storage, the AE values reached after the freezing process remained unchanged. PMID:11052701

  2. Spectrofluorimetric determination of ellagic acid in brandy.

    PubMed

    Sádecká, Jana; Tóthová, Jana

    2012-12-01

    Two spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the rapid determination of ellagic acid. The first method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and borax in methanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 456nm with excitation at 383nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 2.5×10(-8) to 7.5×10(-7)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 4×10(-9)molL(-1). The second method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and boric acid in ethanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 447nm with excitation at 387nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 1.25×10(-7) to 1.00×10(-6)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 7×10(-9)molL(-1). The methods were successfully applied for the determination of ellagic acid in brandy samples. The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC method. PMID:22953802

  3. Ellagic acid and embelin affect key cellular components of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, cancer, and stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Lugea, Aurelia; Hui, Hongxiang; Eibl, Guido; Lu, Qing-Yi; Moro, Aune; Lu, Xuyang; Li, Gang; Go, Vay-Liang; Pandol, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Ellagic acid is a polyphenolic phytochemical present in many fruits and nuts with anticancer properties demonstrated in experimental tumor studies. Embelin is a benzoquinone phytochemical isolated from the Japanese herb Ardisiae Japonicae and has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. We found that ellagic acid and embelin each dose-dependently increased apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells, MIA PaCa-2 and HPAF-II cells, and in pancreatic stellate cells, which are progenitors of pancreatic cancer desmoplasia. In each of these cell types, combinations of ellagic acid and embelin at low micromolar concentrations (0.5-3 ?M) induced synergistic increases in apoptosis and decreases in proliferation. Ellagic acid decreased NF-?B transcriptional activity, whereas embelin decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and protein expression of its downstream target survivin in cancer cells. In vivo dietary ellagic acid alone or in combination with embelin decreased tumor size and tumor cellularity in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. These results show that ellagic acid and embelin interact with divergent intracellular signaling pathways resulting in augmentation of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation at low micromolar concentrations for the key cellular components of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:24127740

  4. Ellagic Acid and Embelin Affect Key Cellular Components of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Cancer and Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Lugea, Aurelia; Hui, Hongxiang; Eibl, Guido; Lu, Qing-Yi; Moro, Aune; Lu, Xuyang; Li, Gang; Go, Vay-Liang; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Ellagic acid is a polyphenolic phytochemical present in many fruits and nuts with anti-cancer properties demonstrated in experimental tumor studies. Embelin is a benzoquinone phytochemical isolated from the Japanese herb Ardisiae Japonicae and has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. We found that ellagic acid and embelin each dose-dependently increased apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells, MIA PaCa-2 and HPAF-II cells, and in pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) which are progenitors of pancreatic cancer desmoplasia. In each of these cell types, combinations of ellagic acid and embelin at low micromolar concentrations (0.5–3 ?M) induced synergistic increases in apoptosis and decreases in proliferation. Ellagic acid decreased NF-?B transcriptional activity, whereas embelin decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and protein expression of its downstream target survivin, in cancer cells. In vivo dietary ellagic acid alone or in combination with embelin decreased tumor size and tumor cellularity in a subcutaneous (s.c.) xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. These results show that ellagic acid and embelin interact with divergent intracellular signaling pathways resulting in augmentation of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation at low micromolar concentrations for the key cellular components of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:24127740

  5. Stilbene, ellagic acid, flavonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant properties, ellagic acid, and polyphenolic were evaluated in 19 muscadine cultivars and 2 muscadine selections. Analysis was carried out on muscadine fruit skin, pulp and juice partitions. The major phenolics in muscadine juice, pulp and skins were identified by their retention times ...

  6. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Jaén; L. González; A. Vargas; G. Olave

    2003-01-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer\\u000a spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to\\u000a these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction\\u000a was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated

  7. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-06-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  8. Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

    Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

  9. Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

    2004-01-01

    Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

  10. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Ellagic Acid Peracetate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ellagic acid (1) was synthesized for the first time from methyl gallate through ?-pentagalloylglucose (?-PGG), and ellagic acid peracetate (3,4,3?,4?-tetra-O-acetylellagic acid, 2) was derived from 1 by acetylation. Oral administration of 2 suppressed melanoma growth significantly in C7BL/6 immunocompetent mice without having any effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity. Comparison of the immunoenhancing activities of 1 and 2 indicated that the latter compound increased white blood cell quantities in peripheral blood and immune cells enriched from the bone marrow and liver of mice. Therefore, both the antitumor efficacy and the immunity enhancement by 2 were greater than those by 1. In addition, on oral administration, neither 1 nor 2 resulted in whole body, liver, or spleen weight changes of normal, tumor-free mice, indicating that these compounds are potentially nontoxic to mice. It was shown that ellagic acid peracetate (2) inhibits B16 melanoma cell growth in vitro and induces B16 cell apoptosis, corresponding to BCL-2 down-regulation. Collectively, the present data imply that 2 can suppress tumor growth by enhancing mouse immunity and inducing tumor cell apoptosis without apparent side effects. PMID:23185648

  11. Extraction and analysis of ellagic acid from novel complex sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbo; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Cristóbal N. Aguilar; Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2008-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) was quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) coupled with photodiode\\u000a array detection (DAD) in five fine-powdered plants collected from the semiarid region of Mexico. Samples analysed included\\u000a Jatropha dioica branches (Dragon’s blood), Euphorbia antisyphyllitica branches (Candelilla), Turnera diffusa Willd leaves (Damiana), Flourensia cernua leaves (hojasén) and Punica granatum husk (pomegranate) at two maturity stages (“turning” or

  12. Pharmacokinetic study of ellagic acid in rat after oral administration of pomegranate leaf extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Lei; Dong-Ming Xing; Lan Xiang; Yu-Nan Zhao; Wei Wang; Lu-Jun Zhang; Li-Jun Du

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of ellagic acid, the principal bioactive component of pomegranate leaf extract, in rats plasma following oral administration of pomegranate leaf extract was achieved by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The calibration curve for ellagic acid was linear (r2=0.9998) ver the concentration range 0.026–1.3?g\\/ml. The intra- and inter-day assays of ellagic acid from rat plasma were less than 6.52%

  13. Ellagic acid derivatives and cytotoxic cucurbitacins from Elaeocarpus mastersii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiko Ito; Hee-Byung Chai; Dongho Lee; Leonardus B. S Kardono; Soedarsono Riswan; Norman R Farnsworth; Geoffrey A Cordell; John M Pezzuto; A. Douglas Kinghorn

    2002-01-01

    Bioassay-guided investigation of the bark of Elaeocarpus mastersii using KB (human oral epidermoid carcinoma) cells as a monitor led to the isolation of two cucurbitacins, cucurbitacin D and cucurbitacin F as cytotoxic principles, together with two ellagic acid derivatives, 4?-O-methylellagic acid 3-(2?,3?-di-O-acetyl)-?-l-rhamnoside (1) and 4,4?-O-dimethylellagic acid 3-(2?,3?-di-O-acetyl)-?-l-rhamnoside (2). These compounds were evaluated against a panel of human tumor cell lines.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Properties of Ellagic Acid in Malaria Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Njomnang Soh; Benoît Witkowski; David Olagnier; Marie-Laure Nicolau; Maria-Concepcion Garcia-Alvarez; Antoine Berry; Francoise Benoit-Vical

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant causes of infectious disease in the world. The search for new antimalarial chemotherapies has become increasingly urgent due to the parasites' resistance to current drugs. Ellagic acid is a polyphenol found in various plant products. In this study, antimalarial properties of ellagic acid were explored. The results obtained have shown high activity in

  15. Natural flavonoids as antidiabetic agents. The binding of gallic and ellagic acids to glycogen phosphorylase b.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, Efthimios; Stravodimos, George A; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2015-07-01

    We present a study on the binding of gallic acid and its dimer ellagic acid to glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Ellagic acid is a potent inhibitor with Kis of 13.4 and 7.5?M, in contrast to gallic acid which displays Kis of 1.7 and 3.9mM for GPb and GPa, respectively. Both compounds are competitive inhibitors with respect to the substrate, glucose-1-phoshate, and non-competitive to the allosteric activator, AMP. However, only ellagic acid functions with glucose in a strongly synergistic mode. The crystal structures of the GPb-gallic acid and GPb-ellagic acid complexes were determined at high resolution, revealing that both ligands bind to the inhibitor binding site of the enzyme and highlight the structural basis for the significant difference in their inhibitory potency. PMID:25980608

  16. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C(14)H(6)O(8)), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0×10(-10) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1); and the detection limits are 3.2×10(-10) mol L(-1) and 5.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex. PMID:21239219

  17. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Yanjun Zhang; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber

    2005-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,

  18. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,

  19. Effect of processing and storage on the antioxidant ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) jams.

    PubMed

    Zafrilla, P; Ferreres, F; Tomás-Barberán, F A

    2001-08-01

    From red raspberries, ellagic acid, its 4-arabinoside, its 4' (4' '-acetyl) arabinoside, and its 4' (4' '-acetyl)xyloside, as well as quercetin and kaempferol 3-glucosides, were identified. In addition, two unidentified ellagic acid derivatives were detected. The free radical scavenging activity of the ellagic acid derivatives was evaluated by using the DPPH method and compared to that of Trolox. All of the isolated compounds showed antioxidant activity. The effect of processing to obtain jams on raspberry phenolics was evaluated. The flavonol content decreased slightly with processing and more markedly during storage of the jams. The ellagic acid derivatives, with the exception of ellagic acid itself, remained quite stable with processing and during 6 months of jam storage. The content of free ellagic acid increased 3-fold during the storage period. The initial content (10 mg/kg of fresh weight of raspberries) increased 2-fold with processing, and it continued increasing up to 35 mg/kg after 1 month of storage of the jam. Then a slight decrease was observed until 6 months of storage had elapsed. The increase observed in ellagic acid could be explained by a release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins with the thermal treatment. PMID:11513642

  20. Efficacy of ellagic acid and sildenafil in diabetes-induced sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Vishwanath, Manikanta; Gangadarappa, Suma Kallahalli; Razdan, Rema; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes induced sexual dysfunction is a leading cause of male sexual disorder and an early indicator of cardiovascular complication. Reactive oxygen species generated in body during diabetes is a main causative factor for erectile dysfunction, a sexual dysfunction. Adjuvant antioxidant therapy along with phosphodiesterases type 5 enzyme inhibitor (PDE5i) is more effective than PDE5i alone. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate efficacy of ellagic acid a known antioxidant and sildenafil in diabetes induced erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced in male rats and rats were treated with ellagic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of ellagic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and sildenafil (5 mg/kg, p.o.), a PDE5i for 28 days. Sexual function was observed in diabetic rat and compared with those of treatment group and normal rats. Effect of ellagic acid was studied on advanced glycation end products (AGE) and isolated rat corpus cavernosum in vitro. Results: Sexual function of diabetic rats was found to be reduced and ellegic acid treatment could preserve sexual function of diabetic rats to some extent. Ellagic acid + sildenafil treatment was more efficient in management of diabetes induced sexual dysfunction. Ellagic acid inhibited (AGE) in vitro implying its role in reducing oxidative stress in diabetes. The polyphenol could not increase sexual function in normal rats and relax isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle significantly. Conclusion: The study proves usefulness of adjuvant antioxidant therapy in the management of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:25298678

  1. Effect of ellagic acid on gastric damage induced in ischemic rat stomachs following ammonia or reperfusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taeko Iino; Kimihito Tashima; Masakazu Umeda; Yoshihiro Ogawa; Masanori Takeeda; Kanji Takata; Koji Takeuchi

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effect of ellagic acid (EA), one of the polyphenols that are abundantly contained in whisky as a nonalcoholic component, on gastric lesions induced by ammonia plus ischemia or ischemia\\/reperfusion in rats, in relation to the antioxidative system. Under urethane anesthesia, a rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, and the following two experiments were performed;

  2. Biological Significance of Urolithins, the Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derived Metabolites: The Evidence So Far

    PubMed Central

    Espín, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits attributed to pomegranate have been associated with its high content in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins. This is also the case for other ellagitannin-containing fruits and nuts including strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, walnuts, and muscadine grapes. The bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid is however very low. These molecules suffer extensive metabolism by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that are much better absorbed. Urolithins circulate in plasma as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates at concentrations in the range of 0.2–20??M. It is therefore conceivable that the health effects of ellagitannin-containing products can be associated with these gut-produced urolithins, and thus the evaluation of the biological effects of these metabolites is essential. Recent research, mostly based on in vitro testing, has shown preliminary evidence of the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiglycative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of urolithins, supporting their potential contribution to the health effects attributed to pomegranate and ellagitannin-rich foods. The number of in vivo studies is still limited, but they show preventive effects of urolithins on gut and systemic inflammation that encourage further research. Both in vivo and mechanistic studies are necessary to clarify the health effects of these metabolites. Attention should be paid when designing these mechanistic studies in order to use the physiologically relevant metabolites (urolithins in gut models and their conjugated derivatives in systemic models) at concentrations that can be reached in vivo. PMID:23781257

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anticoagulatory activities of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-chun Chao; Cheng-chin Hsu; Mei-chin Yin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeic acid (CA) and ellagic acid (EA) are phenolic acids naturally occurring in many plant foods. Cardiac protective effects of these compounds against dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice were examined. METHODS: Diabetic mice were divided into three groups (15 mice per group): diabetic mice with normal diet, 2% CA treatment, or 2% EA treatment. One

  4. Ellagic acid and ellagitannins affect on sedimentation in muscadine juice and wine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Hee; Talcott, Stephen T

    2002-07-01

    A mechanism for the formation of water-insoluble sediments in wines and juices made from red and white muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) was investigated as a function of processing methodology and storage. Sediments are considered quality defects in muscadine grape products, and their presence may influence consumer acceptability and expansion of retail markets. Processing regimes included both hot (70 degrees C) and cold (25 degrees C) press techniques for wine or juice production, and fermentations in contact with grape skins for 3, 5, and 7 days. Relationships between free ellagic acid (FE), total ellagitannins (ET), and total ellagic acid (TE) concentrations were evaluated initially in each product and in sediments that formed during storage for 50 and 120 days at 20 degrees C. Processing techniques influenced initial concentrations of these compounds and the extent of sediment formation. Following storage, juices generally had higher concentrations of FE in sediments compared to wines, but sedimentation was independent of initial FE or TE concentrations. Decreases in ET were observed for hot-pressed juice and skin-fermented wines after storage indicating their hydrolysis during storage and possible contribution to FE in sediments. However, quantitative analysis of the collected sediments revealed that no more than 12% FE by weight was actually present in the sediments, with the remainder consisting of either unidentified compounds or conjugated forms of ellagic acid. This work elucidated a potential mechanism for the presence of FE in muscadine wine and juice sediments through ellagitannin hydrolysis and suggests that sedimentation from mechanisms other than ellagic acid precipitation may also contribute to wine and juice quality. PMID:12083868

  5. Ellagic acid toxicity and interaction with benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Teel; Merrill S. Babcock; Rakesh Dixit; Gary D. Stoner

    1986-01-01

    Ellagic acid, a plant phenol present in various foods consumed by humans, has been reported to have both anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic potential. To evaluate the potential anti-carcinogenic property of ellagic acid, we tested its effects on the toxicity of ben-zo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, 7,8-dihydrodiol and binding of benzo[a]yrene to DNA in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells. The toxicity of ellagic acid

  6. Antiviral activity and possible mode of action of ellagic acid identified in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves toward human rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cause billions of USD annually in medical visits and school and work absenteeism. An assessment was made of the cytotoxic and antiviral activities and possible mode of action of the tannin ellagic acid from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa toward HeLa cells and three rhinoviruses, HRV-2, -3, and -4. Methods The antiviral property and mechanism of action of ellagic acid were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with SYBR Green dye. Results were compared with those of the currently used broad-spectrum antiviral agent, ribavirin. Results As judged by 50% inhibitory concentration values, natural ellagic acid was 1.8, 2.3, and 2.2 times more toxic toward HRV-2 (38 ?g/mL), HRV-3 (31 ?g/mL), and HRV-4 (29 ?g/mL) than ribavirin, respectively. The inhibition rate of preincubation with 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid was 17%, whereas continuous presence of ellagic acid during infection led to a significant increase in the inhibition (70%). Treatment with 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid considerably suppressed HRV-4 infection only when added just after the virus inoculation (0 h) (87% inhibition), but not before -1 h or after 1 h or later (<20% inhibition). These findings suggest that ellagic acid does not interact with the HRV-4 particles and may directly interact with the human cells in the early stage of HRV infections to protect the cells from the virus destruction. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid strongly inhibited the RNA replication of HRV-4 in HeLa cells, suggesting that ellagic acid inhibits virus replication by targeting on cellular molecules, rather than virus molecules. Conclusions Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on L. speciosa leaf-derived materials containing ellagic acid as potential anti-HRV products or a lead molecule for the prevention or treatment of HRV infection. PMID:24885569

  7. Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of stabilized ellagic acid-phospholipid complex with improved dissolution and permeability.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Patel, Vijay G

    2015-07-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a plant polyphenol known for its wide-range of health benefits has limited use due to its low oral bioavailability. In this study, a new self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS), based on the phospholipid complex technique, was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid-phospholipid complex was prepared by an anti-solvent method and characterized. Enhanced lipophilicity after the formation of ellagic acid-phospholipid complex was verified through solubility studies. Preliminary screening was carried out to select oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. Formulations were optimized on the basis of globule size, cloud point and robustness to dilution. The optimized SNEDDS of ellagic acid-phospholipid complex showed mean globule size of 106 ± 0.198 nm and cloud point at 83-85 °C. The in vitro drug release from SNEDDS was found to be higher compared to EA suspension and complex, while ex vivo studies showed increased permeation from SNEDDS compared to EA suspension. Moreover, SNEDDS overcome the food effect which was shown by EA suspension. Thus, SNEDDS were found to be influential in improving the release performance of EA, indicating their potential to improve the oral bioavailability of EA. PMID:26106276

  8. Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of stabilized ellagic acid–phospholipid complex with improved dissolution and permeability

    PubMed Central

    Avachat, Amelia M.; Patel, Vijay G.

    2014-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a plant polyphenol known for its wide-range of health benefits has limited use due to its low oral bioavailability. In this study, a new self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS), based on the phospholipid complex technique, was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid–phospholipid complex was prepared by an anti-solvent method and characterized. Enhanced lipophilicity after the formation of ellagic acid–phospholipid complex was verified through solubility studies. Preliminary screening was carried out to select oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. Formulations were optimized on the basis of globule size, cloud point and robustness to dilution. The optimized SNEDDS of ellagic acid–phospholipid complex showed mean globule size of 106 ± 0.198 nm and cloud point at 83–85 °C. The in vitro drug release from SNEDDS was found to be higher compared to EA suspension and complex, while ex vivo studies showed increased permeation from SNEDDS compared to EA suspension. Moreover, SNEDDS overcome the food effect which was shown by EA suspension. Thus, SNEDDS were found to be influential in improving the release performance of EA, indicating their potential to improve the oral bioavailability of EA.

  9. Determination of nucleic acid by its enhancement effect on the fluorescence of Ellagic acid – Cationic surfactant system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Wang; Wei Huang; Yanwei Wang; Bo Tang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, nucleic acid can greatly enhance the fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) in the presence of cetylpyridine bromide (CPB). Experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of nucleic acid in the range of 5.0×10?9–3.5×10?5gmL?1 for hsDNA, 5.0×10?9–3.5×10?5gmL?1 for ctDNA and 5.0×10?9–3.5×10?5gmL?1 for yRNA. Their detection limits (S\\/N=3) are

  10. Luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid are natural products that inhibit prostate cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Wenfang; Lin, Muqing; Garcia, Monika; Mulholland, David; Lilly, Michael; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second cause of cancer deaths in men in the USA. When the cancer recurs, early stages can be controlled with hormone ablation therapy to delay the rate of cancer progression but, over time, the cancer overcomes its hormone dependence, becomes highly aggressive and metastasizes. Clinical trials have shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) inhibits PCa progression. We have previously shown that the PJ components luteolin (L), ellagic acid (E) and punicic acid (P) together inhibit growth of hormone-dependent and -independent PCa cells and inhibit their migration and chemotaxis towards CXCL12, a chemokine that is important in PCa metastasis. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that L+E+P inhibit PCa metastasis in vivo. To test this possibility, we used a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model in which luciferase-expressing human PCa cells were injected subcutaneously near the prostate. Tumor progression was monitored with bioluminescence imaging weekly. We found that L+E+P inhibits PC-3M-luc primary tumor growth, inhibits the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis for metastasis and none of the tumors metastasized. In addition, L+E+P significantly inhibits growth and metastasis of highly invasive Pten (-/-) ;K-ras (G12D) prostate tumors. Furthermore, L+E+P inhibits angiogenesis in vivo, prevents human endothelial cell (EC) tube formation in culture and disrupts preformed EC tubes, indicating inhibition of EC adhesion to each other. L+E+P also inhibits the angiogenic factors interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor as well as their induced signaling pathways in ECs. In conclusion, these results show that L+E+P inhibits PCa progression and metastasis. PMID:25023990

  11. Ellagic Acid, the Active Compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, Exerts In Vivo Anti-Angiogenic Effect and Inhibits MMP-2 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Teng; Wang, Chen-Yu; Yang, Rong-Chi; Wu, Hsiao-Ting; Yang, Su-Hui; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential anti-angiogenic mechanism of Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) and characterize the major compound in P. urinaria that exerts anti-angiogenic effect. The water extract of P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in chicken embryo and human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). The matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was determined by gelatin zymography. The mRNA expressions of MMP-2, MMP-14 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Level of MMP-2 proteins in conditioned medium or cytosol was determined by western blot analysis. We confirmed that P. urinaria's in vivo anti-angiogenic effect was associated with a reduction in MMP-2 activity. Ellagic acid, one of the major polyphenolic components as identified in P. urinaria by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), exhibited the same anti-angiogenic effect in vivo. Both P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid inhibited MMP-2 activity in HUVECs with unchanged mRNA level. The mRNA expression levels of MMP-14 and TIMP-2 were not altered either. Results from comparing the change of MMP-2 protein levels in conditioned medium and cytosol of HUVECs after the P. urinaria or Ellagic Acid treatment revealed an inhibitory effect on the secretion of MMP-2 protein. This study concluded that Ellagic Acid is the active compound in P. urinaria to exhibit anti-angiogenic activity and to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 protein from HUVECs. PMID:20007260

  12. Ellagic acid improved arrhythmias induced by CaCL2 in the rat stress model

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Mahin; Amini, Negin; Badavi, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In ventricular arrhythmias, due to their free radical scavenging action, antioxidant agents are usually used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Since stress is considered as risk factor for increased mortality by causing malignant arrhythmias, the study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of ellagic acid (EA) on CaCl2-induced arrhythmias in rat stress model. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into four groups: Group I: Control rats (2 ml of saline by gavage), Group II: Rats treated with EA (15 mg/kg, gavage), Group III: stress group, Group IV: received EA plus stress. Stress was applied in a restrainer box (6 hour/day, 21 days). After induction of anesthesia, lead II electrocardiogram was recorded for calculating heart rate and QRS complex. The arrhythmia was produced by injection of CaCl2 solution (140 mg/kg, iv) and incidences of Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular premature beats and Ventricular tachycardia were recorded. Results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and Fisher`s exact test. p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Results: The results showed a positive inotropic effect and negative chronotropic effect for the EA group in comparison with the control group. Incidence rates (%) of premature beats, ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in stress group and all the arrhythmia parameters decreased in groups which received EA. Conclusions: By decreasing the incidence rates of premature beats, fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in groups which received EA, ellagic acid probably acted as an anti-arrhythmic agent which showed to have aprotective functionin heart. PMID:25949953

  13. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GALLIC ACID, ELLAGIC ACID AND ASCORBIC ACID IN EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND IN UNANI POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED HPLC METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mhaveer Singh; Y. T. Kamal; E. T. Tamboli; Rabea Parveen; Khalid M. Siddiqui; S. M. A. Zaidi; Sayeed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A simple rapid and economic simultaneous HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantification of Gallic acid (GA), Ellagic acid (EA) and Ascorbic acid (AA), in Emblica officinalis Linn. (aamla) and in two poly herbal Unani formulations, containing aamla as an ingredient. Separation of was achieved on a reverse phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with mobile phase 0.1% orthophosphoric

  14. Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Choi, Moo-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2014-07-01

    The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, astragalin 6?-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 ?M), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6?-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 ?M) and isoquercitrin 6?-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 ?M), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, and astragalin 6?-gallate as active principles. PMID:24293032

  15. Implication of Glutathione in the In Vitro Antiplasmodial Mechanism of Action of Ellagic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Njomnang Soh, Patrice; Witkowski, Benoit; Gales, Amandine; Huyghe, Eric; Berry, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The search for new antimalarial chemotherapy has become increasingly urgent due to parasite resistance to current drugs. Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol, recently found in various plant products, that has effective antimalarial activity in vitro and in vivo without toxicity. To further understand the antimalarial mechanism of action of EA in vitro, we evaluated the effects of EA, ascorbic acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), alone and/or in combination on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the trophozoite and schizonte stages of the erythrocytic cycle of P. falciparum. The parasitized erythrocytes were pre-labelled with DCFDA (dichlorofluorescein diacetate). We showed that NAC had no effect on ROS production, contrary to ascorbic acid and EA, which considerably reduced ROS production. Surprisingly, EA reduced the production of the ROS with concentrations (6.6×10?9 ? 6.6×10?6 M) ten-fold lower than ascorbic acid (113×10?6 M). Additionally, the in vitro drug sensitivity of EA with antioxidants showed that antiplasmodial activity is independent of the ROS production inside parasites, which was confirmed by the additive activity of EA and desferrioxamine. Finally, EA could act by reducing the glutathione content inside the Plasmodium parasite. This was consolidated by the decrease in the antiplasmodial efficacy of EA in the murine model Plasmodium yoelii- high GSH strain, known for its high glutathione content. Given its low toxicity and now known mechanism of action, EA appears as a promising antiplasmodial compound. PMID:23029306

  16. Optimization of ellagic acid production from ellagitannins by co-culture and correlation between its yield and activities of relevant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Niu, Hai; Li, Zhenshan; He, Yang; Gong, Weihong; Gong, Guohua

    2008-03-01

    Aspergillus oryzae was co-cultured with Trichoderma reesei using acorn cups extract containing up to 62% ellagitannins as substrate to produce ellagic acid with relatively high levels of ellagitannin acyl hydrolase, cellulase and xylanase. Ellagitannins concentration, initial pH, T. reesei and A. oryzae during the fermentation were identified as important process parameters effecting ellagic acid accumulation and the enzymes syntheses. These parameters were optimized by uniformity design to determine the optimum condition for ellagic acid production. Under optimum operational condition, ellagic acid yield could be arrived at 24%, when the fermentation run lasted 96h with an initial pH of 4.5, an ellagitannins concentration of 4gl(-1), T. reesei of 3ml and A. oryzae of 3ml. Meanwhile, it was found that the three enzymes activities correlated very well with ellagic acid yield, resulting in model with high coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.98). The results indicate that the mixed culture of T. reesei and A. oryzae is an effective approach to produce an enzyme system of degrading ellagitannins for ellagic acid production. PMID:17363241

  17. Effects of Ellagic Acid on Copper, Zinc, and Biochemical Values in Serum and Liver of Experimental Cholestatic Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metehan Gümü?; Hatice Yüksel; Osman Evliyao?lu; Murat Kapan; Abdullah Böyük; Ak?n Önder; Mustafa Aldemir

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural polyphenolic compound. Although, modulator effects of EA on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels\\u000a in some liver diseases have been reported in experimental animals, its effects in obstructive jaundice (OJ) has not been clarified.\\u000a We aimed to evaluate potential effects of EA on Cu and Zn levels in liver and serum of cholestatic rats.

  18. Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Enzymes of Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Harini S.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17? estradiol (E2) -induced mammary tumors by altering estrogen metabolism, we randomized ACI rats (n=6/group) into 5 groups ? sham implant + control diet (SH-CD), E2 ? implant + control diet (E2-CD), E2+2.5% black raspberry (E2-BRB); E2+2.5% blueberry (E2-BB) and E2+ 400ppm ellagic acid (E2-EA). Animals were euthanized at early (6wk), intermediate (18wk) and late (24wk) phases of E2-carcinogenesis and the mammary tissue analyzed for gene-expression changes using quantitative real-time PCR. At 6 weeks, E2-treatment caused 48-fold increase in cytochrome P4501A1(CYP1A1) (p<0.0001), which was attenuated by both BRB and BB diets to 12- and 21-fold, respectively (p<0.001). E2 did not alter CYP1B1 levels, but both berry and EA diets significantly suppressed it by 11- and 3.5-fold, respectively from baseline (p<0.05). There was a 5-fold increase in 17?-Hydroxysteroid dehyrdogenase(17?HSD7) and this was moderately abrogated to about 2-fold by all supplementation (p<0.05). At 18 weeks, CYP1A1 was elevated by 15-fold in E2-CD and only E2-BB reduced this increase to 7-fold (p<0.05). Catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) expression was elevated 2-fold by E2-treatment (p<0.05) and all supplementation reversed this. At 24 weeks, CYP1A1 expression was less pronounced, but still high (8-fold) in E2-treated rats. This increase was reduced to 3.2 and 4.6-fold, by E2-BRB and E2-EA, respectively (p<0.05), but not by E2-BB. Supplementation did not alter the effect of E2 on steroid receptors. The diets also significantly suppressed mammary tumor incidence (10–30%), volume (41–67%) and multiplicity (38 to 51%) (p<0.05). Berries may prevent mammary tumors by suppressing the levels of E2-metabolizing enzymes during the early phase of E2-carcinogenesis. PMID:20501861

  19. The Modulatory Effect of Ellagic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid on Ultraviolet-B-Induced Cytokine/Chemokine Gene Expression in Skin Keratinocyte (HaCaT) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Serena; Balato, Anna; Di Caprio, Roberta; Cirillo, Teresa; Giannini, Valentina; Gasparri, Franco; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) induces an increase in multiple cutaneous inflammatory mediators. Ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) are natural anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds found in many plants, fruits, and nuts. We assessed the ability of EA and RA to modulate IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, and TNF-? gene expression in HaCaT cells after UVB irradiation. Cells were treated with UVB (100?mJ/cm2) and simultaneously with EA (5??M in 0.1% DMSO) or RA (2.7??M in 0.5% DMSO). Moreover, these substances were added to the UVB-irradiated cells 1?h or 6?h before harvesting, depending on the established UVB-induced cytokine expression peak. Cytokine gene expression was examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. RA produced a significant reduction in UVB-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-? when applied at the same time as irradiation. EA showed milder effects compared with RA, except for TNF-?. Both substances decreased IL-6 expression, also when applied 5?h after irradiation, and always produced a significant increase in UVB-induced IL-10 expression. Our findings suggest that EA and RA are able to prevent and/or limit the UVB-induced inflammatory cascade, through a reduction in proinflammatory mediators and the enhancement of IL-10, with its protective function. PMID:25162011

  20. Sildenafil enhances the peripheral antinociceptive effect of ellagic acid in the rat formalin test

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Ellagic acid (EA), a major polyphenolic compound of pomegranate juice, produces antinociceptive effects, which are mediated through opioidergic and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathways. The present study was conducted to elucidate the peripheral antinociceptive effect of EA alone and in combination with sildenafil in the rat formalin test. Materials and Methods: Pain was produced by intraplantar injection of formalin (2.5%) in rats and nociceptive behavior was measured as the number of flinches every 5 min in 60 min after injection. Results: Local administration of EA and sildenafil dose-dependently increased the nociception threshold in both phases of the test. Moreover, sub-effective doses of sildenafil (25 or 50 mcg/paw, i.p.) significantly and dose-dependently enhanced the antinociception induced by a sub-effective dose of EA (60 mcg/paw, i.pl.) in both phases of the test. The antinociception produced by these drugs alone, or in combination, was due to a peripheral site of action, since the administration in the contralateral paw was ineffective. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EA has local peripheral antinociceptive activity, and enhancement of this effect with sildenafil probably occurs through the inhibition of cGMP metabolism. PMID:25097278

  1. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Hussaini, Jamal; Khor, Goot Heah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300?g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45?mg/kg (b.w.) of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ), to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV). The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50?mg/kg) orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E) was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction. PMID:25485304

  2. Topical anti-inflammatory potential of standardized pomegranate rind extract and ellagic acid in contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jiao; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Kaewnopparat, Nattha; Songkro, Sarunyoo; Reanmongkol, Wantana

    2014-04-01

    The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory potential of a standardized pomegranate rind extracts (SPRE) in parallel with its marker compound ellagic acid (EA, 13% w/w) against a mouse model of contact dermatitis. In the phenol-induced mouse ear edema, topical application of SPRE (5, 2.5, and 1 mg/ear) and EA (0.65, 0.325, and 0.13 mg/ear, equivalent to its content in SPRE) dose-dependently reduced the ear edema with the maximal inhibition of 79.12% and 73.63%, respectively. Triamcinolone (0.1 mg/ear) and diclofenac (1 mg/ear) as reference drugs inhibited the edema by 73.63% and 37.91%. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the mouse ear was also decreased by SPRE and EA up to 69.68% and 68.79%, respectively. Triamcinolone and diclofenac decreased the MPO activity by 76.66% and 80.14% similarly. The results indicated that topical application of SPRE and EA is promising for use in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:23873506

  3. Optimizing ultrasonic ellagic acid extraction conditions from infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Liang; Xu, Man; Wang, Yong-Mei; Wu, Dong-Mei; Chen, Jia-Hong

    2010-11-01

    The infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea is a rich source of ellagic acid (EA) which has shown antioxidant, anticancer and antimutagen properties. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic extraction of EA from infructescence of P. strobilacea. A central composite design (CCD) was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal processing parameters. The content of EA in the extracts was determined by HPLC with UV detection. Three independent variables such as ultrasonic extraction temperature (°C), liquid:solid ratio (mL/g), and ultrasonic extraction time (min) were investigated. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a quadratic equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. The 3-D response surface and the contour plots derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic extraction temperature 70 °C, liquid:solid ratio 22.5, and ultrasonic extraction time 40 min. Under these conditions, the experimental percentage value was 1.961%, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. PMID:21060299

  4. Antioxidant action of ellagic acid ameliorates paraquat-induced A549 cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Zerin, Tamanna; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-carcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of EA against paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress. PQ decreased the viability of A549 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, which was associated with the massive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, cell viability was significantly recovered by the treatment of EA, from 47.01±1.59% to 66.04±2.84%. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was also decreased with the treatment of EA in PQ-treated A549 cells. EA induced the level of expression and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and its target cytoprotective and antioxidant genes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). The antioxidant potential of EA might be directly correlated with the increased expression of HO-1 and NQO1, whose expression may have surmounted the oxidative stress generated by PQ. Notably, EA treatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers as lipid peroxidation, reduced the intracellular ROS level, and surmounted total glutathione level in A549 cells. Data indicate that the antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of EA reduce PQ-induced cytotoxicity in human alveolar A549 cells. PMID:23546295

  5. Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hsiu-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lee, Shin-Da; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Cheng; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2010-10-15

    Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20?M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-?B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:20691200

  6. Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Hsiu-Chung [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Jane [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shin-Da [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Yang [Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Tsan-Hung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Kun-Ling [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Cheng [Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng, E-mail: whhsheu@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Technology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

  7. Protective effect of ellagic acid against TCDD-induced renal oxidative stress: modulation of CYP1A1 activity and antioxidant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Kalai Selvi, Palaniswamy; Sravani, Samadi

    2014-07-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) belongs to toxicologically important class of poly halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and produce wide variety of adverse effects in humans. The present study investigated the protective effect of ellagic acid, a natural polyphenolic compound against TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity was reflected in marked changes in the histology of kidney, increase in levels of kidney markers (serum urea, serum creatinine) and lipid peroxides. A significant increase in activity of phase I enzyme CYP1A1 with concomitant decline in the activities of phase II enzymes [non-enzymic antioxidant and various enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase] was also observed. In addition, TCDD treated rats showed alterations in ATPase enzyme activities such as Na(+) K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase and Ca(2+) ATPase. Oral pre-treatment with ellagic acid prevented TCDD-induced alterations in levels of kidney markers. Ellagic acid pre-treatment significantly counteracted TCDD-induced oxidative stress by decreasing CYP1A1 activity and enhancing the antioxidant status. Furthermore, ellagic acid restored TCDD-induced histopathological changes and alterations in ATPase enzyme activities. The results of the present study show that significant protective effect rendered by ellagic acid against TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity might be attributed to its antioxidant potential. PMID:24566691

  8. High-resolution bioactivity profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR: ?-Glucosidase inhibitors and acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides from Myrcia palustris DC. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Moresco, Henrique H; Tahtah, Yousof; Brighente, Inês M C; Staerk, Dan

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an endocrine metabolic disease with a worldwide prevalence of more than 8%, and an expected increase close to 50% in the next 15-20years. T2D is associated with severe and life-threatening complications like retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular diseases, and therefore improved drug leads or functional foods containing ?-glucosidase inhibitors are needed for management of blood glucose. In this study, leaves of Myrcia palustris were investigated by high-resolution ?-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. This led to identification of casuarinin, myricetin 3-O-?-d-(6?-galloyl)galactopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranoside, myricetin, and quercetin as ?-glucosidase inhibitors. In addition, four acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides, i.e., 4-O-(2?,4?-O-diacetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(2?,3?-O-diacetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(3?,4?-O-diacetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 4-O-(2?,3?,4?-O-triacetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid were identified. PMID:25935545

  9. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Improve Response to Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Estévez-Carmona, Miriam; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hobby, Gerren; Hendrickson, Howard; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. Methodology/Principal Findings This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50–200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530–1040 µg/mL). This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:22242149

  10. Modulating effects of ellagic acid, vanillin and quercetin in a rat medium term multi-organ carcinogenesis model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Akagi; Masao Hirose; Toru Hoshiya; Yasumoto Mizoguchi; Nobuyuki Ito; Tomoyuki Shirai

    1995-01-01

    Effects of dietary supplementation with the antioxidants ellagic acid, quercetin and vanillin were examined using a medium term multi-organ carcinogenesis model in rats. Groups of 10–15 male F344 rats were given i.p. injections of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 100 mg\\/kg body wt.) and N-methylnitrosourea (MNU, 20 mg\\/kg body wt), s.c. injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg\\/kg body wt.), together with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine

  11. Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant phenols: exceptional activity of ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Wood, A W; Huang, M T; Chang, R L; Newmark, H L; Lehr, R E; Yagi, H; Sayer, J M; Jerina, D M; Conney, A H

    1982-09-01

    Ferulic, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ellagic acids, four naturally occurring plant phenols, inhibit the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of (+/-)-7beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha, 10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2), the only known ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene. The mutagenicity of 0.05 nmol of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in strain TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium is inhibited 50% by incubation of the bacteria and the diol epoxide with 150 nmol of ferulic acid, 75 nmol of caffeic acid, 50 nmol of chlorogenic acid or, most strikingly, 1 nmol of ellagic acid in the 0.5-ml incubation mixture. A 3-nmol dose of ellagic acid inhibits mutation induction by 90%. Ellagic acid is also a potent antagonist of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Mutations to 8-azaguanine resistance induced by 0.2 muM diol epoxide are reduced by 50% when tissue culture media also contains 2 muM ellagic acid. Similar to results obtained with the bacteria, ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids are approximately two orders of magnitude less active than ellagic acid in the mammalian cell assay. The antimutagenic effects of the plant phenols result from their direct interaction with B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2, because a concentration-dependent increase in the rate of diol epoxide disappearance in cell-free solutions of 1:9 dioxane/water, pH 7.0, is observed with all four phenols. In parallel with the mutagenicity studies, ellagic acid is 80-300 times more effective than the other phenols in accelerating the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2. Ellagic acid at 10 muM increases the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 by approximately 20-fold relative to the spontaneous and hydronium ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of the diol epoxide at pH 7.0. Ellagic acid is a highly potent inhibitor of the mutagenic activity of bay-region diol epoxides of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, but higher concentrations of ellagic acid are needed to inhibit the mutagenic activity of the chemically less reactive bay-region diol epoxides of benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[c]phenanthrene. These studies demonstrate that ellagic acid is a potent antagonist of the adverse biological effects of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and suggest that this naturally occurring plant phenol, normally ingested by humans, may inhibit the carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:6752950

  12. Inhibition of allergic airway inflammation through the blockage of NF-?B activation by ellagic acid in an ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ershun; Fu, Yunhe; Wei, Zhengkai; Yang, Zhengtao

    2014-09-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation and the hypersecretion of mucus by goblet cells. Ellagic acid (EA), a natural polyphenolic compound present as ellagitannins in fruits and fruit juices, has been reported to show potent anti-inflammatory properties in various diseases. We aimed to investigate the effects of EA in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma model and to explore its potential mechanism of action. Our results showed that EA resulted in a significant reduction in lung eosinophilia, increased Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and increased OVA-induced specific IgE in serum samples. Moreover, histological examination showed that EA markedly inhibited lung eosinophilic inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia. In addition, EA attenuated the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and blocked NF-?B activation. These results demonstrate that EA shows obvious anti-inflammatory effects in OVA-induced asthma in a mouse model, possibly through inhibiting NF-?B activation. Therefore it may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:24998475

  13. Identification of Ellagic acid analogues as potent inhibitor of protein Kinase CK2:A chemopreventive role in oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rashi; Akthar, Salman; Sharma, Rolee; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Over expression of Protein kinase (CK2) suppresses apoptosis induced by a variety of agents, whereas down-regulation of CK2 sensitizes cells to induction of apoptosis. In this study, we have built quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models, which were trained and tested on experimentally verified 38 enzyme?s inhibitors having inhibitory value IC50 in µM. These inhibitors were docked at the active site of CK2 (PDB id: 2ZJW) using AutoDock software, which resulted in energy-based descriptors such as binding energy, intermol energy, torsional energy, internal energy and docking energy. For QSAR modeling, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model was engendered using energy-based descriptors yielding correlation coefficient r2 of 0.4645. To assess the predictive performance of QSAR models, different cross-validation procedures were adopted. Our results suggests that ligand-receptor binding interactions for CK2 employing QSAR modeling seems to be a promising approach for prediction of IC50 value of a new ligand molecule against CK2.Further, twenty analogues of ellagic acid were docked with CK2 structure. After docking, two compounds CID 46229200 and CID 10003463 had lower docking energy even lower than standard control Ellagic acid with CK2 was selected as potent candidate drugs for Oral cancer. The biological activity of two compounds in terms of IC50 was predicted based on QSAR model, which could be used as a guideline for anticancerous activity of compounds before their synthesis. PMID:25780276

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01–0.11??g/mL and 0.03–0.36??g/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19–103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38–0.73% and 0.49–2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r2 values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

  15. Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K\\/Akt\\/eNOS pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiu-Chung Ou; Wen-Jane Lee; Shin-Da Lee; Chih-Yang Huang; Tsan-Hung Chiu; Kun-Ling Tsai; Wen-Cheng Hsu; Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase\\/Akt\\/endothelial nitric oxide synthase\\/nitric oxide (PI3K\\/Akt\\/eNOS\\/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries

  16. Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC–DAD, LC–NMR, NMR, and LC–MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Zehl; Christina Braunberger; Jürgen Conrad; Marija Crnogorac; Stanimira Krasteva; Bernhard Vogler; Uwe Beifuss; Liselotte Krenn

    2011-01-01

    Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because\\u000a of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC–DAD method\\u000a has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and

  17. Bioactivity of ellagic acid-, lutein- or sesamol-enriched meat patties assessed using an in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell model system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Daly; Eileen Ryan; S. Aisling Aherne; Michael N. O’Grady; Jenny Hayes; Paul Allen; Joseph P. Kerry; Nora M. O’Brien

    2010-01-01

    Interest exists in the manufacture of functional meat products whereby synthetic antioxidants are replaced with naturally-sourced compounds. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the bioactivity of pork and beef patties containing ellagic acid (600?g\\/g), lutein (200?g\\/g) or sesamol (500?g\\/g). Cooked pork and beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure and the resultant micelles were

  18. Exploring the potential of gastro retentive dosage form in delivery of ellagic acid and aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Arati N; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Ramesh, C

    2014-01-01

    Approach of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) overcomes the limitations of conventional dosage forms. However, this concept is still not practiced to a large extent in delivery of herbal drugs in Ayurveda. Thus, the potential of herbal drugs has not been explored to its fullest. Hence, there is a growing need to amalgamate the concept of NDDS in delivery of herbal constituents. The present investigation is designed to deliver and retain two herbal constituents in stomach for better action against Helicobacter pylori induced gastric ulcers. The objective was to develop a bilayer floating tablet of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gel powder through rational combination of excipients to give the lowest possible lag time with maximum drug release in the period of 4 h. Formulation F9 containing 100 mg of HPMC K15M, 27 mg of crospovidone, 80 mg of mannitol and effervescent agents in the ratio 1:2 gave 92% drug release and desired floating properties. In vivo studies showed that combination of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gave 75 % ulcer inhibition in comparison to 57% ulcer inhibition in the group which was administered with ellagic acid alone. This suggests the use of bilayer floating tablet in gastric ulcer treatment. PMID:24261674

  19. Ellagic acid normalizes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and attenuates inflammation-mediated cell proliferation in experimental liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Srigopalram, S; Jayraaj, I A; Kaleeswaran, B; Balamurugan, K; Ranjithkumar, M; Kumar, T Senthil; Park, J I; Nou, I S

    2014-08-01

    Despite great advances in our understanding of the molecular causes of liver cancer, significant gaps still remain in our knowledge of the disease pathogenesis and development of effective strategies for early diagnosis and treatment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemopreventive activity of ellagic acid (EA) against experimental liver cancer in rats. This is the first report that implies a possible role of EA in controlling liver cancer through activation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability via activating proteins such as Bax, bcl-2, cyt-C, and caspase-9, which play important roles in apoptosis. Downregulation of NF-?B, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were noted in EA-treated experimental rats and controlled inflammation mediated liver cancer when compared to the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced group. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the livers of experimental rats demonstrated that EA treatment renovated its internal architecture. Overall, these results demonstrate the value of molecular approaches in identifying the potential role of EA as an effective chemopreventive agent. PMID:24972653

  20. Protective effect of ellagic acid and pumpkin seed oil against methotrexate-induced small intestine damage in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Boghdady, Noha A

    2011-12-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most serious side effects in the methotrexate (MTX) treatment. This study was designed to investigate whether ellagic acid (EA) and/or pumpkin seed oil (PSO) had a protective effect on MTX-induced small intestine damage. Forty albino rats were randomized into five groups of 8 rats each. Group I served as a normal control group. In Group II, MTX was administered as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Groups III, IV and V were pre-treated respectively with either PSO (40 mg/kg), EA (10 mg/kg) or 0.2% DMSO (vehicle control) orally every day by gavage for 5 days and then they received MTX. All animals were sacrificed 5 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathological examination, estimation of serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level, assay of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and myloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (AD) activities. Administration of EA and/or PSO decreased the intestinal damage, PGE2, MDA and NO levels and MPO, XO and AD activities and increased GSH level. These results suggest that EA and PSO protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and thus have potential as a promising drug in the prevention of undesired side effects of MTX. PMID:22329239

  1. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin. PMID:23320085

  2. A Comparative Study for the Evaluation of Two Doses of Ellagic Acid on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30?mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30?mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30?mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

  3. Evolution of ellagitannin content and profile during fruit ripening in Fragaria spp.

    PubMed

    Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Guella, Graziano; Palmieri, Luisa; Martinatti, Paolo; Pojer, Elisa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2013-09-11

    Ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates are polyphenols present in the human diet, in particular strawberries (Fragaria spp.). The first aim of this study was isolation and structural characterization of casuarictin and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3'-O-?-rhamnopyranoside, which were found to be abundant in Fragaria spp., along with agrimoniin. The second aim was accurate profiling and quantification of 26 ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates in six Fragaria x ananassa cultivars and two Fragaria vesca species. The third aim was to describe the ellagitannins behavior during fruit ripening from the green stage to over-ripeness. It was shown that there are major qualitative and quantitative differences in the amount and profile of ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates between Fragaria spp. Genotype is a major factor in defining ellagitannin concentration and patterns between strawberries, and variable behavior of the genotypes was observed, in the context of a significant drop in ellagitannins during ripening. PMID:23992396

  4. Ellagic Acid, a Dietary Polyphenol, Inhibits Tautomerase Activity of Human Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Its Pro-inflammatory Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim A; Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Saha, Shubhra J; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd S; Adhikari, Susanta; Alam, Athar; Roy, Siddhartha; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2015-05-27

    Ellagic acid (EA), a phenolic lactone, inhibited tautomerase activity of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) noncompetitively (Ki = 1.97 ± 0.7 ?M). The binding of EA to MIF was determined by following the quenching of tryptophan fluorescence. We synthesized several EA derivatives, and their structure-activity relationship studies indicated that the planar conjugated lactone moiety of EA was essential for MIF inhibition. MIF induces nuclear translocation of NF-?B and chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to promote inflammation. We were interested in evaluating the effect of EA on nuclear translocation of NF-?B and chemotactic activity in human PBMCs in the presence of MIF. The results showed that EA inhibited MIF-induced NF-?B nuclear translocation in PBMCs, as evident from confocal immunofluorescence microscopic data. EA also inhibited MIF-mediated chemotaxis of PBMCs. Thus, we report MIF-inhibitory activity of EA and inhibition of MIF-mediated proinflammatory responses in PBMCs by EA. PMID:25929447

  5. Pomegranate Juice Metabolites, Ellagic Acid and Urolithin A, Synergistically Inhibit Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cell Growth via Distinct Effects on Cell Cycle Control and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Vicinanza, Roberto; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Ellagitannins (ETs) from pomegranate juice (PJ) are bioactive polyphenols with chemopreventive potential against prostate cancer (PCa). ETs are not absorbed intact but are partially hydrolyzed in the gut to ellagic acid (EA). Colonic microflora can convert EA to urolithin A (UA), and EA and UA enter the circulation after PJ consumption. Here, we studied the effects of EA and UA on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in DU-145 and PC-3 androgen-independent PCa cells and whether combinations of EA and UA affected cell proliferation. EA demonstrated greater dose-dependent antiproliferative effects in both cell lines compared to UA. EA induced cell cycle arrest in S phase associated with decreased cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 levels. UA induced a G2/M arrest and increased cyclin B1 and cdc2 phosphorylation at tyrosine-15, suggesting inactivation of the cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase complex. EA induced apoptosis in both cell lines, while UA had a less pronounced proapoptotic effect only in DU-145. Cotreatment with low concentrations of EA and UA dramatically decreased cell proliferation, exhibiting synergism in PC-3 cells evaluated by isobolographic analysis and combination index. These data provide information on pomegranate metabolites for the prevention of PCa recurrence, supporting the role of gut flora-derived metabolites for cancer prevention. PMID:23710216

  6. Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zehl, Martin; Braunberger, Christina; Conrad, Jürgen; Crnogorac, Marija; Krasteva, Stanimira; Vogler, Bernhard; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2011-06-01

    Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC-DAD method has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and D. rotundifolia). During elaboration of the method 13 compounds, including three substances not previously described for Drosera species, were detected and unambiguously identified by means of extensive LC-MS and LC-NMR experiments and by off-line heteronuclear 2D NMR after targeted isolation. The most prominent component of D. rotundifolia and D. anglica, 2?-O-galloylhyperoside, with myricetin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(2?-O-galloyl)-?-galactopyranoside, were identified for the very first time in this genus. The LC-DAD method for quantification was thoroughly validated, and enables, for the first time, separation and precise analysis of these analytes in Droserae herba. Simple sample preparation and use of a narrow-bore column guarantee low cost and simplicity of the suggested system, which is excellently suited to quality control of the drug or herbal medicinal products containing this drug. PMID:21298259

  7. In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of urolithin A, the colonic metabolite of ellagic acid, on hepatocellular carcinomas HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Qiu, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Benhong; Liu, Cong; Ruan, Jinlan; Yan, Qiujin; Liao, Jianming; Zhu, Fan

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal metabolites of ellagic acid (EA), urolithins are known to effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation. This study investigates antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of urolithin A (UA) on cell survival of the HepG2 hepatic carcinomas cell line. The antiproliferative effects of UA (0-500?M) on HepG2 cells were determined using a CCK assay following 12-36h exposure. Effects on ?-catenin and other factors of expression were assessed by using real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that UA showed potent antiproliferative activity on HepG2 cells. When cell death was induced by UA, it was found that the expression of ?-catenin, c-Myc and Cyclin D1 were decreased and TCF/LEF transcriptional activation was notably down-regulated. UA also increased protein expression of p53, p38-MAPK and caspase-3, but suppressed expression of NF-?B p65 and other inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, the antioxidant assay afforded by UA and EA treatments was associated with decreases in intracellular ROS levels, and increases in intracellular SOD and GSH-Px activity. These results suggested that UA could inhibit cell proliferation and reduce oxidative stress status in liver cancer, thus acting as a viably effective constituent for HCC prevention and treatment. PMID:25910917

  8. A study of the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of ellagic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Rezaie, Anahita; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ellagic acid (EA) has shown antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzymes and also cytokines play a key role in many inflammatory conditions. This study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of EA. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model was used for induction of inflammation. Results: The results showed that intraplantar injection of carrageenan led to time-dependent development of peripheral inflammation, which resulted in a significant increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) ?, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and also iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed paw. However, systemic administration of EA (1–30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws with ED50 value 8.41 (5.26–14.76) mg/kg. It decreased the serum concentration of NO, PGE2, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and suppress the protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 enzymes, and attenuated the formation of PGE2, TNF-? and IL-1 ? in inflamed paw tissue. We also demonstrated that EA significantly decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in liver at 5 h after carrageenan injection. Moreover, histopathological studies indicated that EA significantly diminished migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into site of inflammation, as did indomethacin. Conclusions: Collectively, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EA might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA, iNOS, and COX-2 in the edema paw via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF?, IL1 ?), NO and PGE2 overproduction.

  9. Ellagic acid induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through TGF-?/Smad3 signaling pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Sheng; Bai, Ming-Han; Zhang, Tao; Li, Guo-Dong; Liu, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide and preventive therapy could reverse or delay the devastating impact of this disease. Ellagic acid (EA), a dietary flavonoid polyphenol which is present in abundance in pomegranate, muscadine grapes, walnuts and strawberries, has been shown to inhibit cancer cells proliferation and induce apoptosis. Here, we investigated the growth inhibitory effects of EA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the present study, we first found that EA inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells mainly mediated by arresting cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, gene expression profiling of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line treated with EA for 6, 12 and 24 h was performed using cDNA microarray. A total of 4,738 genes were found with a >2.0-fold change after 24 h of EA treatment. Among these genes, 2,547 were downregulated and 2,191 were upregulated. Furthermore, the changes of 16 genes, which belong to TGF-?/Smads signaling pathway, were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and/or western blot analysis. TGF-?/Smads signaling pathway was found as the potential molecular mechanism of EA to regulate breast cancer cell cycle arrest in vitro. Therefore, the regulation of TGF-?/Smads pathway in breast cancer cells could be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Further studies with in vitro models, as well as an analysis of additional human samples, are still needed to confirm the molecular mechanisms of EA in inhibition or prevention of breast cancer growth. PMID:25647396

  10. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection mass spectrometry of phenolic compounds in fruit of Eucalyptus globulus cultivated in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Chibane, Mohamed; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Slimani, Sakina; Henry, Max; Cheynier, Veronique; Madani, Khodir

    2010-12-22

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) following fractionation by chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 column has been developed to determine the phenolic composition of fruit of Eucalyptus globulus growing in Algeria. The presence of 18 gallotannins, 26 ellagitannins, and 2 flavonols was established. Tentative identification is provided for these compounds on the basis of UV-visible spectra and mass spectrometry data. Most compounds described in this study have not previously detected in fruit of E. globulus. Moreover, this is the first report of methyl digalloyl diglucose, 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid 4-O-?-glucopyranoside, ellagic acid hexose, methyl ellagic acid pentose, methyltetragalloylglucose, and valoneic acid isomers (sanguisorbic, flavogallic acid dilactone) in the genus Eucalyptus. Quantitatively, ellagic acid and its derivatives, including ellagitannins, are largely predominant. PMID:21121679

  11. Ascorbic acid in exotic fruits: a liquid chromatographic investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Ruggieri

    1995-01-01

    The levels of ascorbic acid (AA) have been measured by means of an HPLC method in 11 different exotic fruits (avocado pear, babaco, feijoa, grapefruit, kiwi, kumquat, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit, pineapple) and, for comparative purposes, in two citrus fruits (lemon and orange). They were measured in the exotic fruits at two different stages of ripening: (i) immediately after

  12. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

    2000-01-01

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

  13. Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

    2009-01-01

    Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

  14. Ascorbic acid contents of Pakistani fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Perwaiz; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Mehboobali, Naseema

    2006-10-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamin C which is known for its antioxidant and immune-enhancing effects. The objective of this study was to determine ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents of regularly consumed fruits and vegetables available in Pakistani markets. Most commonly used fresh fruits and vegetables were homogenized in 5% trichloroacetic acid, and ascorbic acid contents in the extracts were determined using a spectrophotometric method. Banana, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya were found to be very rich in ascorbic acid. Among vegetables, capsicum (green sweet pepper), cauliflower, bittergourd, roundgourd, beetroot, spinach, cabbage and radish contained high concentrations of ascorbic acid. Chikoo, grapes, pear, apricot, peach, carrot, cucumber, lettuce and "kakri" were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. Several Pakistani fruits and vegetables (pear, melon, onion, sweet green pepper, spinach, cucumber) had ascorbic acid values similar to those reported by US Department of Agriculture in these fruits and vegetables in USA. However, wide differences in vitamin C contents were also observed in certain other fruits and vegetables from these two countries. This indicates that regional varieties of fruits and vegetables could vary in their ascorbic acid contents. Since subclinical deficiency of vitamin C appears to be quite common in developing countries like Pakistan, there is a need to develop awareness among masses to consume fresh fruits and vegetables with high contents of vitamin C. PMID:17105704

  15. What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells.

    PubMed

    Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C

    2013-04-01

    Fleshy fruit acidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell. PMID:23408829

  16. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

  17. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits.

    PubMed

    Oszmia?ski, Jan; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Miros?awa; Wojdy?o, Aneta; Cebulak, Tomasz; Oklejewicz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones). In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%), flavonols (max. 44%) and anthocyanins (max. 29%), than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE) method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:26132562

  18. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

  19. Antifungal garcinia acid esters from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Mackeen, Mukram M; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2002-01-01

    Two new garcinia acid derivatives, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide and 1',1"-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate, were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis guided by TLC bioautography against the fungus Cladosporium herbarum. The structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. The former compound represents a unique beta-lactone structure and the latter compound is most likely an artefact of garcinia acid (= hydroxycitric acid). Both compounds showed selective antifungal activity comparable to that of cycloheximide (MID: 0.5 microg/spot) only against C herbarum at the MIDs of 0.4 and 0.8 microg/spot but were inactive against bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli), other fungi (Alternaria sp., Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus ochraceous) including the yeast Candida albicans. PMID:12064729

  20. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2014-01-01

    Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

  1. Changes in amino acid composition and nitrogen metabolizing enzymes in ripening fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana B. Boggio; Javier F. Palatnik; Hans W. Heldt; Estela M. Valle

    2000-01-01

    The free amino acid content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits from cultivars Platense, Vollendung and Cherry were determined during ripening. It was found that glutamate markedly increased in red fruits of the three cultivars under study. At this stage, the cv Cherry had the highest relative glutamate molar content (52%) of all the analyzed tomato fruit cultivars. Measurements of

  2. A novel phenolic acid from the fruits of Rosa soulieana.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjun; Yang, Chunyan; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Fu

    2014-01-01

    From the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the fruits of Rosa soulieana, one new phenolic glucoside (1) was isolated along with five known compounds, comprising two lignin glycosides, two flavonoid glycosides and a phenolic glycoside. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including ESI-MS, UV, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR (HSQC and HMBC). All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by using ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assay. Among these compounds, 1, 3 and 6 exhibited strong scavenging activity in ABTS(·+)(SC50 = 102.10, 193.85, 65.38 ?mol/L, respectively) compared with the positive control l-ascorbic acid (Vc) (SC50 = 117.16 ?mol/L). PMID:24831176

  3. Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of both the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which along with other phenylpropanoids are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid...

  4. INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF CHLORINE WITH MALIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, AND VARIOUS FRUIT JUICES, A SOURCE OF MUTAGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...

  5. Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supachai Samappito; Luchai Butkhup

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from ten fruits were examined for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits included: mao luang (Antidesma bunius Linn.), mao khipla (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.), mulberry (Morus alba Linn.), wild grape (Tetrastigma quadrangulatum), red grape (Vitis vinifera), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilus), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cherry (Prunus avium), and black currant (Ribes nigrum).

  6. Ascorbic Acid Content in Relation to Ascorbic Acid Oxidase Activity and Polyamine Content in Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruits During Development, Maturation and Senescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elhadi M. Yahia; Margarita Contreras-Padilla; Gustavo Gonzalez-Aguilar

    2001-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv. XPH-1251) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, cv. New ace) plants were grown in a greenhouse in controlled hydroponic conditions, and fruits were harvested at different intervals from 18 to 94 days from fruit set. Total ascorbic acid was higher in bell pepper than in tomato fruit. In pepper fruit, the level increased rapidly during its

  7. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  8. Detection of exogenous citric acid in fruit juices by stable isotope ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca; Lees, Michèle

    2005-06-29

    A new method has been developed for measuring the D/H ratio of the nonexchangeable sites of citric acid by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Pure citric acid is transformed into its calcium salt and subsequently analyzed by pyrolysis-IRMS. The citric acid isolated from authentic fruit juices (citrus, pineapple, and red fruits) systematically shows higher D/H values than its nonfruit counterpart produced by fermentation of various sugar sources. The discrimination obtained with this simplified method is similar to that obtained previously by applying site specific isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) to an ester derivative of citric acid. The combination of carbon 13 and deuterium measurements of extracted citric acid is proposed as a routine method for an optimum detection of exogenous citric acid in all kinds of fruit juices. PMID:15969486

  9. Response of jujube fruits to exogenous oxalic acid treatment based on proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lai, Tongfei; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we found that oxalic acid (OA) at the concentration of 5 mM could delay jujube fruit sene-scence by reducing ethylene production, repressing fruit reddening and reducing alcohol content, which consequently increased fruit resistance against blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum. In order to gain a further understanding of the mechanism by which OA delays senescence and increases disease resistance of jujube fruit, we used a proteomics approach to compare soluble proteome of jujube fruits treated with water or 5 mM OA for 10 min. A total of 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified by using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Among these proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase 1, which plays a direct role in ethanol metabolism, was repressed, and the abundances of three photosynthesis-related proteins was enhanced in jujube fruit after OA treatment. The protein identified as a cystathionine beta-synthase domain-containing protein, which can regulate ethylene precursors, was also induced by OA treatment. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase was significantly suppressed in OA-treated jujube fruit. In addition, three proteins related to the defense/stress response were up-regulated by OA, and contributed to the establishment of systemic resistance induced by OA in jujube fruits. These results indicated that OA treatment might affect ethanol and ethylene metabolism, resulting in delaying senescence, and increase resistance of jujube fruits against fungal pathogens. PMID:19068492

  10. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    PubMed

    Nawirska-Olsza?ska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species. PMID:24262577

  11. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY); Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  12. Utilisation of fruits waste for citric acid production by solid state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

    2003-01-01

    A solid state fermentation method was used to utilise pineapple, mixed fruit and maosmi waste as substrates for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger DS 1. Experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of methanol at different moisture levels. In the absence of methanol the maximum citric acid was obtained at 60% moisture level whereas in the presence

  13. Organic acids, antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and lipid characterisation of Georgia-grown underutilized fruit crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garima Pande; Casimir C. Akoh

    2010-01-01

    Four underutilized Georgia-grown fruit crops, namely loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), mayhaw (Crataegus sp.), fig (Ficus carica), and pawpaw (Asimina triloba), and their leaves were analysed for total polyphenols by Folin–Ciocalteau method, and antioxidant capacity by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Organic acids and phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC. For lipid profile, fruits were separated into

  14. Involvement of Peroxidase and Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidase Isozymes from Pear, Tomato, and Blueberry Fruit in Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Chaim

    1972-01-01

    Protein extracts were obtained from climacteric fruits (pear, tomato) and nonclimacteric fruits (blueberry) during various stages of ripening. The use of a gel electrophoresis technique revealed a consistent reinforcement in indoleacetic acid oxidase but not in peroxidase isozymes during ripening. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to the resistance of fruits to ripening and ethylene action. Images PMID:16658043

  15. New fatty acid, aromatic ester and monoterpenic benzyl glucoside from the fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections in the indigenous system of medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of W. coagulans fruits led to the isolation of a new fatty acid, an aromatic ester and a monoterpenic benzyl glucoside characterised as n-octatriacont-17-enoic acid (3), geranilan-10-olyl dihydrocinnamoate (4) and geranilan-8-oic acid-10-olyl salicyloxy-2-O-?-d-glucofuranosyl-(6??1?)-O-?-d-glucofuranosyl-6?-n-octadec-9?',11?'-dienoate (5) along with two known fatty acids, n-dotriacont-21-enoic acid (1) and n-tetratriacontanoic acid (2). The structures of isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, FT-IR, UV, and MS data and chemical means. PMID:25674818

  16. Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Matsui; Mizuyoshi Shibutani; Toshiharu Hase; Tadahiko Kajiwara

    1996-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C?C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene

  17. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

  18. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

  19. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  20. Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Melgarejo; Domingo Manuel Salazar; F. Artés

    2000-01-01

    For two consecutive seasons, 40 Spanish pomegranate cultivars (cvs) were analysed and their individual organic acids and\\u000a sugars compositions were examined. Intervarietal differences in acidity content reported by different authors were confirmed.\\u000a According to organoleptic characteristics and chemical compositions three groups of varieties were established: sweet (SWV),\\u000a soursweet (SSWV) and sour (SV). On average, for two seasons, total organic acids

  1. Citric acid esters from fruit of Lonicera caerulea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Anikina; A. L. Vereshchagin; A. I. Syrchina; F. Larin; A. A. Semenov

    1988-01-01

    Compound (I) could be formed from the corresponding acid by methylation with diazomethane. The native nature of (I)was confirmed by its isolation from the initial unmethylated fraction after the elimination of citric acid from it with the use of AV-17 ion-exchange resin. The isolation of 7-oxologanin from plants of the genus Lonicera has not been reported previously.

  2. Amino Acids on Mango Yield and Fruit Quality at Submedio São Francisco Region, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Mouco; M. A. C. de Lima; A. L. da Silva; F. M. Rodrigues

    Farmers of the Submedio São Francisco Region (Brazil) have been spraying amino acids on mango trees with the objective of increasing panicle length and improving fruit retention and quality. This study, done in two experiments, tested the effect of amino acids sprayings at concentrations of 0.0%; 0.02%; 0.04% and 0.06%, on mango plants, 'Tommy Atkins', on the budding phase (panicles

  3. The role of abscisic acid in regulating cucumber fruit development and ripening and its transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai; Dai, Shengjie; Hu, Ying; Sun, Liang; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Sun, Yufei; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Dian; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2013-03-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a kind of fruit usually harvested at the immature green stage, belongs to non-climacteric fruit. To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) to cucumber fruit development and ripening, variation in ABA level was investigated and a peak in ABA level was found in pulp before fruit get fully ripe. To clarify this point further, exogenous ABA was applied to cucumber fruits at two different development stages. Results showed that ABA application at the turning stage promotes cucumber fruit ripening, while application at the immature green stage had inconspicuous effects. In addition, with the purpose of understanding the transcriptional regulation of ABA, two partial cDNAs of CsNCED1 and CsNCED2 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthetic pathway; one partial cDNA of CsCYP707A1 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA and two partial cDNAs of CsBG1 and CsBG2 for ?-glucosidase (BG) that hydrolyzes ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA were cloned from cucumber. The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of these obtained genes respectively showed high similarities to their homologous genes in other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ABA content may be regulated by its biosynthesis (CsNCEDs), catabolism (CsCYP707A1) and reactivation genes (CsBGs) at the transcriptional level during cucumber fruit development and ripening, in response to ABA application, dehydration and pollination, among which CsNCED1, CsCYP707A1 and CsBG1 were highly expressed in pulp and may play more important roles in regulating ABA metabolism. PMID:23376370

  4. Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2014-12-15

    Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818 ?g/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2,070 ?g/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1,603 ?g/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10 ?g/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9 ?g/g extracts) and all-trans-?-carotene (4-6 ?g/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry. PMID:25038660

  5. Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

    2015-04-15

    Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation. PMID:25466081

  6. Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2014-06-01

    In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease. PMID:24562629

  7. Cytotoxic chalcones and antioxidants from the fruits of a Syzygium samarangense (Wax Jambu).

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Adachi, Seiji; To, Satoshi; Yang, Hui; Reynertson, Kurt A; Basile, Margaret J; Gil, Roberto R; Weinstein, I Bernard; Kennelly, Edward J

    2008-03-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts of the pulp and seeds of the fruits of Syzygium samarangense Merr. & Perry (Blume) led to the identification of four cytotoxic compounds and eight antioxidants on the basis of HPLC-PDA analysis, MS, and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Three C-methylated chalcones, 2',4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethyl-6'-methoxychalcone (1), 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methyl-6'-methoxychalcone (stercurensin, 2), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone (cardamonin, 3), were isolated and displayed cytotoxic activity (IC(50) = 10, 35, and 35 ?M, respectively) against the SW-480 human colon cancer cell line. Also a number of known antioxidants were obtained including six quercetin glycosides: reynoutrin (4), hyperin (5), myricitrin (6), quercitrin (7), quercetin (9), and guaijaverin (10), one flavanone: (S)-pinocembrin (8), and two phenolic acids: gallic acid (11) and ellagic acid (12). PMID:22359426

  8. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power. PMID:18785051

  9. No effect on oxidative stress biomarkers by modified intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids or vegetables and fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Freese; L O Dragsted; S Loft; M Mutanen

    2008-01-01

    Diet may both increase and decrease oxidative stress in the body. We compared the effects of four strictly controlled isocaloric diets with different intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 11 or 3% of energy) and vegetables and fruit (total amount of vegetables and fruit 516 or 1059 g\\/10 MJ) on markers associated with oxidative stress in 77 healthy volunteers (19–52

  10. A co-expression gene network associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-01

    Apple fruit acidity, which affects the fruit's overall taste and flavor to a large extent, is primarily determined by the concentration of malic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that the major QTL malic acid (Ma) on chromosome 16 is largely responsible for fruit acidity variations in apple. Recent advances suggested that a natural mutation that gives rise to a premature stop codon in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT)-like genes (called Ma1) is the genetic causal element underlying Ma. However, the natural mutation does not explain the developmental changes of fruit malate levels in a given genotype. Using RNA-seq data from the fruit of 'Golden Delicious' taken at 14 developmental stages from 1 week after full-bloom (WAF01) to harvest (WAF20), we characterized their transcriptomes in groups of high (12.2 ± 1.6 mg/g fw, WAF03-WAF08), mid (7.4 ± 0.5 mg/g fw, WAF01-WAF02 and WAF10-WAF14) and low (5.4 ± 0.4 mg/g fw, WAF16-WAF20) malate concentrations. Detailed analyses showed that a set of 3,066 genes (including Ma1) were expressed not only differentially (P FDR < 0.05) between the high and low malate groups (or between the early and late developmental stages) but also in significant (P < 0.05) correlation with malate concentrations. The 3,066 genes fell in 648 MapMan (sub-) bins or functional classes, and 19 of them were significantly (P FDR < 0.05) co-enriched or co-suppressed in a malate dependent manner. Network inferring using the 363 genes encompassed in the 19 (sub-) bins, identified a major co-expression network of 239 genes. Since the 239 genes were also differentially expressed between the early (WAF03-WAF08) and late (WAF16-WAF20) developmental stages, the major network was considered to be associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity in 'Golden Delicious'. PMID:25576355

  11. Momordica charantia fruit juice stimulates glucose and amino acid uptakes in L6 myotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cummings; H. S. Hundal; H. Wackerhage; M. Hope; M. Belle; E. Adeghate; J. Singh

    2004-01-01

    The fruit of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitacea) is used widely as a hypoglycaemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). The mechanism of the hypoglycaemic action of M. charantia in vitro is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of M. charantia juice on either 3H-2-deoxyglucose or N-methyl-amino-a-isobutyric acid (14C-Me-AIB) uptake in L6 rat muscle cells cultured to the myotube

  12. Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA) pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate) and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’) or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’), depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1), and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3) correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’), alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may supplement biosynthesis via L-galactose, while in the high-AsA cultivar (‘Santorini’), enhanced AsA recycling activities appear to be responsible for AsA accumulation in the later stages of ripening. Gene expression studies indicate that expression of SlGGP1 and two orthologues of SlMDHAR are closely correlated with totAsA-AsA concentrations during ripening and are potentially good candidates for marker development for breeding and selection. PMID:23245200

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zisheng; Mou, Wangshu; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker) treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA) and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of ?-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and ?-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient’s biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA’s role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future. PMID:26053069

  14. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    PubMed

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  15. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  16. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Commercial Fruit Juice Samples by Cyclic Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Kalinowski, Slawomir

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in commercial fruit juice by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 490 mV on a Pt disc working electrode (versus SCE). The influence of the potential sweep speed on the peak height was studied. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between peak height and ascorbic acid concentration in the domain (0.1–10 mmol·L?1). The equation of the calibration graph was y = 6.391x + 0.1903 (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the anodic peak height, expressed as ?A and x the analyte concentration, as mmol·L?1, r2 = 0.9995, r.s.d. = 1.14%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2 mmol·L?1). The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juice. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged from 0.83 to 1.67 mmol·L?1 for orange juice, from 0.58 to 1.93 mmol·L?1 for lemon juice, and from 0.46 to 1.84 mmol·L?1 for grapefruit juice. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.35% and 104%. Ascorbic acid determination results obtained by cyclic voltammetry were compared with those obtained by the volumetric method with dichlorophenol indophenol. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:19343183

  17. Identification of bioaccessible and uptaken phenolic compounds from strawberry fruits in in vitro digestion/Caco-2 absorption model.

    PubMed

    Kosi?ska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Diering, Sascha; Prim, Denis; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    Strawberry fruits are highly valued for their taste and nutritional value. However, results describing the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds from strawberries are still scarce. In our study, a combined in vitro digestion/Caco-2 absorption model was used to mimic physiological conditions in the gastrointestinal track and identify compounds transported across intestinal epithelium. In the course of digestion, the loss of anthocyanins was noted whilst pelargonidin-3-glucoside remained the most abundant compound, amounting to nearly 12 mg per 100 g of digested strawberries. Digestion increased the amount of ellagic acid available by nearly 50%, probably due to decomposition of ellagitannins. Only trace amounts of pelargonidin-3-glucoside were found to be absorbed in the intestine model. Dihydrocoumaric acid sulphate and p-coumaric acid were identified as metabolites formed in enterocytes and released at the serosal side of the model. PMID:25306347

  18. Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from delta-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits

    SciTech Connect

    El-Rayes, D.E.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new pathway for ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) biosynthesis, which utilizes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production to 232% of the control. The C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and radioactivity from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO/sub 2/ but not in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/. However, radioactivity from (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in CO/sub 2/, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ showed any radioactivity when (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA or (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and ACC.

  19. Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Tzuri, G; Harel-Beja, R; Itkin, M; Portnoy, V; Sa'ar, U; Lev, S; Yeselson, L; Petrikov, M; Rogachev, I; Aharoni, A; Ophir, R; Tadmor, Y; Lewinsohn, E; Burger, Y; Katzir, N; Schaffer, A A

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melon cultivars contain a low level of organic acids and, therefore, the quality and flavor of sweet melon fruit is determined almost exclusively by fruit sugar content. However, genetic variability for fruit acid levels in the Cucumis melo species exists and sour fruit accessions are characterized by acidic fruit pH of <5, compared to the sweet cultivars that are generally characterized by mature fruit pH values of >6. In this paper, we report results from a mapping population based on recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the non-sour 'Dulce' variety and the sour PI 414323 accession. Results show that a single major QTL for pH co-localizes with major QTLs for the two predominant organic acids in melon fruit, citric and malic, together with an additional metabolite which we identified as uridine. While the acidic recombinants were characterized by higher citric and malic acid levels, the non-acidic recombinants had a higher uridine content than did the acidic recombinants. Additional minor QTLs for pH, citric acid and malic acid were also identified and for these the increased acidity was unexpectedly contributed by the non-sour parent. To test for co-localization of these QTLs with genes encoding organic acid metabolism and transport, we mapped the genes encoding structural enzymes and proteins involved in organic acid metabolism, transport and vacuolar H+ pumps. None of these genes co-localized with the major pH QTL, indicating that the gene determining melon fruit pH is not one of the candidate genes encoding this primary metabolic pathway. Linked markers were tested in two additional inter-varietal populations and shown to be linked to the pH trait. The presence of the same QTL in such diverse segregating populations suggests that the trait is determined throughout the species by variability in the same gene and is indicative of a major role of the evolution of this gene in determining the important domestication trait of fruit acidity within the species. PMID:22406955

  20. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300?mg/24?h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients. PMID:25198158

  1. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  2. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  3. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  4. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  5. The role of abscisic acid in fruit ripening and responses to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ping; Yuan, Bing; Guo, Yangdong

    2014-08-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role not only in fruit development and ripening, but also in adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In these processes, the actions of ABA are under the control of complex regulatory mechanisms involving ABA metabolism, signal transduction, and transport. The endogenous ABA content is determined by the dynamic balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, processes which are regulated by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A), respectively. ABA conjugation by cytosolic UDP-glucosyltransferases, or release by ?-glucosidases, is also important for maintaining ABA homeostasis. Recently, multiple putative ABA receptors localized at different subcellular sites have been reported. Among these is a major breakthrough in the field of ABA signalling-the identification of a signalling cascade involving the PYR/PYL/RCAR protein family, the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), and subfamily 2 of the SNF1-related kinases (SnRK2s). With regard to transport, two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins and two ABA transporters in the nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter (NRT1/PTR) family have been identified. In this review, we summarize recent research progress on the role of ABA in fruit ripening, stress response, and transcriptional regulation, and also the functional verification of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes. In addition, we suggest possible commercial applications of genetic manipulation of ABA signalling to improve fruit quality and yields. PMID:24821949

  6. Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erick De la Barrera; Park S. Nobel

    2010-01-01

    Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cul- tivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, includ- ing effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net

  7. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11gVS/(Ld) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24day) and 5.0 (25-50day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5gCOD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role. PMID:25983222

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products

    PubMed Central

    PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ?6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice. PMID:18290732

  9. Ethylene Promotes the Capability To Malonylate 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid and d-Amino Acids in Preclimacteric Tomato Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Su, Ling-Yuan; Yang, Shang Fa

    1985-01-01

    When whole unripe green tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv T3) were treated with ethylene (10 microliters per liter) for 18 hours, the fruit's ability to convert 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to N-malonyl-ACC (MACC) increased markedly and such an effect was also observed in fruits of mutant nor, which cannot ripen normally. The promotion of the capability to malonylate ACC by ethylene increased with the increasing ethylene concentration from 0.1 to 100 microliters per liter and with increasing duration of ethylene treatment up to 8 hours; a longer duration of ethylene treatment did not further increase the malonylation capability. When ethylene was withdrawn, the promotion disappeared within 72 hours. Norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, effectively eliminated the promotive effect of ethylene. Ethylene treatment also promoted the fruits' capability to conjugate d-amino acids and ?-amino-isobutyric acid. Since the increase in the tissue's capability to malonylate ACC was accompanied by an increase in the extractable activity of ACC and d-amino acid malonyltransferase, ethylene is thought to promote the development of ACC/d-amino acid malonyltransferase in unripe tomato fruits. PMID:16664157

  10. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3?M while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

  11. A natural mutation led truncation in Ma1, one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter like genes at the Ma locus, is associated with low fruit acidity in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidity levels greatly affect fruit taste and flavor, thereby the consumer’s acceptance and market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the nearly exclusive organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity ...

  12. Kinetic study of empty fruit bunch using hot liquid water and dilute acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Seok; Choi, Won Il; Kang, Minsu; Park, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2012-07-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB), a residual product of the palm plantation, is an attractive biomass for biorefinery. As xylan is susceptible to high temperature pretreatment, it is important to setup a proper pretreatment condition to maximize the sugar recovery from EFB. Kinetic parameters of mathematical models were obtained in order to predict the concentration of xylose, glucose, furfural, and acetic acid in the hydrolysate and to find production conditions of xylose. We investigated the kinetics of hot liquid water and dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis over a 40-min period using a self-designed setup by measuring the concentrations of released sugars (xylose, glucose) and degradation products (acetic acid and furfural). The reaction was performed within the range 160?180 °C, under reaction conditions of various concentration of sulfuric acid (0.1?0.2%) and 1:7 solid-liquid ratio in a batch reactor. The kinetic constants can be expressed by the Arrhenius equation with the activation energy for the hydrolysis of sugar and decomposition of sugar. The activation energy of xylose was determined to be 136.2187 kJ mol(-1). PMID:22238014

  13. Polarographic determination of sorbic acid in fruit juices and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Fung, Y S; Luk, S F

    1990-09-01

    A simple differential-pulse polarographic method using a laboratory-built hanging mercury drop electrode as the working electrode was developed for the determination of sorbic acid in fruit juices and soft drinks. Sorbic acid was extracted from the samples with diethyl ether. After reduction of the ethereal solution to a small volume by direct evaporation, the residual ether was dissolved in the supporting electrolyte (25 ml of acetonitrile + 1 ml of 0.06 M acetic acid + 0.8 g of tetraethylammonium bromide). Peak current was measured at -1.7 V. The working range of the method, without dilution or pre-concentration of the samples, was from 4 to 229 p.p.m. for the original juice and drink samples. The validity of the method was confirmed by parallel determinations using the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists and by recovery tests on a large variety of juice samples. Satisfactory recoveries and agreement in results from the two methods were obtained. The recovery and precision (relative standard deviation) of the method were 97 +/- 4 and 100 +/- 3%, respectively, for blackcurrant juice for five determinations. PMID:2091491

  14. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.): a comparative study of fruits and seeds.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Katrin; Meinhard, Juliane; Dobrev, Peter; Linkies, Ada; Pesek, Bedrich; Hess, Barbara; Machácková, Ivana; Fischer, Uwe; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    The control of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germination by plant hormones was studied by comparing fruits and seeds. Treatment of sugar beet fruits and seeds with gibberellins, brassinosteroids, auxins, cytokinins, and jasmonates or corresponding hormone biosynthesis inhibitors did not appreciably affect radicle emergence of fruits or seeds. By contrast, treatment with ethylene or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) promoted radicle emergence of fruits and seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA) acted as an antagonist of ethylene and inhibited radicle emergence of seeds, but not appreciably of fruits. High endogenous contents of ACC and of ABA were evident in seeds and pericarps of dry mature fruits, but declined early during imbibition. ABA-treatment of seeds and fruits induced seed ACC accumulation while ACC-treatment did not affect the seed ABA content. Transcripts of ACC oxidase (ACO, ethylene-forming enzyme) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A, ABA-degrading enzyme) accumulate in fruits and seeds upon imbibition. ABA and ACC and the pericarp did not affect the seed CYP707A transcript levels. By contrast, seed ACO transcript accumulation was promoted by ABA and by pericarp removal, but not by ACC. Quantification of the endogenous ABA and ACC contents, ABA and ACC leaching, and ethylene evolution, demonstrate that an embryo-mediated active ABA extrusion system is involved in keeping the endogenous seed ABA content low by 'active ABA leaching', while the pericarp restricts ACC leaching during imbibition. Sugar beet radicle emergence appears to be controlled by the pericarp, by ABA and ACC leaching, and by an ABA-ethylene antagonism that affects ACC biosynthesis and ACO gene expression. PMID:17761730

  15. Bioactive compounds and phenolic-linked functionality of powdered tropical fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Correia, Roberta T P; Borges, Kátia C; Medeiros, Maria F; Genovese, Maria I

    2012-12-01

    Tropical fruit residues consisting of seeds, peels and residual pulp generated as by-products of fruit processing industry were investigated for bioactive compounds, the in vitro antioxidant capacity as well as alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Cyanidin, quercetin, ellagic acid (EA) and proanthocyanidins were found in acerola, jambolan, pitanga and cajá-umbu residue powders. Acerola powder had the highest phenolic content (8839.33?mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100?g) and also high-ascorbic acid (AA) concentration (2748.03?mg/100?g), followed by jambolan and pitanga. The greatest 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition was observed for jambolan (436.76?mmol Trolox eq/g) followed by pitanga (206.68?mmol Trolox eq/g) and acerola (192.60?mmol Trolox eq/g), while acerola had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay result (7.87?mmol Trolox eq/g). All fruit powders exhibited enzymatic inhibition against alpha-amylase (IC50 ranging from 3.40 to 49.5?mg CE/mL) and alpha-glucosidase (IC50 ranging from 1.15 to 2.37?mg CE/mL). Therefore, acerola, jambolan and pitanga dried residues are promising natural ingredients for food and nutraceutical manufacturers, due to their rich bioactive compound content. PMID:23014856

  16. In Vivo and In Vitro anti-inflammatory activities of ?-linolenic acid isolated from actinidia polygama fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Ren; Eun Jung Han; Sung Hyun Chung

    2007-01-01

    The fruit ofActinidia polygama (AP) has long been used as a folk medicine in Korea for the treatment of pain, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation. In\\u000a the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of AP led to the separation and identification of a polyunsaturated fatty\\u000a acid, ?-linolenic acid (ALA), which was found to show anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effects of ALA, using\\u000a acetic

  17. Compositional Variation in Sugars and Organic Acids at Different Maturity Stages in Selected Small Fruits from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Boyce, Mary C.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Selected soluble sugars and organic acids were analyzed in strawberry, sweet cherry, and mulberry fruits at different ripening stages by HPLC. The amounts of fructose, glucose and sucrose were found to be: strawberry (1.79–2.86, 1.79–2.25 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g FW), sweet cherry (0.76–2.35, 0.22–3.39 and 0.03–0.13 g/100 g) and mulberry (3.07–9.41, 1.53–4.95 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g) at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. The strawberry, sweet cherry and mulberry mainly contained tartaric, citric and ascorbic acids in the range of 16–55, 70–1934 and 11–132 mg/100 g; 2–8, 2–10 and 10–17 mg/100 g; 2–118, 139–987 and 2–305 mg/100 g at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. Fructose and glucose were established to be the major sugars in all the tested fruit while citric and ascorbic acid were the predominant organic acids in strawberry and mulberry while tartaric acid was mainly present in sweet cherry. The tested fruits mostly showed an increase in the concentration of sugars and organic acids with ripening. PMID:22408396

  18. Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of ?-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products. PMID:22264421

  19. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  20. Abscisic Acid Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Strawberry Fruit Ripening1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hai-Feng; Chai, Ye-Mao; Li, Chun-Li; Lu, Dong; Luo, Jing-Jing; Qin, Ling; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in fruit development, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking. Here, we report that ABA promotes strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit ripening. Using a newly established Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing technique in strawberry fruit, the expression of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene (FaNCED1), which is key to ABA biosynthesis, was down-regulated, resulting in a significant decrease in ABA levels and uncolored fruits. Interestingly, a similar uncolored phenotype was observed in the transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) fruits, in which the expression of a putative ABA receptor gene encoding the magnesium chelatase H subunit (FaCHLH/ABAR) was down-regulated by virus-induced gene silencing. More importantly, the uncolored phenotype of the FaNCED1-down-regulated RNAi fruits could be rescued by exogenous ABA, but the ABA treatment could not reverse the uncolored phenotype of the FaCHLH/ABAR-down-regulated RNAi fruits. We observed that down-regulation of the FaCHLH/ABAR gene in the RNAi fruit altered both ABA levels and sugar content as well as a set of ABA- and/or sugar-responsive genes. Additionally, we showed that exogenous sugars, particularly sucrose, can significantly promote ripening while stimulating ABA accumulation. These data provide evidence that ABA is a signal molecule that promotes strawberry ripening and that the putative ABA receptor, FaCHLH/ABAR, is a positive regulator of ripening in response to ABA. PMID:21734113

  1. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-20

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, <0.1 to 16.7 micromol Trolox equiv/g puree, and 2.1 to 620.2 microg gallic acid equiv/g puree, respectively. The TAA, TDF, and pectin ranged from 7.5 to 188.8 mg/100 g, 0.9 to 7.2 g/100 g, and 0.20 to 1.04 g/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities, TSP, TAA, TDF, and pectin were influenced by cultivar (papaya, guava, and dragon fruit) and ripening stage (papaya and/or mango). Antioxidant activity showed high correlations with levels of TSP compounds (r = 0.96) but low correlations with levels of ascorbic acid (r = 0.35 and 0.23 for ORAC and DPPH data, respectively). The antioxidant activities evaluated by both ORAC and DPPH showed similar trends where red guava and carambola exhibited the highest and sapodilla and green papaya exhibited the lowest levels. Guava and mamey sapote exhibited the highest TDF and pectin levels. Many of the tropical fruits were shown to contain an abundance of hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid conjugates, and flavone glycosides. Preliminary descriptions are given of the phenols in red/white pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature. PMID:16968105

  2. Dietary wheat germ oil and age influences fatty acid compositions in adult oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterile Insect Technique programs have been developed for management of several tephritid fruit fly pests. These programs are based on continous production of adult fruit flies. The high expense of mass-rearing oriental fruit flies drive research to improve the cost effectiveness of rearing programs...

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Tomato Fruit Development Reveals Transcription Factors Associated with Ascorbic Acid, Carotenoid and Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jie; Hu, Tixu; Yang, Congmei; Li, Hanxia; Yang, Mingze; Ijaz, Raina; Ye, Zhibiao; Zhang, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development; however, while it is an important dietary source of antioxidant nutrients, the transcriptional regulation of genes that determine nutrient levels remains poorly understood. Here, the transcriptomes of fruit at seven developmental stages (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days after flowering) from two tomato cultivars (Ailsa Craig and HG6-61) were evaluated using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 26,397 genes, which were expressed in at least one developmental stage, were detected in the two cultivars, and the expression patterns of those genes could be divided into 20 groups using a K-mean cluster analysis. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis indicated that genes involved in RNA regulation, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism and cell wall metabolism were the most highly differentially expressed genes during fruit development and ripening. A co-expression analysis revealed several transcription factors whose expression patterns correlated with those of genes associated with ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This transcriptional correlation was confirmed by agroinfiltration mediated transient expression, which showed that most of the enzymatic genes in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis were regulated by the overexpression of each of the three transcription factors that were tested. The metabolic dynamics of ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid were investigated during fruit development and ripening, and some selected transcription factors showed transcriptional correlation with the accumulation of ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid. This transcriptome study provides insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and presents candidate transcription factors involved in secondary metabolism. PMID:26133783

  4. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

    2011-01-01

    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg?1?day?1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders. PMID:19770265

  5. Calcium partitioning and allocation and blossom-end rot development in tomato plants in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid treatments

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto de Freitas, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as well as to analyse the effect of changes in Ca2+ partitioning and allocation on fruit susceptibility to the Ca2+ deficiency disorder blossom-end rot (BER) under water stress conditions. Tomato plants of the cultivar Ace 55 (Vf) were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to low Ca2+ conditions during fruit growth and development. Starting 1 day after pollination (DAP), the following treatments were initiated: (i) whole plants were sprayed weekly with deionized water (control) or (ii) with 500mg l?1 ABA; or fruit on each plant were dipped weekly (iii) in deionized water (control) or (iv) in 500mg l?1 ABA. At 15 DAP, BER was completely prevented by whole-plant or fruit-specific ABA treatments, whereas plants or fruit treated with water had 16–19% BER incidence. At 30 DAP, BER was prevented by the whole-plant ABA treatment, whereas fruit dipped in ABA had a 16% and water-treated plants or fruit had a 36–40% incidence of BER. The results showed that spraying the whole plant with ABA increases xylem sap flow and Ca2+ movement into the fruit, resulting in higher fruit tissue and water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations that prevent BER development. Although fruit-specific ABA treatment had no effect on xylem sap flow rates or Ca2+ movement into the fruit, it increased fruit tissue water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations and reduced fruit susceptibility to BER to a lesser extent. PMID:24220654

  6. Determination of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts obtained from fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Laghari, Abdul Hafeez; Memon, Shahabuddin; Nelofar, Aisha; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Yasmin, Arfa

    2011-06-15

    In this study, determination of phenolic acids as well as investigation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album is described. Extracts were subjected to acidic hydrolysis in order to obtain total free phenolic acids. However, some of phenolic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The results were confirmed by LC-MS equipped with MS-ESI. In addition, Folin-Ciocalteu method was applied to determine the total phenolic contents. The antioxidant activity of C. album extracts was examined by using DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity assays. Results revealed that the leaves extract exhibits better performance in antioxidant assays and in the higher total phenolic contents (3066mg of GAE/100g) when compared to fruits extract (1385mg of GAE/100g). From these results it has been revealed that the methanolic extracts of C. album from fruits and leaves have great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:25213967

  7. Pigment Changes Associated with Application of Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid) to Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Puech, Antoine A.; Rebeiz, Constantin A.; Crane, Julian C.

    1976-01-01

    The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to `Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Chlorophylls a and b decreased rapidly within 4 days after Ethephon treatment, and degradation continued at a decreasing rate for an additional 4 days, at which time the fruits had attained their maximum diameter and were considered fully ripe. Levels of ?-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin decreased in a pattern similar to that of chlorophylls a and b. The rates of ?-carotene and lutein degradation were initially greater than those of the xanthophyll pigments. Degradation rates of the various carotenoids were comparable 4 to 8 days after treatment. There was no measurable anthocyanin synthesis during a 2- to 4-day period following Ethephon treatment. Beyond this lag phase, anthocyanin accumulation was linear, and the amount of pigment synthesized was a function of both light intensity and duration. Although Ethephon promoted the rate of anthocyanin accumulation, it did not increase the total amount of pigment synthesized in treated fruits. Etiolation of fruits from the time of Ethephon treatment until maturity stimulated an increase in growth and completely inhibited anthocyanin production in the skin. Ethephon-treated fruits which ripened while etiolated were larger in diameter and higher in both fresh and dry weights than nonetiolated controls. Images PMID:16659515

  8. Pigment Changes Associated with Application of Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid) to Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Puech, A A; Rebeiz, C A; Crane, J C

    1976-04-01

    The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to ;Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Chlorophylls a and b decreased rapidly within 4 days after Ethephon treatment, and degradation continued at a decreasing rate for an additional 4 days, at which time the fruits had attained their maximum diameter and were considered fully ripe. Levels of beta-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin decreased in a pattern similar to that of chlorophylls a and b. The rates of beta-carotene and lutein degradation were initially greater than those of the xanthophyll pigments. Degradation rates of the various carotenoids were comparable 4 to 8 days after treatment.There was no measurable anthocyanin synthesis during a 2- to 4-day period following Ethephon treatment. Beyond this lag phase, anthocyanin accumulation was linear, and the amount of pigment synthesized was a function of both light intensity and duration. Although Ethephon promoted the rate of anthocyanin accumulation, it did not increase the total amount of pigment synthesized in treated fruits. Etiolation of fruits from the time of Ethephon treatment until maturity stimulated an increase in growth and completely inhibited anthocyanin production in the skin. Ethephon-treated fruits which ripened while etiolated were larger in diameter and higher in both fresh and dry weights than nonetiolated controls. PMID:16659515

  9. Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    de La Barrera, Erick; Nobel, Park S

    2004-03-01

    Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cultivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rates for fruits were higher during the night; they were maximal at 7 d before anthesis and decreased as development progressed. Fruits undergoing drought, imposed by detaching terminal stems bearing fruits, were 50% smaller than the control at 80 d after anthesis and did not ripen. Fruits injected with 2 ml of 500 ppm GA3 were 30% smaller than the control at 80 d after anthesis; they contained a large proportion of aborted seeds that produced a weak sink signal for dry mass accumulation. Gas exchange was higher at 21 d after anthesis for fruits treated with GA3. Total soluble sugars represented 40% of the fruit's dry mass until 45 d after anthesis, when the sugar content rapidly increased, reaching 90% at 73 d after anthesis. Such an increase was not observed for fruits treated with GA3, and the sugar content for fruits undergoing drought remained low throughout development. Starch content increased for developing fruits of O. ficus-indica until 14 d after anthesis and, except for the fruits undergoing drought, decreased thereafter. Fruit development for O. ficus-indica is apparently regulated by water availability as well as hormonal signals originating both within and outside the fruit. PMID:14966221

  10. Lipid and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and seed of avocado fruits harvested at northern range in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, Fumio; Matsuyama, Kaori; Abe, Shin; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Itoh, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    The lipid and fatty acid composition of the mesocarp and seed of avocado fruit grown and harvested in Japan, which is located at the northern range of the avacado, was investigated and compared to an imported avocado purchased commercially. The potential of the avocado mesocarp as an agricultural product in Japan was also explored. Total lipids (TL) accounted for approximately 20% of the mesocarp. Further analysis showed that the neutral lipid (NL) fraction accounted for at least 95% of the TL, and almost 90% of NL was triacylglycerol. Monoenoic acids accounted for at least 65% of the total fatty acids, and oleic acid, which is regarded as an especially important functional component of avacado accounted for approximately 50% of the monounsaturated fatty acids. A comparison of the Japanese avocado cultivars and an imported avocado cultivar in the present study revealed no significant differences in the lipid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, production of avocado fruit, which is rich in various nutritional components, is expected to be increased on a larger number of farms in Japan in the future. It is believed to be necessary to carry out further verification, such as the establishment of a cultivation technique adoptable to Japan, examination of optimal soil and land features, and cultivar selection. PMID:18838831

  11. Changes of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Content in Ripening Fruits in Relation to their Ethylene Production Rates 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil E. Hoffman; Shang Fa Yang

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the level of 1-amino cyclopropane- Icarboxylic acid (ACC) were compared to ethylene production during fruit ripening of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) banana (Musa sapientum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Preclimacteric tissues contained less than 0.1 nmol\\/g of ACC in all tissues. In avocado, the level of ACC increased to 45 nmol\\/g in the later stage of the

  12. Production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid from empty palm fruit bunches by Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.

    PubMed

    Hong, Won-Kyung; Yu, Anna; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kim, Chul Ho; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Yang, Ji-Won; Kondo, Akihiko; Seo, Jeong-Woo

    2013-07-01

    The oleaginous microalga Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 was cultivated in enzymatic hydrolysates of alkali-pretreated empty palm fruit bunches (EFBs), without prior detoxification process. The maximal levels of lipid and docosahexaenoic acid synthesized were 12.5 and 5.4 g L?¹ after cultivation for 36 h. Similar lipid levels were also obtained via simultaneous saccharification and cultivation. The results suggested that EFB is a promising source for production of useful lipids by the microalgal strain. PMID:23053417

  13. Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. (USDA, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

  14. Calcium partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to abscisic acid application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Ca2+ is believed to move in the plant exclusively through the xylem, the mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in ...

  15. Melanogenesis-inhibitory saccharide fatty acid esters and other constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni).

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tochizawa, Shun; Takahashi, Nami; Yamamoto, Ayako; Zhang, Jie; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka

    2012-06-01

    Five new saccharide fatty acid esters, named nonioside P (3), nonioside Q (4), nonioside R (8), nonioside S (10), and nonioside T (14), and one new succinic acid ester, butyl 2-hydroxysuccinate (=4-butoxy-3-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid) (31), were isolated, along with 26?known compounds, including eight saccharide fatty acid esters, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 13, three hemiterpene glycosides, 15, 17, and 18, six iridoid glycosides, 21-25, and 27, and nine other compounds, 20, 28, 29, and 32-37, from a MeOH extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni). Upon evaluation of these and five other glycosidic compounds, 11, 16, 19, 26, and 30, from M. citrifolia fruit extract for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), most of the saccharide fatty acid esters, hemiterpene glycosides, and iridoid glycosides showed inhibitory effects with no or almost no toxicity to the cells. These compounds were further evaluated with respect to their cytotoxic activities against two human cancer cell lines (HL-60 and AZ521) and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. PMID:22700235

  16. Isolation and characteristics of protocatechuic acid from Paenibacillus elgii HOA73 against Botrytis cinerea on strawberry fruits.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Young Seong; Moon, Jae Hak; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kil Yong

    2015-05-01

    This study was undertaken to describe purification, identification, and characteristics of protocatechuic acid (PCA) isolated for the first time from Paenibacillus elgii HOA73 against Botrytis cinerea (the cause of gray mold disease on strawberry fruit). PCA was purified by different chromatographic techniques and identified as PCA (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) by nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. PCA displayed potent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. However, the antifungal activities were not sufficient to inhibit mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici and Fusarium oxysporum. The minimum inhibitory concentration of PCA to inhibit any visible mycelial growth of both B. cinerea and R. solani was 64?µg?ml(-1) . Most B. cinerea conidia displayed altered shape and absence of germination, or were degraded after treatment with 50 and 100?µg?ml(-1) PCA, respectively. Moreover, gray mold formation on strawberry fruit was almost or completely inhibited by these PCA concentrations 7 days following infection with B. cinerea conidia, respectively. PCA may be a promising alternative to chemical fungicides as a potential biofungicide to prevent growth of B. cinerea in strawberry fruit disease management. PMID:25081931

  17. Separation, characterization, and quantitation of phenolic acids in a little-known blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit by HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Faik A; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Gruz, Jiri; Novak, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav

    2005-10-19

    The aim of this study was the qualitative and quantitative determination of free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound phenolic acids in the blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit. A method for the determination of the profile of phenolic acids of four different phenolic fractions in the fruit was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Thirteen compounds (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, syringic, sinapic, salicylic, and trans-cinnamic acids) were identified and quantified in the berry. These experimental results showed that the predominant phenolic acid in the fruit of V. arctostaphylos is caffeic acid in free and insoluble ester-bound forms and p-coumaric acid in soluble ester and glycoside forms. Seven phenolic acids were identified as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (HBAs) and four as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAs). Total content of HBAs and HCAs in the four phenolic fractions constituted 30.1 and 69.9% of the free, 27.9 and 72.1% of the ester, 24.7 and 75.3% of the glycoside, and 51.7 and 48.3% of the ester-bound forms, respectively. Total phenolics as the sum of individual phenolic acids identified is 698.5 ng/g of fresh weight (fw) for the free, 3399.2 ng/g of fw for the ester, 3522.1 ng/g of fw for the glycoside, and 3671.6 ng/g of fw for the ester-bound phenolic fractions. The present results were compared with reported levels of phenolic acids in the fruits of different Vaccinium species. These data suggest that the fruit can be considered as a potentially good dietary source of phenolic acids. PMID:16218652

  18. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

  19. Quality control of fruit juices by using organic acids determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated bubble cell capillaries.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    An enhanced method for the determination of organic acids in several fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV-Vis detection has been developed in this work. First, a study with simulated real juice samples was done to find the best separation conditions. Next, several commercial fruit juices were analyzed, and the organic acid contents were quantified in less than 12min using a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated fused-silica 'bubble cell' capillary. The present method is reliable, fast and provides detection limits comprised between 0.1 and 2.5?gmL(-1). Moreover, different chemometric techniques, based on CZE data, were examined. Linear discriminant analysis allowed the differentiation of fruit juices according to the fruit type, whereas multiple linear regression models predicted the percentages of orange and pineapple juices in binary blends with grape. Thus, the present methodology is of utmost interest for routine and quality control purposes in food industries. PMID:26041236

  20. Selective suppression of cervical cancer Hela cells by 2- O -?- d -glucopyranosyl- l -ascorbic acid isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiping Zhang; Xiaoming Liu; Tao Wu; Junhong Liu; Xu Zhang; Xueyun Yang; Michael J. Goodheart; John F. Engelhardt; Yujiong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine and dietary supplement for centuries. 2-O-?-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2?G), a novel stable vitamin C analog, is one of the main biologically active components of the fruit.\\u000a In this report, we investigated the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of AA-2?G against cancer cells in vitro and identified\\u000a the proteins with significantly differential

  1. Effect of exogenous application of gibberellic acid on color change and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chlorophyllase, and peroxidase activities during ripening of strawberry fruit ( Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Martínez; A. R. Chaves; M. C. Afidnt

    1996-01-01

    The effect of exogenously applied gibberellic acid (GA3) on the postharvest color change of strawberry fruit was evaluated through their external color and surface color parameters.\\u000a A significant delay on color evolution was observed in fruits treated with GA3. The evolution of activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chlorophyllase, and peroxidase was also analyzed. PAL\\u000a activity increased during strawberry ripening, but

  2. Accumulation of Glycoconjugates of 3-Methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic Acid in Fruits, Leaves, and Shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following Foliar Applications of Oak Extract or Oak Lactone.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2015-05-13

    Grapevines are capable of absorbing volatile compounds present in the vineyard during the growing season, and in some cases, volatiles have been found to accumulate in fruits or leaves in glycoconjugate forms, that is, with one or more sugar moieties attached. The presence of oak lactone in wine is usually attributable to oak maturation, but oak lactone has been detected in wines made with fruit from grapevines treated with oak extract or oak lactone. This study investigated the accumulation of glycoconjugates of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid (i.e., the ring-opened form of oak lactone) in the fruits, leaves, and shoots of Monastrell grapevines following foliar application of either oak extract or oak lactone at approximately 7 days postveraison. Fruits, leaves, and shoots were collected at three different time points, including at maturity. The oak lactone content of fruit was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with declining concentrations observed in fruit from grapevines treated with oak lactone with ripening. The concentrations of a ?-d-glucopyranoside of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid in fruits, leaves, and shoots was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the highest oak lactone glucoside levels observed in leaves of grapevines treated with oak lactone. A glucose-glucose disaccharide was also tentatively identified. These results demonstrate both ring-opening and glycosylation of oak lactone occurred after experimental treatments were imposed. PMID:25912091

  3. Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

  4. d-Glucaric acid content of various fruits and vegetables and cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary d-glucarate in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zbigniew Walaszek; Janusz Szemraj; Malgorzata Hanausek; Alan K. Adams; Ute Sherman

    1996-01-01

    The beneficial properties of different vitamins, minerals, and other micronutrients have been studied for quite some time. But only recently has the potential usefulness of d-glucaric acid and its derivatives in disease prevention been demonstrated. d-Glucaric acid is an end product of the d-glucuronic acid pathway in mammals. Its dietary sources include different fruits and vegetables. In the present study,

  5. Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).

    PubMed

    Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%). PMID:24630370

  6. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of alpha-linolenic acid isolated from Actinidia polygama fruits.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Han, Eun Jung; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2007-06-01

    The fruit of Actinidia polygama (AP) has long been used as a folk medicine in Korea for the treatment of pain, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of AP led to the separation and identification of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which was found to show anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effects of ALA, using acetic acid or carrageenan-induced inflammation models, were investi gated in mice or rats, respectively. ALA significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in a dose dependent manner (34.2 and 37.7% inhibition at doses of 5 and 10 mg/ kg, respectively). ALA also significantly reduced a rat paw edema induced by a single treatment of carrageenan. To investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of ALA, the effects of ALA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in the murine mac rophages cell line, RAW 264.7, were examined. Exposure of LPS-stimulated cells to ALA inhibited the accumulation of nitrite and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the culture medium. Consistent with these observations, the protein and mRNA expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 enzyme were markedly inhibited by ALA in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of ALA might be due to the suppression of the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA. PMID:17679548

  7. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry).

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Sun, Y; Deng, S; Schlecht, S M; Zheng, W; Nikolic, D; Mahady, G; van Breemen, R B; Fong, H H S; Pezzuto, J M; Bolton, J L; Farnsworth, N R

    2004-01-01

    A methanol extract of chaste-tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus L.) was tested for its ability to displace radiolabeled estradiol from the binding site of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). The extract at 46 +/- 3 microg/ml displaced 50% of estradiol from ERalpha and 64 +/- 4 microg/ml from ERbeta. Treatment of the ER+ hormone-dependent T47D:A18 breast cancer cell line with the extract induced up-regulation of ERbeta mRNA. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was upregulated in the Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. However, chaste-tree berry extract did not induce estrogen-dependent alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in Ishikawa cells. Bioassay-guided isolation, utilizing ER binding as a monitor, resulted in the isolation of linoleic acid as one possible estrogenic component of the extract. The use of pulsed ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is an affinity-based screening technique, also identified linoleic acid as an ER ligand based on its selective affinity, molecular weight, and retention time. Linoleic acid also stimulated mRNA ERbeta expression in T47D:A18 cells, PR expression in Ishikawa cells, but not AP activity in Ishikawa cells. These data suggest that linoleic acid from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus can bind to estrogen receptors and induce certain estrogen inducible genes. PMID:14974442

  8. Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carey, James R.; Zwaan, Bas J.

    2008-01-01

    1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild. 2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments. 3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost. PMID:19081752

  9. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:20013479

  10. Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Hilton, R; Basoalto, E; Stelinski, L L

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to assess glacial acetic acid (GAA) with various host plant volatiles (HPVs) and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8, 10-dodecadien-1-ol, of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), as lures in traps for tortricid pests that often co-occur in tree fruits in the western United States. In addition to codling moth, field trapping studies were conducted with oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the eyespotted budmoth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller). HPVs included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, (E)-?-ocimene, (E)-?-farnesene, and farnesol. Three types of GAA co-lures differing in a 10-fold range in weekly evaporation rates were tested. The evaporation rate of GAA co-lures was an important factor affecting moth catches. The highest rate tested captured fewer codling moth but more leafrollers and eyespotted budmoth. GAA co-lures caught both sexes of each species. The field life of butyl hexanoate and (E)-?-ocimene lures were much shorter than pear ester or sex pheromone lures. Adding GAA to pear ester or to (E)-?-ocimene significantly increased the catches of only codling moth or oriental fruit moth, respectively. Combining pear ester or (E)-?-ocimene with GAA did not affect the catch of either species compared with the single more attractive HPV. Adding HPVs to GAA did not increase the catches of either leafroller species or eyespotted budmoth. Traps baited with pear ester, sex pheromone, and GAA for monitoring codling moth were also effective in classifying pest pressure of both leafroller species within orchards. PMID:25268327

  11. Deciphering ascorbic acid regulatory pathways in ripening tomato fruit using a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Ju, Zheng; Li, Shan; Zuo, Jinhua; Fu, Daqi; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2013-11-01

    Genotype is generally determined by the co-expression of diverse genes and multiple regulatory pathways in plants. Gene co-expression analysis combining with physiological trait data provides very important information about the gene function and regulatory mechanism. L-Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is an essential nutrient component for human health and plant metabolism, plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle, cell expansion, stress resistance, hormone synthesis, and signaling. Here, we applied a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach based on gene expression values and AsA content data in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit with different AsA content levels, which leads to identification of AsA relevant modules and vital genes in AsA regulatory pathways. Twenty-four modules were compartmentalized according to gene expression profiling. Among these modules, one negatively related module containing genes involved in redox processes and one positively related module enriched with genes involved in AsA biosynthetic and recycling pathways were further analyzed. The present work herein indicates that redox pathways as well as hormone-signal pathways are closely correlated with AsA accumulation in ripening tomato fruit, and allowed us to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies to dissect this interplay at the biochemical and molecular level. PMID:23718676

  12. Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally or rectally prior to ulcer induction. BEC (10 mg/Kg), prednisolone (5 mg/Kg), hydrocortisone acetate enema (20 mg/Kg) and normal saline (5 mL/Kg) were considered as respective controls. The tissue was assessed macroscopically for damage scores, area, index and weight/length ratio. They were also examined histopathologically for inflammation extent and severity, crypt damage, invasion involvement and total colitis index. Results indicated that greater doses of oral BFE (750, 1500 mg/Kg) as well as BEC (10 mg/Kg) were effective to protect against colonic damage. By rectal pretreatment, the extract was only effective to diminish the ulcer index and the efficacy was not significant for mucosal inflammation parameters. In conclusion BFE, which is nearly devoid of berberine, was effective to protect against colitis and this might be attributed to its anthocyanin constituents. PMID:24363687

  13. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit and seeds from the jujube plant (Ziziphus jujuba) possess nutritional and medicinal including antimicrobial properties. We measured free amino acid content by ion-exchange chromatography, individual phenolic content by HPLC, UV, and mass spectral methods, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocal...

  14. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  15. Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) Fruits: Comparision of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoids profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and to compare various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, querceti...

  16. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Süleyman Kizil; Murat Turk

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants

  17. Pear ACO genes encoding putative 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homologs are functionally expressed during fruit ripening and involved in response to salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2012-10-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the final reaction of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, converting ACC into ethylene. Past studies have shown a possible link between ACC oxidase and salicylic acid during fruit ripening in pear, but the relationship has received no more than modest study at the gene expression level. In this study, two cDNA clones encoding putative ACC oxidase, PpACO1 and PpACO2, were isolated from a cDNA library constructed by our own laboratory and produced using mRNA from mesocarp of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai. cv.Whangkeumbae). One cDNA clone, designated PpACO1 (GenBank accession No. JN807390), comprised an open reading frame of 945 bp encoding a protein of 314 amino acids. The other cDNA, designated PpACO2 (GenBank accession No. JN807392), encodes a protein with 322 amino acids that shares high similarity with the known plant ACOs. Using PCR amplification techniques, two genomic clones corresponding to PpACO1 and PpACO2 were isolated and shown to contain independently three introns with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. The PpACO1 gene product shared 99 % identity with an ACC oxidase from pear (Pyrus × bretschneideri Rehd.cv.Yali), and phylogenetic analyses clearly placed the gene product in the ACC oxidase cluster of the pear 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily tree. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the two PpACO genes are differentially expressed in pear tissues. PpACO1 and PpACO2 were predominantly expressed in fruit. The transcripts of PpACO1 were accumulated at relatively low levels in early fruit, but strongly high levels in fruit ripening and senescence stages, while the transcripts of PpACO2 were accumulated at higher levels in early fruit and much lower levels with further fruit cell development than the transcripts of PpACO1. In addition, PpACO1 gene was down-regulated in fruit by salicylic acid (SA). Nevertheless, PpACO2 gene was dramatically up-regulated in fruit by SA. These results suggested that the PpACOs may participate in regulation of fruit ripening and in response to SA in pear. PMID:22711312

  18. Promotion by Ethylene of the Capability to Convert 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid to Ethylene in Preclimacteric Tomato and Cantaloupe Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Hoffman, Neil E.; Yang, Shang Fa

    1985-01-01

    The intact fruits of preclimacteric tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) produced very little ethylene and had low capability of converting 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene. When these unripe tomato or cantaloupe fruits were treated with ethylene for 16 hours there was no increase in ACC content or in ethylene production rate, but the tissue's capability to convert ACC to ethylene increased markedly. Such an effect was also observed in fruits of tomato mutants rin and nor, which do not undergo ripening and the climacteric increase in ethylene production during the senescence. The development of this ethylene-forming capability induced by ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentration (from 0.1 to 100 microliters per liter) and duration (1 to 24 hours); when ethylene was removed this capability remained high for sometime (more than 24 hours). Norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, effectively eliminated the promotive effect of ethylene in tomato fruit. These data indicate that the development of the capability to convert ACC to ethylene in preclimacteric tomato and cantaloupe fruits are sensitive to ethylene treatment and that when these fruits are exposed to exogenous ethylene, the increase in ethylene-forming enzyme precedes the increase in ACC synthase. PMID:16664067

  19. Novel fatty acid esters of p-coumaryl alcohol in epicuticular wax of apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, B D; Schmidt, W F; Kirk, M C; Barnes, S

    2001-08-01

    Hexane extracts of epicuticular wax from cv. Gala apples were noted to have an unusual, broad absorbance maximum at approximately 258 nm, which led us to isolate and identify the primary UV-absorbing compounds. Column and thin-layer chromatography yielded a fraction that gave a series of paired, 260-nm-absorbing peaks on C(18) HPLC. These were shown to be a family of phenolic fatty acid esters, for which retention times increased with increasing fatty acid chain length, and paired peaks were esters of two related phenolics with the same fatty acid moiety. Alkaline hydrolysis of the esters released two water-soluble phenolics separable by C(18) HPLC. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry gave a molecular mass of 150 for both, and (1)H NMR plus UV absorbance spectra identified them as E and Z isomers of p-coumaryl alcohol. Alkaline cleavage of the fatty acid esters in the presence of methanol or ethanol resulted in partial derivatization of E-p-coumaryl alcohol to the corresponding gamma-O-methyl or O-ethyl ether. Gradient HMQC NMR of the HPLC-purified stearate ester of E-p-coumaryl alcohol indicated that fatty acid esterification occurs at the gamma-OH rather than at the 4-OH on the phenyl ring. This is the first report of fatty acid esters of monolignols as a natural plant product. PMID:11513667

  20. Procerenone: a Fatty Acid Triterpenoid from the Fruit Pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Ngamgwe, Rosine Fotsing; Yankam, Raoul; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Lanz, Christian; Furrer, Julien; Schürch, Stefan; Kaiser, Marcel; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the fruit pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum which exhibited antiplasmodial activity during preliminary screening led to the isolation of the new fatty ester triterpenoid 3?-hexadecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1), together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of the new compound as well as those of the known compounds was established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 1- 4 were evaluated in-vitro for their cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines and antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi (species responsible for human malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively). The tested compounds showed weak to moderate antiprotozoal activity and, no significant effect was detected regarding their cytotoxic potency. PMID:25587333

  1. Carbohydrate esters of cinnamic acid from fruits of Physalis peruviana, Psidium guajava and Vaccinium vitis-idaea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Latza; Dietmar Ganßer; Ralf G. Berger

    1996-01-01

    1-O-trans-Cinnamoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranose was isolated from fruits of Physalis peruviana and 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-?-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranose was obtained from fruits of Psidium guajava. Fruits of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and P. guajava were found to be rich sources of 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-?-d-glucopyranose.

  2. Gamma-polyglutamic acid (gamma-PGA) produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens C06 promoting its colonization on fruit surface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; He, Dan; Li, Xiu-zhen; Gao, Shengfeng; Wu, Huijun; Liu, Wenzhe; Gao, Xuewen; Zhou, Ting

    2010-08-15

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens C06, an effective biological agent in controlling brown rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola, was also found to produce extra-cellular mucilage and form mucoid colonies on semi-solid surfaces. This study aimed to characterize the extra-cellular mucilage produced by B. amyloliquefaciens C06 using transposon mutagenesis and biochemical and physical analyses. The mucilage production in B. amyloliquefaciens C06 was demonstrated to be associated with ywsC gene expression and characterized to be of high molecular weight, consisted of only glutamic acid and linked with non-peptide bonds, thus identified as gamma-polyglutamic acid (gamma-PGA). Compared with wild type B. amyloliquefaciens C06, its mutants deficient in producing gamma-PGA, e.g. M106 and C06DeltaywsC showed less efficiency in biofilm formation, surface adhesion and swarming ability. It was also demonstrated that gamma-PGA was not essential for C06 to form colony on semi-solid surfaces, but was able to improve its colony structure. In vivo evaluation showed that disruption of gamma-PGA production in C06DeltaywsC impaired its efficiency of colonizing apple surfaces. PMID:20638145

  3. Free amino acid profiles in reproductive and rind portions of cotton fruiting bodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, nutrition, particularly in terms of amino acids found in its principle reproductive plant host (plants that enable boll weevil reproduction by supplying the nutrients and sites for development to adulthood) is not well understood. However, it is know...

  4. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON APPLE TREE PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed o...

  5. Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

    2014-10-31

    A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500?gL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100?gL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100?gL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3?gL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

  6. Screening of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids in 19 berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Häkkinen; M. Heinonen; S. Kärenlampi; H. Mykkänen; J. Ruuskanen; R. Törrönen

    1999-01-01

    Selected flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin) and phenolic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic and ellagic acids) were simultaneously detected from 19 berries using a simple High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method. These phenolics have been proposed to have beneficial effects on health as antioxidants and anticarcinogens. Marked differences were observed in the phenolic profiles among the berries, with certain similarities

  7. Selected arsenic species: As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAA) in Xerocomus badius fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, P; Mleczek, M; Magdziak, Z; Siwulski, M; Kozak, L

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of As(III), As(V) and DMAA (dimethylarsinic acid) in Xerocomus badius fruiting bodies collected from selected Polish forests from areas subjected to very low or high anthropopressure and some commercially available samples obtained from the Polish Sanitary Inspectorate. The arsenic species determination was provided by two independent HPLC-HG-AAS hyphenated systems. The results show high levels (up to 27.1, 40.5 and 88.3 mg kg(-1) for As(III), As(V) and DMAA, respectively) of arsenic and occurrence of different species in mushrooms collected from areas subjected to high anthropopressure and two commercially available samples. For mushroom samples collected from areas not subjected to high anthropopressure and two commercially available samples the arsenic species level was below 0.5 mg kg(-1) for each arsenic form. Therefore, the accumulation of arsenic by mushrooms may lead to high (toxic for humans) arsenic concentrations, and arsenic species levels should be monitored in mushroom foodstuffs. PMID:23993523

  8. Metabolic profiling of phenolic acids and oxidative stress markers after consumption of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Jan; Valentová, Kate?ina; Vacek, Jan; Palíková, Irena; Zatloukalová, Martina; Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrbková, Jana; Šimánek, Vilím

    2013-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of one-week consumption of 165 g/day fresh blue honeysuckle berries (208 mg/day anthocyanins) in 10 healthy volunteers. At the end of intervention, levels of benzoic (median 1782 vs 4156), protocatechuic (709 vs 2417), vanillic (2779 vs 4753), 3-hydroxycinnamic (143 vs 351), p-coumaric (182 vs 271), isoferulic (805 vs 1570), ferulic (1086 vs 2395), and hippuric (194833 vs 398711 ?g/mg creatinine) acids by LC/MS were significantly increased in the urine. Clinical chemistry safety markers were not altered. Oxidative stress markers, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (0.73 vs 0.88 U/g Hb) and catalase (2.5 vs 2.8 ?kat/g Hb) activities, and erythrocyte/plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (522 vs 612/33 vs 38 ?mol/g Hb/protein) levels were significantly increased, without change in plasma antioxidant status. Nonsignificant changes of advanced oxidation protein products and oxidized LDL were observed. The results provide a solid base for further study of metabolite excretion and antioxidant parameters after ingestion of anthocyanins. PMID:23581742

  9. Epicuticular changes and storage potential of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] fruit following gibberellic acid preharvest sprays and postharvest heat treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schirra; G. D’hallewin; P. Inglese; T. La Mantia

    1999-01-01

    Cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (L.) cv. Gialla] fruit were treated 10 weeks after the second induced-bloom flush with 10 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) or were heated at 37°C for 30 h under saturated humidity after harvest. The two treatments were also combined before storage at 6°C for 45 days plus 4 additional days at 20°C to simulate a marketing

  10. Essential oil and fatty acid composition of the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea Buckthorn) and Myrtus communis L. from Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Cakir

    2004-01-01

    The composition of the volatile oil isolated from Hippophaë rhamnoides L. fruits was analysed by GC and GC-MS, and thirty constituents were identified, representing 94.6% of the oil. The major components were ethyl dodecenoate (39.4%), ethyl octanoate (9.9%), decanol (5.6%), ethyl decanoate (5.5%) and ethyl dodecanoate (3.7%). The composition of fatty acids in the lipid extracts obtained from the mesocarps

  11. Purification and partial characterization of an acidic ?-glucan-protein complex from the fruiting body of Pleurotus sajor-caju and its effect on macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Satitmanwiwat, Saranya; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Kyu, Khin Lay

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to purify an acidic ?-glucan-protein complex from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor-caju by using the cell wall-degrading enzymes, xylanase and cellulase. The acidic glucan-protein complex was separated from a polysaccharide extract by using DEAE Toyopearl 650M anion-exchange and Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. Its homogeneity was ensured by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and agarose gel electrophoresis. The acidic glucan-protein complex had a molecular weight of approximately 182 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the acidic glucan-protein complex revealed an ?-glycosidic bond and the typical characteristics of polysaccharides and proteins. The amino acid composition of the protein moiety was dominated by proline, glycine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, indicating that the protein was highly flexible and had a negative charge. Atomic force microscopy proved that the acidic ?-glucan-protein complex existed in a spherical conformation. The acidic ?-glucan-protein complex stimulated the activation of macrophages, including the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-?. PMID:23047100

  12. Comprehensive insights on how 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid retards senescence in post-harvest citrus fruits using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiaoli; Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Zhang, Li; Wei, Qingjiang; Cheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Lingling; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Auxin-like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a high-efficiency anti-stalling agent for the post-harvest fresh fruit industry, has had its use restricted due to environmental concerns. However, no other substitutes for 2,4-D are available to the post-harvest industry. Insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of 2,4-D on fruit quality preservation will provide a theoretical basis for exploring new safe and effective anti-stalling agents. This study comprehensively analysed changes in the peel of Olinda Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] induced by 500 ppm 2,4-D using 'omic'-driven approaches. Transcriptional profiling revealed that transcriptional factor (mainly AP2/ERF, WRKY, and NAC family members), transport, and hormone metabolism genes were over-represented and up-regulated within 24h post-treatment (HPT). Stress defence genes were up-regulated, while cell wall metabolism genes were down-regulated after 48 HPT. However, secondary metabolism genes, especially phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis-related genes, were over-represented at all the time points. Comparative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of proteins implicated in stress responses (25%), hormone metabolism, and signal transduction (12%) significantly accumulated at the post-transcriptional level. Hormone levels detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 2,4-D significantly increased, while ethylene production (detected by gas chromatography) decreased after 2,4-D treatment. In addition, lignin and water content in the fruit peel also increased and the epicuticle wax ultrastructure was modified. In conclusion, 2,4-D retarded fruit senescence by altering the levels of many endogenous hormones and by improving stress defence capabilities by up-regulating defence-related genes and proteins. PMID:24215076

  13. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid. PMID:23248562

  14. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

  15. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits are an essential part of our daily diets. Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium and calories. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and they do not contain cholesterol. Some fruits have laxative effects, prevent uri...

  16. Long aculeus and behavior of Anastrepha ludens render gibberellic acid ineffective as an agent to reduce 'ruby red' grapefruit susceptibility to the attack of this pestiferous fruit fly in commercial groves.

    PubMed

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín; Greany, Patrick; Bigurra, Everardo; Pérez-Staples, Diana; McDonald, Roy

    2006-08-01

    Treating Mexican grapefruit with gibberellic acid (GA3) before color break, significantly delayed peel color change and increased peel puncture resistance, but it did not reduce grapefruit susceptibility to Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) attack under natural conditions. Despite GA3 treatments, larval infestation levels increased with higher fruit fly populations, which also increased as the season progressed. Late in the season, infestation levels were even higher in GA3-treated fruit compared with untreated fruit, possibly because treated fruit were in better condition at that stage. Egg clutch size was significantly greater in very unripe, hard, GA3-treated fruit at the beginning of the harvest season and in December, compared with control fruit. Under laboratory conditions, egg injection into different regions of the fruit suggested that A. ludens eggs are intoxicated by peel oil content in the flavedo region. However, A. ludens' long aculeus allows females to oviposit eggs deeper into the peel (i.e., albedo), avoiding toxic essential oils in the flavedo. This makes A. ludens a particularly difficult species to control compared with other citrus-infesting species such as Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (fly species with significantly shorter aculei), which can be effectively managed with GA3 sprays. We discuss our findings in light of their practical implications and with respect to the oviposition behavior of various fruit flies attacking citrus. PMID:16937671

  17. The effect of fiber bleaching treatment on the properties of poly(lactic acid)/oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber composites.

    PubMed

    Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant. PMID:25153628

  18. Terpenes and sterols from the fruits of Prunus mume and their inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation by suppressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi-Tao; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Li, Wei; Jang, Hae-Dong; Kim, Young-Ho

    2015-02-01

    The fruits of Prunus mume are a common commercial product and a valuable source of food and medicinal material in Eastern Asian countries. Our phytochemical investigation of the P. mume fruit led to the isolation of nine terpenes, including three ursane-type triterpenes (1-3), two cycloartane-type triterpenes (4 and 5), and four tocopherols (10-13), as well as four sterols (6-9). Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and ESI-MS, and the majority of these compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The anti-osteoporosis activities of 1-13 were evaluated by measuring their inhibitory effects on tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 2-7 and 9-12 significantly suppressed TRAP activity down to 47.96 ± 2.45-86.45 ± 3.07 % relative to the control at a concentration of 1 ?M. These results suggest that the fruits of P. mume could be an excellent source of anti-osteoporosis phytochemicals that may be developed as natural nutraceuticals and functional foods. PMID:24771352

  19. Effects of 2,4DP (2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid) plant growth regulator on fruit size and yield of Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis Osb.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Y?ld?r?m; T Ye?ilo?lu; M ?ncesu; M U Kamilo?lu; B Çimen; ? Tamer

    2011-01-01

    The Valencia orange is a high-quality fruit grown in Turkey; however, small fruit sizes and high fruit discard percentages are common in Valencia oranges. Small fruit size is the main factor limiting the marketing of Valencia oranges; thus, synthetic auxins are commonly used to enhance the size of citrus fruit. The objective of the present study was to observe the

  20. Effects of 2,4DP (2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid) plant growth regulator on fruit size and yield of Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis Osb.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Y?ld?r?m; T Ye?ilo?lu; M ?ncesu; MU Kamilo?lu; B Çimen; ? Tamer

    2012-01-01

    The Valencia orange is a high-quality fruit grown in Turkey; however, small fruit sizes and high fruit discard percentages are common in Valencia oranges. Small fruit size is the main factor limiting the marketing of Valencia oranges; thus, synthetic auxins are commonly used to enhance the size of citrus fruit. The objective of the present study was to observe the

  1. Eburicoic Acid, an Active Triterpenoid from the Fruiting Bodies of Basswood Cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea, Induces ER Stress-Mediated Autophagy in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Chun-Ting; Chu, Yung-Lin; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-10-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a Taiwan-specific medicinal mushroom, can manipulate biological activities, including hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-hepatitis B virus activity, anticancer activity, etc. In this study, the anti-liver cancer activity and molecular mechanisms of eburicoic acid, the second most abundant triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea was investigated using the human hepatoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that eburicoic acid effectively reduced Hep 3B cell viability within 24 hours, and the IC50 was 18.4 ?M, which was equivalent to 8.7 ?g/mL. Besides, eburicoic acid induced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and a large number of autophagosomes/autolysosomes formation. In depth investigation for the molecular mechanisms, revealed that eburicoic acid firstly promoted reactive oxygen species generation and ATP depletion, leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress, followed by elevated cytosolic calcium ion concentration and BiP expression, downregulated phosphorylation of DAPK, upregulated phosphorylation of Beclin-1, JNK, and Bcl-2, and finally induced autophagy in Hep 3B cells. These results indicate that eburicoic acid has significant anti-liver cancer effects and more distinctive mechanisms. PMID:24716146

  2. Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effects and Potential Mechanisms of Action of the Caffeoylquinic Acid-Rich Pandanus tectorius Fruit Extract in Hamsters Fed a High Fat-Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haifeng; Sheng, Linghui; Su, Yan; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Tian, Yu; Ji, Yubin; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD). The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b) was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-c) and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol) in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPAR? and PPAR?-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPAR? was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPAR? and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities. PMID:23613974

  3. Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari H Häkkinen; A. Riitta Törrönen

    2000-01-01

    The amounts of flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (ellagic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids) were analysed in six strawberry cultivars and in the berries of genus Vaccinium (four blueberry cultivars, wild bilberry, wild bog whortleberry). Differences between strawberries from organic vs. conventional cultivation were investigated and the influence of geographical origin on phenolic compounds of strawberries and

  4. Fingerprint profiling of acid hydrolyzates of polysaccharides extracted from the fruiting bodies and spores of Lingzhi by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Di, Xin; Chan, Kelvin K C; Leung, Hei Wun; Huie, Carmen W

    2003-11-01

    Modern extraction and planar chromatographic instrumentation were employed for the fingerprint profiling of carbohydrates from an important and popular medicinal mushroom commonly known as Lingzhi. For the first time, the feasibility of employing the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) peak profiles (fingerprints) of carbohydrates for the screening of various Lingzhi species/products was demonstrated. An analytical procedure was developed such that upon acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides extracted from various Lingzhi samples, fingerprint profiles that reveal the relative amounts of the degradation products, such as mono- and oligosaccharides, can be obtained using HPTLC plates (Si 50000) for separation and 4-aminobenzoic acid as the post-chromatographic derivatization reagent for detection. Also, using automated multiple development (AMD), the acid hydrolyzates from Lingzhi, consisting of simple and more complex sugars, can be separated simultaneously with high degree of automation. An important finding was that unique fingerprint patterns were observed in the monosaccharide profiles between two highly valued Lingzhi species, Ganoderma applanatum and Ganoderma lucidum, under total or partial acid hydrolysis conditions. Additionally, the HPTLC fingerprint profiles of carbohydrates were obtained from the extracts of the spores and fruiting bodies of Lingzhi and compared. PMID:14582629

  5. Pear 14-3-3a gene (Pp14-3-3a) is regulated during fruit ripening and senescense, and involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuxing

    2014-12-01

    14-3-3 proteins play important roles in regulating plant development and phytohormone (abscisic acid, gibberellin and brassinosteroids) signalling. However, their regulation in fruit ripening and senescense, and response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling are yet to be illustrated. One cDNA encoding putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated Pp14-3-3a. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a belonged to ?-like group of 14-3-3 superfamilies. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Pp14-3-3a gene was developmentally regulated in the fruit. Further study demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a expression was inhibited by salicylic acid and induced by ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in pear fruit. These data suggested that Pp14-3-3a might be involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling during fruit ripening and senescence of pear. PMID:25572233

  6. CULTURAL SYSTEM AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN STRAWBERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) vs. matted row (MR)] and genotypes interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid and citric acid content were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also ...

  7. Simultaneous quantification of flavonoids and phenolic acids in plant materials by a newly developed isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography approach.

    PubMed

    Haghi, Ghasem; Hatami, Alireza

    2010-10-27

    A simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method based on isocratic elution has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin), flavones (luteolin and apigenin), and phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, ellagic, and rosmarinic acids) as important constituents in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants. Analysis was achieved on a C18 column at ambient temperature. The wavelengths used for the detection of flavonols, flavones, and phenolic acids were 370, 350, and 325 nm, respectively. After acid hydrolysis, the flavonoid aglycones were quantified straightforwardly in 20 dry herbal samples. The plants with the highest flavonoids were Rosa damascena, Solidago virgaurea, Ginkgo biloba, and Camellia sinensis. The contents of flavonoids aglycons ranged from 0.54 to 11.10 mg/g, from 0.03 to 14.80 mg/g, from 0.19 to 2.76 mg/g, from 0.15 to 2.36 mg/g, from 0.27 to 2.05 mg/g, and from 0.42 to 1.82 mg/g for quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, luteolin, apigenin, and myricetin in dry plant samples, respectively. PMID:20919719

  8. Anti-allodynic and Anti-hyperalgesic effects of an ethanolic extract and xylopic acid from the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica in murine models of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Woode, Eric; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K.M.; Kyekyeku, James Oppong; Adosraku, Reimmel K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including headache and neuralgia. An animal model of vincristine-induced sensory neuropathy was developed after repeated intraperitoneal injection in rats and used in the present work to study the effects of the ethanolic extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and its diterpene xylopic acid (XA) in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Vincristine (0.1 mg kg-1 day-1) was administered during two cycles of five consecutive days to induce chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Static tactile anti-allodynic, anti-hyperalgesic, and cold anti-allodynic effects of XAE (30-300 mg kg-1) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1) were assessed using Von Frey filaments of bending forces of 4, 8, and 15 g, the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and cold water (4.5°C), respectively. Results: Administration of vincristine caused the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia with no significant motor deficit, spontaneous pain, and foot deformity. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1) exhibited anti-hyperalgesic, tactile, and cold anti-allodynic properties with XA exhibiting greater potency than XAE. Pregabalin (10-100 mg kg-1) used as control produced similar effect. Conclusion: These findings establish the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of the ethanolic fruit XAE and its major diterpene XA in vincristine-induced neuropathtic pain. PMID:24761123

  9. Efficient determination of protocatechuic acid in fruit juices by selective and rapid magnetic molecular imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

    2014-08-13

    Magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have been prepared as solid phase material to selectively extract protocatechuic acid (PCA) from fruit juices with high capacity and fast binding kinetics. The resulting MMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and VSM. The adsorption process between PCA and MMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 7.5 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding kinetics (equilibrium time at 40 min). In addition, the prepared MMIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and reusability (retained 94.9% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMIPs were successfully applied for selective enrichment and determination of PCA from fruit juices (0.45 ?g/mL in grape juice but not detected in apple juice, pineapple juice, orange juice, and peach juice) with satisfactory recoveries (92-107%). The results indicated that synthesized MMIPs can be used for efficient and selective extraction of PCA from complex matrices. PMID:25075753

  10. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mesoporous activated carbon prepared from H3PO4-activated langsat empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Njoku, V O; Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-05-01

    The removal of toxic herbicide from wastewater is challenging due to the availability of suitable adsorbents. The Langsat empty fruit bunch is an agricultural waste and was used in this study as a cheap precursor to produce activated carbon for the adsorption of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at different initial concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mg/L. The produced Langsat empty fruit bunch activated carbon (LEFBAC) was mesoporous and had high surface area of 1065.65 m(2)/g with different active functional groups. The effect of shaking time, temperature and pH on 2,4-D removal were investigated using the batch technique. The adsorption capacity of 2,4-D by LEFBAC was decreased with increase in pH of solution whereas adsorption capacity increased with temperature. The adsorption data was well described by Langmuir isotherm followed by removal capacity of 261.2 mg/g at 30 °C. The results from this work showed that LEFBAC can be used as outstanding material for anionic herbicide uptake from wastewater. PMID:25721981

  11. Controlled atmosphere-induced changes in pH and organic acid metabolism may affect color of stored strawberry fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deirdre M. Holcroft; Adel A. Kader

    1999-01-01

    Skin and flesh of ‘Selva’ strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) stored at 5°C in air or 2 kPa O2 became darker red and accumulated anthocyanin levels, but these changes were reduced in fruit stored in air+20 kPa CO2, 2 kPa O2+20 kPa CO2, 0.5 kPa O2,, and 0.5 kPa O2+20 kPa CO2 (balance N2 in all CA treatments). Increasing pH

  12. Chemical guide parameters for Punica granatum cv. 'Mollar' fruit juices processed at industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Lorente, José; Coll, Luís; Streitenberger, Sergio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2014-03-15

    To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice from the pomegranate variety 'Mollar', chemical composition of eighteen samples directly obtained and commercialised in 2012 from three different fruit juice factories was investigated. According to the findings, the relative density of direct pomegranate juices varied between 1.061 and 1.064, which correspond to 15.15 and 15.71°Brix; titratable acidity changed between 2.6 and 2.8g/L, citric acid between 2.3 and 2.8 g/L, l-malic acid in a range of 1.3-1.4 g/L, and d-isocitric acid at levels less than 20mg/L. Glucose values ranged from 61.4 to 65.0 g/L, whereas fructose displayed values between 65.3 and 68.0 g/L. The predominant mineral was potassium (2,400-2,900 mg/L), followed by phosphorous, magnesium, calcium and sodium at levels of 81-89 mg/L, 17.6-28.5mg/L, 5.8-7.5mg/L and 4.3-5.3mg/L, respectively. Chemical determinations of anthocyanin and ellagitannin profiles and amino acids contents were also carry out. Concentrations of anthocyanins in commercialised samples were Cy3,5dG (19.30 ± 3.47 mg/L), followed by Dp3,5dG (17.87 ± 6.74 mg/L) and Cy3G (12.91 ± 6.32 mg/L). Punicalagin levels ranged between 503.70 and 762.85 mg/L, punicalins between 239.9 and 364.5mg/L, and free ellagic acid level was typically between 268.67 and 389.64 mg/L. The juice samples exhibited high amount of total phenolics (1,136-3,581 mg/L) as well as high ABTS radical scavenging activity (18-31 mmol Trolox/L). PMID:24206706

  13. Merging a sensitive capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection method with chemometric exploratory data analysis for the determination of phenolic acids and subsequent characterization of avocado fruit.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-12-15

    Herein we present the development of a powerful CE-UV method able to detect and quantify an important number of phenolic acids in 13 varieties of avocado fruits at 2 ripening stages. All the variables involved in CE separation were exhaustively optimized and the best results were obtained with a capillary of 50 ?m i.d. × 50 cm effective length, sodium tetraborate 40 mM at a pH of 9.4, 30 kV, 25 °C, 10s of hydrodynamic injection (0.5 psi) and UV detection at 254 nm. This optimal methodology was fully validated and then applied to different avocado samples. The number of phenolic acids determined varied from 8 to 14 compounds; in general, they were in concentrations ranging from 0.13 ppm to 3.82 ppm, except p-coumaric, benzoic and protocatechuic acids, which were found at higher concentrations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to highlight the differences between varieties and ripening degrees, looking for the most influential analytes. PMID:23993512

  14. Studies on the diagnosis of hop stunt viroid in fruit trees: Identification of new hosts and application of a nucleic acid extraction procedure based on non-organic solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Astruc; Jose F. Marcos; Guy Macquaire; Thierry Candresse; Vicente Pallfis

    1996-01-01

    A non-radioactive digoxigenin-labelled RNA probe specific for hop stunt viroid (HSVd) diagnosis has been developed. The high sensitivity and specificity of this RNA probe in dot blot hybridizations to nucleic acids from field samples, allowed the confirmation of the presence of HSVd in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and its detection in two fruit tree species not previously described as hosts

  15. Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Skutkova, Helena; Babula, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Cernei, Natalia; Rop, Otakar; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Provazník, Ivo; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4), South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine) were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis). The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed. PMID:21886093

  16. Frozen Fruit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-30

    In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

  17. Effects of latitude and weather conditions on contents of sugars, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Ou, Shiyi; Kallio, Heikki

    2009-04-01

    The genetic background determined the composition of black currants and the compositional response to weather conditions. The variety Melalahti had higher values for glucose and sugar/acid ratio and lower contents of fructose, citric acid, quinic acid, and vitamin C than the varieties Mortti and Ola (p<0.05). In comparison to black currants grown in northern Finland (latitude 66 degrees 34' N), the berries grown in southern Finland (latitude 60 degrees 23' N) had higher contents of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and citric acid (by 8.8, 6.1, 10.0, and 11.7%, respectively) and lower contents of malic acid, quinic acid, and vitamin C (by 31.1, 23.9, and 12.6%) (p<0.05). Fructose, glucose, and citric acid in Melalahti were not influenced by the weather, whereas their concentrations in Mortti and Ola correlated positively with the average temperature in February (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.53-0.79, p<0.01) and July (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.63-0.87, p<0.01) and negatively with the percentage of the days with a relative humidity of 10-30% from the start of the growth season until the day of harvest (Pearson's correlation coefficients = from -0.47 to -0.76, p<0.01). Positive correlations existed between fructose and glucose (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.95-0.96, p<0.01), citric acid and fructose (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.57-0.75, p<0.01), as well as between citric acid and glucose (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.56-0.70, p<0.01) in the three varieties because of the closely related metabolic pathways. PMID:19265382

  18. An Allele of the Ripening-Specific 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Gene (ACS1) in Apple Fruit with a Long Storage Life1

    PubMed Central

    Sunako, Tomomi; Sakuraba, Wakako; Senda, Mineo; Akada, Shinji; Ishikawa, Ryuji; Niizeki, Minoru; Harada, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    An allele of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene (Md-ACS1), the transcript and translated product of which have been identified in ripening apples (Malus domestica), was isolated from a genomic library of the apple cultivar, Golden Delicious. The predicted coding region of this allele (ACS1-2) showed that seven nucleotide substitutions in the corresponding region of ACS1-1 resulted in just one amino acid transition. A 162-bp sequence characterized as a short interspersed repetitive element retrotransposon was inserted in the 5?-flanking region of ACS1-2 corresponding to position ?781 in ACS1-1. The XhoI site located near the 3? end of the predicted coding region of ACS1-2 was absent from the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction product, revealing that exclusive transcription from ACS1-1 occurs during ripening of cv Golden Delicious fruit. DNA gel-blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses of genomic DNAs showed clearly that apple cultivars were either heterozygous for ACS1-1 and ACS1-2 or homozygous for each type. RNA gel-blot analysis of the ACS1-2 homozygous Fuji apple, which produces little ethylene and has a long storage life, demonstrated that the level of transcription from ACS1-2 during the ripening stage was very low. PMID:10198088

  19. FRUIT SPLIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...

  20. Urine pH is an indicator of dietary acid-base load, fruit and vegetables and meat intakes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk population study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-06-01

    Evidence exists that a more acidic diet is detrimental to bone health. Although more precise methods exist for measurement of acid-base balance, urine pH reflects acid-base balance and is readily measurable but has not been related to habitual dietary intake in general populations. The present study investigated the relationship between urine pH and dietary acid-base load (potential renal acid load; PRAL) and its contributory food groups (fruit and vegetables, meats, cereal and dairy foods). There were 22,034 men and women aged 39-78 years living in Norfolk (UK) with casual urine samples and dietary intakes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk FFQ. A sub-study (n 363) compared pH in casual samples and 24 h urine and intakes from a 7 d diary and the FFQ. A more alkaline diet (low PRAL), high fruit and vegetable intake and lower consumption of meat was significantly associated with a more alkaline urine pH before and after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity and smoking habit and also after excluding for urinary protein, glucose, ketones, diagnosed high blood pressure and diuretic medication. In the sub-study the strongest relationship was found between the 24 h urine and the 7 d diary. In conclusion, a more alkaline diet, higher fruit and vegetable and lower meat intake were related to more alkaline urine with a magnitude similar to intervention studies. As urine pH relates to dietary acid-base load its use to monitor change in consumption of fruit and vegetables, in individuals, warrants further investigation. PMID:18042305

  1. Structure?Activity Relationships of Antimicrobial Gallic Acid Derivatives from Pomegranate and Acacia Fruit Extracts against Potato Bacterial Wilt Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A; Salah El Dine, Riham; Fahmy, Sherifa; Yassin, Aymen; Porzel, Andrea; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial wilts of potato, tomato, pepper, and or eggplant caused by Ralstonia solanacearum are among the most serious plant diseases worldwide. In this study, the issue of developing bactericidal agents from natural sources against R. solanacearum derived from plant extracts was addressed. Extracts prepared from 25 plant species with antiseptic relevance in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for their antimicrobial properties against the potato pathogen R. solancearum by using the disc-zone inhibition assay and microtitre plate dilution method. Plants exhibiting notable antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogen include extracts from Acacia arabica and Punica granatum. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of A. arabica and P. granatum resulted in the isolation of bioactive compounds 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid and gallic acid, in addition to epicatechin. All isolates displayed significant antimicrobial activities against R. solanacearum (MIC values 0.5-9?mg/ml), with 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid being the most effective one with a MIC value of 0.47?mg/ml. We further performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for the inhibition of R. solanacearum growth by ten natural, structurally related benzoic acids. PMID:26080741

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  3. The amino acid sequence of the tryptic peptides from actinidin, a proteolytic enzyme from the fruit of Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed Central

    Carne, A; Moore, C H

    1978-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides of the thiol proteinase actinidin from Actinidia chinensis were determined by the manual dansyl--Edman procedure. There are 12 tryptic peptides, which give a polypeptide chain of 220 residues with a mol.wt. of 23500. An alignment of the tryptic peptides was made by using the X-ray-crystallographic data of Baker [(1977) J. Mol. Biol. 115, 263--277] determined at 0.28 nm resolution on crystalline actinidin. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50083 (14 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5. PMID:687380

  4. Development of a dipstick immunoassay for quantitative determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water, fruit and urine samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Cuong; T. T. Bachmann; R. D. Schmid

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive dipstick assay for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) detection was developed. The assay was based on the\\u000a competitive reaction of 2,4-D and enzyme tracer with monoclonal antibodies immobilised on an Ultrabind® membrane. The binding of enzyme tracer on the test strip was determined by a simple, portable reflectometer as remission\\u000a at 657 nm. Using this technique, 2,4-D could be detected

  5. Antagonistic Changes between Abscisic Acid and Gibberellins in Citrus Fruits Subjected to a Series of Different Water Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalel Mahouachi; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas; Eduardo Primo-Millo; Manuel Talon

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between absicisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) changes in developing fruitlets from both Clementina (Citrus clementina, Hort ex Tan) and Okitsu (Citrus unshiu, (Mak) Marc.) trees subjected to changing water conditions was investigated. The treatments consisted of a series of water\\u000a stress, rainfall, and re-irrigation periods. To confirm the effectiveness of the imposed water changes, leaf water potential

  6. Factors affecting the conversion of apple polyphenols to phenolic acids and fruit matrix to short-chain fatty acids by human faecal microbiota in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bazzocco, Sarah; Mattila, Ismo; Guyot, Sylvain; Renard, Catherine M G C; Aura, Anna-Marja

    2008-12-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in apples are condensed tannins comprised mostly of (-)-epicatechin units with some terminal (+)-catechins. PAs, especially those having a long chain-length, are absorbed in the upper intestine only to a small extent and are passed to the colon. In the colon they are subjected to microbial metabolism by colonic microbiota. In the present article, the ability of human microbiota to ferment apple PAs is studied. Freeze-dried fruit preparations (apple, enzymatically digested apple, isolated cell-walls, isolated PAs or ciders) from two varieties, Marie Ménard and Avrolles, containing PAs of different chain lengths, were compared. Fermentation studies were performed in an in vitro colon model using human faecal microbiota as an inoculum. The maximal extent of conversion to known microbial metabolites, was observed at late time point for Marie Ménard cider, having short PAs. In this case, the initial dose also contributed to the extent of conversion. Long-chain PAs were able to inhibit the in vitro microbial metabolism of PAs shown as low maxima at early time points. Presence of isolated PAs also suppressed SCFA formation from carbohydrates as compared with that from apple cell wall or faecal suspension without substrates. The low maximal extents at early time points suggest that there is a competition between the inhibitory effect of the PAs on microbial activity, and the ability to convert PAs by the microbiota. PMID:18931964

  7. Pome fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...

  8. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine. PMID:18819615

  9. Identification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes controlling the ethylene level of ripening fruit in Japanese pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Itai; T. Kawata; K. Tanabe; F. Tamura; M. Uchiyama; M. Tomomitsu; N. Shiraiwa

    1999-01-01

    The shelf life of Japanese pear fruit is determined by its level of ethylene production. Relatively high levels of ethylene\\u000a reduce storage potential and fruit quality. We have identified RFLP markers tightly linked to the locus that determines the\\u000a rate of ethylene evolution in ripening fruit of the Japanese pear. The study was carried out using sequences of two types

  10. Aqueous thermal degradation of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow Boles, Jennifer; Crerar, David A.; Grissom, Grady; Key, Tonalee C.

    1988-02-01

    Aqueous thermal degradation experiments show gallic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic carboxylic compound, decomposes rapidly at temperatures between 105° and 150°C, with an activation energy of 22.9 or 27.8 kcal/ mole, depending on pH of the starting solution. Pyrogallol is the primary product identified, indicating degradation via decarboxylation and a carbanion transition state. Relatively rapid degradation of vanillic, phthalic, ellagic and tannic acids has also been observed, suggesting that these and perhaps other aromatic acids could be short-lived in deep formation waters.

  11. Aqueous thermal degradation of gallic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.S.; Crerar, D.A.; Grissom, G.; Key, T.C.

    1988-02-01

    Aqueous thermal degradation experiments show gallic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic carboxylic compound, decomposes rapidly at temperatures between 105/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C, with an activation energy of 22.9 or 27.8 kcal/mole, depending on pH of the starting solution. Pyrogallol is the primary product identified, indicating degradation via decarboxylation and a carbanion transition state. Relatively rapid degradation of vanillic, phthalic, ellagic and tannic acids has also been observed,suggesting that these and perhaps other aromatic acids could be short-lived in deep formation waters.

  12. Influence of gamma-radiation on mycotoxin producing moulds and mycotoxins in fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagy H. Aziz; Loutfy A. A. Moussa

    2002-01-01

    One hundred random fruit samples were collected and analyzed for mycotoxins and the effect of gamma-irradiation on the production of mycotoxins in fruits was studied. Analysis of fruits revealed the occurrence of penicillic acid, patulin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), citrinin, ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1. Of the 100 samples examined, 60 were positive for one or more mycotoxin. Irradiation of fruits

  13. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Pawpaw Fruit (Asimina triloba L.) at Different Ripening Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideka Kobayashi; Changzheng Wang; Kirk W. Pomper

    2008-01-01

    Pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal), a native species of the eastern United States, bears the largest edible fruit of all indigenous trees. Chemoprotective properties of fruits have been partly attributed to phenolics such as gallic acid and chlorogenic acid, and the phenolic content generally correlates with antioxidant capacity for various kinds of fruits. Despite many reports of commonly available fruits,

  14. Two New Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Stem Bark of Alchornea laxiflora (Euphorbiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Pergaud Sandjo; Hervé M. Poumale Poumale; Xavier Noudou Siwe; Hippolyte Nga Ntede; Yoshihito Shiono; Bonaventure Tchaleu Ngadjui; Rui M. W. Krause; Derek Tantoh Ndinteh; Joseph Tanyi Mbafor

    Euphorbiaceae is a family of plants used in traditional remedies in central Africa to treat selected diseases. Some of the\\u000a phytochemical components in the stem bark of Alchornea laxiflora that have biochemical activity were identified. A number of novel compounds were isolated, including a new fatty acid ester,\\u000a (1) a new ceramide, (2) some triterpenoids, (3–5), ellagic acid (6) and

  15. Labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid contained in fruits of Cupressus sempervirens suppresses benign prostatic hyperplasia in rat and in vitro human models through inhibition of androgen and STAT-3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Rajeev; Khan, Mohammad F; Singh, Anil K; Sharma, Rolee; Arya, Kamal R; Maikhuri, J P; Dalela, Diwakar; Maurya, Rakesh; Gupta, Gopal

    2014-08-01

    Fruit extract of Cupressus sempervirens (CS), which is used traditionally to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)-like urinary symptoms in patients, was scientifically validated for anti-BPH activity. The ethanolic fruit extract of CS inhibited proliferation of human BPH-stromal cells and the activity was localized to its chloroform-soluble, diterpene-rich fraction. Eight major diterpenes isolated from this fraction exhibited moderate to potent activity and the most active diterpene (labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid) exhibited an IC50 of 37.5??M (antiproliferative activity against human BPH-stromal cells). It significantly inhibited activation (phosphorylation) of Stat-3 in BPH-stromal cells and prevented transactivation of androgen sensitive KLK3/PSA and TMPRSS2 genes in LNCaP cells. Labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid-rich CS fraction prevented prostatic hyperplasia in rat model and caused TUNEL labeling of stromal cells with lower expressions of IGF-I, TGF-ß and PCNA, and bcl-2/bax ratio. Human BPH tissues exhibited precise lowering of stromal component after incubation in labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid, ex vivo. We conclude that labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid contained in CS exhibits anti-BPH activity through inhibition of stromal proliferation and suppression of androgen action in the prostate, presenting a unique lead structure for further optimization of anti-BPH activity. PMID:24399792

  16. Molecular approaches for enhancing sweetness in fruits and vegetables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akula Nookaraju; Chandrama P. Upadhyaya; Shashank K. Pandey; Ko Eun Young; Se Jin Hong; Suk Keun Park; Se Won Park

    2010-01-01

    The quality of fruits and vegetables is mainly dependant on the sweetness determined by the level of soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. Other fruit quality parameters include Brix content, acidity, aroma, color, size and shape. Total sugar content in fruits and vegetables is a function of genetic, nutritional, environmental and developmental factors. Understanding the factors controlling sweetness

  17. Hormonal Regulation of Tomato Fruit Development: A Molecular Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alka Srivastava; Avtar K. Handa

    2005-01-01

    Fruit development is a complex yet tightly regulated process. The developing fruit undergoes phases of cell division and expansion followed by numerous metabolic changes leading to ripening. Plant hormones are known to affect many aspects of fruit growth and development. In addition to the five classic hormones (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) a few other growth regulators that

  18. Food safety and berry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although berries have enjoyed a relatively good record of food safety, berries have been found to be the source of several foodborne pathogenic outbreaks in recent years. It was assumed the acidity of the fruit (pH 3.0-4.5) would deter the existence of pathogenic organisms. However, cleaning harvest...

  19. Antioxidant activity and profiles of common fruits in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mia Isabelle; Bee Lan Lee; Meng Thiam Lim; Woon-Puay Koh; Dejian Huang; Choon Nam Ong

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight types of fruits commonly consumed in Singapore were systematically analysed for their hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) and various lipophilic antioxidants. Antioxidant composition and concentration varied widely across different fruits. Many of the tropical fruits tested were high in antioxidants. Amongst all fruits tested, sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) had the highest H-ORAC

  20. [Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].

    PubMed

    Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Ba?kov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Ba?garin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23808277

  1. Tomato Fruit Cell Wall 1

    PubMed Central

    Koch, James L.; Nevins, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Cell wall isolation procedures were evaluated to determine their effect on the total pectin content and the degree of methylesterification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cell walls. Water homogenates liberate substantial amounts of buffer soluble uronic acid, 5.2 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall. Solubilization appears to be a consequence of autohydrolysis mediated by polygalacturonase II, isoenzymes A and B, since the uronic acid release from the wall residue can be suppressed by homogenization in the presence of 50% ethanol followed by heating. The extent of methylesterification in heat-inactivated cell walls, 94 mole%, was significantly greater than with water homogenates, 56 mole%. The results suggest that autohydrolysis, mediated by cell wall-associated enzymes, accounts for the solubilization of tomato fruit pectin in vitro. Endogenous enzymes also account for a decrease in the methylesterification during the cell wall preparation. The heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was superior to the other methods studied since it reduces ?-elimination during heating and inactivates constitutive enzymes that may modify pectin structure. This heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was used in subsequent enzymatic analysis of the pectin structure. Purified tomato fruit polygalacturonase and partially purified pectinmethylesterase were used to assess changes in constitutive substrates during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase treatment of heat-inactivated cell walls from mature green and breaker stages released 14% of the uronic acid. The extent of the release of polyuronides by polygalacturonase was fruit development stage dependent. At the turning stage, 21% of the pectin fraction was released, a value which increased to a maximum of 28% of the uronides at the red ripe stage. Pretreatment of the walls with purified tomato pectinesterase rendered walls from all ripening stages equally susceptible to polygalacturonase. Quantitatively, the release of uronides by polygalacturonase from all pectinesterase treated cell walls was equivalent to polygalacturonase treatment of walls at the ripe stage. Uronide polymers released by polygalacturonase contain galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose. As a function of development, an increase in the release of galacturonic acid and rhamnose was observed (40 and 6% of these polymers at the mature green stage to 54 and 15% at the red ripe stage, respectively). The amount of galactose and arabinose released by exogenous polygalacturonase decreased during development (41 and 11% from walls of mature green fruit to 11 and 6% at the red ripe stage, respectively). Minor amounts of glucose and xylose released from the wall by exogenous polygalacturonase (4-7%) remained constant throughout fruit development. PMID:16667142

  2. Alteration of the interconversion of pyruvate and malate in the plastid or cytosol of ripening tomato fruit invokes diverse consequences on sugar but similar effects on cellular organic acid, metabolism, and transitory starch accumulation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, José G; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening. PMID:23250627

  3. Alteration of the Interconversion of Pyruvate and Malate in the Plastid or Cytosol of Ripening Tomato Fruit Invokes Diverse Consequences on Sugar But Similar Effects on Cellular Organic Acid, Metabolism, and Transitory Starch Accumulation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, José G.; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening. PMID:23250627

  4. Lipids of the pawpaw fruit: Asimina triloba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Wood; Scott Peterson

    1999-01-01

    The fatty acid composition and structure of pawpaw fruit (Asimina triloba) triglycerides were examined and found to contain fatty acids ranging from C6 to C20. Octanoate represented 20% of the fatty acids while other medium-chain fatty acids were present in low amounts. Analysis\\u000a of the intact triglycerides by high-temperature gas-liquid chromatography gave an unusual three-cycle carbon number distribution.\\u000a Analysis of

  5. Influence of acid tolerance responses on survival, growth, and thermal cross-protection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidified media and fruit juices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jee-Hoon Ryu; Larry R Beuchat

    1998-01-01

    A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with

  6. FRUIT & NUT Blackberries

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    and set fruit on flo- ricanes; and Primocane-bearing, which flower on primo-canes late in the growingTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Blackberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Brambles or caneberries are fruits in the Ru- bus genus

  7. Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , with fruit 6 ounces orange juice, frozen concentrate, thawed Directions 1. Mix the ingredients in a mediumFrozen Fruit Pops Ingredients: 8 ounces crushed pineapple in juice 6 ounces nonfat yogurt instead of cups, making great "ice cubes" in fruit juice or diet soda. Try other fruits or juice

  8. Mark's Fruit Crops

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rieger, Mark

    Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

  9. Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 ?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 ?M Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

  10. Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients: 12 ounces frozen concentrated orange juice, or any other 100% fruit juice concentrate 1 1/2 cups water 3 cups ice Directions In a blender, place juice concentrate, water

  11. Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel ( Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elo?´sa Rovaris Pinheiro; Iolanda M. D. A. Silva; Luciano V. Gonzaga; Edna R. Amante; Reinaldo F. Teófilo; Márcia M. C. Ferreira; Renata D. M. C. Amboni

    2008-01-01

    A central composite design was employed to optimize the extraction of pectin with citric acid. The independent variables were citric acid concentration (0.086–2.91% w\\/v) and extraction time (17–102min). The combined effect of these variables on the degree of esterification was investigated. Results have shown that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship

  12. Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) and bitter fennel fruits (F. vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) growing in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belgin Co?ge; Mustafa Kiralan; Bilal Gürbüz

    2008-01-01

    Oil content in sweet and bitter fennels was obtained 12.22% and 14.41%, respectively. The C18:1 c6, C18:2, C18:1 c9 and C16:0 acids corresponding to ?97% of total oil was recorded as principal fatty acids. The ratios of essential oil from sweet and bitter fennels were found similar (average 3.00%). trans-Anethole, estragole and fenchone were found to be the main constituents

  13. Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripening in Banana Fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuejun Liu; Shinjiro Shiomi; Akira Nakatsuka; Yasutaka Kubo; Reinosuke Nakamura; Akitsugu Inaba

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. (AAA group, Caven- dish subgroup) cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production

  14. Micropropagation of Small Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir C. Debnath

    \\u000a The small fruit plants are predominantly woody perennial dicot angiosperms, bear small to moderate-sized fruits on herbs,\\u000a vines, or shrubs; and are usually vegetatively propagated to maintain true-to-type. The importance of small fruits in horticulture\\u000a lies in their dual role as in the landscape and of food. The fruits themselves are highly prized for their varying shapes,\\u000a textures, flavors, and

  15. Fun Fruit: Advanced

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2004-01-01

    This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  16. Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

  17. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.

    PubMed

    Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less than 0.0001). There was also a weaker but significant correlation with the citric acid content (rs 0.55, P less than 0.03). Although this may have reflected a direct effect of citric acid on Fe absorption, it should be noted that fruits containing citric acid also contained ascorbic acid (rs 0.70, P less than 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3593665

  18. BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

  19. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  20. Global patterns in fruiting seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Ting; Stephen Hartley; K. C. Burns

    2008-01-01

    Aim To identify geographical and climatic correlates of the timing of fruit production in fleshy fruited plant communities. Location Global. Methods We searched the literature for studies documenting monthly variation in the number of fleshy fruited species bearing ripe fruits in plant communities (i.e. fruit phenologies). From these data, we used circular vector algebra to characterize seasonal peaks in fruit

  1. Maturation and Ripening of Fruit of Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. are Accompanied by Increasing Oxidative Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUZY Y ROGIERS; G. N. MOHAN KUMAR; N. RICHARD KNOWLES

    1998-01-01

    The extent of oxidative stress during ripening of saskatoon(Amelanchier alnifoliaNutt.) fruit was examined. Lipid peroxidation during fruit development from the mature green to the fully ripe (purple) stage was evidenced by the accumulation of ethane and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Fruit polar lipid and free fatty acid concentrations also declined during ripening. Moreover, the double bond index of fatty acids

  2. Hawthorn ( Crataegus spp.) fruit: some physical and chemical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Musa Özcan; Haydar Hac?sefero?ullar?; Tamer Marako?lu; Derya Arslan

    2005-01-01

    The hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits were analysed for some physical (dimensions, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk density, fruit density, volume, terminal velocity, hardness and porosity) and chemical (moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude energy, crude fiber, ash, pH, acidity, water- and alcohol soluble extract) properties. Mineral content of wild hawthorn growing in Turkey were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic

  3. Miraculin, the Sweetness-inducing Protein from Miracle Fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Brouwer; H. van der Wel; A. Francke; G. J. Henning

    1968-01-01

    THE berries of Richardella dulcifica (Schum. and Thonn.) Baehni, formerly designated as Synsepalum dulcificum1, a shrub indigenous to tropical West Africa, have long been known for their taste-changing properties2. These berries, called miraculous berries or miracle fruit, have the property of modifying the taste of sour foods and dilute mineral and organic acids into a sweet taste after the fruit

  4. Fruit and vegetable fiber fermentation by gut microflora from canines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Swanson; C. M. Grieshop; G. M. Clapper; R. G. Shields; T. Belay; N. R. Merchen; G. C. Fahey

    The objective of this study was to assess fermentability by canine gut microflora to include short- chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, organic matter (OM) disappearance, and gas production of vegetable and fruit fiber sources compared to fiber standards (psyllium, citrus pectin, and Solka Floc). Fiber sources included apple pomace, carrot pomace, flaxseed, fruit blend (mixture of peach, almond, nectarine, and

  5. Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2014-01-01

    Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

  6. Production of nanocrystalline cellulose from an empty fruit bunches using sulfuric acid hydrolysis: Effect of reaction time on the molecular characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dulaimi, Ahmed A.; R, Rohaizu; D, Wanrosli W.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from OPEFB pulp via sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The influence of reaction time to the molecular weight and surface charge of the NCC was investigated. Characterization of the product was carried out using zeta potential measurement and gel permeation chromatography test. Zeta potential measurement showed that the surface negative charge significantly increases with increasing reaction time. Gel permeation chromatography test indicates that molecular weight of NCC change variably with increasing of hydrolysis time. (Keywords: Nanocrystalline cellulose; acid hydrolysis; sulfate content; molecular weight)

  7. Effect of sample preparation on the measurement of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols in apple fruit by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Sylvie; Scibisz, Iwona; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2012-04-11

    The objectives of this study were (i) to test different conditions of freezing, thawing, and grinding during sample preparation and (ii) to evaluate the possibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy for analyzing the composition of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols in apples. Seven commercial apple cultivars were chosen for their large variability in composition (total polyphenols from 406 to 1033 mg kg(-1) fresh weight). The different conditions of sample preparation affected only the phenolic compounds and not sugars or organic acids. The regression models of the mid-infrared spectra showed a good ability to estimate sugar and organic acid contents (R(2) ? 0.96), except for citric acid. Good predictions were obtained for total phenolic, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidins (R(2) ? 0.94) provided oxidation was avoided during sample preparation. A rapid and simple procedure was then proposed for phenolic compounds using sodium fluoride during sample homogenization at ambient temperature and freeze-drying before spectra acquisition. PMID:22409403

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  9. Triterpene saponins from the fruits of Phytolacca rugosa (Phytolaccaceae).

    PubMed

    Galarraga, Elier; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Amaro-Luis, Juan Manuel; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Pouységu, Laurent; Quideau, Stéphane; Rojas, Luis B; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2010-05-01

    Four known serjanic acid glycosides were isolated from the fruits of Phytolacca rugosa and characterized mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This aglycon has a chemotaxonomic significance for the genus Phytolacca. PMID:20521545

  10. Hormonal regulation of ripening in the strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Given; M. A. Venis; D. Gierson

    1988-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is one measure of ripening in the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit. Neither aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase, nor inhibitors of ethylene action (silver, norbornadiene) affected anthocyanin accumulation in ripening fruit. When the achenes were removed from one half of an unripe fruit there was an accelerated accumulation of anthocyanin and induction of

  11. INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON NICKEL ACCUMULATION AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COFFEE PLANTS DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre Rodrigues dos Reis; Jose Laercio Favarin; Luiz Antonio Gallo; Milton Ferreira Moraes; Tiago Tezotto; Jose Lavres Junior

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional and physiological significance of micronutrients in coffee plants, especially with regard to nickel (Ni) is still unknown. The dynamics of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and Ni accumulation in coffee fruits, as well as their relationships with total soluble protein, amino acids, reducing sugars, and starch content during coffee fruit development (green, ripe, and dry fruits), were investigated.

  12. Ripening Physiology of Fruit from Transgenic Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Plants with Reduced Ethylene Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry J. Klee

    lhe physiological effects of reduced ethylene synthesis in a transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) line expressing 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme have been examined. Fruit from the transgenic line 5673 ripen significantly slower than control fruit when removed from the vine early in ripening. In contrast, fruit that remain attached to the plants ripen much more rapidly, exhibiting little delay

  13. Glycerogalactolipids from the fruit of Lycium barbarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zengping Gao; Zulfiqar Ali; Ikhlas A. Khan

    2008-01-01

    Four glycerogalactolipids (1–4), together with 11 other previously known homologues were isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum. Their structures were elucidated by chemical analyses including regio-selective enzymatic, alkaline and acidic hydrolyses and spectroscopic methods involving GCMS, HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR, respectively.

  14. NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS IN SELECT FLORIDA TROPICAL FRUITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), total fib...

  15. Characterization of ethylene biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fruiting form as a means to improve early season fruit set 

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Terry Ray

    1994-01-01

    The metabolism of I-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) was investigated in cotton fruiting forms harvested at four stages (3 day pre-anthesis, 1 day preanthesis, anthesis, 3 day post-anthesis). Comparing bracts, the ACC concentration...

  16. Changes in papaya cell walls during fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E Paull; Ken Gross; Yunxia Qiu

    1999-01-01

    The apparent molecular mass range of different extractable fractions of papaya fruit pectin and hemicellulose during fruit ripening was determined. The pectin molecular mass declined and the solubility of pectin in cyclohexane-diaminotetraacetic acid and Na2CO3 solutions increased during ripening. The molecular mass decreased and the solubility of hemicellulose in KOH increased during ripening. Water soluble uronic acid increased 6-fold during

  17. Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, M; D'Angeli, S; Errico, S; Lamanna, R; Perrotta, G; Altamura, M M

    2011-06-01

    The olive tree lacks dormancy and is low temperature sensitive, with differences in cold tolerance and oil quality among genotypes. The oil is produced in the drupe, and the unsaturated fatty acids contribute to its quality. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship among development, cold response, expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes, and unsaturated fatty acid composition in drupes belonging to genotypes differing in leaf cold tolerance, but producing good oil (i.e. the non-hardy Moraiolo, the semi-hardy Frantoio, and the hardy Canino). In all genotypes, cold sensitivity, evaluated by cold-induced transient increases in cytosolic calcium, was high in the epi-mesocarp cells before oil body formation, and decreased during oil biogenesis. However, genotype-dependent differences in cold sensitivity appeared at the end of oil production. Genotype-dependent differences in FAD2.1, FAD2.2, FAD6, and FAD7 expression levels occurred in the epi-mesocarp cells during the oleogenic period. However, FAD2.1 and FAD7 were always the highest in the first part of this period. FAD2.2 and FAD7 increased after cold applications during oleogenesis, independently of the genotype. Unsaturated fatty acids increased in the drupes of the non-hardy genotype, but not in those of the hardy one, after cold exposure at the time of the highest FAD transcription. The results show a direct relationship between FAD expression and lipid desaturation in the drupes of the cold-sensitive genotype, and an inverse relationship in those of the cold-resistant genotype, suggesting that drupe cold acclimation requires a fine FAD post-transcriptional regulation. Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed. PMID:21357772

  18. Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness

    PubMed Central

    Matteucci, M.; D'Angeli, S.; Errico, S.; Lamanna, R.; Perrotta, G.; Altamura, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The olive tree lacks dormancy and is low temperature sensitive, with differences in cold tolerance and oil quality among genotypes. The oil is produced in the drupe, and the unsaturated fatty acids contribute to its quality. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship among development, cold response, expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes, and unsaturated fatty acid composition in drupes belonging to genotypes differing in leaf cold tolerance, but producing good oil (i.e. the non-hardy Moraiolo, the semi-hardy Frantoio, and the hardy Canino). In all genotypes, cold sensitivity, evaluated by cold-induced transient increases in cytosolic calcium, was high in the epi-mesocarp cells before oil body formation, and decreased during oil biogenesis. However, genotype-dependent differences in cold sensitivity appeared at the end of oil production. Genotype-dependent differences in FAD2.1, FAD2.2, FAD6, and FAD7 expression levels occurred in the epi-mesocarp cells during the oleogenic period. However, FAD2.1 and FAD7 were always the highest in the first part of this period. FAD2.2 and FAD7 increased after cold applications during oleogenesis, independently of the genotype. Unsaturated fatty acids increased in the drupes of the non-hardy genotype, but not in those of the hardy one, after cold exposure at the time of the highest FAD transcription. The results show a direct relationship between FAD expression and lipid desaturation in the drupes of the cold-sensitive genotype, and an inverse relationship in those of the cold-resistant genotype, suggesting that drupe cold acclimation requires a fine FAD post-transcriptional regulation. Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed. PMID:21357772

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulators for Preventing Premature Fruit Drop and Improving Fruit Quality Parameters in ‘Dusehri’ Mango

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waqas Ahmed; Faqir Muhammad Tahir; Ishtiaq Ahmad Rajwana; Syed Ali Raza; Habat Ullah Asad

    2012-01-01

    Fruit drop is a major problem resulting in low production and reduction in the income of mango growers in tropical and subtropical regions. Growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid, gibberellic acid, and 2, 4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid at the rates of (15, 25, and 35 ppm) were sprayed at full bloom stage on a popular mango cultivar ‘Dusehri’ growing in the

  20. Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine Dorothée; Terry, Leon Alexander

    2009-08-12

    The ripeness degree of climacteric fruits, such as avocado ( Persea americana Mill.), can be correlated with rheological properties. However, there remains little information on not only the postharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins but also the spatial variation within fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and composition of fatty acids and major nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of fruit tissue during ripening is unknown. The texture of different horizontally cut slices from individual fruits within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. The composition of fatty acids and NSCs in fruit mesocarp tissue was determined. The composition of fatty acids and oil and dry matter contents varied significantly according to origin. Significant changes in texture, mannoheptulose and perseitol contents, and linoleic acid percentage were found in avocado fruit flesh during ripening. Spatial variation within fruit was detected in both textural and biochemical characteristics. PMID:19580285

  1. Purification and characterisation of an acidic pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus ficuum strain MTCC 7591 suitable for clarification of fruit juices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangeeta Yadav; Pramod Kumar Yadav; Dinesh Yadav; Kapil Deo Singh Yadav

    2008-01-01

    An acidic pectin lyase (E.C. 4.2.2.10) produced byAspergillus ficuum MTCC 7591 of molecular weight 31.6 kD was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography.\\u000a Eighty-six fold purification with 60% yield and a specific activity of 7.8 U\\/mg protein was obtained. The Km and calculated turnover number (kcat) of the purified enzyme were found to be 0.60

  2. Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  3. Home Fruit Production - Figs. 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

    1987-01-01

    are required for normal fruit development. If this fertilization process does not occur, fruit will not develop properly and will fall from the tree. Smyrna-type figs are commonly sold as dried figs. San Pedro. These figs can bear two crops of fruit in one... season-one crop on last season's growth and a second crop on current growth. The first crop, called the Breba crop, is parthenocarpic and does not require pollination. Fruit of the second crop is the Smyrna type and requires pollination from...

  4. Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) and bitter fennel fruits (F. vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Co?ge, Belgin; Kiralan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Bilal

    2008-01-01

    Oil content in sweet and bitter fennels was obtained 12.22% and 14.41%, respectively. The C(18:1 c6), C(18:2), C(18:1 c9) and C(16:0) acids corresponding to approximately 97% of total oil was recorded as principal fatty acids. The ratios of essential oil from sweet and bitter fennels were found similar (average 3.00%). trans-Anethole, estragole and fenchone were found to be the main constituents in both fennels. The compound with the highest value in the two oil samples was trans-anethole as 95.25% (sweet) and 75.13% (bitter). While estragole was found in bitter fennel oil in a remarkable amount (15.51%), sweet fennel oil contained small amounts of estragole (2.87%). Fenchone was found <1% in sweet and approximately 5% in bitter fennel. p-Anisaldehyde in bitter fennel essential oil, and alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene in sweet fennel essential oil were not recorded, and these compounds were found very low or <1%. PMID:18780240

  5. The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

  6. The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P.; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

  7. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  8. Sucrose Synthase, Starch Accumulation, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F.; Sanz, A.; Brenner, M. L.; Smith, A.

    1993-01-01

    Contrasting evidence has accumulated regarding the role of acid invertase and sucrose synthase in tomato fruit sink establishment and maintenance. In this work the relationships among the activities of sucrose synthase and acid invertase, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv UC-82B fruit growth, and starch accumulation were analyzed in fruit at 0 to 39 d after anthesis. Sucrose synthase, but not acid invertase, was found to be positively correlated with tomato fruit relative growth rate and with starch content in the pericarp tissue. A similar association between sucrose synthase activity and starch accumulation was also evident in the basal portion of the stem. Heat-shock treatments, which inhibited the increase in sucrose synthase activity at the beginning of the light period and had no effect on acid invertase activity, were used to examine the importance of sucrose synthase in relation to sucrose metabolism and starch synthesis. After the heat-shock treatment, concomitantly with the suppressed sucrose synthase activity relative to the controls, there was a reduction in sucrose cleavage and starch accumulation. These data substantiate the conclusion that, during the early phases of tomato fruit development, sucrose synthase rather than acid invertase is the dominant enzyme in metabolizing imported sucrose, which in turn plays a part in regulating the import of sucrose into the fruit. PMID:12231688

  9. Lipids of the pawpaw fruit: Asimina triloba.

    PubMed

    Wood, R; Peterson, S

    1999-10-01

    The fatty acid composition and structure of pawpaw fruit (Asimina triloba) triglycerides were examined and found to contain fatty acids ranging from C6 to C20. Octanoate represented 20% of the fatty acids while other medium-chain fatty acids were present in low amounts. Analysis of the intact triglycerides by high-temperature gas-liquid chromatography gave an unusual three-cycle carbon number distribution. Analysis of triglyceride fractions separated according to degree of unsaturation suggested that one octanoate was paired with diglyceride species containing long-chain fatty acids. Determination of the double-bond positions of monoene fatty acids revealed cis delta9 and cis delta11 hexadecenoate and cis delta9, cis delta11, and cis delta13 octadecenoate isomers were present in significant quantities. Octanoate and positional monoene fatty acid isomers were found only in the fruit lipids and not in the seed lipids. Phenacyl esters of fatty acids were found to be useful derivatives for structure determination using multiple types of analyses. PMID:10580337

  10. Effect of fertilizer treatments on the fruit quality of the Halehaven peach 

    E-print Network

    Storey, James Benton

    1953-01-01

    Soluble Solids and Fruit Size. 12 13 15 4. Interaction Betveen Phosphorous and Cover Crop on Total Soluble Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . ~ . . ~ 17 5. Interaction Betveen Nitrogen and Phosphorous on Total Titratable Acid . 18 6. Three Factor... soluble solids, total titratable acid and color of fruit grown under various fertilizer treatments are valuable indications of the mature quality of the fruit. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of the three maJor fertilizer elements...

  11. FRUIT & NUT NATIVE PECANS

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    TEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION NATIVE PECANS Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension There are 600,000 to one million acres of native pecans along is seldom over 20 mil- lion pounds. A native pecan management pro- gram should include nut production

  12. Fruit and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased by more than 30% over the last few decades in the U.S. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on mi...

  13. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  14. Mutant Fruit Flies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

  15. Free and chemically bonded phenolic acids in barks of Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Turek, Sebastian; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Liquid column chromatography, planar chromatography (TLC) on modified and unmodified silica layers, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as ESI-TOF MS and 1H-NMR have been used for separation, purification and identification of phenolic acids in the barks of Sambucus nigra and Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae). By the use of these procedures three cinnamic acid derivatives: caffeic acid, p-coumaric, and ferulic acid, four benzoic acid derivatives: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, two phenylacetic acid derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homogentisic acid, and two depsides: chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were detected and identified in the bark of Viburnum opulus. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and chlorogenic acid were also detected and identified in the bark of Sambucus nigra. Except for chlorogenic acid, this is the first time these phenolic acids have been isolated, detected, and identified in the bark of V. opulus and S. nigra. PMID:18536165

  16. Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-05

    Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

  17. The multiple nutrition properties of some exotic fruits: Biological activity and active metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valery M. Dembitsky; Sumitra Poovarodom; Hanna Leontowicz; Maria Leontowicz; Suchada Vearasilp; Simon Trakhtenberg; Shela Gorinstein

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to describe the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of twenty selected exotic fruits and the influence of their physiologically active compounds on human health, through scientifically proven information. The review presents the biologically active metabolites derived from exotic fruits (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, volatile compounds, minerals, and organic acids) and various

  18. Chemical changes during the development and ripening of the fruit of Cucumis melo (Cv. Makdimon)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youming Wang; S. Grant Wyllie; David N. Leach

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the aroma volatiles, free amino acids, sugars, principal acids, and soluble minerals were studied during the development and ripening of the fruit of Cucumis melo L. Reticulatis group cv. Makdimon. Ethyl acetate was the most abundant volatile produced during the final growth stage, but ethanol was the major volatile found in immature fruit. Most of the free amino

  19. Suberin production by isolated tomato fruit protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rao, G S; Willison, J H; Ratnayake, W M

    1984-07-01

    The multilamellar wall secreted by protoplasts isolated from locule tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was purified, and an extract was obtained after depolymerization with BF(3)-methanol. Analysis of this extract using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters, and omega-hydroxy acid methyl esters. These components were quantified using an Iatroscan thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection system. The different chain lengths in each group were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. The results clearly indicated the presence of suberin. PMID:16663693

  20. Effects of tannic acid and its related compounds on food mutagens or hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA strands breaks in human lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Wu; C. C. Chu; J. G. Chung; C.-H. Chen; L.-S. Hsu; J.-K. Liu; S. C. Chen

    2004-01-01

    The effect of tannic acid (TA), gallic acid (GA), propyl gallate (PA) and ellagic acid (EA) on DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by food mutagens [3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido (4,3-b) indole (Trp-P-2) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimadazo (4,5-b) pyridine (PhIP) or H2O2 was evaluated by using single-cell electrophoresis (comet assay). The toxicity of these tested compounds (0.1–100?g\\/ml) on lymphocytes was not found. These compounds did

  1. Modeling C and N Transport to Developing Soybean Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Layzell, David B.; LaRue, Thomas A.

    1982-01-01

    Xylem sap and phloem exudates from detached leaves and fruit tips were collected and analyzed during early pod-fill in nodulated soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Wilkin) grown without (?N) and with (+N) NH4NO3. Ureides were the predominant from (91%) of N transported in the xylem of ?N plants, while amides (45%) and nitrate (23%) accounted for most of the N in the xylem of +N plants. Amino acids (44%) and ureides (36%) were the major N forms exported in phloem from leaves in ?N plants, but amides (63%) were most important in +N plants. Based on the composition of fruit tip phloem, ureides (55% and 33%) and amides (26% and 47%) accounted for the majority of N imported by fruits of ?N and +N plants, respectively. C:N weight ratios were lowest in xylem exudate (1.37 and 1.32), highest in petiole phloem (24.5 and 26.0), and intermediate in fruit tip exudate (12.6 and 12.1) for the ?N and +N treatments, respectively. The ratios were combined with data on fruit growth and respiration to construct a model of C and N transport to developing fruits. The model indicates xylem to phloem transfer provides 35% to 52% of fruit N. Results suggest the phloem entering fruits oversupplies their N requirement so that 13% of the N imported is exported from fruit in the xylem. PMID:16662669

  2. 'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology. PMID:24994760

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF LOCI AFFECTING FLAVOR VOLALTILE EMISSIONS IN TOMATO FRUITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh tomato fruit flavor is the sum of interaction between sugars, acids and a set of approximately 30 volatile compounds synthesized from a diverse set of precursors, including amino acids, lipids and carotenoids. Some of these volatiles impart desirable qualities while others are negatively perce...

  4. Chemical characterization of Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Díaz Medina; E. M. Rodríguez Rodríguez; C. Díaz Romero

    2007-01-01

    The chemical compositions (moisture, °Brix, total fibre, protein, fat, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni and Cr) were determined in fruits belonging to two species of prickly pear, Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii, from Tenerife Island. The chemical compositions of the two species were clearly different. However, no important

  5. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    PubMed

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

  6. FRUIT & NUT Plums, Nectarines, Apricots,

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    having a groove running down one side of the fruit with a smooth seed. Like peaches, they also set fruitTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Plums, Nectarines, Apricots, Cherries, Almonds & Prunus hybrids Larry Stein, Jim Kamas & Monte Nesbitt Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Plums The stone

  7. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

    1996-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

  8. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

  9. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

  10. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Raduni?, Mira; Juki? Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

    2015-06-15

    The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

  11. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity studies of tannic acid and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Chung, K T

    2000-01-01

    Tannic acid and its hydrolysed products such as ellagic acid, gallic acid and propyl gallate were tested for mutagenicities using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100. Also, the antimutagenic activities of these compounds against a number of direct mutagens including 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 4,4'-dinitro-2-biphenylamine, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine were tested. None of these tannic acid compounds was mutagenic. They also failed to show antimutagenic activity towards the tested direct mutagens. However, tannic acid at non-growth inhibitory concentrations reduced the revertant numbers of TA98 in the presence of S9 mix when benzidine, 3,3'-4,4'-tetraminobiphenyl, 4-aminobiphenyl, and N,N-N', N'-tetramethylbenzidine were used as the mutagens. These results suggest that tannic acid, but not its hydrolytic products, affects the metabolic activation of these mutagens. PMID:10685008

  12. Fat Fruit Flies

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-08-11

    Broadcast Transcript: Breaking news from South Korea's hi-tech frontline. With the help of drosophila, or the fruit fly, scientists here have discovered strands of genetic material that control growth in the body. They're ...

  13. Metabolomic analysis of avocado fruits by GC-APCI-TOF MS: effects of ripening degrees and fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernández, E; Pacchiarotta, T; Mayboroda, O A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate avocado fruit ripening, nontargeted GC-APCI-TOF MS metabolic profiling analyses were carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to explore the metabolic profiles from fruit samples of 13 varieties at two different ripening degrees. Mannoheptulose; pentadecylfuran; aspartic, malic, stearic, citric and pantothenic acids; mannitol; and ?-sitosterol were some of the metabolites found as more influential for the PLS-DA model. The similarities among genetically related samples (putative mutants of "Hass") and their metabolic differences from the rest of the varieties under study have also been evaluated. The achieved results reveal new insights into avocado fruit composition and metabolite changes, demonstrating therefore the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit ripening development, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops. PMID:25381615

  14. Name That Fruit!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauri Christopher

    2012-07-20

    In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

  15. Ethylene and Fruit Ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius S. Barry; James J. Giovannoni

    2007-01-01

    The ripening of fleshy fruits represents the unique coordination of developmental and biochemical pathways leading to changes\\u000a in color, texture, aroma, and nutritional quality of mature seed-bearing plant organs. The gaseous plant hormone ethylene\\u000a plays a key regulatory role in ripening of many fruits, including some representing important contributors of nutrition and\\u000a fiber to the diets of humans. Examples include

  16. Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zahra, T R

    2011-09-15

    An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content. PMID:22518928

  17. Rice fruit development is associated with an increased IAA content in pollinated ovaries.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Takao; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    To analyze fruit set and early fruit (caryopsis) development in rice, we established an in vitro spikelet culture system. The ovary of cultured pollinated spikelets grew rapidly and developed into fruits with an embryo and endosperm. When unpollinated spikelets were cultured on a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, parthenocarpic fruits lacking an embryo and endosperm developed. The number and size of the cells in the pericarp of parthenocarpic fruits were almost identical to those of fruits induced by pollination, and degeneration of nucellus tissue was observed in both pollinated and parthenocarpic fruits. These results suggested that ovary growth was induced through increased auxin content in the spikelets. Quantitative measurement of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content in the spikelets indicated that the IAA level increased after pollination. Further analysis of IAA contents in the ovary and rachilla-pedicel of cultured spikelets suggested that fruit development is associated with IAA synthesis in the ovary following pollination/fertilization and subsequent transport of IAA from the ovary to the rachilla-pedicel. Partial or complete removal of the rachilla and/or pedicel prior to spikelet culture greatly inhibited fruit development. These results indicated that the rachilla and pedicel are essential for rice fruit development. AUX/IAA and ARF genes that might be involved in rice fruit development were identified through transcriptome analysis. PMID:20512651

  18. The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

    2014-09-01

    Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

  19. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. PMID:25442527

  20. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26022876

  1. 78 FR 30213 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...FRL-9386-1] 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...tolerances for residues of 1- naphthaleneacetic acid in or on avocado; fruit, pome, group...growth regulator 1- naphthaleneacetic acid and its conjugates in or on...

  2. Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito L.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    López, Isis; Petersen, Jennifer J.; Anaya, Natalia; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Potter, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainitoL.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics: The process of domestication is understudied and poorly known for many tropical fruit tree crops. The star apple or caimito tree (Chrysophyllum cainito L., Sapotaceae) is cultivated throughout the New World tropics for its edible fruits. We studied this species in central Panama, where it grows wild in tropical moist forests and is also commonly cultivated in backyard gardens. Using fruits collected over two harvest seasons, we tested the hypothesis that cultivated individuals of C. cainito show distinctive fruit and seed characteristics associated with domestication relative to wild types. We found that cultivated fruits were significantly and substantially larger and allocated more to pulp and less to exocarp than wild fruits. The pulp of cultivated fruits was less acidic; also, the pulp had lower concentrations of phenolics and higher concentrations of sugar. The seeds were larger and more numerous and were less defended with phenolics in cultivated than in wild fruits. Discriminant Analysis showed that, among the many significant differences, fruit size and sugar concentration drove the great majority of the variance distinguishing wild from cultivated classes. Variance of pulp phenolics among individuals was significantly higher among wild trees than among cultivated trees, while variance of fruit mass and seed number was significantly higher among cultivated trees. Most traits showed strong correlations between years. Overall, we found a clear signature of a domestication syndrome in the fruits of cultivated caimito in Panama. PMID:20543881

  3. Quantification of Gallic Acidin Fruits of Three Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2011-01-01

    Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala’s pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex’s absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These differences can possibly be due to the source of plant preparation, storage condition and period of Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid. PMID:24250348

  4. Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Lactarius sp. mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Baptista, Paula; Estevinho, Letícia M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2007-10-17

    The effects of fruiting body maturity on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the wild mushrooms, Lactarius deliciosus and Lactarius piperatus, were evaluated. Immature and mature samples were analyzed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash, carbohydrates), nutritional value, and individual composition in fatty acids and sugars. Protein content, MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids), and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) percentages increased with the fruiting body maturity stage, while carbohydrate and SFA (saturated fatty acids) content decreased. The maturity stage did not significantly affect the individual sugar profile. The antimicrobial activity of the mushrooms was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi, and correlated to the amounts of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, and lycopene present in the immature and mature fruiting bodies. Mature fruiting bodies with mature spores presented lower antimicrobial activity, which was in agreement with the bioactive compound content found in those samples. PMID:17927152

  5. Phytochemical profile and the antioxidant activity of Chilean wild black-berry fruits, Aristotelia chilensis (Mol) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos L. Céspedes; Maribel Valdez-Morales; José G. Avila; Mohammed El-Hafidi; Julio Alarcón; Octavio Paredes-López

    2010-01-01

    From ethanolic, water extracts and their fractions of mature fruits of wild black-berry Aristotelia chilensis (Mol) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae), different phenolic compounds were identified by chromatographic (HPLC) and unequivocally assignments by spectroscopic (UV, NMR) data analysis. Anthocyanidins, flavonoids and phenolic acids fractions were obtained using flash and open column chromatography. The main compounds gentisic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid,

  6. Pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal) Fruit Ripening. I. Ethylene Biosynthesis and Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas D. Archbold; Kirk W. Pomper

    Pawpaw fruit ethylene production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) activities, and tissue content of the ethylene precursor ACC and conjugate malonyl-ACC (MACC) were measured during postharvest ripening. Fruit were harvested near the advent of the ripening process and were ripened at room temperature. The fruit displayed increases in ethylene production and respiration rate during ripening with

  7. Phenolics profile of mume, Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Takahiko; Horinishi, Asako; Kishida, Kunihiro; Kawabata, Tomoaki; Yano, Fumiko; Mimura, Hisa; Inaba, Nobuya; Yamanishi, Hisako; Oe, Takaaki; Negoro, Keiichi; Mori, Hajime; Miyake, Yasuhito; Hosoda, Asao; Tanaka, Yoshie; Mori, Megumi; Ozaki, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of mume, Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.), was evaluated for its phenolics content, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile and antioxidative activities. The phenolics content of mume fruit was relatively high, the flesh of fully matured fruit containing up to 1% of phenolics on a dry weight basis. Reflecting such a high content of phenolics, the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value for mume fruit flesh showed high values, ranging from 150 to 320 µmol/g Trolox equivalent, depending upon the stage of maturation. 5-O-Caffeoylqunic acid (chlorogenic acid), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and tetra-O-acylated sucrose-related compounds were isolated from the flesh of mume fruit, although many unknown peaks were also apparent in the HPLC chromatogram. An alkali hydrolysate comprised four main phenolic acids, caffeic acid, cis/trans-p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. No flavonoids were observed in the analysis. These results suggest that the majority of phenolics in mume fruit were hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. PMID:23924723

  8. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  9. Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

  10. Dried Fruits and Nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...

  11. IMPROVING FRUIT-SET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit-drop in pecan can occur due to insufficient nickel nutrition. Timely foliar sprays of Ni can prevent loss. Nut yield loss to pollination related factors is likely far more significant in many orchards than commonly recognized. Pollination studies in the southeastern U.S. pecan belt, where t...

  12. Anthocyanins in Blackcurrant Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Chandler; K. A. Harper

    1958-01-01

    Robinson and Robinson1 investigated the anthocyanin pigments of the fruit of the blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and stated that the skins contained a cyanidin-3-bioside. Gyanidin was the only aglycone found; but it was thought possible that small amounts of delphinidin were present. Fouassin2 has recently examined blackcurrant pigments by paper chromatography and has found two glycosides of cyanidin and two glycosides

  13. Fruits and vegetables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2007-07-23

    Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

  14. Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients: non stick cooking spray 3 bananas 1 cup raisins 2 cups rolled oats. Peel and coarsely mash bananas in mixing bowl. 3. Add raisins, oats, apple butter, walnuts, oil and vanilla extract with bananas and stir to mix well. 4. Let stand for 10 minutes. 5. Drop by teaspoonful

  15. Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 Golden Delicious apples 2 Red Delicious apples 2 banana 1 1/2 cups Directions 1. Leave the skin on the apple and cut in half through the core. Then cut each piece in half again

  16. Effect of Salinity on Tomato Fruit Ripening 1

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Yosef

    1982-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants from various cultivars growing on half-strength Hoagland solution were exposed at anthesis to 3 or 6 grams per liter NaCl. Salinity shortened the time of fruit development by 4 to 15%. Fruits of salt-treated plants were smaller and tasted better than did fruits of control plants. This result was obtained both for ripe fruits tested on the day of picking and for those picked at 100% development and allowed to ripen at room temperature for 9 days. Percentage of dry weight, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity; content of reducing sugars, Cl?, Na+, and various pericarp pigments; and electrical conductivity of the juice were higher in fruits of saline-treated plants than they were in those of control plants, while the pH was lower. Ethylene and CO2 evolution rates during ripening; as well as the activities of pectin methyl esterase, polymethylgalacturonase, and polygalacturonase; were also higher in fruits of the saline-treated plants. The treatment with 6 grams per liter NaCl shortened the fruit shelf life considerably. PMID:16662327

  17. Molecular Structure of Citric Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

  18. Tomato fruit cuticular waxes and their effects on transpiration barrier properties: functional characterization of a mutant deficient in a very-long-chain fatty acid  -ketoacyl-CoA synthase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Vogg; Stephanie Fischer; Jana Leide; Eyal Emmanuel; Reinhard Jetter; Avraham A. Levy; Markus Riederer

    2004-01-01

    Cuticular waxes play a pivotal role in limiting tran- spirational water loss across the plant surface. The correlation between the chemical composition of the cuticular waxes and their function as a transpiration barrier is still unclear. In the present study, intact tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum) are used, due to their astomatous surface, as a novel integra- tive approach to investigate

  19. Phenolic acids and depsides from some species of the Erodium genera.

    PubMed

    Fecka, I; Kowalczyk, A; Cisowski, W

    2001-01-01

    Six natural polyphenolic compounds, brevifolin carboxylic acid, brevifolin, ellagic acid, methyl gallate, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid have been isolated from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Erodium cicutarium (L.) L.'Hérit. (Geraniaceae). Structures were determined by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by MS and NMR spectral analysis. The distribution of these compounds in the other species of the Erodium genera (E. botrys, E. chium, E. ciconium, E. cicutarium, E. glutinosum subsp. dunense, E. gruinum, E. manescavi, E. pelargoniiflorum, E. petraeum) were examined by HPLC with a RP-18 column, and MGD-TLC methods on unmodified silica gel and silica gel chemically modified with polar and nonpolar groups (HPTLC-Si 60 LiChrospher, HPTLC-NH2, HPTLC-DIOL, HPTLC RP-18W). PMID:11837680

  20. Fructose-amino acid conjugate and other constituents from Cyperus rotundus L.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Hanaa M; Mohamed, Mahmoud H; Farag, Salwa F; Mohamed, Gamal A; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R M; Proksch, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Further phytochemical study on the aerial parts of Cyperus rotundus L. led to the isolation of a fructose-amino acid conjugate, N-(1-deoxy-alpha-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-tryptophan (16) and its tautomers, in addition to n-butyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside (1), ethyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (2), adenosine (3), (-)-(E)-caffeoylmalic acid (4), vitexin (5), isovitexin (6), orientin (7), epiorientin (8), myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (9), luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside-6''-methyl ester (10), chlorogenic acid (11), luteolin 4'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (12), luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (13), uridine (14) and ellagic acid (15). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Additionally, antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of some of the isolated phenolic compounds were carried out. PMID:19023813

  1. Species Variability for Fruit Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Abilities in Mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Shivashankara; S. H. Jalikop; T. K. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Fruits from five accessions of mulberry (Morussp.) representing Morus nigra, Morus lavigeta, and Morus alba were evaluated for ferric reducing antioxidant potential, diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability, total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid contents. In fresh fruits, higher antioxidant capacity was found in M. nigra followed by M. lavigeta and the lowest capacity was observed in M. alba.

  2. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. C. quality evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Govindarajan; S. Ranganna; K. V. R. Ramana; J. F. Kefford

    1984-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruits reviewed and discussed in Section A includes the following: sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents, and lipids; carotenoids which contribute

  3. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ranganna; V. S. Govindarajan; K. V. R. Ramana; J. F. Kefford

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids;

  4. Effects of Extraction Conditions on the Content of Anthocyanins and Bioelements in Berry Fruit Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Pliszka; Elwira Wierzbicka

    2008-01-01

    Two methods for extracting anthocyanins and bioelements [calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe)] from black chokeberry, black currant, strawberry, and bilberry fruits were compared in this study. Correlations between the content of anthocyanins and bioelements in fruit extracts were determined using method A [extraction with hydrochloric acid (HCl)] and method B [extraction with water (H2O)]. Relationships between the

  5. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherif E. A. Badr; Mohamed Shaaban; Yehya M. Elkholy; Maher H. Helal; Akila S. Hamza; Mohamed S. Masoud; Mounir M. El Safty

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, ?-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts,

  6. Estimated length: 17.4 pages Running title (32 characters): Sugar metabolism in tomato fruit

    E-print Network

    1 Estimated length: 17.4 pages Running title (32 characters): Sugar metabolism in tomato fruit Full Title (150 characters): Model-assisted analysis of sugar metabolism throughout tomato fruit development localization of soluble sugars within the vacuole, together with organic acids, thus enabling the osmotic

  7. Fruit composition and patterns of fruit dispersal of two Cornus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Borowicz; A. G. Stephenson

    1985-01-01

    Fruiting phenology and pattern of fruit removal of two shrubby dogwoods were examined in relation to fruit composition. It was predicted that fruit of the species bearing high fat fruit would disappear more rapidly and fall to the ground sooner than fruit of the species bearing low fat fruit. Field observation at two sites in central Pennsylvania contradicts these predictions.

  8. Sucrose Synthase in Wild Tomato, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jindong; Loboda, Tadeusz; Sung, Shi-Jean S.; Black, Clanton C.

    1992-01-01

    Here it is reported that sucrose synthase can be readily measured in growing wild tomato fruits (Lycopersicon chmielewskii) when suitable methods are adopted during fruit extraction. The enzyme also was present in fruit pericarp tissues, in seeds, and in flowers. To check for novel characteristics, the wild tomato fruit sucrose synthase was purified, by (NH4)2SO4 fraction and chromatography with DE-32, Sephadex G-200, and PBA-60, to one major band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The following characteristics were obtained: native protein relative molecular weight 380,000; subunit relative molecular weight 89,000; Km values with: sucrose 53 millimolar, UDP 18.9 micromolar, UDP-glucose 88 micromolar, fructose 8.4 millimolar; pH optima between 6.2 to 7.3 for sucrose breakdown and 7 to 9 for synthesis; and temperature optima near 50°C. The enzyme exhibited a high affinity and a preference for uridylates. The enzyme showed more sensitivity to divalent cations in the synthesis of sucrose than in its breakdown. Sink strength in tomato fruits also was investigated in regard to sucrose breakdown enzyme activities versus fruit weight gain. Sucrose synthase activity was consistently related to increases in fruit weight (sink strength) in both wild and commercial tomatoes. Acid and neutral invertases were not, because the published invertase activity values were too variable for quantitative analyses regarding the roles of invertases in tomato fruit development. In rapidly growing fruits of both wild and commercially developed tomato plants, the activity of sucrose synthase per growing fruit, i.e. sucrose synthase peak activity X fruit size, was linearly related to final fruit size; and the activity exceeded fruit growth and carbon import rates by at least 10-fold. In mature, nongrowing fruits, sucrose synthase activities approached nil values. Therefore, sucrose synthase can serve as an indicator of sink strength in growing tomato fruits. PMID:16668741

  9. Chemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Prunus avium L.: the widely studied fruits and the unexplored stems.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Claudete; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to characterise sweet cherry regarding nutritional composition of the fruits, and individual phytochemicals and bioactive properties of fruits and stems. The chromatographic profiles in sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds were established. All the preparations (extracts, infusions and decoctions) obtained using stems revealed higher antioxidant potential than the fruits extract, which is certainly related with its higher phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids) concentration. The fruits extract was the only one showing antitumor potential, revealing selectivity against HCT-15 (colon carcinoma) (GI50?74 ?g/mL). This could be related with anthocyanins that were only found in fruits and not in stems. None of the preparations have shown hepatotoxicity against normal primary cells. Overall, this study reports innovative results regarding chemical and bioactive properties of sweet cherry stems, and confirmed the nutritional and antioxidant characteristics of their fruits. PMID:25466123

  10. The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bastías, Adriana; Osorio, Sonia; Casaretto, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato. PMID:24659489

  11. Determination of vitamin C in tropical fruits: A comparative evaluation of methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yurena Hernández; M. Gloria Lobo; Mónica González

    2006-01-01

    Two analytical methods for extracting vitamin C (l-ascorbic and l-dehydroascorbic acids) in tropical fruits [banana, papaya, mango (at three maturity stages) and pineapple] were evaluated. These methods used ion-pair liquid chromatography (LC) for detecting ascorbic acid, but differed in the preparation of the sample (extraction with 3% metaphosphoric acid ?8% acetic acid or 0.1% oxalic acid). Results were validated by

  12. Ascorbate metabolism and the developmental demand for tartaric and oxalic acids in ripening grape berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa J Melino; Kathleen L Soole; Christopher M Ford

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fresh fruits are well accepted as a good source of the dietary antioxidant ascorbic acid (Asc, Vitamin C). However, fruits such as grapes do not accumulate exceptionally high quantities of Asc. Grapes, unlike most other cultivated fruits do however use Asc as a precursor for the synthesis of both oxalic (OA) and tartaric acids (TA). TA is a commercially

  13. Ammonia as a component of fruit fly attractants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principal components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important Ana...

  14. RNAi strategies to suppress insects of fruit and tree crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, to reduce plant feeding Hemiptera in fruit tree and grapevines. The successful use of RNAi strategies to reduce insect pests, psyllids and leafhoppers was demonstrated. An RNAi bioassay which absorbs dsRNA into plant tissues provided up to 40 days of act...

  15. New traps and lures for tree fruit pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted at the USDA, ARS Laboratory in Wapato, WA to develop new monitoring tools for key pests of tree fruits in the western United States are reviewed. Traps baited with pear ester, and acetic acid caught low numbers of tortricid leafrollers and these counts were well correlated with loc...

  16. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  17. New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits.

    PubMed

    Fayek, Nesrin M; Monem, Azza R Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y; Meselhy, Meselhy R

    2013-04-01

    ?-amyrin-3-(3'-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities. PMID:23798877

  18. New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits

    PubMed Central

    Fayek, Nesrin M.; Monem, Azza R. Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y.; Meselhy, Meselhy R.

    2013-01-01

    ?-amyrin-3-(3’-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities. PMID:23798877

  19. Microbial safety of tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Strawn, Laura K; Schneider, Keith R; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    There are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. Tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. Tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. Documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. Norovirus and Salmonella are the leading viral and bacterial pathogens, respectively, documented to have caused outbreaks of infections associated with consumption of tropical fruits. Sources of contamination of tropical fruit have been identified in the production environment and postharvest handling, primarily related to sanitation issues. Limited data exist on the specific route of transmission from these sources. Research on the microbial safety of tropical fruits is minimal; with the growing market for tropical fruit expected to increase by 33% in 2010 this research area needs to be addressed. The aim of this review is to discuss the foodborne pathogen outbreaks associated tropical fruit consumption, research previously completed on pathogen behavior on tropical fruits, preventive strategies for pathogen contamination, and research needs. PMID:21328109

  20. Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

    2014-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

  1. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples. PMID:25393892

  2. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (C. chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent C. annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16–20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

  3. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins. PMID:25990484

  4. Kiwifruit EIL and ERF genes involved in regulating fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xue-Ren; Allan, Andrew C; Chen, Kun-song; Ferguson, Ian B

    2010-07-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a climacteric fruit sensitive to low concentrations of ethylene. To investigate the transcriptional mechanisms underlying kiwifruit ethylene response, transcription factors encoding four EIN3-Like (EILs) and 14 Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) were cloned from kiwifruit. Expression of these transcription factors was examined during fruit development. The expression of transcripts of most AdERFs was higher during early fruit development, with the exception of AdERF3, which increased with maturity. Several AdERFs were apparently down-regulated by ethylene, as they were affected by the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene and by antisense suppression of ACO (for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase) in the fruit. In contrast, AdEILs were constitutively expressed during fruit development and ripening. The transcription factors AdEIL2 and AdEIL3 activated transcription of the ripening-related genes AdACO1 and AdXET5 (xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene) and, when overexpressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), stimulated ethylene production. The potential repressor AdERF9 suppressed this promoter activity. These results support a role for kiwifruit EILs and ERFs in transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes and in the regulation of kiwifruit fruit-ripening processes. PMID:20457803

  5. Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Hymenaea courbaril fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, José Cláudio D; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Lavor, Patrícia L; Veras, Helenicy N H; Ferreira, Yana S; Lima, Michele A A; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Lima, Jefferson Q; de Jesus, Hugo C R; Alves, Péricles B; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-12-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the peel of ripe and unripe fruits of Hymenaea courbaril L., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil from the peel of the ripe fruits were the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (11.1%), spathulenol (10.1%) and beta-selinene (8.2%), while germacrene-D (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (27.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%) were the major compounds in the oil from unripe fruits. The essential oils were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and showed LC50 values of 14.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 28.4 +/- 0.3 microg/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit peel oils, respectively. From the peel of the ripe fruits, the diterpenes zanzibaric acid and isoozic acid were isolated, along with the sesquiterpene caryolane-1,9beta-diol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this sesquiterpene in the genus. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. PMID:21299135

  6. Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

  7. Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in the fruit processing environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Catharina E; Cameron, Michelle; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2011-05-14

    Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for reconstituted fruit beverages to compete with beverages that are made from fresh fruits. In recent years, Alicyclobacillus spp. have become a major concern to the beverage industry worldwide as many high-acid, concentrated fruit products have been found to be contaminated with these spoilage microbes. The thermo-acidophilic nature of alicyclobacilli and highly resistant endospores allows for their survival during the production of concentrated fruit products. Under favourable conditions, endospores can germinate and multiply to numbers high enough to cause spoilage and product deterioration through the production of chemical taint compounds. It is imperative to understand the nature of Alicyclobacillus within the fruit concentrate processing environment so as to develop effective control strategies and to prevent spoilage in juice and beverage products that are reconstituted from fruit concentrates. This paper reviews the occurrence of alicyclobacilli in the fruit processing environment, control measures, as well as detection, identification and standardised test methods that are currently used for Alicyclobacillus in concentrated fruit products. PMID:21463910

  8. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage. PMID:25585519

  9. The Use of Nonaqueous Fractionation to Assess the Ionic Composition of the Apoplast during Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, A. J.; Parker, R.; Selvendran, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the possibility that pectin solubilization and cell separation in fruit may be due to organic acids disrupting calcium bridges between pectic polysaccharides. With fruit from a wild tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium [Dunal]) we demonstrated the validity of a nonaqueous fractionation method to obtain reliable estimates of the ionic content of the apoplast. In unripe fruit no organic acids were associated with the cell wall, which contained 67% of the total calcium and 47% of the magnesium. In ripe fruit 4% of the malate, 10% of the citrate, and 15% of the oxalate were estimated to be in the cell wall, together with 84% of the calcium and 52% of the magnesium. In contrast to the cultivated tomato, we did not find a consistent decrease in the degree of methyl esterification between unripe and ripe fruit, and an overall average of 75% was observed. In the cell walls of ripe fruit the ratio of calcium:magnesium:organic acid:unesterified uronic acid, on the basis of charge, was 15:4:4:16. The use of a computer program to predict the proportions of different ionic species in complex mixtures suggested that in ripe fruit 70% of the unesterified uronic acid would be complexed with calcium. Our results show that organic acids do not accumulate in the cell wall sufficiently to disrupt calcium cross-linking, nor is the calcium removed from the wall into the cell. We therefore conclude that organic acids do not contribute to cell separation during the ripening of tomato fruit. PMID:12228573

  10. Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon 

    E-print Network

    Isakeit, Thomas

    1999-06-28

    Bacterial fruit blotch is a disease occurring sporadically in almost all areas of Texas where watermelons are grown. This publication discusses symptoms, diagnosis and disease development and management....

  11. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  12. Volatile flavor constituents of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pino, J A; Marbot, R

    2001-12-01

    Volatile components were isolated from acerola fruit by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction according to the Likens-Nickerson method and analyzed by GC and GC-MS methods. One hundred fifty constituents were identified in the aroma concentrate, from which furfural, hexadecanoic acid, 3-methyl-3-butenol, and limonene were found to be the major constituents. The amounts of esters, 3-methyl-3-butenol, and their various esters were thought to contribute to the unique flavor of the acerola fruit. PMID:11743778

  13. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the following kinds...

  14. 69 FR 4845 - Cold Treatment of Fruits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-02-02

    ...regulations for importing fruits and vegetables to provide that inspectors...regulations for importing fruits and vegetables to provide that inspectors...import requests for fresh fruits and vegetables from disease and pest-infested...

  15. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

  16. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  17. Suberin Production by Isolated Tomato Fruit Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Gonella S. R. L.; Willison, J. H. Martin; Ratnayake, W. M. Nimal

    1984-01-01

    The multilamellar wall secreted by protoplasts isolated from locule tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was purified, and an extract was obtained after depolymerization with BF3-methanol. Analysis of this extract using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters, and ?-hydroxy acid methyl esters. These components were quantified using an Iatroscan thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection system. The different chain lengths in each group were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. The results clearly indicated the presence of suberin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16663693

  18. Phenological variation in fruit characteristics in vertebrate-dispersed plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ove Eriksson; Johan Ehrlén

    1991-01-01

    We investigated inter-specific variation in fruit characteristics — fruit size, seed number per fruit, seed weight, nutritional content, fruit persistence, and fruit synchronization — in relation to flowering and fruiting phenology in 34 species of fleshy fruited plants. Except for aspects of fruit synchrony and persistence, the results in general were inconsistent with previous suggestions about adaptive variation in phenologically

  19. Bioactive diterpenes from the fruits of Detarium microcarpum.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Anne-Laure; Hay, Anne-Emmanuelle; Marston, Andrew; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Scopelliti, Rosario; Diallo, Drissa; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2006-05-01

    A fruit pulp extract of Detarium microcarpum showed inhibition of the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four new clerodane diterpenes, 3,4-epoxyclerodan-13E-en-15-oic acid (1), 5alpha,8alpha(2-oxokolavenic acid) (2), 3,4-dihydroxyclerodan-13E-en-15-oic acid (4), and 3,4-dihydroxyclerodan-13Z-en-15-oic acid (5). Also isolated were 2-oxokolavenic acid (3) and copalic acid (6). Structure elucidation of the compounds was carried out by spectroscopic data interpretation and by the X-ray crystallography of 2 and 4. Three of the new clerodane diterpenes (1, 2, and 5) showed both antifungal activity and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, and 3 showed a slight inhibition of this enzyme. PMID:16724838

  20. Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Manas Ranjan; Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Ray, Ramesh Chandra; Parveen Rani, Rizwana

    2014-01-01

    As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics. PMID:25343046

  1. Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics. PMID:25343046

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity of Rubus ellipticus fruits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Uma Shankar; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have been done to identify antioxidants from plant sources and efforts have been taken to incorporate it in conventional therapy. In our present study, petroleum ether, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of Rubus ellipticus fruits have been evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power assay. BHA was used as a standard antioxidant for DPPH radical scavenging activity. The reducing power assay of extracts was carried out with ascorbic acid as a standard reducing agent. All the analysis was made with the use of UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results of the both assay showed that all the extracts of R. ellipticus fruits possess significant free radical scavenging and reducing power properties at concentration-dependent manner. Hence, it can be concluded that the R. ellipticus fruits could be pharmaceutically exploited for antioxidant properties. PMID:22171292

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity of Rubus ellipticus fruits

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Uma Shankar; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have been done to identify antioxidants from plant sources and efforts have been taken to incorporate it in conventional therapy. In our present study, petroleum ether, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of Rubus ellipticus fruits have been evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power assay. BHA was used as a standard antioxidant for DPPH radical scavenging activity. The reducing power assay of extracts was carried out with ascorbic acid as a standard reducing agent. All the analysis was made with the use of UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results of the both assay showed that all the extracts of R. ellipticus fruits possess significant free radical scavenging and reducing power properties at concentration-dependent manner. Hence, it can be concluded that the R. ellipticus fruits could be pharmaceutically exploited for antioxidant properties. PMID:22171292

  4. Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Klee, Harry J; Giovannoni, James J

    2011-01-01

    Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids, and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular tools and ripening-affected mutants has permitted researchers to establish a framework for the control of ripening. Tomato is a climacteric fruit, with an absolute requirement for the phytohormone ethylene to ripen. This dependence upon ethylene has established tomato fruit ripening as a model system for study of regulation of its synthesis and perception. In addition, several important ripening mutants, including rin, nor, and Cnr, have provided novel insights into the control of ripening processes. Here, we describe how ethylene and the transcription factors associated with the ripening process fit together into a network controlling ripening. PMID:22060040

  5. Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of citrus fruit, to improve understanding of the effect of low temperature on maintaining fruit quality during lengthy post-harvest storage

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ze; Jin, Shuai; Ding, Yuduan; Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Huijun; Pan, Zhiyong; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit quality is a very complex trait that is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Generally, low temperature (LT) is used to delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit quality during post-harvest storage but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis × C. paradis) fruit were chosen to explore the mechanisms that maintain citrus fruit quality during lengthy LT storage using transcriptome and proteome studies based on digital gene expression (DGE) profiling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), respectively. Results showed that LT up-regulated stress-responsive genes, arrested signal transduction, and inhibited primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and the transportation of metabolites. Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)–CBL-interacting protein kinase complexes might be involved in the signal transduction of LT stress, and fruit quality is likely to be regulated by sugar-mediated auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling. Furthermore, ABA was specific to the regulation of citrus fruit senescence and was not involved in the LT stress response. In addition, the accumulation of limonin, nomilin, methanol, and aldehyde, together with the up-regulated heat shock proteins, COR15, and cold response-related genes, provided a comprehensive proteomics and transcriptomics view on the coordination of fruit LT stress responses. PMID:22323274

  6. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24287993

  7. Antidotal activity of Averrhoa carambola (Star fruit) on fluoride induced toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Rupal A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress.

  8. Physical and chemical characteristics of goldenberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.).

    PubMed

    Y?ld?z, Gökçen; ?zli, Nazmi; Ünal, Halil; Uyla?er, Vildan

    2015-04-01

    Some physical and chemical characteristics of goldenberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) were investigated. These characteristics are necessary for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separating and packing. The fruit length, diameter, geometric and arithmetic mean diameters, sphericity, surface area, projected areas (vertical-horizontal) and aspect ratio of goldenberries were determined as 17.52 mm, 17.31 mm, 17.33 mm, 17.38 mm, 98.9 %, 0.949 cm(2), 388.67-387.85 mm(2) and 0.988, respectively. The mass of fruit, bulk density, fruit density, porosity and fruit hardness were 3.091 g, 997.3 kg/m(3), 462.3 kg/m(3), 53.61 % and 8.01 N, respectively. The highest static coefficient of friction was observed on rubber surface, followed by stainless steel sheet, aluminum sheet, and plywood materials. The dry matter, water soluble dry matter, ash, protein, oil, carbohydrate, titratable acidity, pH, total sugar, reducing sugar, antioxidant capacity were 18.67 %, 14.17 %, 2.98 %, 1.66 %, 0.18 %, 13.86 %, 1.26 %, 6.07, 63.90 g/kg, 31.99 g/kg and 57.67 %, respectively. The fresh fruits have 145.22 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g total phenol content and skin colour data represented as L*, a*, b*, Chroma (C) and Hue angle (?) were 49.92, 25.11, 50.23, 56.12 and 63.48, respectively. PMID:25829615

  9. Citrus fruits — Varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ranganna; V. S. Govindarajan; K. V. R. Ramana; J. F. Kefford

    1983-01-01

    In Part 2 of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, oraganic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color, vitamins and minerals, and flavonoids;

  10. Fruit Development in Trillium1

    PubMed Central

    Lapointe, Line

    1998-01-01

    Leaves are the main source of carbon for fruit maturation in most species. However, in plants seeing contrasting light conditions such as some spring plants, carbon fixed during the spring could be used to support fruit development in the summer, when photosynthetic rates are low. We monitored carbohydrate content in the rhizome (a perennating organ) and the aboveground stem of trillium (Trillium erectum) over the entire growing season (May–November). At the beginning of the fruiting stage, stems carrying a developing fruit were harvested, their leaves were removed, and the leafless stems were maintained in aqueous solution under controlled conditions up to full fruit maturation. These experiments showed that stem carbohydrate content was sufficient to support fruit development in the absence of leaves and rhizome. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of complete fruit development sustained only by a temporary carbohydrate reservoir. This carbohydrate accumulation in the stem during the spring enables the plant to make better use of the high irradiances occurring at that time. Many other species might establish short-term carbohydrate reservoirs in response to seasonal changes in growing conditions. PMID:9576787

  11. Engineering Melon Plants with Improved Fruit Shelf Life Using the TILLING Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lévêque, Sylvie; Alsadon, Abdullah A.; Aldoss, Abdullah A.; Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2010-01-01

    Background Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening. Methodology/Principal Findings To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect. Conclusions/Significance We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be widely exploited by the scientific community. PMID:21209891

  12. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).

    PubMed

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p???0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage. PMID:24293695

  13. Influence of stock on physical and chemical traits of fresh apricot fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloševi?, T.; Miloševi?, N.; Gliši?, I.; Šekularac, G.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of Myrobalan rootstock and Blackthorn interstock on fruit physical and chemical traits of five apricot cultivars. The results showed that cultivars grafted on Myrobalan rootstock appear to induce a higher fruit mass when compared with the Blackthorn interstock. Blackthorn interstock showed a tendency to induce a higher soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio than Myrobalan. Values of soluble solids content, total sugars, titratable acidity and fruit firmness between Myrobalan rootstock and Blackthorn interstock were not significant. Regarding cultivars, the greatest fruit mass observed in Roxana in both treatments, and the lowest in Biljana on Myrobalan and in Vera on Blackthorn. The lowest soluble solids, total sugars and soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio were found in Roxana in both variants of grafting, whereas the greatest titratable acidity also observed in Roxana in both cases, respectively. Based on the results from this study, the fruits of Roxana can be recommended for fresh consumption, whereas fruits of the other cultivars can be recommended for processing.

  14. ETHY. A Theory of Fruit Climacteric Ethylene Emission1

    PubMed Central

    Génard, Michel; Gouble, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    A theory of fruit climacteric ethylene emission was developed and used as the basis of a simulation model called ETHY. According to the theory, the biosynthetic pathway of ethylene is supplied by ATP and is regulated by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. The conjugation of ACC with malonate to form MACC was taken into account as a way to decrease the availability of ACC. Because of the seasonal increase of fruit volume, the dilution of biochemical compounds used in ETHY was taken into account. Finally, the ethylene diffusion across the skin was considered. The theory took into account the effect of temperature and O2 and CO2 internal concentrations on ethylene. The model was applied to peach (Prunus persica) fruit over 3 years, several leaf:fruit ratios, and irrigation conditions. An adequate ethylene increase was predicted without considering any increase in respiration during the ripening period, which suggests that the respiratory climacteric may not be required for ripening. Another important result of this study is the high sensitivity of ETHY to the parameters involved in the calculation of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase activities, ATP production, and skin surface and permeability. ETHY was also highly sensitive to changes in fruit growth and temperature. PMID:16143642

  15. Proximate Analysis of Five Wild Fruits of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2013-01-01

    Mozambique is rich in wild fruit trees, most of which produce fleshy fruits commonly consumed in rural communities, especially during dry seasons. However, information on their content of macronutrients is scarce. Five wild fruit species (Adansonia digitata, Landolphia kirkii, Sclerocarya birrea, Salacia kraussii, and Vangueria infausta) from different districts in Mozambique were selected for the study. The contents of dry matter, fat, protein, ash, sugars, pH, and titratable acidity were determined in the fruit pulps. Also kernels of A. digitata and S. birrea were included in the study. The protein content in the pulp was below 5?g/100?g of dry matter, but a daily intake of 100?g fresh wild fruits would provide up to 11% of the recommended daily intake for children from 4 to 8 years old. The sugar content varied between 2.3% and 14.4% fresh weight. The pH was below 3, except for Salacia kraussii, for which it was slightly below 7. Kernels of A. digitata contained, on average, 39.2% protein and 38.0% fat, and S. birrea kernels 32.6% protein and 60.7% fat. The collection of nutritional information may serve as a basis for increased consumption and utilization. PMID:23983641

  16. Proximate analysis of five wild fruits of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Mozambique is rich in wild fruit trees, most of which produce fleshy fruits commonly consumed in rural communities, especially during dry seasons. However, information on their content of macronutrients is scarce. Five wild fruit species (Adansonia digitata, Landolphia kirkii, Sclerocarya birrea, Salacia kraussii, and Vangueria infausta) from different districts in Mozambique were selected for the study. The contents of dry matter, fat, protein, ash, sugars, pH, and titratable acidity were determined in the fruit pulps. Also kernels of A. digitata and S. birrea were included in the study. The protein content in the pulp was below 5 g/100 g of dry matter, but a daily intake of 100 g fresh wild fruits would provide up to 11% of the recommended daily intake for children from 4 to 8 years old. The sugar content varied between 2.3% and 14.4% fresh weight. The pH was below 3, except for Salacia kraussii, for which it was slightly below 7. Kernels of A. digitata contained, on average, 39.2% protein and 38.0% fat, and S. birrea kernels 32.6% protein and 60.7% fat. The collection of nutritional information may serve as a basis for increased consumption and utilization. PMID:23983641

  17. Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes. PMID:25036675

  18. VARIATION FOR TUBER ACIDITY AMONG POTATO SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the use of acidity by plants for defense against disease is widespread and well known (e.g., acidic fruits), little appears to be known about the range of variation in tissue acidity in potato or its implications. We collected tuber samples in sealable plastic “sandwich” bags, froze them in a ...

  19. Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    *Program Specialist, The Texas A&M System Fresh fruits and vegetables provide vita- mins, minerals and fiber to help keep your body healthy. To make sure that your fruits and vegetables are safe to eat, it is important to know how to select good...-quality produce. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated by harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. Produce can be contaminated at any...

  20. Pineapple fruit: morphological characteristics, chemical composition and sensory analysis of red Spanish and Smooth Cayenne cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana P. Bartolomé; Pilar Rupérez; Carmen Fúster

    1995-01-01

    Some physical (weight, size, shape, texture and colour), physico-chemical (pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids), chemical (soluble sugars and organic acids) and biochemical (total dietary fibre, peroxidase activity and soluble protein) characteristics and sensorial attributes (appearance, flavour, odour, colour, firmness and acceptability) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) fruit were studied, in order to assess nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of

  1. Methyl jasmonate treatment induces changes in fruit ripening by modifying the expression of several ripening genes in Fragaria chiloensis fruit.

    PubMed

    Concha, Cristóbal M; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Poblete, Leticia A; Oñate, Felipe A; Schwab, Wilfried; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of jasmonates (JAs) in the ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit, two concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 10 and 100 ?M) were evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 d using an in vitro ripening system. Fruit quality parameters; the contents of anthocyanin, lignin and cell wall polymers; and the transcriptional profiles of several ripening-related genes were analyzed. MeJA accelerated fruit ripening by means of a transitory increase in the soluble solid content/titratable acidity ratio, anthocyanin accumulation and an increase in softening at day 5. The expression of several phenylpropanoid-related genes, primarily those associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis, was increased under MeJA treatment, which correlated with an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. MeJA also altered the expression profiles of some cell wall-modifying genes, namely, EG1 and XTH1, and these changes correlated with a transient reduction in the firmness of MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA-responsive elements were observed in the promoter region of the EG1 gene. MeJA also increased the expression of LOX, AOS and OPR3, genes involved in the biosynthesis of JAs, and these changes correlated with the transient activation of fruit ripening observed. Conversely, the expression of ethylene and lignin biosynthesis genes (ACS, ACO, CAD and POD27) increased in MeJA-treated fruits at day 9. The present findings suggest that JAs promote the ripening of non-climacteric fruits through their involvement in anthocyanin accumulation, cell wall modification and the biosynthesis of ethylene and JAs. PMID:23835361

  2. Sucrose Metabolism in Netted Muskmelon Fruit during Development

    PubMed Central

    Lingle, Sarah E.; Dunlap, James R.

    1987-01-01

    Sugar content and composition are major criteria used in judging the quality of netted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var reticulatus) fruit. Sugar composition and four enzymes of sucrose metabolism were determined in `Magnum 45' muskmelon fruit at 10-day intervals beginning 10 days after pollination (DAP) until full-slip (35 DAP). Sugar content increased in both outer (green) mesocarp and inner (orange) mesocarp between 20 and 30 DAP. The major proportion of total increase in sugar was attributed to sucrose accumulation. The large increase in sucrose relative to glucose and fructose was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in acid invertase activity, which was highest in both tissues at 10 and 20 DAP, and increases in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase activities. The green tissue had a lower proportion of total sugar as sucrose, greater invertase activity, and less SPS activity than the orange tissue. Changes in relative sucrose content were highly correlated with changes in enzyme activity. The results strongly suggest that increases in the proportion of sucrose found in melon fruit were associated with a decline in acid invertase activity and an increase in SPS activity approximately 10 days before full-slip. Therefore, these enzymes apparently play a key role in determining sugar composition and the quality of muskmelon fruit. PMID:16665448

  3. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne D. Mihail; Johann N. Bruhn; Pierluigi Bonello

    2007-01-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30d preceding fruiting. The two

  5. Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-López

    2011-01-01

    At ripening, fruits undergo many changes, which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances plus minerals and vitamins, the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening

  6. Fruit Quality: New Insights for Biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-lópez

    2012-01-01

    At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development.

  7. Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Ferguson; Richard Volz; Allan Woolf

    1999-01-01

    Development of disorders during postharvest ripening and storage of fruit depends on a range of preharvest factors. The most obvious of these is maturity of fruit at harvest. However, a number of other factors may be just as important in ripening-related disorders and in determining how fruit respond to low temperatures or other imposed postharvest conditions. Fruiting position on the

  8. Disturbance and the Dispersal of Fleshy Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Thompson; Mary F. Willson

    1978-01-01

    Fruits of Prunus serotina, Phytolacca americana, and Vitis vulpina were placed during separate trials in forest sites that varied in the degree to which the forest canopy was disturbed. Removal rates of fruits were consistently faster in the forest edge and light gap sites than in sites under closed canopy. Rapid removal of fruits from species that ripen fruit in

  9. Studies on preparation of mixed fruit toffee from Fig and Guava fruits.

    PubMed

    Kohinkar, S N; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R

    2014-09-01

    Studies were carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed fruit toffee from fig and guava fruit pulp and to evaluate the changes in quality of prepared toffees during storage under ambient as well as refrigerated conditions for 180 days. Among the various combinations of fig and guava fruit pulp, toffee prepared from75:25 w/w (fig: guava) ratios was found better than other combinations in respect to yield, organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The cost of toffee prepared from higher level of fig pulp i.e. 75:25 (fig:guava) ratio was higher (Rs. 71.84/kg). The storage studies of toffees packed in 200 gauge polyethylene bags indicated that the TSS, reducing and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture and acidity content decreased. The rate of reactions was relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. Though the sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 180 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated condition yet the toffees were found to be acceptable even after 180 days at both the conditions. PMID:25190884

  10. Effectiveness of a bacteriophage in reducing Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut fruits and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Colàs, P; Anguera, M; Usall, J; Abadias, M

    2014-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen and new strategies to control it in food are needed. Among them, bacteriophages hold attributes that appear to be attractive. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the bacteriophage Listex P100 to control L. monocytogenes growth on melon, pear and apple products (juices and slices) stored at 10 °C. L. monocytogenes grew well in untreated fruit slices. In juices, the pathogen grew in untreated melon, survived in untreated pear and decreased in untreated apple. Phage treatment was more effective on melon followed by pear, but no effect on apple products was observed. Reductions of about 1.50 and 1.00 log cfu plug(-1) for melon and pear slices were found, respectively. In juices, higher reductions were obtained in melon (8.00 log cfu mL(-1)) followed by pear (2.10 log cfu mL(-1)) after 8 days of storage. L. monocytogenes in apple juice was unaffected by phage treatment in which the phage decreased to almost undetectable numbers. These results highlight that Listex P100 could avoid pathogen growth on fresh-cut and in fruit juices with high pH during storage at 10 °C. The combination with other technologies may be required to improve the phage application on high acidity fruits. PMID:24290636

  11. Comparison of NIRS approach for prediction of internal quality traits in three fruit species.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabrieli Alves; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine Marie-Geneviève Claire; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; de Castilhos, Fernanda

    2014-01-15

    NIR Spectroscopy ability was investigated to assess the fruit structure effect (passion fruit, tomato and apricot) on prediction performance of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Relationships between spectral wavelengths and SSC and TA were evaluated through the application of chemometric techniques based on partial least squares (PLS). Good prediction performance was obtained for apricot with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95 for SSC and TA and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP%) of 3.3% and 14.2%, respectively. For the passion fruit and tomato, the prediction models were not satisfactorily accurate due to the high RMSEP. Results showed that NIR technology can be used to evaluate apricot internal quality, however, it was not appropriate to evaluate internal quality in fruits with thick skin, (passion fruit), and/or heterogeneous internal structure (tomato). PMID:24054234

  12. Effects of elevated temperature postharvest on color aspect, physiochemical characteristics, and aroma components of pineapple fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanhe; Liu, Yan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 2 separate experiments were performed to describe the influence of elevated temperature treatments postharvest on the color, physiochemical characteristics and aroma components of pineapple fruits during low-temperature seasons. The L* (lightness) values of the skin and pulp of pineapple fruits were decreased. The a* (greenness-redness) and b* (blueness-yellowness) values of the skin and pulp were all markedly increased. The elevated temperature significantly increased the contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and slightly affected contents of vitamin C (nonsignificant). Titratable acidity (TA) of pineapple fruits were notably decreased, whereas the values of TSS/TA of pineapple fruits were significantly increased. The firmness of the pineapple fruits decreased and more esters and alkenes were identified. The total relative contents of esters were increased, and the total relative contents of alkenes were decreased. PMID:25367439

  13. Pericarp polypeptides and SRAP markers associated with fruit quality traits in an interspecific tomato backcross.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Costa, J H; Rodríguez, G R; Pratta, G R; Picardi, L A; Zorzoli, R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect polypeptides and genomic regions associated with fruit quality traits in a backcross generation using as parent the Argentinean cultivated tomato Caimanta of Solanum lycopersicum and the wild accession LA722 of S. pimpinellifolium. We tested two types of molecular marker: polypeptide profile (at two ripening stages, mature green and red ripe) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism). A polypeptide of 45 kDa present in the wild parents at the mature green stage was associated with larger fruit and long shelf life. Some amplification fragments from SRAP markers were associated with more than one quality trait such as fruit color, firmness, titratable acidity, and fruit soluble solids content. This study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the polypeptide profiles of pericarp and SRAP markers in finding associations with quality fruit traits in a tomato backcross generation. PMID:24615080

  14. Detection of citrus yellow mosaic virus by PCR and nucleic acid spot hybridisation using non-radioactive probes in commercial citrus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Gopi; K. Gopal; T. Gouri Sankar; S. Palanivel

    2010-01-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV) was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in leaf samples of sweet orange, Rangpurlime, Pumello pink and acid lime and also in twig bark, fruit rind, fruit juice except fruit rag of sweet orange cv. Sathgudi, where all the positive samples showed bright amplification of the 726 bp band except in fruit rind. The CYMV

  15. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, ?-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. PMID:24767050

  16. Some physico?chemical characteristics of four Kenyan tropical fruits and acceptability of blends of their beverage nectars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Imungi; Rhoda C. Choge

    1996-01-01

    Purees were produced by simple manual extraction methods from passion fruit, mangoes and papaya, and juice from pears. These products were analyzed for yield, pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids and reduced ascorbic acid. Sugar\\/acid ratio was also calculated for each product. The products were then used to prepare beverage nectars using standard procedures. The nectars were blended in

  17. Fruiting organs of Cladosporium werneckii.

    PubMed

    Volcán, G; Godoy, G A; Battistini, F; Alvarez, A

    1976-07-01

    Submerged mycelia of a strain of Cladosporium werneckii isolated from tinea nigra palmaris, when cultured on enriched corn-meal agar media, developed fruiting bodies resembling perithecia. PMID:986694

  18. Phytochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory potential of Hyphaene thebaica L. fruit.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Paré, Paul W

    2013-10-01

    Metabolite profiling and biological activity are reported from organic and aqueous extracts of the fruit from the desert palm Hyphaene thebaica. Phenolics and oxylipids profiles were determined using UPLC-PDA-TOF (ultra performance-photodiode array-time of flight) high-resolution mass spectrometry in order to obtain the molecular formula and exact mass Under optimized conditions, 17 compounds were simultaneously identified and quantified including 2 cinnamic acid derivatives, 5 flavonoids, 6 fatty acids, 2 sphingolipids, a lignan, and a stilbene. Sugars composition in the fruit was characterized and quantified by (1) H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) with sucrose detected as the major component in fruit at a level of 219 mg/g. Fruit organic extracts anti-inflammatory potential was assessed in vitro by cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme inhibition. PMID:24025087

  19. Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Claire; Falkowski, Michael; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques; Pincemail, Joël

    2007-10-17

    Interest in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is, to a large extent, due to its content of bioactive nutrients and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Among all of the selected fruits and vegetables, strawberries and black grapes have relatively high antioxidant capacities associated with high contents of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and flavonols. More interesting, the results of this study indicated that in most fruits and vegetables storage did not affect negatively the antioxidant capacity. Better, in some cases, an increase of the antioxidant capacity was observed in the days following their purchase, accompanied by an increase in phenolic compounds. In general, fruits and vegetables visually spoil before any significant antioxidant capacity loss occurs except in banana and broccoli. When ascorbic acid or flavonoids (aglycons of flavonols and anthocyanins) were concerned, the conclusions were similar. Their content was generally stable during storage. PMID:17880151

  20. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

    2011-11-01

    Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

  1. Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    *Program Specialist, The Texas A&M System Fresh fruits and vegetables can occa- sionally become contaminated with harm- ful bacteria or viruses, which are known as pathogens. This contamination can occur at any point from the field to your table.... Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. If you eat a contaminated fruit or vegetable, it could cause a foodborne illness. Common signs of foodborne illness in- clude nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and fever...

  2. Changes in free amino acid, protein, flavonoids, and phenolic content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely consumed Korean Boeun-deachu variety of jujube (Ziziphus jujube) was analyzed by HPLC, MS, and MS-MS for changes in the content of crude protein, free amino acids, and individual flavonoids at eight stages (S1-S8) of ripeness. They were also analyzed by colorimetry for total phenolics, to...

  3. Chemically mediated host finding by Biosteres (Opius) longicaudatus , a parasitoid of tephritid fruit fly larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Greany; J. H. Tumlinson; D. L. Chambers; G. M. Boush

    1977-01-01

    Host finding by the fruit fly parasitoidBiosteres (Opius)longicaudatus Ashmead was found to involve attraction to fermentation products emanating from rotting fruit, a probable site for location of host larvae. Bioassays conducted in the greenhouse with all saturated 1-, 2-, and 3-carbon primary alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids indicated that acetaldehyde was the most active agent followed by ethanol and acetic

  4. Comparative analysis of secondary metabolites contents in Fragaria vesca L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Najda, Agnieszka; Dyduch-Siemi?ska, Magdalena; Dyduch, Jan; Gantner, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) belongs to the Rosaceae family. Besides the leaves (Fragariae folium) and roots (Fragariae radix), the aromatic fruits (Fragariae fructus) of wild strawberry are also herbal materials used in medicine. The aim of this study was to compare the value of phytochemical and antioxidant activity of wild strawberry fruits (Fragaria vesca L.). The fruits were analyzed regarding their secondary metabolites contents (flavonoids, sum of phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, DPPH), depending on the origin of the raw material (from natural habitats vs. cultivation). According to the obtained results, raw material originating from natural habitats contained significantly more flavonoids (0.559 mg?g(-1)), compared to fruits harvested from cultivation (0.472 mg?g(-1), on average). Mean concentration of phenolic acids ranged from 1.648 mg?g(-1) - 2.348 mg?g(-1), although the wild form was characterized by higher levels of examined substances. Tannins are an important fraction of phenolic compounds; their content in studied fruits ranged from 2.2% (from cultivation) - 3.0% (from natural habitats). When comparing the average contents of anthocyanins in the studied materials, it was revealed that remarkably more of these compounds were recorded in wild strawberry fruits harvested from natural habitats vs. those from cultivations: 132 mg?100 g(-1) vs. 90 mg?100 g(-1). A difference was indicated with respect to the ability of DPPH radical reduction to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined fruits. PMID:24959786

  5. Volatile Components of Sapodilla Fruit (Manilkara achras L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge A. Pino; Rolando Marbot; Juan Aguero

    2003-01-01

    The volatile components of sapodilla fruit, which were isolated by simultaneous steam distillation\\/solvent extraction with diethyl ether, were identified by a combination of retention indices and GC\\/MS. Sixty-nine constituents were identified in the aroma concentrate, from which methanethiol (32.0%), hexadecanoic acid (26.3%), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (6.8%), ethyl acetate (6.0%) and isoamyl alcohol (5.9%) were found to be the major constituents.

  6. Storage response of cactus pear fruit following hot water brushing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydakis Dimitris; N. Pompodakis; E. Markellou; S. M. Lionakis

    2005-01-01

    The storage response of cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] following hot water brushing was investigated. Fruit were simultaneously brushed for spine removal and sprayed with water. Ranges of temperature (60–70°C) and treatment time intervals (10–30s) were evaluated. All tested treatments were found not to significantly affect respiration rate, total soluble solids or acid concentrations. Treatments at 60 and 65°C

  7. Metabolic Profiling of Developing Pear Fruits Reveals Dynamic Variation in Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Including Plant Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Akira; Otsuka, Takao; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Murayama, Hideki; Saito, Kazuki; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites in the fruits of edible plants include sweet sugars, visually appealing pigments, various products with human nutritional value, and biologically active plant hormones. Although quantities of these metabolites vary during fruit development and ripening because of cell division and enlargement, there are few reports describing the actual dynamics of these changes. Therefore, we applied multiple metabolomic techniques to identify the changes in metabolite levels during the development and ripening of pear fruits (Pyrus communis L. ‘La France’). We quantified and classified over 250 metabolites into six groups depending on their specific patterns of variation during development and ripening. Approximately half the total number of metabolites, including histidine and malate, accumulated transiently around the blooming period, during which cells are actively dividing, and then decreased either rapidly or slowly. Furthermore, the amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids also increased in pear fruits around 3–4 months after the blooming period, when fruit cells are enlarging, but virtually disappeared from ripened fruits. Some metabolites, including the plant hormone abscisic acid, accumulated particularly in the receptacle prior to blooming and/or fruit ripening. Our results show several patterns of variation in metabolite levels in developing and ripening pear fruits, and provide fundamental metabolomic data that is useful for understanding pear fruit physiology and enhancing the nutritional traits of new cultivars. PMID:26168247

  8. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages. PMID:21929332

  9. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Vincenti, Estefania; Powell, Ann L. T.; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Fruit–pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit–B. cinerea interaction. PMID:23717322

  10. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35?min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness. PMID:23685565

  11. Influence of gamma-irradiation, growth retardants and coatings on the shelf life of winter guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, S K; Joshua, Jean E; Bisen; Abhay

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation, growth retardants and coatings (coconut oil, mustard oil and liquid paraffin) on shelf life of winter guava fruits during storage. The results revealed that the superiority of coconut oil coating over other post harvest treatments. Physiological loss in weight (7.1%), marketable fruits retained over control (86.7%), total soluble solid (16.1%), ascorbic acid (195 mg/100 g pulp) and total sugar (10%) of fruit were positively influenced by coconut oil coating up to 12 days of storage. The treatment was found significantly effective in increasing the post harvest life of fruits for 12 days over control without adversely affecting the fruit quality. Coconut oil coating gave highest consumer acceptability while, maintaining sufficient level of total soluble solids and sugar content in fruits. PMID:23572614

  12. Fruit-based Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S R; Gokulakrishnan, P; Giriprasad, R; Yatoo, M A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the potential toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants, natural antioxidant sources especially fruits are being preferred now-a-days for use in different meat products. The majority of the antioxidant capacity of a fruit is especially because of numerous phenolic compounds. Many of the phytochemicals present in fruits may help protect cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers, and neurological diseases. Various parts of the fruit including their byproducts like skin and seeds have been used in meat products. Plum has been used as plum puree, prunes (dried plum), and plum extracts. Grape skin, seed, peel extracts, and grape pomace; berries as cakes and powder extracts; pomegranate rind powder and its juice; and most of the citrus fruits have proved beneficial sources of antioxidants. All these natural sources have effectively reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and free radical frequency. Thus, lipid oxidation is prevented and shelf life is greatly enhanced by incorporating various kinds of fruits and their byproducts in meat and meat products. There is a great scope for the use of fruits as natural sources of antioxidants in meat industry. The review is intended to provide an overview of the fruit-based natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. PMID:24915314

  13. Ionizing radiation treatment to improve postharvest life and maintain quality of fresh guava fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Pal, R. K.

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and vitamin C during storage, but for doses higher than 0.25 kGy the vitamin C content decreased. The positive effects of ionizing radiation treatment on delayed fruit ripening and other quality attributes diminished during 22 days of storage at 10 °C. Thus, a combination of ionizing radiation with low-temperature storage (10 °C) did not have much synergistic effect on storage life and quality of guava fruit. In conclusion, ionizing radiation treatment of guava fruit with 0.25 kGy dose increased the postharvest life by 3-4 days, maintained fruit quality, and reduced the decay incidence. The optimal dose (0.25 kGy) for postharvest life extension of guava fruit may be exploited to provide phytosanitary security against many insect pests including fruit flies.

  14. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars ‘Akiakari’ and ‘Taihaku’, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of ‘Akiakari’ consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of ‘Taihaku’ consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:25914590

  15. Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, and mandarin) together with the evaluation of their phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH?, ORACFL, ABTS(+), FRAP and O2?(-)) aiming for new applications of the fruits in nutrition and health was carried out. As far as we are aware, the presence of 3-O-caffeoylferuoylquinic acid and two hydrated feruloylquinic acids in orange and the presence of 3,5-diferuoylquinic acid in grapefruit have been reported for the first time. Although grapefruit showed higher contents of phytochemicals such as flavanones and vitamin C, lemon and lime showed higher potential for inhibitory effects on lipase, and lime also showed the best results for in vitro ?-glucosidase inhibition. On the other hand, higher antioxidant capacity was reported for grapefruit, lemon and lime, which correlated well with their phytochemical composition. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Citrus fruits are of great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and consequently, a new field of interest in the food industry regarding new bioactive ingredients would be considered. PMID:24563112

  16. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on ?-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to ?-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested. PMID:21845104

  17. Altered physiology and biochemistry of imported litchi fruit held under different vapor pressure deficits.

    PubMed

    Somboonkaew, Nettra; Terry, Leon A

    2010-05-26

    The effects of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on litchi fruit quality have not yet been fully defined. The aim of this study was to detail the changes in physiology, sugars, organic acids, and individual anthocyanin concentrations in imported litchi fruit held at various controlled relative humidity (RH) and VPD levels. SO(2)-fumigated (but not acid-treated) litchi imported from Thailand (cv. Kom) and from Israel (cv. Mauritius) were air freighted to the United Kingdom and then stored for 9 days at either 5 or 13 degrees C to simulate shelf-life conditions. Fruits were stored under a series of controlled RH conditions for the duration of the trial using different concentrations of glycerol in deonized water. Respiration rates and weight losses of both fruit lots were greater in litchi stored at 13 degrees C and a VPD of 0.274 kPa. At 5 degrees C and a VPD of 0 or 0.042 kPa, sugars and organic acids in aril and pericarp tissue and individual anthocyanins in pericarp were better maintained. This is the first piece of work that has systematically evaluated the effect of a series of VPDs on litchi fruit biochemistry such that implications for designing systems to better maintain the physiological quality of imported litchi fruit are discussed. PMID:20438127

  18. In vitro antidiabetic potential of the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S S; Islam, M N; Jung, H A; Choi, J S

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to develop alternative medicine for the treatment of diabetes and related complications, the antidiabetic potential of the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida was evaluated. The antidiabetic potential of the methanol (MeOH) extract as well as different solvent soluble fractions of the fruits of C. pinnatifida was evaluated via ?-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory assays. The MeOH extract showed potent inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, and AGEs formation with IC50 values of 122.11, 3.66 and 65.83 ?g/ml respectively, while it showed moderate inhibitory activity against RLAR with the IC50 value of 160.54 ?g/ml. Among different fractions, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) fractions were found as active fractions exhibiting potential ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, RLAR inhibitory, and AGEs formation inhibitory activities. Seven compounds including hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, 3-epicorosolic acid, ?-sitosterol, ?-sitosterol glucoside were isolated from these two fractions. 3-Epicorosolic acid showed both potent ?-glucosidase and PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 30.18 and 4.08 ?g/ml respectively. Moreover, kinetic study revealed that 3-epicorosolic acid showed mixed type inhibition against PTP1B, while it showed uncompetitive inhibition against ?-glucosidase. Therefore, these results suggest that the fruits of C. pinnatifida and its constituents have potential antidiabetic activity which might be used as a functional food for the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. PMID:25598795

  19. In vitro antidiabetic potential of the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, S.S.; Islam, M.N.; Jung, H.A.; Choi, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to develop alternative medicine for the treatment of diabetes and related complications, the antidiabetic potential of the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida was evaluated. The antidiabetic potential of the methanol (MeOH) extract as well as different solvent soluble fractions of the fruits of C. pinnatifida was evaluated via ?-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory assays. The MeOH extract showed potent inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, and AGEs formation with IC50 values of 122.11, 3.66 and 65.83 ?g/ml respectively, while it showed moderate inhibitory activity against RLAR with the IC50 value of 160.54 ?g/ml. Among different fractions, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) fractions were found as active fractions exhibiting potential ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, RLAR inhibitory, and AGEs formation inhibitory activities. Seven compounds including hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, 3-epicorosolic acid, ?-sitosterol, ?-sitosterol glucoside were isolated from these two fractions. 3-Epicorosolic acid showed both potent ?-glucosidase and PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 30.18 and 4.08 ?g/ml respectively. Moreover, kinetic study revealed that 3-epicorosolic acid showed mixed type inhibition against PTP1B, while it showed uncompetitive inhibition against ?-glucosidase. Therefore, these results suggest that the fruits of C. pinnatifida and its constituents have potential antidiabetic activity which might be used as a functional food for the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. PMID:25598795

  20. Reduced levels of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase decrease the glutamate content of ripe tomato fruit but have no effect on green fruit or leaves.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Gisela; D'Angelo, Matilde; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Valle, Estela M

    2015-06-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a taste enhancer that contributes to the characteristic flavour of foods. In fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the Glu content increases dramatically during the ripening process, becoming the most abundant free amino acid when the fruit become red. There is also a concomitant increase in NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity during the ripening transition. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria and catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate to Glu. To investigate the potential effect of GDH on Glu metabolism, the abundance of GDH was altered by artificial microRNA technology. Efficient silencing of all the endogenous SlGDH genes was achieved, leading to a dramatic decrease in total GDH activity. This decrease in GDH activity did not lead to any clear morphological or metabolic phenotype in leaves or green fruit. However, red fruit on the transgenic plants showed markedly reduced levels of Glu and a large increase in aspartate, glucose and fructose content in comparison to wild-type fruit. These results suggest that GDH is involved in the synthesis of Glu in tomato fruit during the ripening processes. This contrasts with the biological role ascribed to GDH in many other tissues and species. Overall, these findings suggest that GDH has a major effect on the control of metabolic composition during tomato fruit ripening, but not at other stages of development. PMID:25878356

  1. Isolation and Biophysical Study of Fruit Cuticles

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Sarkar, Sayantani; Oktawiec, Julia; Mao, Zhantong; Niitsoo, Olivia; Stark, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle, a hydrophobic protective layer on the aerial parts of terrestrial plants, functions as a versatile defensive barrier to various biotic and abiotic stresses and also regulates water flow from the external environment.1 A biopolyester (cutin) and long-chain fatty acids (waxes) form the principal structural framework of the cuticle; the functional integrity of the cuticular layer depends on the outer 'epicuticular' layer as well as the blend consisting of the cutin biopolymer and 'intracuticular' waxes.2 Herein, we describe a comprehensive protocol to extract waxes exhaustively from commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles or to remove epicuticular and intracuticular waxes sequentially and selectively from the cuticle composite. The method of Jetter and Schäffer (2001) was adapted for the stepwise extraction of epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from the fruit cuticle.3,4 To monitor the process of sequential wax removal, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy was used in parallel with atomic force microscopy (AFM), providing molecular-level structural profiles of the bulk materials complemented by information on the microscale topography and roughness of the cuticular surfaces. To evaluate the cross-linking capabilities of dewaxed cuticles from cultivated wild-type and single-gene mutant tomato fruits, MAS 13C NMR was used to compare the relative proportions of oxygenated aliphatic (CHO and CH2O) chemical moieties. Exhaustive dewaxing by stepwise Soxhlet extraction with a panel of solvents of varying polarity provides an effective means to isolate wax moieties based on the hydrophobic characteristics of their aliphatic and aromatic constituents, while preserving the chemical structure of the cutin biopolyester. The mechanical extraction of epicuticular waxes and selective removal of intracuticular waxes, when monitored by complementary physical methodologies, provides an unprecedented means to investigate the cuticle assembly: this approach reveals the supramolecular organization and structural integration of various types of waxes, the architecture of the cutin-wax matrix, and the chemical composition of each constituent. In addition, solid-state 13C NMR reveals differences in the relative numbers of CHO and CH2O chemical moieties for wild-type and mutant red ripe tomato fruits. The NMR techniques offer exceptional tools to fingerprint the molecular structure of cuticular materials that are insoluble, amorphous, and chemically heterogeneous. As a noninvasive surface-selective imaging technique, AFM furnishes an effective and direct means to probe the structural organization of the cuticular assembly on the nm-?m length scale. PMID:22490984

  2. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Strawberry Jams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Da Silva Pinto; Franco Maria Lajolo; Maria Ines Genovese

    2007-01-01

    Strawberries represent the main source of ellagic acid derivatives in the Brazilian diet. They are also good sources of flavonoids,\\u000a mainly anthocyanins, and phenolic acids, to which many beneficial effects have been attributed. However, as the fruit is not\\u000a available all the year, the objective of this work was to determine whether the jams could also represent a good source

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

  4. Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids from the fruits of Annona cherimola.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Makiko; Okawa, Masafumi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids (16R)-ent-kauran-17,19-diol (1), (16R)-17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), (16S)-17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and (16R)-17-dimethoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (4) have been isolated from the fresh fruits of Annona cherimola together with eight known compounds. Their structures are determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and optical rotation. PMID:20460813

  5. Disturbance and the dispersal of fleshy fruits.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J N; Willson, M F

    1978-06-01

    Fruits of Prunus serotina, Phytolacca americana, and Vitis vulpina were placed during separate trials in forest sites that varied in the degree to which the forest canopy was disturbed. Removal rates of fruits were consistently faster in the forest edge and light gap sites than in sites under closed canopy. Rapid removal of fruits from species that ripen fruit in summer and early fall is selectively advantageous to the plants because it minimizes the probability that fruits will be destroyed by invertebrates before dispersal. Disturbances probably play an important role in interactions between temperate fruits and birds and in community organization. PMID:17745107

  6. Safety methods for chlorpyrifos removal from date fruits and its relation with sugars, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of fruits.

    PubMed

    Osman, Khaled A; Al-Humaid, A I; Al-Redhaiman, K N; El-Mergawi, Ragab A

    2014-09-01

    The effectiveness of different postharvest wash treatments at two levels (10 and 20 g/l) for different dipping times was determined to remove chlorpyrifos from date fruits treated at concentration of 2 mg/l. The recovered amount of chlorpyrifos was extracted based on the solid phase extraction (SPE) method and then analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrate that the removal of chlorpyrifos increased in the order of acetic acid (AA)> citric acid (CA)> hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)> potassium permanganate (KMnO4)> running water (H2O), and the percent of pesticide residue on date fruits depended on the concentration of tested washing treatments and dipping time without the formation of the toxic by-product, chlorpyrifos-oxon. Kinetic studies revealed that chlorpyrifos was found to be more easily removable from date fruits treated with the tested chemical solutions with t1/2 values of 12-29 min compared with roughly 53 min in case of running water. The impact of these washing treatments on quality of date fruits illustrated that all treatments exerted a little negative effect on total sugars content but H2O2 and KMnO4 at level of 2 % had more drastic effect. Whereas, running water, 10 and 20 g/l CA caused significant increases in total phenolic contents, during all the tested contact times compared with control. Except the insignificant effect of KMnO4 treatments, antioxidant capacity of date fruits tended to increase in all wash treatments, when the contact times were 5 or 15 min. PMID:25190831

  7. Molecular characterization of fruit-specific class III peroxidase genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chii-Jeng; Chan, Yuan-Li; Shien, Chin Hui; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, expression of four peroxidase genes, LePrx09, LePrx17, LePrx35 and LePrxA, was identified in immature tomato fruits, and the function in the regulation of fruit growth was characterized. Analysis of amino acid sequences revealed that these genes code for class III peroxidases, containing B, D and F conserved domains, which bind heme groups, and a buried salt bridge motif. LePrx35 and LePrxA were identified as novel peroxidase genes in Solanum lycopersicum (L.). The temporal expression patterns at various fruit growth stages revealed that LePrx35 and LePrxA were expressed only in immature green (IMG) fruits, whereas LePrx17 and LePrx09 were expressed in both immature and mature green fruits. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that only LePrx09 was expressed in the mesocarp but not the inner tissue of immature fruits. The effects of hormone treatments and stresses on the four genes were examined; only the expression levels of LePrx17 and LePrx09 were altered. Transcription of LePrx17 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and pathogen infection and expression of LePrx09 was induced by ethephon, salicylic acid (SA) and JA, in particular, as well as wounding, pathogen infection and H2O2 stress. Tomato plants over-expressing LePrx09 displayed enhanced resistance to H2O2 stress, suggesting that LePrx09 may participate in the H2O2 signaling pathway to regulate fruit growth and disease resistance in tomato fruits. PMID:25703772

  8. Auditory neuroscience in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2013-07-01

    Since the first analysis of the Drosophila courtship song more than 50 years ago, the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the acoustic communication between fruit flies has been studied extensively. The results of recent studies utilizing a wide array of genetic tools provide novel insights into the anatomic and functional characteristics of the auditory and other mechanosensory systems in the fruit fly. Johnston's hearing organ, the antennal ear of the fruit fly, serves as a complex sensor not only for near-field sound but also for gravity and wind. These auditory and non-auditory signals travel in parallel from the fly ear to the brain, feeding into neural pathways similar to the auditory and vestibular pathways of the human brain. This review discusses these recent findings and outlines auditory neuroscience in flies. PMID:23707240

  9. Reduction of Oxalate Levels in Tomato Fruit and Consequent Metabolic Remodeling Following Overexpression of a Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase1[W

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  10. Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits.

    PubMed

    Shrikanta, Akshatha; Kumar, Anbarasu; Govindaswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits such as Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Mulberry (Morus rubra) were investigated keeping Grape (Vitis vinifera) as a reference. Ethanol/water (80:20 v/v) extracts of different parts of fruit samples including skin, pulp and seeds were analyzed by HPLC and MS for the quantification of resveratrol. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Among the samples analyzed, mulberry fruit (whole) showed highest resveratrol content (50.61 ?g g(-1) dry weight) followed by jamun seed (34.87 ?g g(-1) dry weight), jamun pulp (13.70 ?g g(-1) dry weight) and skin of jamun (11.19 ?g g(-1) dry weight). Jamun seed extract exhibited the highest polyphenol content (55.54 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight) and highest antioxidant property (IC50 value-0.40 mg ml(-1)). The results suggest that underutilized fruits high in resveratrol and other polyphenols can be used as functional beverages. PMID:25593373

  11. Production of microbial cellulose by a bacterium isolated from fruit.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Firdaus; Kumar, Vinod; Rawat, Garima; Saxena, R K

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by a bacterium isolated from a rotten fruit and its process optimization. Here, isolation and screening of potent cellulose producers were carried out from different natural sources, viz., soil, rotten fruits, and vegetables and vinegar. A total of 200 bacterial isolates were obtained, which were screened for cellulose production using Hestrin-Schramm medium. A novel and potent cellulose-producing bacterium was newly isolated from a rotten fruit and identified as Gluconacetobacter sp. F6 through 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics. After optimization of culture conditions, including pH, temperature, agitation, carbon/nitrogen sources, and inducers, the BC production was greatly increased from 0.52 to 4.5 g/l (8.65-fold increase). The optimal culture medium contained 1% (w/v) glucose, 1.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.27% (w/v) disodium hydrogen phosphate, 0.115% (w/v) citric acid, and 0.4% (w/v) ethanol. BC produced was analyzed for the presence of cellulose fibrils by epiflourescent microscopy using Calcofluor white stain and scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by NMR. There are very scanty reports about the optimization of BC production by bacteria isolated from rotten fruits. PMID:22391690

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of apricot fruit polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, T; de Rigal, D; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Gauillard, F; Richard-Forget, F; Fils-Lycaon, B R

    1999-04-01

    A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiment was done to synthesize a homologous polyphenol oxidase (PPO) probe from apricot (Prunus armeniaca var Bergeron) fruit. This probe was further used to isolate a full-length PPO cDNA, PA-PPO (accession no. AF020786), from an immature-green fruit cDNA library. PA-PPO is 2070 bp long and contains a single open reading frame encoding a PPO precursor peptide of 597 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 67.1 kD and an isoelectric point of 6.84. The mature protein has a predicted molecular mass of 56.2 kD and an isoelectric point of 5.84. PA-PPO belongs to a multigene family. The gene is highly expressed in young, immature-green fruit and is turned off early in the ripening process. The ratio of PPO protein to total proteins per fruit apparently remains stable regardless of the stage of development, whereas PPO specific activity peaks at the breaker stage. These results suggest that, in addition to a transcriptional control of PPO expression, other regulation factors such as translational and posttranslational controls also occur. PMID:10198084

  13. Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    . Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. If you eat a contaminated fruit or vegetable, it could cause a foodborne illness. Common signs of foodborne illness in- clude nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and fever.... These signs usually appear within 12 to 72 hours from the time the food was eaten. Foodborne illness can be serious. To re- duce your risk, follow these steps for wash- ing fresh fruits and vegetables. Wash your hands and cooking areas Wash your hands...

  14. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. PMID:26041210

  15. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis of phenolic compounds during ripening in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Yahia, Elhadi

    2013-12-01

    Identification of phenolic compounds was done by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI). Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out by using HPLC with diode array detector (DAD) in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit at 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red, and red). Several phenolic compounds were identified including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and rutin and some combined phenolic acids were tentatively identified, mainly glycosides, such as caffeoyl hexose I, caffeoyl hexose II, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, dicaffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl hexose I, p-coumaroyl hexose II, feruloyl hexose I, feruloyl hexose II, siringyl hexose, and caffeoyl deoxyhexose hexose. Fruit exocarp had higher quantities of total soluble phenolics (TSP) compared to mesocarp. During ripening, TSP increased in both exocarp and mesocarp, mainly in exocarp. While rutin increased, chlorogenic acid decreased in both tissues: exocarp and mesocarp. PMID:24171765

  16. Pollinating Fruit Crops Most tree fruits and many small fruits grown in New Hampshire require cross pollination to produce a

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    tree planted together will effectively cross-pollinate each other and both trees will set fruit-pollination to set good crops of fruit. Most pairs are compatible if their bloom periods overlap sufficiently require cross pollination to set good crops of fruit, although some varieties including Seckel may set

  17. The role of the anaerobic metabolites, acetaldehyde and ethanol, in fruit ripening, enhancement of fruit quality and fruit deterioration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna Pesis

    2005-01-01

    During fruit ripening on the tree and after harvest some essential processes involve the production of the anaerobic metabolites, acetaldehyde (AA) and ethanol. These processes include the production of aroma volatiles and removal of fruit astringency. Acetaldehyde, a natural aroma component, is present in almost every fruit; it accumulates during ripening even under aerobic conditions, but to a much greater

  18. Regulation of Early Tomato Fruit Development by the Diageotropica Gene1

    PubMed Central

    Balbi, Virginia; Lomax, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    The vegetative phenotype of the auxin-resistant diageotropica (dgt) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) includes reduced gravitropic response, shortened internodes, lack of lateral roots, and retarded vascular development. Here, we report that early fruit development is also dramatically altered by the single-gene dgt lesion. Fruit weight, fruit set, and numbers of locules and seeds are reduced in dgt. In addition, time to flowering and time from anthesis to the onset of fruit ripening are increased by the dgt lesion, whereas ripening is normal. The dgt mutation appears to affect only the early stages of fruit development, irrespective of allele or genetic background. Expression of members of the LeACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key regulatory enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis) and LeIAA (Aux/IAA, auxin-responsive) gene families were quantified via real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in both dgt and wild-type fruits, providing the first analysis of Aux/IAA gene expression in fruit. The dgt lesion affects the expression of only certain members of both the LeACS and LeIAA multigene families. Different subsets of LeIAA gene family members are affected by the dgt mutation in fruits and hypocotyls, indicating that the DGT gene product functions in a developmentally specific manner. The differential expression of subsets of LeIAA and LeACS gene family members as well as the alterations in dgt fruit morphology and growth suggest that the early stages of fruit development in tomato are regulated, at least in part, by auxin- and ethylene-mediated gene expression. PMID:12529527

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) fruit development and ripening using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) is an important subtropical fruit crop and an ideal species for fruit quality research due to the rapid and substantial changes that occur during development and ripening, including changes in fruit color and taste. However, research at the molecular level is limited by a lack of sequence data. The present study was designed to obtain transcript sequence data and examine gene expression in bayberry developing fruit based on RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analysis, to provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling fruit quality changes during ripening. Results RNA-Seq generated 1.92 G raw data, which was then de novo assembled into 41,239 UniGenes with a mean length of 531 bp. Approximately 80% of the UniGenes (32,805) were annotated against public protein databases, and coding sequences (CDS) of 31,665 UniGenes were determined. Over 3,600 UniGenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening, with 826 up-regulated and 1,407 down-regulated. GO comparisons between the UniGenes of these two types and interactive pathways (Ipath) analysis found that energy-related metabolism was enhanced, and catalytic activity was increased. All genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were up-regulated during the fruit ripening processes, concurrent with color change. Important changes in carbohydrate and acid metabolism in the ripening fruit are likely associated with expression of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Conclusions Mass sequence data of Chinese bayberry was obtained and the expression profiles were examined during fruit ripening. The UniGenes were annotated, providing a platform for functional genomic research with this species. Using pathway mapping and expression profiles, the molecular mechanisms for changes in fruit color and taste during ripening were examined. This provides a reference for the study of complicated metabolism in non-model perennial species. PMID:22244270

  20. Flowering and Fruiting Morphology of Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) cultivars Prime-JanTM and Prime-JimTM were studied in 2005 in Aurora, Oregon. Primocanes that were "soft-tipped" in early summer to 1 m were compared to un-tipped primocanes and floricanes. On avera...

  1. Fruit Salad with Light Whipped Topping Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    pineapple chunks in juice 8 ounces fat-free yogurt, plain 8 ounces lite whipped topping Directions 1. Drain fruit cocktail and pineapple chunks. 2. Place fruit in bowl. 3. Stir in yogurt and whipped topping. 4

  2. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-08-25

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...for the various fruits and vegetables to be...

  3. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-10-25

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...shown that the fruits and vegetables listed above...

  4. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-05-02

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...shown that the fruits and vegetables listed above...

  5. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-08-10

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...importation of fruits and vegetables to prevent the...Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  6. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-05-13

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...importation of fruits and vegetables to prevent the...Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  7. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-08

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...93-121-4] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...editorial change to the fruits and vegetables regulations, we...

  8. Effect of fertilizer treatments on the fruit quality of the Halehaven peach

    E-print Network

    Storey, James Benton

    1953-01-01

    that the highest concentration of ascorbic acid was found in Juice of fruit from lcw nitrogen plots and vas lowest in the high nitrogen plots. They suggest two sets of conditions influencing ascorbic acid concentra- tion in plants. On the one hand, light... year. The fertilizer was broadcast under the spread of the trees, starting one foot from the trunk and continuing to the outer edge of the branches. It was disked and hoed into the surface soil. Trees that set an extra heavy load of f'ruit were...

  9. Comparative transcriptome analyses between a spontaneous late-ripening sweet orange mutant and its wild type suggest the functions of ABA, sucrose and JA during citrus fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of 'Jincheng' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  10. [Preparation of water in oil type cream with high content of water containing Kochia scoparia fruit and Cnidium monnieri fruit].

    PubMed

    Kohri, Naonori; Yamashita, Miki; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Kodera, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Kikisui is a herbal lotion containing Kochia scoparia Fruit and Cnidium monnieri Fruit that is clinically used as an antipruritic for itchy dry skin. However, this formulation is unsuitable for inducing a prolonged effect. Here, we attempted to change the formulation from a lotion to a cream. The cream we chose was a water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsion for enhancing skin compatibility. In addition, the high water content imparts a sensation of coolness. However, it is difficult to prepare a stable W/O type cream with high water content using a mechanical mixing method. Instead, we prepared the W/O type emulsion using liquid crystals. Water containing cocamidopropyl betaine was added to a dispersed phase comprising an oil phase of oleic acid and liquid paraffin that was constantly stirred. Addition of an aqueous solution containing Kochia scoparia Fruit and Cnidium monnieri Fruit decreased the stability of the cream. However, addition of glycerin as a humectant, and ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate/n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate as preservatives enhanced the stability of the cream. The stability of the emulsion was correlated with the apparent viscosity of the cream. The final W/O type cream had a water content of 83% and was stable for more than 6 months at 4°C. Furthermore, ostol, which is one of the main biologically active herbal compounds, was also stable for more than 6 months. PMID:22129882

  11. Studies on fruiting, bearing habit and fruit growth of jackfruit germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. ULLAH; MA Haque

    2008-01-01

    Studies on fruiting, bearing habit and fruit growth of jackfruit was carried out at orchard of Jackfruit Research Project, Department of Horticulture, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the period from November 2000 to October 2001. Ten jackfruit germplasm of 13 years of age were selected for this study. Fruit bearing habit of jackfruit was cauliflorous i.e., fruits are borne

  12. Influence of fruit development on seasonal elemental concentrations and distribution in fruit and leaves of pecan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Diver; Michael W. Smith; Ronald W. McNew

    1984-01-01

    The elemental concentrations of leaves and fruits were monitored during one season on fruiting and vegetative pecan shoots. Pecan fruit and leaves of fruiting and vegetative shoots on 31?year?old ‘Western’ pecan trees were collected biweekly from May 15 through October 15, 1982 and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn,

  13. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  14. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  15. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  16. Passiflora incarnata (Passifloraceae): A new fruit crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER M. McGUIRE

    1999-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata:A New Fruit Crop. Economic Botany 53(2): 161–176, 1999. Passiflora incarnata bears flavorful fruits consumed\\u000a by past and present peoples, and this plant deserves greater use as a fruit crop. Native to southeastern North America, it\\u000a is an herbaceous perennial vine which flowers and fruits over much of the growing season. P. incarnata is self-incompatible\\u000a and usually pollinated by

  17. Behavior of Salmonella spp. and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hui Li; Hong, Yoon-Ki; Yoon, Won Byong; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine survival or growth of unadapted, acid-adapted and cold-stressed Salmonella spp., and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures. Dragon fruits were sliced and spot inoculated with five-strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. at two inoculum levels (2.5 or 5.5 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruits were stored at 28°C for 48h and at 4°C and 12°C for 96 h. Salmonella population significantly increased by 2.4 to 3.0 log CFU/g at low inoculum level, whereas the numbers increased by 0.4 to 0.7 log CFU/g at the high inoculum level on fruits held at 28°C for 48h. Only unadapted and acid-adapted cells grew with 0.7 to 0.9log increase at the low inoculum level at 12°C for 96h. No significant growth was observed at both inoculum levels during storage at 4°C. Overall, acid, starved and cold adaptation of Salmonella spp. did not show significant difference in survival or growth on fresh-cut dragon fruits during storage compared to unadapted control cells. For natural microbiota on the fruit, mesophilic bacterial counts reached to 5-log CFU/g at 28 and 12°C by 9.9 and 52.9h. Similar with Salmonella spp. there was no growth of natural microbiota at 4°C. These results showed that Salmonella spp. could grow on fresh-cut dragon fruits under inappropriate storage conditions, indicating that fresh-cut dragon fruits could be a potential vehicle for salmonellosis. Thus, this study suggests that fresh-cut dragon fruits should be stored at 4°C to ensure the safety as well as to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut dragon fruits. PMID:23290230

  18. Rapid and sensitive analysis of 27 underivatized free amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides in fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle using HILIC-UHPLC-QTRAP(®)/MS (2) combined with chemometrics methods.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guisheng; Wang, Mengyue; Li, Yang; Peng, Ying; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a new strategy based on chemical analysis and chemometrics methods was proposed for the comprehensive analysis and profiling of underivatized free amino acids (FAAs) and small peptides among various Luo-Han-Guo (LHG) samples. Firstly, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters were optimized using Plackett-Burman (PB) screening and Box-Behnken designs (BBD), and the following optimal UAE conditions were obtained: ultrasound power of 280 W, extraction time of 43 min, and the solid-liquid ratio of 302 mL/g. Secondly, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 24 FAAs and 3 active small peptides in LHG at trace levels using hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UHPLC-QTRAP(®)/MS(2)). The analytical method was validated by matrix effects, linearity, LODs, LOQs, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery. Thirdly, the proposed optimal UAE conditions and analytical methods were applied to measurement of LHG samples. It was shown that LHG was rich in essential amino acids, which were beneficial nutrient substances for human health. Finally, based on the contents of the 27 analytes, the chemometrics methods of unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised counter propagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) were applied to differentiate and classify the 40 batches of LHG samples from different cultivated forms, regions, and varieties. As a result, these samples were mainly clustered into three clusters, which illustrated the cultivating disparity among the samples. In summary, the presented strategy had potential for the investigation of edible plants and agricultural products containing FAAs and small peptides. PMID:25976704

  19. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening. PMID:24723405

  20. Cultivar characterization of stone fruits for their minimal processing.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Delgado, Sergio; Fuentes-Pérez, María Del Carmen; Bohoyo-Gil, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Due to their physicochemical properties, minimal processing of fruits is challenging because of their quick quality loss. Therefore, several preservative steps are needed, such as washing treatments, modified atmosphere packaging, cultivar selection, etc. The latter is an important pre-harvest condition due to the fact that many functional compounds and enzymes are dependent on the cultivar. The aim of this study was to compare the minimal processing adaptation of different stone fruits (nectarine, peach, and plum), focusing on visual and functional quality. The fruit underwent minimal processing in a clean room (temperature and relative humidity were kept at 8 °C and 70 %, respectively) and was washed during 2 min into 2 % w/v ascorbic acid, 1 % w/v citric acid, and 1 % w/v calcium lactate solution. To sum up, nectarine and peach offered a better adaptation, and medium-season cultivars had higher quality maintenance. Nevertheless, late cultivars should not be ruled out before hand on account of their remarkable functional content. PMID:25829600

  1. Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Lai, Kaiping; Qu, Fei; Zhang, Yanbo

    2011-12-01

    Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×10? CFU/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by 2% SBC treatment. In artificial inoculation trials, disease control after 3 and 6 days, respectively, with the mixture of K. marxianus and 2% SBC (18.33%, 58.33%) was significantly improved over that obtained with K. marxianus (41.67%, 70.00%) or SBC (43.33%, 81.67%) alone. The combination of K. marxianus with SBC was as effective as the imazalil treatment in natural infection trials, which gave about 90% control of green mold. Addition of 2% SBC significantly stimulated the growth of K. marxianus in citrus fruit wounds after 72 h. Moreover, K. marxianus, SBC and their combination did not impair quality parameters including weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid at 4 °C for 30 days followed by 20 °C for 15 days. These results suggested that the use of SBC is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of K. marxianus for the postharvest green mold of citrus fruit. PMID:21920618

  2. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. PMID:22899620

  3. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    PubMed

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection. PMID:21905729

  4. Lemon Fruit Pie in a Bag Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Lemon Fruit Pie in a Bag Ingredients: 3 ounces vanilla low-fat yogurt 1 tablespoon pudding mix, lemon flavored 1 graham crackers, sheet 1/8 cup fruit Directions 1. In a sandwich bag, add 1/2 container vanilla yogurt, 1 tablespoon lemon flavored pudding mix, 1 sheet graham cracker, and 1/8 cup fruit. 2

  5. Fruit Ripening Phenomena–An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Prasanna; T. N. Prabha; R. N. Tharanathan

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting.

    PubMed

    Mihail, Jeanne D; Bruhn, Johann N; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2007-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30 d preceding fruiting. The two years with the greatest fruiting had the shortest fruiting seasons (6-7d). Fruiting season length was positively correlated with soil warming, suggesting that a narrow range of optimum soil temperatures favour the explosive production of fruit bodies. All woody stems of at least 1cm diam were mapped and stem diameter and crown condition were noted. Morel fruit bodies were significantly closer to stems of Carya spp., Tilia americana and Ulmus americana than predicted by the frequencies of these woody species or their contribution to the total basal area on the site. Although intra-annual clustering of fruit bodies was often observed, inter-annual clustering was not. The spatial pattern of M. esculenta fruiting appears to be associated with vegetation pattern, whereas the onset and abundance of fruiting are determined by the interaction of spring temperatures with availability of supporting precipitation. PMID:17363234

  7. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  8. Nutritional Quality of Commercial Fruit Baby Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. ?ížko Vá; R. Še; A. RAJCHl; M. Vold?

    Commercial fruit baby food is a preserved fruit product usually made with fruit purees, sugar, water and variable additives (thickening agents, antioxidants, etc.). As the foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses, baby foods for infants and young children conforms to a set of strict guidelines e.g. maximum levels for pesticide residues, microbiological contamination, addition of additives, labelling, etc. However, being

  9. Organic Quarantine Treatments for Tree Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production of pome and stone fruits in the United States has greatly increased over the past few years. In order to obtain lucrative export markets, these fruit must meet stringent quarantine requirements. For some countries, these requirements mean that the fruit must be treated with a ch...

  10. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  11. Sleep and the fruit fly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph J. Greenspan; Giulio Tononi; Chiara Cirelli; Paul J. Shaw

    2001-01-01

    The function of sleep remains a long-standing mystery in neurobiology. The presence of a sleep-like state has recently been demonstrated in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, meeting the essential behavioral criteria for sleep and also showing pharmacological and molecular correlates of mammalian sleep. This development opens up the possibility of applying genetic analysis to the identification of key molecular components

  12. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

  13. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Reid

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups comprised of WIC participants were held to identify perceived barriers to fruit and vegetable (F\\/V) consumption, helpful practices for increasing F\\/V intake, and preferred educational methods. The University Human Subjects Approval Committee approved study procedures. Two focus groups were conducted in metropolitan areas and two were held in rural areas of the state. Each focus group included five

  14. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  15. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  16. Ripening of Fruits and Vegetables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners test the rate of ripening fruit and vegetables and use a chemical to inhibit the ripening process. After the experiment, learners measure the exposed surface area of the foods. This activity relates to how food is prepared for the Space Shuttle. This lesson plan includes background information, discussion questions, and extensions.

  17. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  18. Molecular Structure of Propionic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-11

    Propanoic acid was named after the Greek word "Pro" for first and "pion" for fat, because it is the first fatty acid. It is a liquid and has a slightly pungent odor that can be characterized as rancid. Sweat, milk, and fermentation products all contain small amounts of this chemical. It can be synthesized from ethanol or ethylene and carbon monoxide. The calcium salt of propanoic acid is used as an antimolding agent and is an additive in breads. Esters of this carboxylic acid have a pleasant smell and taste and are used in the manufacture of fruit flavors and perfume bases. This compound is also found in a herbicide, called Silverado.

  19. Metabolomic profiling in tomato reveals diel compositional changes in fruit affected by source–sink relationships

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Camille; Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoît; Osorio, Sonia; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Deborde, Catherine; Colombié, Sophie; Cabasson, Cécile; Jacob, Daniel; Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Hélène; Rolin, Dominique; Génard, Michel; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the diurnal compositional changes was performed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker) leaves and fruits. Plants were cultivated in a commercial greenhouse under two growth conditions: control and shaded. Expanding fruits and the closest mature leaves were harvested during two different day/night cycles (cloudy or sunny day). High-throughput robotized biochemical phenotyping of major compounds, as well as proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling, were used to measure the contents of about 70 metabolites in the leaves and 60 metabolites in the fruits, in parallel with ecophysiological measurements. Metabolite data were processed using multivariate, univariate, or clustering analyses and correlation networks. The shaded carbon-limited plants adjusted their leaf area, decreased their sink carbon demand and showed subtle compositional modifications. For source leaves, several metabolites varied along a diel cycle, including those directly linked to photosynthesis and photorespiration. These metabolites peaked at midday in both conditions and diel cycles as expected. However, transitory carbon storage was limited in tomato leaves. In fruits, fewer metabolites showed diel fluctuations, which were also of lower amplitude. Several organic acids were among the fluctuating metabolites. Diel patterns observed in leaves and especially in fruits differed between the cloudy and sunny days, and between the two conditions. Relationships between compositional changes in leaves and fruits are in agreement with the fact that several metabolic processes of the fruit appeared linked to its momentary supply of sucrose. PMID:25873655

  20. Effect of pre-cooling, fruit coating and packaging on postharvest quality of apple.

    PubMed

    Wijewardane, R M Nilanthi Anuruddika; Guleria, S P S

    2013-04-01

    Freshly harvested apple fruits cv.'Royal Delicious' were subjected to Surface coating with 1, 1.5, 2% neem oil (Azadirachta indica) and 10, 15, 20% marigold flower (Tagetes erectus) extracts with pre cooling on apple storage quality was tested. Then the fruits were analyzed for physicochemical and physiological characters such as loss in weight, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) content, titratable acidity (TA), pH, reducing sugar contents, pectin, total anthocyanin, polygalacturonase (PG) activity and fruit spoilage. The results revealed that, the 1.5-2% concentration of neem oil as a surface coating along with pre-cooling was the most effective by retaining better physiochemical characteristics, in addition, significantly lowering disease incidence. Similarly, packaging of fruits with corrugated fiber board (CFB) boxes + paper mould trays, CFB + Polyethylene (PE) liners and shrink wrapped tray packing during storage (18-25 °C and 65-75% RH), revealed that 2% neem oil surface coating with shrink wrap tray packing resulted the better retention of storage life and, whereas, the treatment effect on physico-chemical characteristics of fruits were significant (p?fruits (10-15 °C, 70-75% RH) during ambient storage (18-25 ° C, 65-75% RH). PMID:24425923