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1

Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

2014-06-28

2

Novel Bioactivity of Ellagic Acid in Inhibiting Human Platelet Activation  

PubMed Central

Pomegranates are widely consumed either as fresh fruit or in beverage form as juice and wine. Ellagic acid possesses potent antioxidative properties; it is known to be an effective phytotherapeutic agent with antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic qualities. Ellagic acid (20 to 80??M) exhibited a potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen; however, it did not inhibit platelet aggregation stimulated by thrombin, arachidonic acid, or U46619. Treatment with ellagic acid (50 and 80??M) significantly inhibited platelet activation stimulated by collagen; this alteration was accompanied by the inhibition of relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)?2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Akt, as well as hydroxyl radical (OH?) formation. In addition, ellagic acid also inhibited p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, ellagic acid did not significantly affect PKC activation and platelet aggregation stimulated by PDBu. This study is the first to show that, in addition to being considered a possible agent for preventing tumor growth, ellagic acid possesses potent antiplatelet properties. It appears to initially inhibit the PLC?2-PKC cascade and/or hydroxyl radical formation, followed by decreased phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, ultimately inhibiting platelet aggregation.

Chang, Yi; Chen, Wei-Fan; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lin, Li-Jyun; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Chang, Chao-Chien

2013-01-01

3

DNA damaging activity of ellagic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

A strain of yeast rendered repair deficient by the conditional expression of the RAD52 locus was used to search for natural products capable of damaging DNA. Four ellagic acid derivatives, namely 3,3'-dimethyl-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ellagic acid (1), 3,3',4-trimethyl-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ellagic acid (2), 3'-methyl-3,4-O,O-methylidene ellagic acid (3) and 3'-methyl-3,4-O,O-methylidene-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ellagic acid (4), were identified by this assay as DNA damaging natural principles from several plants, including Alangium javanicum, Anisophyllea apetala, Crypteronia paniculata, Mouririi sp. and Scholtzia parviflora. Although none of the isolated principles mediated frank strand scission of DNA in vitro, all of them potently inhibited the growth of yeast in the absence of expression of RAD52. PMID:12628683

Xu, Ya-ming; Deng, Jing-Zhen; Ma, Ji; Chen, Shao-Nong; Marshall, Rebekah; Jones, Shannon H; Johnson, Randall K; Hecht, Sidney M

2003-04-01

4

Ellagic acid induces apoptosis through inhibition of nuclear factor ?B in pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the effect of ellagic acid on apop-tosis and proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells and to determine the mechanism of the pro-survival effects of ellagic acid. METHODS: The effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis was assessed by measuring Phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation; and proliferation by measuring DNA thymidine incorporation. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured in permeabilized cells, and in isolated mitochondria. Nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activity was measured by electromobility shift assay (EMSA). RESULTS: We show that ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound in fruits and berries, at concentrations 10 to 50 mmol/L stimulates apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Further, ellagic acid decreases proliferation by up to 20-fold at 50 mmol/L. Ellagic acid stimulates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome C release, and the downstream caspase activation. Ellagic acid does not directly affect mitochondria. Ellagic acid dose-dependently decreased NF-?B binding activity. Furthermore, inhibition of NF-?B activity using IkB wild type plasmid prevented the effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that ellagic acid stimulates apoptosis through inhibition of the prosu-rvival transcription factor NF-?B.

Edderkaoui, Mouad; Odinokova, Irina; Ohno, Izumi; Gukovsky, Ilya; Go, Vay Liang W; Pandol, Stephen J; Gukovskaya, Anna S

2008-01-01

5

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ellagic Acid on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Acid in Mice  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar edema and uncontrolled neutrophil migration to the lung, and no specific therapy is still available. Ellagic acid, a compound present in several fruits and medicinal plants, has shown anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental disease models. We used the nonlethal acid aspiration model of ALI in mice to determine whether preventive or therapeutic administration of ellagic acid (10?mg/kg; oral route) could interfere with the development or establishment of ALI inflammation. Dexamethasone (1?mg/kg; subcutaneous route) was used as a positive control. In both preventive and therapeutic treatments, ellagic acid reduced the vascular permeability changes and neutrophil recruitment to the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and to lung compared to the vehicle. In addition, the ellagic acid accelerated the resolution for lung neutrophilia. Moreover, ellagic acid reduced the COX-2-induced exacerbation of inflammation. These results were similar to the dexamethasone. However, while the anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone treatment were due to the reduced activation of NF-?B and AP-1, the ellagic acid treatment led to reduced BALF levels of IL-6 and increased levels of IL-10. In addition, dexamethasone treatment reduced IL-1?. Together, these findings identify ellagic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI-associated inflammation.

Cornelio Favarin, Daniely; Martins Teixeira, Maxelle; Lemos de Andrade, Edneia; de Freitas Alves, Claudiney; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Arterio Sorgi, Carlos; Paula Rogerio, Alexandre

2013-01-01

6

Spectrofluorimetric determination of ellagic acid in brandy.  

PubMed

Two spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the rapid determination of ellagic acid. The first method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and borax in methanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 456nm with excitation at 383nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 2.5×10(-8) to 7.5×10(-7)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 4×10(-9)molL(-1). The second method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and boric acid in ethanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 447nm with excitation at 387nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 1.25×10(-7) to 1.00×10(-6)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 7×10(-9)molL(-1). The methods were successfully applied for the determination of ellagic acid in brandy samples. The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC method. PMID:22953802

Sádecká, Jana; Tóthová, Jana

2012-12-01

7

Ellagic Acid Inhibits Pancreatic Fibrosis in Male Wistar Bonn\\/Kobori Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key pathological features of chronic pancreatitis are chronic inflammation, acinar atrophy, and pancreatic fibrosis. We\\u000a have previously shown that ellagic acid, a plant-derived polyphenol found in fruits and nuts, inhibited activation of pancreatic\\u000a stellate cells, a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, in vitro. Here we examined whether ellagic acid inhibited\\u000a the development of pancreatic fibrosis in vivo.

Noriaki Suzuki; Atsushi Masamune; Kazuhiro Kikuta; Takashi Watanabe; Kennichi Satoh; Tooru Shimosegawa

2009-01-01

8

Ellagic acid encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles as anti-hemorrhagic agent.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid, a naturally occurring polyphenol was encapsulated in chitosan particles prepared by ionotropic gelation and characterized for its physicochemical properties. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 49% was achieved. The blood clotting time and clot retraction time were calculated for different concentrations of ellagic acid, chitosan and ellagic acid-encapsulated chitosan. A reduction of 34% in the clot time and 16.4% in the retraction time was observed in ellagic acid-encapsulated chitosan when compared with free ellagic acid at concentrations as low as 0.1mg/mL. The physical blend in comparison to free ellagic acid displayed a reduction of 13.8% and 4.6% in the clotting time and retraction time respectively under similar conditions. This suggests that the encapsulation of ellagic acid favors thrombosis due to synergistic action of chitosan and ellagic acid on same molecular targets. This study demonstrates the potential of ellagic acid-chitosan system as an effective anti-hemorrhagic system. PMID:25037345

Gopalakrishnan, Lalitha; Ramana, Lakshmi Narashimhan; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

2014-10-13

9

Ellagic Acid: An Unusually Versatile Protector against Oxidative Stress.  

PubMed

Several aspects related to the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid were investigated using the density functional theory. It was found that this compound is unusually versatile for protecting against the toxic effects caused by oxidative stress. Ellagic acid, in aqueous solution at physiological pH, is able of deactivating a wide variety of free radicals, which is a desirable capability since in biological systems, these species are diverse. Under such conditions, the ellagic acid anion is proposed as the key species for its protective effects. It is predicted to be efficiently and continuously regenerated after scavenging two free radicals per cycle. This is an advantageous and unusual behavior that contributes to increase its antioxidant activity at low concentrations. In addition, the ellagic acid metabolites are also capable of efficiently scavenging a wide variety of free radicals. Accordingly, it is proposed that the ellagic acid efficiency for that purpose is not reduced after being metabolized. On the contrary, it provides continuous protection against oxidative stress through a free radical scavenging cascade. This is an uncommon and beneficial behavior, which makes ellagic acid particularly valuable to that purpose. After deprotonation, ellagic acid is also capable of chelating copper, in a concentration dependent way, decreasing the free radical production. In summary, ellagic acid is proposed to be an efficient multiple-function protector against oxidative stress. PMID:24697747

Galano, Annia; Francisco Marquez, Misaela; Pérez-González, Adriana

2014-05-19

10

In vitro anti-proliferative activities of ellagic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities of ellagic acid (a naturally occurring bioactive compound in berries, grapes, and nuts) was evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), normal human lung fibroblast cells HEL 299, Caco-2 colon, MCF-7 breast, Hs 578T breast, and DU 145 human prostatic cancer cells. Ellagic acid at concentration in the range 10–100 ?mol\\/L did not

Jack N. Losso; Rishipal R. Bansode; Alfred Trappey; Hiba A. Bawadi; Robert Truax

2004-01-01

11

In vitro anti-proliferative activities of ellagic acid.  

PubMed

The potential cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities of ellagic acid (a naturally occurring bioactive compound in berries, grapes, and nuts) was evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), normal human lung fibroblast cells HEL 299, Caco-2 colon, MCF-7 breast, Hs 578T breast, and DU 145 human prostatic cancer cells. Ellagic acid at concentration in the range 10-100 micromol/L did not affect the viability of normal fibroblast cells during a 24-hour incubation. An increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence of approximately 18-21% was observed in normal cells incubated with ellagic acid. In contrast, ellagic acid at 1-100 micromol/L dose-dependently inhibited HUVEC tube formation and proliferation on a reconstituted extracellular matrix and showed strong anti-proliferative activity against the colon, breast, and prostatic cancer cell lines investigated. The most sensitive cells were the Caco-2, and the most resistant were the breast cancer cells. Ellagic acid induced cancer cell death by apoptosis as shown by the microscopic examination of cell gross morphology. Ellagic acid induced reduced cancer cell viability as shown by decreased ATP levels of the cancer cells. After 24 hours incubation of 100 micromol/L of ellagic acid with Caco-2, MCF-7, Hs 578T, and DU 145 cancer cells, ellagic acid suppressed fetal bovine serum (FBS) stimulation of cell migration. The apoptosis induction was accompanied by a decreased in the levels of pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 (pro-MMP-2 or gelatinase A), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9 or gelatinase B), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) in conditioned media. The results suggest that ellagic acid expressed a selective cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity, and induced apoptosis in Caco-2, MCF-7, Hs 578T, and DU 145 cancer cells without any toxic effect on the viability of normal human lung fibroblast cells. It was also observed that the mechanism of apoptosis induction in ellagic acid-treated cancer cells was associated with decreased ATP production, which is crucial for the viability of cancer cells. PMID:15590271

Losso, Jack N; Bansode, Rishipal R; Trappey, Alfred; Bawadi, Hiba A; Truax, Robert

2004-11-01

12

Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

2003-06-01

13

Inhibition of liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activity and metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK by capsaicin and ellagic acid.  

PubMed

The tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), present in tobacco and tobacco smoke, is metabolically activated by microsomal enzymes. In this study, we examined the effect of capsaicin and ellagic acid on the in vitro metabolism of NNK by hamster and rat liver microsomes. Capsaicin is the principal component of Capsicum fruits used widely throughout the world as a food additive. Ellagic acid, with reported anticarcinogenic properties, is found in various soft fruits and nuts. Both capsaicin and ellagic acid inhibited the major pathways of NNK-reduction, N-pyridine oxidation and a-hydroxylation by hamster liver microsomes. Capsaicin inhibited NNK-reduction and a-hydroxylation and ellagic acid inhibited N-oxidation and a-hydroxylation by rat liver microsomes. The effects of capsaicin and ellagic acid on isozymes of cytochrome P450 were observed in the hydroxylation reactions of the metabolism of the steroid hormone testosterone. Results of these experiments indicated that both capsaicin and ellagic acid strongly inhibited the constitutive enzymes CYP 2A2, 3A1, 2C11, 2B1, 2B2 and 2C6. This study suggests that capsaicin and ellagic acid, as naturally occurring dietary constituents, possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties through the inhibition of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. PMID:8297156

Zhang, Z; Hamilton, S M; Stewart, C; Strother, A; Teel, R W

1993-01-01

14

Extraction and analysis of ellagic acid from novel complex sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA) was quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) coupled with photodiode\\u000a array detection (DAD) in five fine-powdered plants collected from the semiarid region of Mexico. Samples analysed included\\u000a Jatropha dioica branches (Dragon’s blood), Euphorbia antisyphyllitica branches (Candelilla), Turnera diffusa Willd leaves (Damiana), Flourensia cernua leaves (hojasén) and Punica granatum husk (pomegranate) at two maturity stages (“turning” or

Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbo; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Cristóbal N. Aguilar; Ernesto Favela-Torres

2008-01-01

15

In Vitro and In Vivo Properties of Ellagic Acid in Malaria Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria is one of the most significant causes of infectious disease in the world. The search for new antimalarial chemotherapies has become increasingly urgent due to the parasites' resistance to current drugs. Ellagic acid is a polyphenol found in various plant products. In this study, antimalarial properties of ellagic acid were explored. The results obtained have shown high activity in

Patrice Njomnang Soh; Benoît Witkowski; David Olagnier; Marie-Laure Nicolau; Maria-Concepcion Garcia-Alvarez; Antoine Berry; Francoise Benoit-Vical

2009-01-01

16

Biodistribution of ellagic acid and dose?related inhibition of lung tumorigenesis in A\\/J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA), derived from fruit ellagitannins, is known to be antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic in various animal tumor models. In this study, EA at a dose of 4 g\\/kg diet inhibited multiplicity of tumors induced by 4?(methylnitrosamino)?I?(3?pyridyl)?I?butanone (NNK) in A\\/J mice by 54%. This inhibition was dose related between 0.06 and 4.0 g\\/kg diet. In contrast, two related compounds, esculin

Mohamed Boukharta; Guylaine Jalbert; Andre Castonguay

1992-01-01

17

Antioxidant interactions of catechin, cyanidin, caffeic acid, quercetin, and ellagic acid on human LDL oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids and phenolic acids are currently believed to exert cardioprotective effects in humans via their ability to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The influence of chemical structure on antioxidant activity of catechin, quercetin, cyanidin, caffeic acid, and ellagic acid was evaluated by measuring inhibition of copper-catalysed human LDL oxidation in vitro. The five plant phenols investigated all possess a

Anne S Meyer; Marina Heinonen; Edwin N Frankel

1998-01-01

18

Failure of ellagic acid to affect platelet aggregation in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ellagic acid solutions, regardless of the concentration, failed to alter platelet aggregation induced by ADP, Adrenalin, Collagen, Thrombofax and Ristocetin in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma.

Antonio Girolami; Luigi Virgolini; Renata Peruffo; Luigino de Marco

1975-01-01

19

Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 ?g/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

Kilic, Ismail; Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Bayrak, Yüksel

2014-09-01

20

Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45?g/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH(•) scavenging, ABTS(+) scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties. PMID:24813273

Kilic, Ismail; Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Bayrak, Yüksel

2014-09-15

21

Colonic catabolism of ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and raspberry anthocyanins: in vivo and in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Red raspberries contain principally anthocyanins and ellagitannins. After ingestion of raspberries by humans, trace levels of anthocyanins, absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract, are excreted in urine in amounts corresponding to <0.1% of intake. Urine also contains urolithin-O-glucuronides derived from colonic metabolism of the ellagitannins. Raspberry feedings with ileostomists show that substantial amounts of the anthocyanin and ellagitannin intake are excreted in ileal fluid. In subjects with an intact functioning colon, these compounds would pass to the large intestine. The aim of this study was to identify raspberry-derived phenolic acid catabolites that form in the colon and those that are subsequently excreted in urine. In vitro anaerobic incubation of ellagitannins with fecal suspensions demonstrated conversion to ellagic acid and several urolithins. Fecal suspensions converted 80% of added ellagic acid to urolithins. In vivo, urolithins are excreted in urine as O-glucuronides, not aglycones, indicating that the colonic microflora convert ellagitannins to urolithins, whereas glucuronidation occurs in the wall of the large intestine and/or postabsorption in the liver. Unlike ellagitannins, raspberry anthocyanins were converted in vitro to phenolic acids by anaerobic fecal suspensions. Urinary excretion of phenolic acids after ingestion of raspberries indicates that after formation in the colon some phenolic acids undergo phase II metabolism, resulting in the formation of products that do not accumulate when anthocyanins are degraded in fecal suspensions. There is a growing realization that colonic catabolites such as phenolic acids and urolithins may have important roles in the protective effects of a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet. PMID:21622625

González-Barrio, Rocío; Edwards, Christine A; Crozier, Alan

2011-09-01

22

Utilization of acorn fringe for ellagic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae and Endomyces fibuliger.  

PubMed

Conversion of acorn fringe extract into ellagic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae and Endomyces fibuliger were investigated. The results showed that ellagic acid production was maximized when co-fermentation of the two fungi was performed at 30 degrees C and pH 5.0 with 5.7 g/l of initial substrate concentration, which were close to the optimal values for both fungi to yield an appropriate consortium of hydrolytic enzymes. Meanwhile, it was found that the co-fermentation could compensate the deficiencies in the level of polyphenol oxidase activity from pure A. oryzae and the levels of ellagitannin acyl hydrolase and beta-glucosidase activities from pure E. fibuliger, resulting in. 0.91 g/l of biomass concentration containing 1.84 g/l of ellagic acid. The research not only demonstrates that the co-fermentation is an effective approach to utilize forest byproduct for ellagic acid production, but also provides more evidences for understanding evolution of ellagic acid production with enzymes actions, which is important for process control of ellagic acid production in industrial application. PMID:17826988

Huang, Wen; Li, Zhenshan; Niu, Hai; Li, Lulu; Lin, Wensheng; Yang, Jinshui

2008-06-01

23

Ability of ellagic acid to alleviate osmotic stress on chickpea seedlings.  

PubMed

Seed germination and growth of seedlings are critical phases of plant life that are adversely affected by various environmental cues. Water availability is one of the main factors that limit the productivity of many crops. This study was conducted to assess the changes in the sensitivity of chickpea seedlings to osmotic stress by prior treatment of chickpea seeds with a low concentration (50 ppm) of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid was isolated and purified from Padina boryana Thivy by chromatographic techniques. After ellagic acid treatment, seeds were germinated for 10 days under different osmotic potentials (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions. Ellagic acid treatment accelerated the germination and seedling growth of chickpea under osmotic stress conditions. Consistent with the accelerated growth, ellagic acid-treated seedlings also showed a significant increase in the total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) as well as an increase in the compatible solutes (proline and glycine betaine) content. Additionally, treated seedlings revealed lower lipid peroxidation levels (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL) and H2O2. Flavonoid and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR)] and enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway [phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS)] all showed a remarkable increase with ellagic acid pretreatment compared to untreated seedlings especially under mild osmotic stress values (-0.2 and -0.4 MPa). These results suggested that treatment with ellagic acid could confer an increased tolerance of chickpea seedlings to osmotic stress, through reducing levels of H2O2 and increasing antioxidant capacity. PMID:23938205

Abu El-Soud, Walid; Hegab, Momtaz Mohamed; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Asard, Han

2013-10-01

24

Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (C(14)H(6)O(8)), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0×10(-10) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1); and the detection limits are 3.2×10(-10) mol L(-1) and 5.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex. PMID:21239219

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

2011-03-01

25

Failure of ellagic acid to affect platelet aggregation in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid solutions, regardless of the concentration, failed to alter platelet aggregation induced by ADP, Adrenalin, Collagen, Thrombofax and Ristocetin in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma. A moderate inhibition was noted after addition of ADP both in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma but this was present also in the control systems and was therefore due to the buffer-dextrose solution and not to ellagic acid. These data indicate that Hageman factor plays on role in platelet aggregation. PMID:1164564

Girolami, A; Virgolini, L; Peruffo, R; de Marco, L

1975-08-01

26

Design of biodegradable nanoparticles: a novel approach to encapsulating poorly soluble phytochemical ellagic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosizing of poorly water soluble drugs or incorporating them into nanoparticles to increase their solubility and thereby the bioavailability has become a favoured approach today. This work describes a novel method for encapsulating poorly water soluble phytochemical ellagic acid that is also sparingly soluble/insoluble in routine solvents used to prepare nanoparticles.

Bala, I.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hariharan, S.; Sitterberg, J.; Bakowsky, U.; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi

2005-12-01

27

Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China) [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

2009-12-25

28

Biological Significance of Urolithins, the Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derived Metabolites: The Evidence So Far  

PubMed Central

The health benefits attributed to pomegranate have been associated with its high content in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins. This is also the case for other ellagitannin-containing fruits and nuts including strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, walnuts, and muscadine grapes. The bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid is however very low. These molecules suffer extensive metabolism by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that are much better absorbed. Urolithins circulate in plasma as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates at concentrations in the range of 0.2–20??M. It is therefore conceivable that the health effects of ellagitannin-containing products can be associated with these gut-produced urolithins, and thus the evaluation of the biological effects of these metabolites is essential. Recent research, mostly based on in vitro testing, has shown preliminary evidence of the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiglycative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of urolithins, supporting their potential contribution to the health effects attributed to pomegranate and ellagitannin-rich foods. The number of in vivo studies is still limited, but they show preventive effects of urolithins on gut and systemic inflammation that encourage further research. Both in vivo and mechanistic studies are necessary to clarify the health effects of these metabolites. Attention should be paid when designing these mechanistic studies in order to use the physiologically relevant metabolites (urolithins in gut models and their conjugated derivatives in systemic models) at concentrations that can be reached in vivo.

Espin, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; Garcia-Conesa, Maria Teresa; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco

2013-01-01

29

Ellagic acid attenuates bleomycin and cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary toxicity in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Use of bleomycin (BLM) and cyclophosphamide (CP) as chemotherapeutic drugs is associated with side effects including toxicity to respiratory system. Their co-administration may enhance lung toxicity which may subsequently progress to the lung fibrosis. Natural compounds have shown mitigating effects against toxicity of anticancer drugs. Ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound present in many fruits and nuts in addition to walnut has shown promising protective effect against toxicity of drugs and chemicals. We studied the ameliorative effect of EA on lung toxicity in rats exposed to CP (150 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and BLM (10 U/kg b.w., i.t.). EA (15 mg/kg b.w., p.o.×14 days) treatment modulated enhanced hydroxyproline level, lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide production and protein carbonyl formation in lungs of rats exposed to toxic anticancer drugs. There was a marked decrease in GSH content and activities of antioxidant enzymes as a result of BLM and CP treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased level of cytotoxicity markers in drug treated animals. Treatment with EA attenuated these changes. Histopathological findings also showed protective effects of EA. In conclusion, EA emerged as a natural protectant with an ability to protect lungs from onslaught of pulmonary toxicity of anticancer drugs. PMID:23603381

Saba; Khan, Somaira; Parvez, Suhel; Chaudhari, Bhushan; Ahmad, Firoz; Anjum, Sameya; Raisuddin, Sheikh

2013-08-01

30

Comparative Study of Electrocoagulation and Electrooxidation Processes for the Degradation of Ellagic Acid From Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of electrocoagulation and electrooxidation processes for the degradation of ellagic acid from aqueous solution was carried out. For the electrocoagulation process, metallic iron was used as electrodes whereas graphite and RuO2\\/IrO2\\/TaO2 coated titanium electrodes were used for the electrooxidation processes. The effect of the process variables such as initial pH, concentration of the supporting electrolyte, applied current

M. Muthukumar; M. Govindaraj; A. Muthusamy; G. Bhaskar Raju

2010-01-01

31

A new ellagic acid glycoside and DNA topoisomerase IB inhibitory activity of saponins from Putranjiva roxburghii.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the stem bark and leaves of Putranjiva roxburghii has resulted in the isolation of a new ellagic acid glycoside (5) along with four saponins (1-4). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by detailed spectral analysis. Incidentally putranoside-A methyl ester (4) has been isolated for the first time from this species and the saponins (1-4) exhibited potent DNA topoisomerase IB inhibitory activity. PMID:25026719

Kumar, Ashish; Chowdhury, Somenath Roy; Chakrabarti, Tulika; Majumdarb, Hemanta K; Jha, Tarun; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata

2014-05-01

32

Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species.  

PubMed

Ellagitannin and ellagic acid metabolism to urolithins in the gut shows a large human interindividual variability and this has been associated with differences in the colon microbiota. In the present study we describe the isolation of one urolithin-producing strain from the human faeces of a healthy volunteer and the ellagic acid transformation to different urolithin metabolites by two species of intestinal bacteria. The isolate belongs to a new species described as Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, sp. nov. The type strain of the Gordonibacter genus, Gordonibacter pamelaeae DSM 19378(T), was also demonstrated to produce urolithins. Both human intestinal bacteria grew similarly in the presence and absence of ellagic acid at 30 ?M concentration. Ellagic acid catabolism and urolithin formation occurred during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-MS analyses showed the sequential production of pentahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-5), tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-6) and trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C), while dihydroxy-urolithins (urolithin A and isourolithin A), and monohydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not produced in pure cultures. Consequently, either other bacteria from the gut or the physiological conditions found in vivo are necessary for completing metabolism until the final urolithins (dihydroxy and monohydroxy urolithins) are produced. This is the first time that the urolithin production capacity of pure strains has been demonstrated. The identification of the urolithin-producing bacteria is a relevant outcome as urolithin implication in health (cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties) has been supported by different bioassays and urolithins can be used in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study represents an initial work that opens interesting possibilities of describing enzymatic activities involved in urolithin production that can help in understanding both the human interindividual differences in polyphenol metabolism, the microbial pathways involved, and the role of polyphenols in human health. The presence of urolithin producing bacteria can indirectly affect the health benefits of ellagitannin consumption. PMID:24909569

Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

2014-07-23

33

Ellagic acid derivatives and naphthoquinones of Dionaea muscipula from in vitro cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

From Dionaea muscipula, obtained by in vitro culture, the known compounds plumbagin, chloroplumbagin and 8,8?-biplumbagin as naphthoquinones, 1-O-?-galloylglucose, ellagic acid, 3-O-methylellagic acid, 3,3?-di-O-methylellagic acid and its 4-O-glucoside, and a new compound, the 4,4?-di-O-glucoside of 3,3?-di-O-methylellagic acid, were isolated. The assignments of NMR resonances of 3,3?-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-glucoside were substantiated by correlation techniques.

Grzegorz Pakulski; Jaromir Budzianowski

1996-01-01

34

Isolation, purification and identification of ellagic acid derivatives, catechins, and procyanidins from the root bark of Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br.  

PubMed

The root bark of Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic Congo for the treatment of several conditions such as anorexia, fatigue and intestinal infections. We have identified and quantitated several polyphenol antioxidants in the methanol extract of the root bark (120g). The polyphenol content (3.32g/kg) was predominantly ellagitannins (25%) and polyhydroxyflavan-3-ols (catechins and procyanidins, 75%) with 3'-O-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxo ellagic acid 4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside and (-)-epicatechin as the major species in each class. These two compounds and the following species were identified unequivocally by NMR spectroscopy: (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate, 3-O-methyl ellagic acid, 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid, 3'-O-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxo ellagic acid, 3'-O-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxo ellagic acid 4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, and 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid 4-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside. The following additional compounds were purified by semi-preparative HPLC and tentatively identified on the basis of UV spectra, HPLC-ESI-MS and nano-ESI-MS-MS: (+)-catechin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin (procyanidin B(1)), epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B(2)), an (epi)catechin trimer, 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-vanillate, 3,4-methylenedioxo ellagic acid 4'-O- beta-d-glucopyranoside, and 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid 4-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside. Fractionation of the raw extract by column chromatography on silicic acid yielded 10 fractions. In the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, CC-9 which contained a range of polyphenols dominated by (-)-epicatechin-O-gallate proved to be the most potent antioxidant fraction (IC(50)=52 micro g/mL) in terms of ROS scavenging. In terms of XO inhibition CC-8, dominated by (epi)catechin trimer and which also contained appreciable amounts of 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid 4'-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside, as well as the catechins (+)-catechin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin (procyanidin B(1)), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate, proved to be the most potent (IC(50)=36 micro g/mL). PMID:17084499

Khallouki, F; Haubner, R; Hull, W E; Erben, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

2007-03-01

35

Antiviral activity and possible mode of action of ellagic acid identified in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves toward human rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cause billions of USD annually in medical visits and school and work absenteeism. An assessment was made of the cytotoxic and antiviral activities and possible mode of action of the tannin ellagic acid from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa toward HeLa cells and three rhinoviruses, HRV-2, -3, and -4. Methods The antiviral property and mechanism of action of ellagic acid were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with SYBR Green dye. Results were compared with those of the currently used broad-spectrum antiviral agent, ribavirin. Results As judged by 50% inhibitory concentration values, natural ellagic acid was 1.8, 2.3, and 2.2 times more toxic toward HRV-2 (38 ?g/mL), HRV-3 (31 ?g/mL), and HRV-4 (29 ?g/mL) than ribavirin, respectively. The inhibition rate of preincubation with 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid was 17%, whereas continuous presence of ellagic acid during infection led to a significant increase in the inhibition (70%). Treatment with 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid considerably suppressed HRV-4 infection only when added just after the virus inoculation (0 h) (87% inhibition), but not before -1 h or after 1 h or later (<20% inhibition). These findings suggest that ellagic acid does not interact with the HRV-4 particles and may directly interact with the human cells in the early stage of HRV infections to protect the cells from the virus destruction. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid strongly inhibited the RNA replication of HRV-4 in HeLa cells, suggesting that ellagic acid inhibits virus replication by targeting on cellular molecules, rather than virus molecules. Conclusions Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on L. speciosa leaf-derived materials containing ellagic acid as potential anti-HRV products or a lead molecule for the prevention or treatment of HRV infection.

2014-01-01

36

Protective effect of ellagic acid, a natural polyphenolic compound, in a murine model of Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Current epidemiological and experimental studies support a beneficial role of dietary polyphenols in several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of a naturally occurring polyphenol, ellagic acid, present in some fruits such as pomegranate, raspberries and nuts among others, in an experimental murine model of Crohn's disease by intra-colonic administration of TNBS in rats. Analysis of the lesions were carried out by macroscopic and histological technics. Inflammation response was assessed by histology and myeloperoxidase activity. iNOS and COX-2 are upregulated by MAPKs and NF-?B nuclear transcription factor in intestinal epithelial cells thus, we determined the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and the involvement of the p38, JNK, ERK1/2 MAPKs and NF-?B signalling in the protective effect of EA by western blotting. Oral administration of EA (10-20 mg/kg) diminished the severity and extension of the intestinal injuries induced by TNBS although there was no observed a significant dose-response. In addition, EA increased mucus production in goblet cells in colon mucosa, decreased neutrophil infiltration and pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2 and iNOS overexpression. Also EA was capable of reducing the activation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2 MAPKs, preventing the inhibitory protein I?B-degradation and inducing an inhibition of the nuclear translocation level of p65 in colonic mucosa. In conclusion, EA reduces the damage in a rat model of Crohn's disease, alleviates the oxidative events and returns pro-inflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through MAPKs and NF-?B signalling pathways. PMID:21763290

Rosillo, M A; Sanchez-Hidalgo, M; Cárdeno, A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón

2011-10-01

37

Ellagic acid inhibits PKC signaling by improving antioxidant defense system in murine T cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Antioxidants protect the cells from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS during cellular metabolism is balanced by their removal by antioxidants. Any condition leading to increased levels of ROS results in oxidative stress, which participates in multistage carcinogenesis by causing oxidative DNA damage, mutations in the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Antioxidant defense system is required to overcome the process of carcinogenesis generated by ROS. Antioxidant enzymes are major contributors to endogenous antioxidant defense system. Protein kinase C (PKC) is generally involved in cell proliferation and its over expression leads to abnormal tumor growth. Out of three classes of PKC, classical PKC is mainly involved in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Classical PKC initiates signaling pathway and leads to activation of a number of downstream protein via activation of NF-?B. Therefore any agent which can promotes the endogenous antioxidant defense system should be able to down regulate PKC and NF-?B activation and thus may be useful in reducing cancer progression. To investigate this hypothesis we have tested the effect of antioxidant ellagic acid on antioxidant enzymes and PKC signaling in Dalton's lymphoma bearing (DL) mice. DL mice were treated with three different doses of ellagic acid. The treatment significantly increases the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes and down regulates the expression of classical isozymes of PKC as well as the activation of NF-?B, indicating that ellagic acid improves antioxidant defense system and PKC signaling via NF-?B which may contribute to its cancer preventive role. PMID:24574001

Mishra, Sudha; Vinayak, Manjula

2014-07-01

38

Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA(2) activity.  

PubMed

The Casearia sylvestris SW (Flacourtiaceae) is utilized in folk medicine (Brazil and all Latin American) to treat several pathologic processes as inflammation, cancer, microbial infection and snake bites. Studies showed that C. sylvestris aqueous extract can inhibit many toxic effects caused by snake venoms (or caused by phospholipase A(2) isolated) from different species, mainly of Bothrops genus. Inhibition of enzymatic and myotoxic activities, decrease of edema formation and increase of the survival rate of rats injected with lethal doses of bothropic venoms are some toxic effects inhibited by C. sylvestris. In this study, four ellagic acid derivatives from aqueous extracts of C. sylvestris were isolated, characterized, and tested against effects from both total venom and PLA(2) (Asp 49 BthTX-II) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. The isolated compounds were as follows: ellagic acid (A), 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid (B), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (C), 3-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxy ellagic acid (D). The inhibition constant values (Ki) for enzymatic activity, as well the IC(50) values found in the edematogenic and myotoxic activities, indicate that the ellagic acid is the best inhibitor of these activities, while compounds C and D are the substances with lowest capacity on inhibiting these same effects. Our results show that the presence of hydroxyls at position 3 or 3' (compounds A and B) increases the capacity of these derivatives on inhibiting these toxic effects. However, the presence of methoxyl groups at position 3 or 3' reduced, but did not completely inhibit the capacity of compounds C and D on inhibiting all the toxic effects studied. PMID:18718481

Da Silva, Saulo L; Calgarotto, Andrana K; Chaar, Jamal S; Marangoni, Sérgio

2008-11-01

39

Thin layer-based spectral and electrophoretic study of electro-oxidation of solid ellagic acid.  

PubMed

Acquisition of data from both in situ spectroscopy detection and online chromatography-like separation is important for studying complex electrochemical reactions. The present work provides an example of combination of thin-layer spectral and electrophoretic electrochemistry, both based on thin-layer electrolysis. Two thin-layer electrochemical cells were used to investigate the electro-oxidation of solid ellagic acid at different potentials, in acidic, physiological, and alkaline buffer media. UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltabsorptograms of the oxidation products were recorded in situ without interference from the solid reactant. Four oxidation products, depending upon the buffer pH and the applied potential, were separated and detected by electrophoretic electrochemistry. The major products possess redox stability, possibly with a diquinonemethide structure. The minor product is considered as an o-quinone derivative with a lactone-ring-opening, which can be reduced or further oxidized at appropriate potentials. A consecutive-parallel reaction mechanism is proposed for the formation of four products of ellagic acid in different pH media, which enriches the knowledge about the oxidation pathway and antioxidant property of this biologically active polyphenol compound. PMID:24495249

Chen, Yu-Jiao; Deng, Ning; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yan; He, Jian-Bo

2014-02-27

40

Two ellagic acids isolated from roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. promote hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and megakaryocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Using a bioassay-directed chromatographic separation, two ellagic acids were obtained from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods, the two ellagic acids were identified as 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-?-d-xyloside and 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid. Stimulation of cell proliferation was assayed in hematopoietic progenitor cells using the Cell Counting kit-8 method. The megakaryocyte differentiation was determined in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells using Giemsa staining and flow cytometry analysis. The ellagic acids significantly stimulated the proliferation of Baf3/Mpl cells. Morphology analysis and megakaryocyte specific-marker CD41 staining confirmed that the ellagic acids induced megakaryocyte differentiation in HEL cells. This is the first time that 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid or 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-?-d-xyloside are reported to induce megakaryopoiesis, suggesting a class of small molecules which differ from others non-peptidyl, and appears to have potential for clinical development as a therapeutic agent for patients with blood platelet disorders. PMID:24879588

Gao, Xiaoping; Wu, Jianming; Zou, Wenjun; Dai, Yanping

2014-01-01

41

Inhibition of N-nitrosamine carcinogenesis and aflatoxin DNA damage by ellagic acid  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ellagic acid (EA), on the tumorigenicity of N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine (NBMA) in the rat esophagus was investigated. Groups of 30 male F-344 rats were fed a semipurified diet containing EA for 27 weeks. N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine was administered subcutaneously, once a week for 18 weeks. Ellagic acid produced a significant inhibition in the average number of esophageal tumors at both 20 weeks and 27 weeks. To investigate the mechanism(s) of this inhibition, EA was tested for its effect on the metabolism, DNA-binding and DNA-adduct formation of NBMA in cultured explants of rat esophagus. Explants were incubated in medium containing EA at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 {mu}M for 16 hours, followed by the addition of 1{mu}M ({sup 3}H)NBMA and EA for 12 hours. Explant DNA was isolated by phenol extraction and hydroxylapatite chromatography, and benzaldehyde formation was determined by h.p.l.c. analysis of the culture medium. Finally, EA was examined for its ability to inhibit DNA damage induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) in cultured explants of rat trachea and esophagus, and human tracheobronchus.

Mandal-Chaudhuri, S.

1988-01-01

42

[Determination of ellagic acid, flavonoids and goshonoside-F5 in Rubi Fructus by HPLC].  

PubMed

High-performance liquid chromatographic coupled with variable wavelength detection (HPLC-VWD) has been developed for simultaneous determination of 5 analytes including ellagic acid, quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, tiliroside and kaempferol, and high-performance liquid chromatographic with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) has been established to determine goshonoside-F5 in extract of Rubi Fructus. Chromatographic separations were carried out on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5.0 microm). All calibration curves of reference standards revealed good linearity (R2 > 0.999 5) within the concentration ranges tested. The method limits of detection ranged 0.297-90.144 ng and the method limits ofquantitation ranged 0.990-300.480 ng, respectively. Recoveries of 6 analytes were from 97.11% to 101.7%, with RSD less than 2.1%. The result shows that amounts of the 6 analytes in the samples from 16 localities were found to be different. The higher latitude of growing environment, the more ellagic acid in herb. The content of total flavonoids in sample from east localities were higher than that in middle and west localities, and the content of goshonoside-F5 in Bozhou, Anhui province was higher than others. This method was found to be simple, accurate, sensitive with good repeatability. Those results might serve as a sound foundation for further study, quality control and application of Rubi Fructus. PMID:24791544

He, Jian-Ming; Sun, Nan; Wu, Wen-Dan; Fan, Li-Jiao; Guo, Mei-Li

2013-12-01

43

Punicalagin and Ellagic Acid Demonstrate Antimutagenic Activity and Inhibition of Benzo[a]pyrene Induced DNA Adducts  

PubMed Central

Punicalagin (PC) is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA) are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97%) at 40??M by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50–500??M) exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer.

Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Aqil, Farrukh

2014-01-01

44

Punicalagin and ellagic acid demonstrate antimutagenic activity and inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene induced DNA adducts.  

PubMed

Punicalagin (PC) is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA) are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97%) at 40 ? M by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50-500 ? M) exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer. PMID:24949451

Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Gupta, Ramesh C; Aqil, Farrukh

2014-01-01

45

Ellagic Acid, the Active Compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, Exerts In Vivo Anti-Angiogenic Effect and Inhibits MMP-2 Activity.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the potential anti-angiogenic mechanism of Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) and characterize the major compound in P. urinaria that exerts anti-angiogenic effect. The water extract of P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in chicken embryo and human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). The matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was determined by gelatin zymography. The mRNA expressions of MMP-2, MMP-14 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Level of MMP-2 proteins in conditioned medium or cytosol was determined by western blot analysis. We confirmed that P. urinaria's in vivo anti-angiogenic effect was associated with a reduction in MMP-2 activity. Ellagic acid, one of the major polyphenolic components as identified in P. urinaria by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), exhibited the same anti-angiogenic effect in vivo. Both P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid inhibited MMP-2 activity in HUVECs with unchanged mRNA level. The mRNA expression levels of MMP-14 and TIMP-2 were not altered either. Results from comparing the change of MMP-2 protein levels in conditioned medium and cytosol of HUVECs after the P. urinaria or Ellagic Acid treatment revealed an inhibitory effect on the secretion of MMP-2 protein. This study concluded that Ellagic Acid is the active compound in P. urinaria to exhibit anti-angiogenic activity and to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 protein from HUVECs. PMID:20007260

Huang, Sheng-Teng; Wang, Chen-Yu; Yang, Rong-Chi; Wu, Hsiao-Ting; Yang, Su-Hui; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

2011-01-01

46

Ellagic Acid, the Active Compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, Exerts In Vivo Anti-Angiogenic Effect and Inhibits MMP-2 Activity  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess the potential anti-angiogenic mechanism of Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) and characterize the major compound in P. urinaria that exerts anti-angiogenic effect. The water extract of P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in chicken embryo and human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). The matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was determined by gelatin zymography. The mRNA expressions of MMP-2, MMP-14 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Level of MMP-2 proteins in conditioned medium or cytosol was determined by western blot analysis. We confirmed that P. urinaria's in vivo anti-angiogenic effect was associated with a reduction in MMP-2 activity. Ellagic acid, one of the major polyphenolic components as identified in P. urinaria by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), exhibited the same anti-angiogenic effect in vivo. Both P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid inhibited MMP-2 activity in HUVECs with unchanged mRNA level. The mRNA expression levels of MMP-14 and TIMP-2 were not altered either. Results from comparing the change of MMP-2 protein levels in conditioned medium and cytosol of HUVECs after the P. urinaria or Ellagic Acid treatment revealed an inhibitory effect on the secretion of MMP-2 protein. This study concluded that Ellagic Acid is the active compound in P. urinaria to exhibit anti-angiogenic activity and to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 protein from HUVECs.

Huang, Sheng-Teng; Wang, Chen-Yu; Yang, Rong-Chi; Wu, Hsiao-Ting; Yang, Su-Hui; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.

2011-01-01

47

Research progress on the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of ellagic acid  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer treatments by chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation have not been highly effective in reducing the incidence of cancers and increasing the survival rate of cancer patients. In recent years, plant-derived compounds have attracted considerable attention as alternative cancer remedies for enhancing cancer prevention and treatment because of their low toxicities, low costs, and low side effects. Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenolic constituent. Recent in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that EA elicits anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, breaking DNA binding to carcinogens, blocking virus infection, and disturbing inflammation, angiogenesis, and drug-resistance processes required for tumor growth and metastasis. This review enumerates the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of EA. It also discusses future directions on the applications of EA.

Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hao; Xu, Hao; Chen, Wen-Wen; Tao, Lin

2014-01-01

48

Research progress on the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of ellagic acid.  

PubMed

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer treatments by chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation have not been highly effective in reducing the incidence of cancers and increasing the survival rate of cancer patients. In recent years, plant-derived compounds have attracted considerable attention as alternative cancer remedies for enhancing cancer prevention and treatment because of their low toxicities, low costs, and low side effects. Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenolic constituent. Recent in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that EA elicits anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, breaking DNA binding to carcinogens, blocking virus infection, and disturbing inflammation, angiogenesis, and drug-resistance processes required for tumor growth and metastasis. This review enumerates the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of EA. It also discusses future directions on the applications of EA. PMID:25009751

Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hao; Xu, Hao; Chen, Wen-Wen; Tao, Lin

2014-06-01

49

Constituents of Coriaria ruscifolia fruits.  

PubMed

Corianin (1) and ellagic acid 3,3'-dimethylether (2) were obtained from the methanol extract of powdered fruits of Coriaria ruscifolia. Biological screening of both compounds and of the methanol extract revealed slight antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. PMID:11429254

Valencia, E; Valenzuela, E; Barros, E; Aedo, V; Gebauer, M T; García, C; González, A G; Bermejo, J

2001-06-01

50

Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.  

PubMed

The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, astragalin 6?-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 ?M), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6?-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 ?M) and isoquercitrin 6?-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 ?M), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, and astragalin 6?-gallate as active principles. PMID:24293032

Nugroho, Agung; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Choi, Moo-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee-Juhn

2014-07-01

51

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GALLIC ACID, ELLAGIC ACID AND ASCORBIC ACID IN EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND IN UNANI POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED HPLC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple rapid and economic simultaneous HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantification of Gallic acid (GA), Ellagic acid (EA) and Ascorbic acid (AA), in Emblica officinalis Linn. (aamla) and in two poly herbal Unani formulations, containing aamla as an ingredient. Separation of was achieved on a reverse phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with mobile phase 0.1% orthophosphoric

Mhaveer Singh; Y. T. Kamal; E. T. Tamboli; Rabea Parveen; Khalid M. Siddiqui; S. M. A. Zaidi; Sayeed Ahmad

2012-01-01

52

Effects of Ellagic Acid on Copper, Zinc, and Biochemical Values in Serum and Liver of Experimental Cholestatic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural polyphenolic compound. Although, modulator effects of EA on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels\\u000a in some liver diseases have been reported in experimental animals, its effects in obstructive jaundice (OJ) has not been clarified.\\u000a We aimed to evaluate potential effects of EA on Cu and Zn levels in liver and serum of cholestatic rats.

Metehan Gümü?; Hatice Yüksel; Osman Evliyao?lu; Murat Kapan; Abdullah Böyük; Ak?n Önder; Mustafa Aldemir

53

Evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system, but not the opioid system in the antidepressant-like activity of ellagic acid in mice.  

PubMed

Dietary flavonoids possess a multiplicity of neuroprotective actions in various central nervous pathophysiological conditions including depression. Ellagic acid is a polyphenolic compound that occurs in plants such as raspberries, nuts and eucalyptus species. The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of ellagic acid in mice using forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The involvement of the monoaminergic and opioid systems in the antidepressant-like activity of ellagic acid was also studied. Our results showed that ellagic acid when administered acutely or chronically to mice (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, p.o.), produced a significant reduction in the duration of immobility, with a profile comparable to that of fluoxetine (20mg/kg, p.o.). However, ellagic acid treatment had no effect on the locomotor activity of mice when tested in actophotometer. The reduction in immobility time observed with ellagic acid treatment (50mg/kg, p.o.) was prevented by pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (100mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin synthesis inhibitor), pindolol (10mg/kg, i.p., a ?-adrenoceptors blocker/5HT(1A/1B) receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5mg/kg, i.p., a 5HT(2A/2B) receptor antagonist), ondansetron (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5HT(3) receptor antagonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p., an ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist) and yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an ?(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), but not with naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p., an opioid receptor antagonist). Our results suggest that ellagic acid produced an antidepressant-like effect which was unrelated to its locomotor activity. Furthermore, this anti-immobility effect seems most likely to be mediated through an interaction with the monoaminergic system (serotonergic and noradrenergic systems) and not through the opioid system. PMID:22387858

Girish, Chandrashekaran; Raj, Vishnu; Arya, Jayasree; Balakrishnan, Sadasivam

2012-05-01

54

Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway  

SciTech Connect

Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

Ou, Hsiu-Chung [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Jane [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shin-Da [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Yang [Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Tsan-Hung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Kun-Ling [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Cheng [Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng, E-mail: whhsheu@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Technology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-10-15

55

Time course production of urolithins from ellagic acid by human gut microbiota.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) is converted to urolithins by gut microbiota. Urolithins have beneficial biological effects in humans, but differences in urolithin production capacity among individuals have been shown. Therefore, the identification of the urolithin production pathways and the microorganisms implicated is of high interest. EA was incubated with gut microbiota from two volunteers able to produce urolithins but with different in vivo urolithin profiles (urolithin A and isourolithin A producers). The metabolic capabilities observed in vivo were retained in vitro. Both individuals showed a much higher abundance of Clostridium leptum group of Firmicutes phylum than Bacteroides / Prevotella . EA was either dissolved in DMSO or suspended in water. DMSO increased EA solubility but decreased urolithin production rate due to a delay in growth of some microbial groups, principally, Clostridium coccoides . This allowed the detection of catabolic intermediates [urolithins M-5, M-6, M-7, C, and 2,3,8,10-tetrahydroxy urolithin (urolithin E)]. Bacteria from C. coccoides group (or genera co-occurring in vivo with this group) seem to be involved in production of different urolithins. PMID:23984796

García-Villalba, Rocío; Beltrán, David; Espín, Juan Carlos; Selma, María Victoria; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

2013-09-18

56

Development of antiproliferative nanohybrid compound with controlled release property using ellagic acid as the active agent  

PubMed Central

An ellagic acid (EA)–zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) nanohybrid (EAN) was synthesized under a nonaqueous environment using EA and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the precursors. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the basal spacing of the nanohybrid was 10.4 Å, resulting in the spatial orientation of EA molecules between the interlayers of 22.5° from z-axis with two negative charges at 8,8? position of the molecules pointed toward the ZLH interlayers. FTIR study showed that the intercalated EA spectral feature is generally similar to that of EA, but with bands slightly shifted. This indicates that some chemical bonding of EA presence between the nanohybrid interlayers was slightly changed, due to the formation of host–guest interaction. The nanohybrid is of mesopores type with 58.8% drug loading and enhanced thermal stability. The release of the drug active, EA from the nanohybrid was found to be sustained and therefore has good potential to be used as a drug controlled-release formulation. In vitro bioassay study showed that the EAN has a mild effect on the hepatocytes cells, similar to its counterpart, free EA.

Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Al Ali, Samer Hasan; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

2011-01-01

57

Ellagic Acid Directed Growth of Au-Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Their Catalytic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we report the facile formation of bimetallic nanoparticles of Au-Pt in the presence of the plant polyphenol ellagic acid (EA). It was found that EA formed micro-fibrillar assemblies, which aggregated into micro-bundles under aqueous conditions. Those micro-bundles acted as templates for the growth of Au nanoparticles, as well as bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles biomimetically. At higher concentrations of EA, it was observed that in addition to forming fibrous micro-bundles, columnar assemblies of EA were formed in the presence of the metal nanoparticles. The formation of the assemblies was found to be concentration dependent. It appears that upon binding to metal ions and subsequent formation of the nanoparticles, morphological changes occur in the case of EA assemblies. The morphological changes observed were probed by electron microscopy. Further, the ability of the materials to degrade the toxic aromatic nitro compound 2-methoxy-4-nitroaniline was explored, where 50% degradation was observed within 15 min, indicating that such hybrid materials may have potential applications in environmental remediation.

Barnaby, Stacey N.; Sarker, Nazmul H.; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

2013-02-01

58

Topical Anti-inflammatory Potential of Standardized Pomegranate Rind Extract and Ellagic Acid in Contact Dermatitis.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory potential of a standardized pomegranate rind extracts (SPRE) in parallel with its marker compound ellagic acid (EA, 13% w/w) against a mouse model of contact dermatitis. In the phenol-induced mouse ear edema, topical application of SPRE (5, 2.5, and 1 mg/ear) and EA (0.65, 0.325, and 0.13 mg/ear, equivalent to its content in SPRE) dose-dependently reduced the ear edema with the maximal inhibition of 79.12% and 73.63%, respectively. Triamcinolone (0.1 mg/ear) and diclofenac (1 mg/ear) as reference drugs inhibited the edema by 73.63% and 37.91%. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the mouse ear was also decreased by SPRE and EA up to 69.68% and 68.79%, respectively. Triamcinolone and diclofenac decreased the MPO activity by 76.66% and 80.14% similarly. The results indicated that topical application of SPRE and EA is promising for use in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23873506

Mo, Jiao; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Kaewnopparat, Nattha; Songkro, Sarunyoo; Reanmongkol, Wantana

2014-04-01

59

Antioxidant action of ellagic acid ameliorates paraquat-induced A549 cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-carcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of EA against paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress. PQ decreased the viability of A549 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, which was associated with the massive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, cell viability was significantly recovered by the treatment of EA, from 47.01±1.59% to 66.04±2.84%. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was also decreased with the treatment of EA in PQ-treated A549 cells. EA induced the level of expression and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and its target cytoprotective and antioxidant genes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). The antioxidant potential of EA might be directly correlated with the increased expression of HO-1 and NQO1, whose expression may have surmounted the oxidative stress generated by PQ. Notably, EA treatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers as lipid peroxidation, reduced the intracellular ROS level, and surmounted total glutathione level in A549 cells. Data indicate that the antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of EA reduce PQ-induced cytotoxicity in human alveolar A549 cells. PMID:23546295

Kim, Yong-Sik; Zerin, Tamanna; Song, Ho-Yeon

2013-01-01

60

Effects of Ellagic Acid on Angiogenic Factors in Prostate Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase system (HO) have emerged as important modulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: The anti-angiogenic effects of EA were investigated in the human prostatic cancer cell line LnCap. HO-1, HO-2, CYP2J2 and soluble epoxyde hydrolase (sEH) expressions were evaluated by western blotting. Levels of VEGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined in the culture supernatant using an ELISA assay, while CYP mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: EA treatment induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HO-1, HO-2 and CYP2J2 expression, and in VEGF and OPG levels. Similarly CYP2J2, CYP4F2 and CYPA22 mRNAs were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by EA treatment. The decrease in CYP2J2 mRNA was associated with an increase in sEH expression. Conclusions: Results reported in the present study highlighted the ability of EA to modulate a new pathway, in addition to anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation properties, via a mechanism that involves a decrease in eicosanoid synthesis and a down-regulation of the HO system in prostate cancer.

Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Cardile, Venera; Abraham, Nader G.; Sorrenti, Valeria

2013-01-01

61

Effects of ellagic Acid on angiogenic factors in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase system (HO) have emerged as important modulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: The anti-angiogenic effects of EA were investigated in the human prostatic cancer cell line LnCap. HO-1, HO-2, CYP2J2 and soluble epoxyde hydrolase (sEH) expressions were evaluated by western blotting. Levels of VEGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined in the culture supernatant using an ELISA assay, while CYP mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: EA treatment induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HO-1, HO-2 and CYP2J2 expression, and in VEGF and OPG levels. Similarly CYP2J2, CYP4F2 and CYPA22 mRNAs were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by EA treatment. The decrease in CYP2J2 mRNA was associated with an increase in sEH expression. Conclusions: Results reported in the present study highlighted the ability of EA to modulate a new pathway, in addition to anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation properties, via a mechanism that involves a decrease in eicosanoid synthesis and a down-regulation of the HO system in prostate cancer. PMID:24216999

Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Cardile, Venera; Abraham, Nader G; Sorrenti, Valeria

2013-01-01

62

The effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on lipid oxidation and oxymyoglobin oxidation in bovine and porcine muscle model systems.  

PubMed

The effect of lutein (100, 200, 300?g/ml), sesamol (500, 1000, 2000?g/ml), ellagic acid (300, 600, 900?g/ml) and olive leaf extract (100, 200, 300?g/ml) on oxymyoglobin oxidation and lipid oxidation in bovine and porcine muscle model systems (25% M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum homogenates) was examined. Radical scavenging activity, using the DPPH assay, and iron-chelating activities of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract were assessed at concentrations ranging from 200 to 1000ppm. The radical scavenging activity was of the order: ellagic acid>sesamol>olive leaf extract>lutein. None of the natural antioxidants examined exhibited iron chelating activity. Following induced lipid oxidation (FeCl(3)/sodium ascorbate addition), lipid oxidation and oxymyoglobin oxidation were measured after 24h at 4°C. In bovine and porcine muscle model systems, lipid oxidation decreased (P<0.001) following addition of each of the natural antioxidants relative to the control and antioxidant potency followed the order: sesamol>ellagic acid>olive leaf extract>lutein. Ellagic acid and olive leaf extract decreased oxymyoglobin oxidation (P<0.001) while sesamol increased oxymyoglobin oxidation in both systems. The natural antioxidants examined may have applications in the development of nutritional enhanced meat products with enhanced shelf-life characteristics. PMID:20416759

Hayes, J E; Stepanyan, V; Allen, P; O'Grady, M N; O'Brien, N M; Kerry, J P

2009-10-01

63

Ellagic acid induces a dose- and time-dependent depolarization of mitochondria and activation of caspase-9 and -3 in human neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The polyphenol ellagic acid is found in many natural food sources and has been proposed as a candidate compound for clinical applications due to its anti-oxidative capacity and as a potential anti-tumorigenic compound. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity to and possible apoptosis mechanism induced by ellagic acid in neuronal tumor cells. As a model the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was used. The methods applied were bright field and phase contrast microscopy, XTT- and LDH-assays, western blot, and flow cytometric analysis of DNA degradation and mitochondrial membrane potential. Ellagic acid treatment was found to induce a reduction in cell number preceded by alterations of the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and -3, DNA-fragmentation and cell death by apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death studied was not due to anoikis since it was significant in the adherent fraction of the cells. We conclude that ellagic acid induces dose- and time-dependent apoptosis, at least partly by the mitochondrial pathway, in an embryonal neuronal tumor cell system. This finding is in agreement with previously reported data on adult carcinoma cells thus suggesting a more general effect of ellagic acid on tumor cells. PMID:24051122

Alfredsson, Christina Fjæraa; Ding, Menglei; Liang, Qiu-Li; Sundström, Birgitta E; Nånberg, Eewa

2014-02-01

64

Protective effect of ellagic acid against TCDD-induced renal oxidative stress: Modulation of CYP1A1 activity and antioxidant defense mechanisms.  

PubMed

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) belongs to toxicologically important class of poly halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and produce wide variety of adverse effects in humans. The present study investigated the protective effect of ellagic acid, a natural polyphenolic compound against TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity was reflected in marked changes in the histology of kidney, increase in levels of kidney markers (serum urea, serum creatinine) and lipid peroxides. A significant increase in activity of phase I enzyme CYP1A1 with concomitant decline in the activities of phase II enzymes [non-enzymic antioxidant and various enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase] was also observed. In addition, TCDD treated rats showed alterations in ATPase enzyme activities such as Na(+) K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase and Ca(2+) ATPase. Oral pre-treatment with ellagic acid prevented TCDD-induced alterations in levels of kidney markers. Ellagic acid pre-treatment significantly counteracted TCDD-induced oxidative stress by decreasing CYP1A1 activity and enhancing the antioxidant status. Furthermore, ellagic acid restored TCDD-induced histopathological changes and alterations in ATPase enzyme activities. The results of the present study show that significant protective effect rendered by ellagic acid against TCDD-induced nephrotoxicity might be attributed to its antioxidant potential. PMID:24566691

Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Kalai Selvi, Palaniswamy; Sravani, Samadi

2014-07-01

65

Interactions of tannic acid and its derivatives (ellagic and gallic acid) with calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin using spectroscopic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of chosen polyphenols (tannic, ellagic and gallic acids) with calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) employing spectrofluorimetric technique. The fluorescence quenching of DNA-bound ethidium bromide (EB) and BSA-bound 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) by phenolic acids has been examined. As BSA contains two tryptophan residues, the polyphenols

Magdalena Labieniec; Teresa Gabryelak

2006-01-01

66

Determination of nucleic acid by its enhancement effect on the fluorescence of Ellagic acid - Cationic surfactant system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, nucleic acid can greatly enhance the fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) in the presence of cetylpyridine bromide (CPB). Experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of nucleic acid in the range of 5.0 × 10 -9-3.5 × 10 -5 g mL -1 for hsDNA, 5.0 × 10 -9-3.5 × 10 -5 g mL -1 for ctDNA and 5.0 × 10 -9-3.5 × 10 -5 g mL -1 for yRNA. Their detection limits (S/N = 3) are 7.6 × 10 -9 g mL -1, 8.6 × 10 -9 g mL -1 and 6.1 × 10 -9 g mL -1, respectively. The method has been satisfactorily used for the determination of nucleic acid in actual samples. Resonance Light Scattering, Ultraviolet and other means are used to discuss its mechanism. It is considered that the charge-transfer complex EA-CPB aggregate in the extended nucleic acids by hydrogen bond and electric attraction. The hydrophobic microenvironment of nucleic acid makes the fluorescence intensity of EA-CPB-nucleic acid system much stronger.

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yanwei; Tang, Bo

2010-04-01

67

Physicochemical properties and skin permeation of Span 60/Tween 60 niosomes of ellagic acid.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) is a potent antioxidant phytochemical substance which has limitation to use due to its poor biopharmaceutical properties, low solubility and low permeability. The aim of the present study was to develop niosomal formulations obtained from the mixture of Span 60 and Tween 60 that could encapsulate EA for dermal delivery. The EA-loaded niosomes were prepared with 1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 0:1 Span 60 and Tween 60, using polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), propylene glycol (PG) or methanol (MeOH) as a solubilizer. The influence of formulations on vesicle size, entrapment efficiency and stability of EA-loaded niosomes was investigated. It was found that all ratios of surfactants could produce EA-loaded niosomes when using 15% (v/v) PG, 15% (v/v) PEG 400 or 20% (v/v) MeOH. The niosomes were spherical multilamellar vesicles showing the localization of EA in the vesicles. The vesicle sizes of the niosomes after extrusion were 124-752 nm with PI less than 0.4. The percentages of entrapment efficiency (% E.E.) of all EA-loaded niosomes varied between 1.35% and 26.75% while PEG 400 niosomes gave the highest % E.E. The most stable and highest entrapped formulation was 2:1 Span 60 and Tween 60 niosomes. Additionally, the in vitro skin permeation revealed that penetration of EA from the niosomes depended on vesicle size, the amount of EA entrapped and the added solubilizers which could act as a permeation enhancer. From skin distribution study, the EA-loaded niosomes showed more efficiency in the delivery of EA through human epidermis and dermis than EA solution. The results indicated that the Span 60 and Tween 60 niosomes may be a potential carrier for dermal delivery of EA. PMID:22155414

Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep; Singhsa, Pratyawadee; Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Chantasart, Doungdaw

2012-02-28

68

Ellagic acid promoted biomimetic synthesis of shape-controlled silver nanochains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, was utilized for the biomimetic synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles, which over a period of time formed extended branched nanochains of hexagonal-shaped silver nanoparticles. It was found that EA not only has the capability of reducing silver ions, resulting in the formation of Ag nanoparticles, due to its extended polyphenolic system, but also appears to recognize and affect the Ag nanocrystal growth on the (111) face, leading to the formation of hexagon-shaped Ag nanocrystals. Initially, various Ag nanocrystal shapes were observed; however, over a longer period of time, a majority of hexagonal-shaped nanocrystals were formed. Although the exact mechanism of formation of the nanocrystals is not known, it appears that EA attaches to the silver nuclei, leading to lower surface energy of the (111) face. Further, the nanocrystals fuse together, forming interfaces among the aggregates, and, with time, those interfaces become lesser, and the nanoparticles merge together and share the same single crystallographic orientation, which leads to the formation of long elongated chains of hexagonal nanoparticles. This biomimetic approach may be developed as a green synthetic method to prepare building blocks with tunable properties for the development of nanodevices. Further, we explored the antibacterial properties and found that the tandem of EA-Ag nanochains substantially enhanced the antibacterial properties of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria compared to silver nanoparticles or EA alone. Additionally, the materials were also utilized for imaging of mammalian NRK (normal rat kidney) cells.

Barnaby, Stacey N.; Yu, Samantha M.; Fath, Karl R.; Tsiola, Areti; Khalpari, Omid; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

2011-06-01

69

Modulating effects of ellagic acid, vanillin and quercetin in a rat medium term multi-organ carcinogenesis model.  

PubMed

Effects of dietary supplementation with the antioxidants ellagic acid, quercetin and vanillin were examined using a medium term multi-organ carcinogenesis model in rats. Groups of 10-15 male F344 rats were given i.p. injections of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 100 mg/kg body wt.) and N-methylnitrosourea (MNU, 20 mg/kg body wt), s.c. injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg body wt.), together with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4- hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) and 0.1% 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN), both in the drinking water, for a total multiple initiation period of 4 weeks (DMBDD) treatment). Ellagic acid, quercetin or vanillin, each at a dose of 1% each in the diet were administered from 1 day before and throughout the carcinogen exposure period, or after completion of the initiation regimen. All surviving animals were sacrificed at the end of week 36, and major organs were examined histopathologically. In the small intestine, significant reductions in the incidence and number of tumors (adenomas and carcinomas) were observed in the groups administered ellagic acid during (8%, 0.08 +/- 0.29) or after (8%, 0.08 +/- 0.29) DMBDD treatment, and those receiving quercetin after DMBDD treatment (0%) compared to the control value (57%, 1.07 +/- 1.21). Although the incidences were not statistically significant, slightly decreased numbers of small intestinal tumors were found in the groups receiving vanillin during (0.33 +/- 0.72), or after (0.40 +/- 0.83) DMBDD treatment. The incidence of large intestinal carcinomas in the group treated with vanillin during DMBDD treatment was significantly higher (73%) than the control value (21%). These results indicated that while ellagic acid and quercetin exerted potent chemopreventive action in both the initiation and promotion stages in the present experimental system, their beneficial effects were restricted to the small intestine. Since small intestinal carcinomas are very infrequent in humans, the advantages of these phenolic compounds for human application as chemopreventors should not be overestimated. PMID:7621439

Akagi, K; Hirose, M; Hoshiya, T; Mizoguchi, Y; Ito, N; Shirai, T

1995-07-20

70

Ellagic Acid Reduces Adipogenesis through Inhibition of Differentiation-Prevention of the Induction of Rb Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) present in many fruits and nuts serves as antiproliferation, anti-inflammatory, and antitumorigenic properties. However, the effect of EA on preadipocytes adipogenesis and its mechanism(s) have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to examine the effect of EA on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and underlying mechanism(s) of action involved. Data show that EA administration decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets. The inhibition was diminished when the addition of EA was delayed to days 2-4 of differentiation. Clonal expansion was reduced in the presence of EA. FACS analysis showed that EA blocked the cell cycle at the G1/S transition. EdU incorporation also confirmed that EA refrained cell from entering S phase. Our data also revealed that the differentiation-induced protein expression of Cyclin A and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) were impaired by EA. Differentiation-dependent expression and DNA-binding ability of C/EBP ? were also inhibited by EA. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the antiadipogenic action of EA. In conclusion, EA is capable of inhibiting adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly through reduction of Cyclin A protein expression and Rb phosphorylation. With the blocking of G1/S phase transition, EA suppresses terminal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:24302962

Wang, Lifeng; Li, Linlin; Ran, Xinjian; Long, Mei; Zhang, Minfang; Tao, Yicun; Luo, Xin; Wang, Ye; Ma, Xiaoli; Halmurati, Upur; Mao, Xinmin; Ren, Jun

2013-01-01

71

Ellagic Acid Reduces Adipogenesis through Inhibition of Differentiation-Prevention of the Induction of Rb Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Ellagic acid (EA) present in many fruits and nuts serves as antiproliferation, anti-inflammatory, and antitumorigenic properties. However, the effect of EA on preadipocytes adipogenesis and its mechanism(s) have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to examine the effect of EA on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and underlying mechanism(s) of action involved. Data show that EA administration decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets. The inhibition was diminished when the addition of EA was delayed to days 2–4 of differentiation. Clonal expansion was reduced in the presence of EA. FACS analysis showed that EA blocked the cell cycle at the G1/S transition. EdU incorporation also confirmed that EA refrained cell from entering S phase. Our data also revealed that the differentiation-induced protein expression of Cyclin A and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) were impaired by EA. Differentiation-dependent expression and DNA-binding ability of C/EBP? were also inhibited by EA. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the antiadipogenic action of EA. In conclusion, EA is capable of inhibiting adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly through reduction of Cyclin A protein expression and Rb phosphorylation. With the blocking of G1/S phase transition, EA suppresses terminal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Wang, Lifeng; Li, Linlin; Ran, Xinjian; Long, Mei; Zhang, Minfang; Tao, Yicun; Luo, Xin; Wang, Ye; Ma, Xiaoli; Halmurati, Upur; Ren, Jun

2013-01-01

72

Hepatoprotective activity of picroliv, curcumin and ellagic acid compared to silymarin on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is implicated as a common pathologic mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage in a variety of liver disorders. Present study attempts to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of picroliv, curcumin and ellagic acid in comparison to silymarin using paracetamol (PCM) induced acute liver damage. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering a single oral dose of PCM (500 mg/kg) and was assessed by quantifying the serum enzyme activities, phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and histopathological analysis of liver tissues. The antioxidant parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase of the liver tissue were also assessed. The herbal drugs were administered for 7 days by oral route at 50 and 100 mg/kg. PCM induced hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) in serum and MDA level in liver. There was also a significant decrease in activity of GSH and catalase levels. The histopathological examination on toxic models revealed centrizonal necrosis and fatty changes. Pretreatment of mice with picroliv, curcumin and ellagic acid reversed these altered parameters towards normal values, which were compared with silymarin. The normalization of phenobarbitone induced sleeping time suggests the restoration of liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. This study supports the use of these active phytochemicals against toxic liver injury, which may act by preventing the lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system or regeneration of hepatocytes. These active phytochemicals may be developed as drugs for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:19656205

Girish, C; Koner, Bidhan Chandra; Jayanthi, S; Ramachandra Rao, K; Rajesh, B; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra

2009-12-01

73

Hepatoprotective activities of picroliv, curcumin, and ellagic acid compared to silymarin on carbon-tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of active phytochemicals, picroliv, curcumin, and ellagic acid in comparison to silymarin in the mice model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity. In addition, attempts were made to elucidate their possible mechanism(s) of action. Materials and Methods: Oxidative stress was induced in Swiss albino mice by a single injection (s.c.) of CCl4, 1 ml/kg body weight, diluted with arachis oil at a 1:1 ratio. The phytochemicals were administered once a day for 7& days (p.o.) as pretreatment at two dose levels (50 and 100 mg/kg/day). Results: CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was manifested by an increase in the activities of liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, P < 0.001, aspartate transaminase, P < 0.001 and alkaline phosphatase, P < 0.001), malondialdehyde (MDA, P < 0.001)) levels and a decrease in activity of reduced glutathione (P < 0.001) and catalase in liver tissues. The histopathological examination of liver sections revealed centrizonal necrosis, fatty changes, and inflammatory reactions. The pretreatment with picroliv, curcumin, and ellagic acid normalized serum aminotransferase activities (P < 0.001), decreased levels of MDA (P < 0.001), improved the antioxidant status, and normalized the hepatic histo-architecture. The restoration of phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time also suggested the normalization of liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. Conclusion: This study supports the use of these active phytochemicals against toxic liver injury, which may act by preventing lipid peroxidation, augmenting the antioxidant defense system or by regenerating the hepatocytes.

Girish, C.; Pradhan, S. C.

2012-01-01

74

Effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on the quality and shelf-life stability of packaged raw minced beef patties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lutein (100 and 200?g\\/g muscle), sesamol (250 and 500?g\\/g muscle), ellagic acid (300 and 600?g\\/g muscle) and olive leaf extract (100 and 200?g\\/g muscle) on total viable counts (TVCs), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), colour, oxymyoglobin oxidation, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), sensorial properties of raw beef patties (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) stored in modified atmosphere

J. E. Hayes; V. Stepanyan; P. Allen; M. N. O’Grady; J. P. Kerry

2010-01-01

75

Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01–0.11??g/mL and 0.03–0.36??g/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19–103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38–0.73% and 0.49–2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r2 values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis.

Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

2013-01-01

76

Effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on the quality and shelf-life stability of packaged raw minced beef patties.  

PubMed

The effects of lutein (100 and 200 microg/g muscle), sesamol (250 and 500 microg/g muscle), ellagic acid (300 and 600 microg/g muscle) and olive leaf extract (100 and 200 microg/g muscle) on total viable counts (TVCs), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), colour, oxymyoglobin oxidation, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), sensorial properties of raw beef patties (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) stored in modified atmosphere packs (80% O(2):20% CO(2)) (MAP) aerobically at 4 degrees C for up to 8 and 12 days, respectively, were examined. All the nutraceuticals reduced (P<0.001) TVCs. The addition of sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract reduced (P<0.001) TBARS in raw beef patties in both packaging systems. Sesamol addition to beef resulted in lower (P<0.01) a* redness values and increased oxymyoglobin oxidation. Conversely, lutein and olive leaf extract reduced (P<0.001) oxymyoglobin oxidation relative to the control. The graded addition of ellagic acid and olive leaf extract improved (P<0.001) WHC. PMID:20374832

Hayes, J E; Stepanyan, V; Allen, P; O'Grady, M N; Kerry, J P

2010-04-01

77

Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC–DAD, LC–NMR, NMR, and LC–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because\\u000a of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC–DAD method\\u000a has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and

Martin Zehl; Christina Braunberger; Jürgen Conrad; Marija Crnogorac; Stanimira Krasteva; Bernhard Vogler; Uwe Beifuss; Liselotte Krenn

2011-01-01

78

LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS identification and LC-DAD quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in Drosera peltata.  

PubMed

The herb of Drosera peltata, commonly named the shield sundew, is used as an antitussive in phytotherapy, although the plants' composition has not been determined in detail so far. Hence, in this study, we present a validated, sensitive, reliable, and cheap narrow-bore LC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in this herbal drug. In addition, the structures of 13 compounds have been elucidated by LC-MS, LC-NMR, and offline NMR experiments after isolation: herbacetin-3-O-glucoside (1), gossypitrin (2), ellagic acid (3), quercetin-7-O-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), kaempferol-3-O-(6?-O-galloyl)-glucoside (6), herbacetin-7-O-glucoside (7), astragalin (8), gossypetin (9), herbacetin (10), quercetin (11), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (12), and kaempferol (13). Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10 have been identified in D. peltata for the first time, and compounds 1, 4, 6, 7, and 10 have not been detected in any Drosera species before. PMID:23831703

Braunberger, Christina; Zehl, Martin; Conrad, Jürgen; Fischer, Sonja; Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

2013-08-01

79

Exploring the potential of gastro retentive dosage form in delivery of ellagic acid and aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

Approach of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) overcomes the limitations of conventional dosage forms. However, this concept is still not practiced to a large extent in delivery of herbal drugs in Ayurveda. Thus, the potential of herbal drugs has not been explored to its fullest. Hence, there is a growing need to amalgamate the concept of NDDS in delivery of herbal constituents. The present investigation is designed to deliver and retain two herbal constituents in stomach for better action against Helicobacter pylori induced gastric ulcers. The objective was to develop a bilayer floating tablet of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gel powder through rational combination of excipients to give the lowest possible lag time with maximum drug release in the period of 4 h. Formulation F9 containing 100 mg of HPMC K15M, 27 mg of crospovidone, 80 mg of mannitol and effervescent agents in the ratio 1:2 gave 92% drug release and desired floating properties. In vivo studies showed that combination of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gave 75 % ulcer inhibition in comparison to 57% ulcer inhibition in the group which was administered with ellagic acid alone. This suggests the use of bilayer floating tablet in gastric ulcer treatment. PMID:24261674

Ranade, Arati N; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Ramesh, C

2014-04-01

80

Protective effect of ellagic acid and pumpkin seed oil against methotrexate-induced small intestine damage in rats.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most serious side effects in the methotrexate (MTX) treatment. This study was designed to investigate whether ellagic acid (EA) and/or pumpkin seed oil (PSO) had a protective effect on MTX-induced small intestine damage. Forty albino rats were randomized into five groups of 8 rats each. Group I served as a normal control group. In Group II, MTX was administered as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Groups III, IV and V were pre-treated respectively with either PSO (40 mg/kg), EA (10 mg/kg) or 0.2% DMSO (vehicle control) orally every day by gavage for 5 days and then they received MTX. All animals were sacrificed 5 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathological examination, estimation of serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level, assay of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and myloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (AD) activities. Administration of EA and/or PSO decreased the intestinal damage, PGE2, MDA and NO levels and MPO, XO and AD activities and increased GSH level. These results suggest that EA and PSO protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and thus have potential as a promising drug in the prevention of undesired side effects of MTX. PMID:22329239

El-Boghdady, Noha A

2011-12-01

81

Wound healing activities of standardized pomegranate rind extract and its major antioxidant ellagic acid in rat dermal wounds.  

PubMed

The in vivo wound healing potential of a standardized pomegranate rind extract (SPRE) and its major antioxidant constituent, ellagic acid (EA, 13 %, w/w), were investigated in three rat dermal wound models. It was found that both SPRE (5 and 2.5 %) and its equivalent amount of EA (0.65 and 0.325 %) increased the tensile strength of the incision wound by a maximum of 35.43 and 31.82 %, respectively. SPRE at 5 and 2.5 % accelerated wound contraction of the excision wound and the burn wound, while EA was effective only at 0.65 % in these two wound models. Further assays revealed that SPRE enhanced the synthesis of collagen by a maximum of 21.83 mg/g and inhibited neutrophil infiltration dose-dependently, while EA was not effective in increasing collagen accumulation and its inhibitory effect on neutrophil infiltration was milder. These results indicated that SPRE is a promising phytopharmaceutical effective in facilitating the healing of wounds and is superior to its marker compound EA. PMID:24407977

Mo, Jiao; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Kaewnopparat, Nattha; Nitiruangjaras, Anupong; Reanmongkol, Wantana

2014-04-01

82

Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence  

PubMed Central

Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin.

Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

2013-01-01

83

Ellagic acid & gallic acid from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. inhibit HIV-1 infection through inhibition of HIV-1 protease & reverse transcriptase activity  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used as traditional medicines and are effective in controlling diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV property of the extracts prepared from the leaves and stems of banaba, and further purification and characterization of the active components. Methods: Aqueous and 50 per cent ethanolic extracts were prepared from leaves and stems of banaba and were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV activity using in vitro reporter gene based assays. Further, three compounds were isolated from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract of banaba leaves using silica gel column chromatography and characterization done by HPLC, NMR and MS analysis. To delineate the mode of action of the active compounds, reverse transcriptase assay and protease assay were performed using commercially available kits. Results: All the extracts showed a dose dependent inhibition of HIV-1-infection in TZM-bl and CEM-GFP cell lines with a maximum from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract from leaves (IC50= 1 to 25 ?g/ml). This observation was confirmed by the virus load (p24) estimation in infected CEM-GFP cells when treated with the extracts. Gallic acid showed an inhibition in reverse transcriptase whereas ellagic acid inhibited the HIV-1 protease activity. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a novel anti-HIV activity of banaba. The active components responsible for anti-HIV activity were gallic acid and ellagic acid, through inhibition of reverse transcriptase and HIV protease, respectively and hence could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HIV-1 agents.

Nutan; Modi, Manoj; Goel, Tanvi; Das, Tiyasa; Malik, Shweta; Suri, Samiksha; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Sharad Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh; Malhotra, Swadesh; Gupta, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

84

Involvement of opioid receptors in the systemic and peripheral antinociceptive actions of ellagic acid in the rat formalin test.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) produced antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was conducted to investigate the involvement of opioid receptors in the systemic and peripheral antinociceptive effects of EA after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intraplantar (i.pl.) administration in the rat formalin assay. The results showed that i.p. administration of EA (1-30 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated flinching number in both early and late phases of the formalin test with mean ED50 values of 1.86 and 0.52 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, this effect of EA at a dose of 30 mg/kg was comparable to that of morphine (5mg/kg; i.p.) and indomethacin (10mg/kg; i.p.). It was also demonstrated that administration of EA (30-300 ?g/paw; i.pl.) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against early and late phases of formalin-induced nociception with mean ED50 values of 47.64 and 71.78 ?g/paw, respectively. The antinociception produced by the i.pl. injection was due to a local action, as its administration in the contralateral paw was ineffective. Furthermore, pre-treatment with naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist, significantly alleviated the systemic and peripheral antinociceptive effects of EA. Also, EA treatment had no effect on the motor activity of rats when tested in open-field task. Our data suggest that the systemic and peripheral antinociception activities of EA were mediated through the opioid receptors in the periphery and also in the central nervous system. PMID:24561064

Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

2014-05-01

85

Differential inhibitory effects of the polyphenol ellagic acid on inflammatory mediators NF-kappaB, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Dietary polyphenols have been found to possess preventive and therapeutic potential against several types of cancers. We investigated the effect of ellagic acid on colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 rats received ellagic acid 60 mg/kg bodyweight/every day p.o. throughout the experiment. Rats from groups 3 and 4 were given subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for the first 15 weeks; rats in group 4 received ellagic acid as in group 2 after the last injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and continued till the end of the experimental period of 30 weeks. 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rats exhibited alterations in cancer tumour markers [5'-nucleotidase (5'-ND), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alphafetoprotein (AFP) and cathepsin-D (CD)]; pathophysiological markers [alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] and oral administration of ellagic acid restored the levels of these marker enzymes. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) actively involved in the regulation of both pro-inflammatory proteins [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)] and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6] and in our study 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced group exhibited elevated expressions of all these inflammatory proteins. Ellagic acid administration reduced the expressions of NF-kappaB, COX-2, iNOS, TNF-alpha and IL-6 as confirmed by immunohistochemical, immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis. In conclusion, ellagic acid demonstrates anti-inflammatory property by iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha and IL-6 down-regulation due to inhibition of NF-kappaB and exerts its chemopreventive effect on colon carcinogenesis. PMID:20406206

Umesalma, Syed; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

2010-08-01

86

Ellagic Acid metabolism by human gut microbiota: consistent observation of three urolithin phenotypes in intervention trials, independent of food source, age, and health status.  

PubMed

Three phenotypes for urolithin production after ellagitannin and ellagic acid intake are consistently observed in different human intervention trials. Subjects can be stratified into three urolithin-producing groups. "Phenotype A" produced only urolithin A conjugates, which included between 25 and 80% of the volunteers in the different trials. "Phenotype B" produced isourolithin A and/or urolithin B in addition to urolithin A, this being the second relevant group (10-50%). "Phenotype 0" (5-25%) was that in which these urolithins were not detected. The three phenotypes were observed independently of the volunteers' health status and demographic characteristics (age, gender, body mass index (BMI)) and of the amount or type of ellagitannin food source ingested (walnuts and other nuts, strawberries, raspberries, and other berries or pomegranates). Interestingly, a higher percentage of phenotype B was observed in those volunteers with chronic illness (metabolic syndrome or colorectal cancer) associated with gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis). These urolithin phenotypes could show differences in the human gut microbiota and should be considered in intervention trials dealing with health benefits of ellagitannins or ellagic acid. Whether this phenotypic variation could be a biomarker related to differential health benefits or illness predisposition deserves further research. PMID:24976365

Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Villalba, Rocío; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Selma, María V; Espín, Juan C

2014-07-16

87

Biosynthesis of Citric Acid in Citrus Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

NO detailed study has so far been made to find out the mechanism of the formation and accumulation of citric acid in citrus fruits even though studies on the change of acidity and pH during ripening have been reported1. Investigations are in progress in this laboratory to study the biosynthesis of citric acid in citrus fruit (Citrus acida), as a

T. N. Sekhara Varma; C. V. Ramakrishnan

1956-01-01

88

A Comparative Study for the Evaluation of Two Doses of Ellagic Acid on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30?mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30?mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30?mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways.

Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

2013-01-01

89

A comparative study for the evaluation of two doses of ellagic acid on hepatic drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10 mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30 mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30 mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30 mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

2013-01-01

90

Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits: identification by HPLC-DAD, NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses.  

PubMed

Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites potentially contributing to the antiproliferative bioactivity of black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits were extracted in ethyl acetate and isolated by semipreparative and analytical HPLC and analyzed by NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS techniques. Here we present complete and partial structures of a variety of the chemical entities such as quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, myricetin glucoside, dihydrokaempferol glucoside, benzoic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaryl glucoside, p-coumaryl sugar ester, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid acetylpentose, methyl ellagic acid valerylpentose, trans-piceid, phloretin glucoside (phloridzin), dihydrosinapic acid, salicylic acid ?-d-glucopyranosyl ester, a salicylic acid derivative without attached sugar, p-alkylphenyl glucoside, and a citric acid derivative. To our knowledge, 15 of these compounds were not previously reported in black raspberry fruits. PMID:24279806

Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Reese, R Neil; Smiljanic, Danijela; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Rinaldi, Peter L

2013-12-11

91

Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS.  

PubMed

Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC-DAD method has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and D. rotundifolia). During elaboration of the method 13 compounds, including three substances not previously described for Drosera species, were detected and unambiguously identified by means of extensive LC-MS and LC-NMR experiments and by off-line heteronuclear 2D NMR after targeted isolation. The most prominent component of D. rotundifolia and D. anglica, 2?-O-galloylhyperoside, with myricetin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(2?-O-galloyl)-?-galactopyranoside, were identified for the very first time in this genus. The LC-DAD method for quantification was thoroughly validated, and enables, for the first time, separation and precise analysis of these analytes in Droserae herba. Simple sample preparation and use of a narrow-bore column guarantee low cost and simplicity of the suggested system, which is excellently suited to quality control of the drug or herbal medicinal products containing this drug. PMID:21298259

Zehl, Martin; Braunberger, Christina; Conrad, Jürgen; Crnogorac, Marija; Krasteva, Stanimira; Vogler, Bernhard; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

2011-06-01

92

Pomegranate Juice Metabolites, Ellagic Acid and Urolithin A, Synergistically Inhibit Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cell Growth via Distinct Effects on Cell Cycle Control and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Ellagitannins (ETs) from pomegranate juice (PJ) are bioactive polyphenols with chemopreventive potential against prostate cancer (PCa). ETs are not absorbed intact but are partially hydrolyzed in the gut to ellagic acid (EA). Colonic microflora can convert EA to urolithin A (UA), and EA and UA enter the circulation after PJ consumption. Here, we studied the effects of EA and UA on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in DU-145 and PC-3 androgen-independent PCa cells and whether combinations of EA and UA affected cell proliferation. EA demonstrated greater dose-dependent antiproliferative effects in both cell lines compared to UA. EA induced cell cycle arrest in S phase associated with decreased cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 levels. UA induced a G2/M arrest and increased cyclin B1 and cdc2 phosphorylation at tyrosine-15, suggesting inactivation of the cyclin B1/cdc2 kinase complex. EA induced apoptosis in both cell lines, while UA had a less pronounced proapoptotic effect only in DU-145. Cotreatment with low concentrations of EA and UA dramatically decreased cell proliferation, exhibiting synergism in PC-3 cells evaluated by isobolographic analysis and combination index. These data provide information on pomegranate metabolites for the prevention of PCa recurrence, supporting the role of gut flora-derived metabolites for cancer prevention.

Vicinanza, Roberto; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David

2013-01-01

93

Ellagic acid modulates antioxidant status, ornithine decarboxylase expression, and aberrant crypt foci progression in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-instigated colon preneoplastic lesions in rats.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention offers a novel approach to control the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC), which is a fatal cause of malignancies in both Western and Asia countries. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) functions as a cell transition factor by regulating the biosynthesis of polyamines, which, allied with aberrant crypt foci (ACF) proliferation, cause early lesions of CRC. This study exemplifies the chemopreventive efficacy of ellagic acid (EA) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) initiated CRC in rats. Subcutaneous injection of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 2 weeks) to the rats resulted in elevated expression of ODC, a genetic marker for CRC, and its transcription factor myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-myc). Furthermore, increased levels of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxides with diminished levels of antioxidants including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione were also observed in the tissues of DMH-intoxicated rats. Oral supplementation of EA significantly influences maintenance of antioxidant status and transcriptional inactivation of ODC expression, reducing ACF proliferation and/or progression, thus signifying the chemopreventive efficacy of EA against CRC. PMID:22439659

Kumar, Kasinathan Nirmal; Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Vidhya, Natarajan; Devaraj, Sivachithamparam Niranjali

2012-04-11

94

Ellagic acid inhibits PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and prevents atheroma formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds have beneficial health effects. In the present study, we determined the ability of ellagic acid (EA) to prevent platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation of primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). We also determined the ability of EA to prevent atherosclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Proliferation of cells was measured via Alamar Blue assay and through propidium iodide-based cell cycle analysis in flow cytometer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured via 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex red methods. Expression of proliferation markers and activation of kinases were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Cotreatment of primary cultures of RASMCs with 25 ?mol/L of EA significantly reduced PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml)-induced proliferation by blocking S-phase entry. EA effectively blocked PDGF receptor-? (PDGFR-?) tyrosine phosphorylation, generation of intracellular ROS and downstream activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. It also blocked PDGF-BB-induced expression of cyclin D1. Computational molecular docking of EA with the PDGFR-?-PDGF-BB complex revealed two putative inhibitor binding sites which showed similar binding energies with the known PDGFR-? inhibitor AG1295. In diabetic rats, supplementation of diet with 2% EA significantly blocked diabetes-induced medial thickness, and lipid and collagen deposition in the arch of aorta. These were assessed through haematoxylin and eosin, Oil Red O and Masson's trichome staining, respectively. EA treatment also blocked cyclin D1 expression in medial smooth muscle cells in experimental animals. Thus, EA is effective in reducing atherosclerotic process by blocking proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23866995

Rani, Uma P; Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Ganugula, Raghu; Avaneesh, T; Kumar, Uday P; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Dixit, Madhulika

2013-11-01

95

Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, carnitinepalmitoyl transferase-1, and acyl-CoA oxidase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Reversed-phase liquid chromatography in combination with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis revealed four potential compounds (punicalagin B, ellagic acid, and two unidentified compounds) responsible for altered gene expression in HepG2 cells treated with PV as compared with the others. Further investigations are warranted to determine if drinking PV beverages may help to maintain a healthy body weight in overweight subjects.

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook

2013-01-01

96

Isolation of I-Quinic Acid in Citrus Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE organic acids in citrus juices are chiefly citric and malic, although tartaric and oxalic acids also have been reported in grapefruit1. In our laboratory, succinic acid was found in frozen mature oranges. Wolf2 isolated citric, malic and an unidentified acid from citrus fruit. Sinclair and Eny3 reported that in the peel malic acid predominates while citric and oxalic acids

S. V. Ting; E. J. Deszyck

1959-01-01

97

What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells.  

PubMed

Fleshy fruit acidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell. PMID:23408829

Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C

2013-04-01

98

Exploitation of vegetables and fruits through lactic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentation represents the easiest and the most suitable way for increasing the daily consumption of fresh-like vegetables and fruits. Literature data are accumulating, and this review aims at describing the main features of the lactic acid bacteria to be used for fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are a small part of the autochthonous microbiota of vegetables and fruits. The diversity of the microbiota markedly depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the plant matrix. Notwithstanding the reliable value of the spontaneous fermentation to stabilize and preserve raw vegetables and fruits, a number of factors are in favour of using selected starters. Two main options may be pursued for the controlled lactic acid fermentation of vegetables and fruits: the use of commercial/allochthonous and the use of autochthonous starters. Several evidences were described in favour of the use of selected autochthonous starters, which are tailored for the specific plant matrix. Pro-technological, sensory and nutritional criteria for selecting starters were reported as well as several functional properties, which were recently ascribed to autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. The main features of the protocols used for the manufacture of traditional, emerging and innovative fermented vegetables and fruits were reviewed. Tailored lactic acid bacteria starters completely exploit the potential of vegetables and fruits, which enhances the hygiene, sensory, nutritional and shelf life properties. PMID:23122495

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

2013-02-01

99

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau ( Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and\\/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The

Loveness K. Nyanga; Martinus J. R. Nout; Tendekayi H. Gadaga; Bart Theelen; Teun Boekhout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2007-01-01

100

Determination of alpha hydroxy acids in fruits by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Alpha hydroxy acids, malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid, were analyzed simultaneously using capillary electrophoresis with direct UV detection at 200 nm. The separation was carried out with uncoated fused-silica (50 cm x 50 microns i.d.), pressure injection at 15 psi s and operated at -15 kV potential. The separation buffers were prepared with 180 mM Na2HPO4, 1 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and 15% (v/v) methanol and adjusted to pH 7.2 by phosphoric acid. Validation was performed for citric acid and malic acid. The obtained parameters were adequate and the limits of detection were 2.5 and 5 micrograms ml-1 for citric acid and malic acid, respectively. AHAs from natural fruit juices (orange and grape) were determined and measured with this method. PMID:12200835

Vorarat, Suwanna; Aromdee, Chantana; Podokmai, Yodporn

2002-08-01

101

Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.  

PubMed

The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits. PMID:1852726

Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

1991-04-01

102

Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.  

PubMed

The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-10-15

103

Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit.

Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sanchez-Sevilla, Jose F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

2011-01-01

104

MACAIBA PALM: FATTY AND AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid content of dried pulp and kernels of Acrocomia intumescens palm fruits grown in the Northeast region of Brazil was determined to be about 34.6 and 49.2.6%, respectively. The hexane extracted oils from these parts showed refractive indices - 1.4427 and 1.4310, specific gravity - 0.9012 and 0.9213, peroxide - 2.96 and 1.37, acid - 1.5 and 2.1, iodine

P. S. Bora

2004-01-01

105

Purification, characterization and kinetic properties of pepper fruit acidic peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soluble acidic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was purified about 300-fold from the pericarp of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by chromatography in columns of Sephadex G-100, Q-Sepharose and Superose 12 PC 3.2\\/30. The purified enzyme has a pI of 3.8 and a Mr, determined by gel filtration, of 50 k. The enzyme was stable in

Federico Pomar; M. Angeles Bernal; José Díaz; Fuencisla Merino

1997-01-01

106

Process for Preserving Raw Fruits and Vegetables Using Ascorbic Acid Esters and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit and vegetable p...

G. M. Sapers K. B. Hicks P. A. Seib

1987-01-01

107

Process for Preserving Raw Fruits and Vegetables Using Ascorbic Acid Esters and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit...

G. M. Sapers K. B. Hicks P. A. Seib

1987-01-01

108

Differential effects of abscisic acid and ethylene on the fruit maturation of Litchi chinensis Sonn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two litchi cultivars, a well-coloured ‘Nuomici’ and a poorly coloured ‘Feizixiao’, were used to investigate changes in endogenous\\u000a abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and ethylene production during fruit maturation and to test the effects of exogenous growth\\u000a regulators on litchi fruit maturation. Abscisic acid concentration in both the aril and pericarp increased with fruit maturation.\\u000a Transfusion of ABA into the fruit

Huicong Wang; Huibai Huang; Xuming Huang

2007-01-01

109

Expression of Acid Invertase Gene Controls Sugar Composition in Tomato (Lycopersicon) Fruit.  

PubMed Central

A wild tomato species, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, accumulates high levels of soluble sugar in mature fruit and, unlike the domesticated tomato species, Lycopersicon esculentum, accumulates sucrose rather than glucose and fructose. Genetic and biochemical analyses of progeny resulting from a cross of L. chmielewskii with L. esculentum have previously indicated that the trait of sucrose accumulation is controlled by a single recessive gene and is associated with low levels of acid invertase protein in the developing fruit. Analysis of progeny from the BC2F3 generation from the L. esculentum x L. chmielewskii cross revealed that sucrose-accumulating fruit accumulate sugar in two phases corresponding to fruit expansion and fruit maturation and that the majority of the sucrose was stored in the latter phase after the fruit had reached maximum size. The only significant enzymic difference between the sucrose-accumulating and hexose-accumulating fruit was the lack of acid invertase activity in sucrose-accumulating fruit. Sucrose phosphate synthase activity did not increase in the sucrose-accumulating fruit during late development when the rate of sucrose accumulation increased. The lack of acid invertase activity in sucrose-accumulating fruit was correlated with inheritance of the L. chmielewskii acid invertase gene and the absence of acid invertase mRNA in developing fruit. This suggests that the L.chmielewskii invertase gene is transcriptionally silent in fruit and that this is the basis for sucrose accumulation in progeny derived from the interspecific cross of L. esculentum and L. chmielewskii.

Klann, E. M.; Chetelat, R. T.; Bennett, A. B.

1993-01-01

110

Abscisic acid triggers whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms to increase fruit calcium uptake and prevent blossom end rot development in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

Calcium (Ca) uptake into fruit and leaves is dependent on xylemic water movement, and hence presumably driven by transpiration and growth. High leaf transpiration is thought to restrict Ca movement to low-transpiring tomato fruit, which may increase fruit susceptibility to the Ca-deficiency disorder, blossom end rot (BER). The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of reduced leaf transpiration in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants on fruit and leaf Ca uptake and BER development. Tomato cultivars Ace 55 (Vf) and AB2 were grown in a greenhouse environment under Ca-deficit conditions and plants were treated weekly after pollination with water (control) or 500 mg l(-1) ABA. BER incidence was completely prevented in the ABA-treated plants and reached values of 30-45% in the water-treated controls. ABA-treated plants had higher stem water potential, lower leaf stomatal conductance, and lower whole-plant water loss than water-treated plants. ABA treatment increased total tissue and apoplastic water-soluble Ca concentrations in the fruit, and decreased Ca concentrations in leaves. In ABA-treated plants, fruit had a higher number of Safranin-O-stained xylem vessels at early stages of growth and development. ABA treatment reduced the phloem/xylem ratio of fruit sap uptake. The results indicate that ABA prevents BER development by increasing fruit Ca uptake, possibly by a combination of whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms. PMID:21282326

de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Shackel, Kenneth A; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

2011-05-01

111

Prediction of titratable acidity, malic acid, and citric acid in bayberry fruit by near-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure titratable acidity, malic acid, and citric acid of bayberry fruit in a nondestructive manner using near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy and chemometrics. The sampling set included different cultivars that were obtainable from different areas in China. Calibration models using partial least squares (PLS) regression were developed based on GB 12293-90 of China and with

Lijuan Xie; Xingqian Ye; Donghong Liu; Yibin Ying

2011-01-01

112

Browning control, shelf life extension and quality maintenance of frozen litchi fruit by hydrochloric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi fruit can be stored at ?18 °C without obvious adverse effects on the aril, but the pericarp darkens and browns when they are frozen or thawed. Experiments were conducted to test effects of hydrochloric acid on browning inhibition of litchi fruit pericarp for displacement of sulphur application. Litchi fruit were soaked in 0.5%, 1% and 2% HCl for 2–10

Yueming Jiang; Yuebiao Li; Jianrong Li

2004-01-01

113

Use of ion chromatography for the measurement of organic acids in fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradient ion chromatographic method to separate and determine main organic acids in fruit juices was developed. The method allows the separation of organic anions on Dionex OMNI PAC PAX-500 column by NaOH gradient elution and conductometric detection. The main organic acids of fruit juices (citric, malic, tartaric) were separated together with other less abundant acids. More than 500 samples

G. Saccani; S. Gherardi; A. Trifirò; C. Soresi Bordini; M. Calza; C. Freddi

1995-01-01

114

Flow injection conductimetric or spectrophotometric analysis for acidity in fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two flow injection (FI) procedures for the determination of acidity (expressed as citric acid content) in fruit juices are proposed: conductimetric involving injection into ammonia followed by gaseous diffusion into acetic acid; spectrophotometric FI titration in which the sample is mixed with sodium hydroxide in the presence of phenolphthalein. These procedures have been applied to the analysis of Thai fruit

Kate Grudpan; Piyanete Sritharathikhun; Jaroon Jakmunee

1998-01-01

115

The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.  

PubMed

Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

2014-01-01

116

Ellagitannins, ellagic acid and vascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysable tannins are phenolic phytochemicals that show high antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities. For this reason their potential effects preventing oxidative related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, have been largely studied. In vitro studies show that ellagitannins, at concentrations in the range 10–100?M, show some relevant anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects, supporting the molecular mechanisms for the vascular health

Mar Larrosa; María T. García-Conesa; Juan C. Espín; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán

2010-01-01

117

A novel phenolic acid from the fruits of Rosa soulieana.  

PubMed

From the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the fruits of Rosa soulieana, one new phenolic glucoside (1) was isolated along with five known compounds, comprising two lignin glycosides, two flavonoid glycosides and a phenolic glycoside. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including ESI-MS, UV, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR (HSQC and HMBC). All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by using ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assay. Among these compounds, 1, 3 and 6 exhibited strong scavenging activity in ABTS(?+)(SC50 = 102.10, 193.85, 65.38 ?mol/L, respectively) compared with the positive control l-ascorbic acid (Vc) (SC50 = 117.16 ?mol/L). PMID:24831176

He, Wenjun; Yang, Chunyan; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Fu

2014-08-01

118

Changes in fatty acid composition of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit during maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits cultivated in the North-East of Tunisia (Charfine). The fruits matured in 55 days after flowering (DAF). Oil and petroselinic acid synthesis proceeded at a steady rate up to 32 DAF. The first results showed a rapid oil accumulation started at newly formed fruits (9.6±0.2%) and continued

Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mouna Ben Taarit; Thouraya Chahed; Mohamed Hammami; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

119

Free amino acid production during tomato fruit ripening: a focus on l -glutamate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tomato, free amino acids increase dramatically during fruit ripening and their abundance changed differentially. More evident\\u000a is l-glutamate which gives the characteristic “umami” flavor. Glutamate is the principal free amino acid of ripe fruits of cultivated\\u000a varieties. In this paper, we examined the capacity of tomato fruits to process endogenous as well as exogenous polypeptides\\u000a during the ripening transition,

Augusto Sorrequieta; Gisela Ferraro; Silvana B. Boggio; Estela M. Valle

2010-01-01

120

The Intehaction of Aqueous Solutions of Chlorine with Malic Acid, Tartaric Acid, and Various Fruit Juices: A Source of Mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, arid L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. Diethyl ether extraction followed by GC\\/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones and chloral hydrate) are present as major products in some of these samples. A number of fruit juices (orange, grape,

Tak-Lung Chang; Robert P. Streicher; Hans Zimmer; J. W. Munch

1988-01-01

121

Characterization of triterpenic acids in fruits of ziziphus species by HPLC-ELSD-MS.  

PubMed

The fruits of Ziziphus species have been utilized as food as well as crude drugs for their health benefits in China for thousands of years. This paper reported a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous characterization and quantitation of 11 triterpenic acids in chloroform extracts of jujube fruits by using an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that the contents of triterpenic acids in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa were higher than those in the fruits of Z. jujuba, especially for the compound pomonic acid. Differences were also found among the different parts of Z. jujuba var. spinosa fruits with the sarcocarp having a higher amount of triterpenic acids than the seed and hard core. PMID:20426471

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Yang, Nian-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei; Su, Shu-Lan; Shang, Er-Xin

2010-05-26

122

l-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).  

PubMed

Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ?1300mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. PMID:25019249

Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

2014-09-01

123

Effect of salicylic acid (SA) on delaying fruit senescence of Huang Kum pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was undertaken to explore the effect of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations on regulating fruit\\u000a senescence of Huang Kum pear. Through dipping fruits and fruit discs for a series of hours in SA solution, enzyme activities\\u000a and physiological characteristics of Huang Kum pear were determined. The results revealed that SA enhanced the activity of\\u000a superoxide dismutase (SOD)

Hassan Imran; Yuxing Zhang; Guoqiang Du; Guoying Wang; Jianghong Zhang

2007-01-01

124

Ascorbic Acid Content in Relation to Ascorbic Acid Oxidase Activity and Polyamine Content in Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruits During Development, Maturation and Senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv. XPH-1251) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, cv. New ace) plants were grown in a greenhouse in controlled hydroponic conditions, and fruits were harvested at different intervals from 18 to 94 days from fruit set. Total ascorbic acid was higher in bell pepper than in tomato fruit. In pepper fruit, the level increased rapidly during its

Elhadi M. Yahia; Margarita Contreras-Padilla; Gustavo Gonzalez-Aguilar

2001-01-01

125

Response of jujube fruits to exogenous oxalic acid treatment based on proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, we found that oxalic acid (OA) at the concentration of 5 mM could delay jujube fruit sene-scence by reducing ethylene production, repressing fruit reddening and reducing alcohol content, which consequently increased fruit resistance against blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum. In order to gain a further understanding of the mechanism by which OA delays senescence and increases disease resistance of jujube fruit, we used a proteomics approach to compare soluble proteome of jujube fruits treated with water or 5 mM OA for 10 min. A total of 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified by using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Among these proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase 1, which plays a direct role in ethanol metabolism, was repressed, and the abundances of three photosynthesis-related proteins was enhanced in jujube fruit after OA treatment. The protein identified as a cystathionine beta-synthase domain-containing protein, which can regulate ethylene precursors, was also induced by OA treatment. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase was significantly suppressed in OA-treated jujube fruit. In addition, three proteins related to the defense/stress response were up-regulated by OA, and contributed to the establishment of systemic resistance induced by OA in jujube fruits. These results indicated that OA treatment might affect ethanol and ethylene metabolism, resulting in delaying senescence, and increase resistance of jujube fruits against fungal pathogens. PMID:19068492

Wang, Qing; Lai, Tongfei; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

2009-02-01

126

Free amino acid production during tomato fruit ripening: a focus on L-glutamate.  

PubMed

In tomato, free amino acids increase dramatically during fruit ripening and their abundance changed differentially. More evident is L-glutamate which gives the characteristic "umami" flavor. Glutamate is the principal free amino acid of ripe fruits of cultivated varieties. In this paper, we examined the capacity of tomato fruits to process endogenous as well as exogenous polypeptides during the ripening transition, in order to analyze their contribution to the free amino acid pool. In addition, the activity of some enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTase), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent gamma-aminobutyrate transaminase (GABA-T), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases was evaluated. Results showed that peptidases were very active in ripening fruits, and they were able to release free amino acids from endogenous proteins and glutamate from exogenously added glutamate-containing peptides. In addition, red fruit contained enough gamma-GTase activity to sustain glutamate liberation from endogenous substrates such as glutathione. From all the glutamate metabolizing enzymes, GDH and GABA-T showed the higher increase in activities when the ripening process starts. In summary, tomato fruits increase free amino acid content during ripening, most probably due to the raise of different peptidase activities. However, glutamate level of ripe fruit seems to be mostly related to GDH and GABA-T activities that could contribute to increase L-glutamate level during the ripening transition. PMID:19876714

Sorrequieta, Augusto; Ferraro, Gisela; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

2010-05-01

127

Detection of exogenous citric acid in fruit juices by stable isotope ratio analysis.  

PubMed

A new method has been developed for measuring the D/H ratio of the nonexchangeable sites of citric acid by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Pure citric acid is transformed into its calcium salt and subsequently analyzed by pyrolysis-IRMS. The citric acid isolated from authentic fruit juices (citrus, pineapple, and red fruits) systematically shows higher D/H values than its nonfruit counterpart produced by fermentation of various sugar sources. The discrimination obtained with this simplified method is similar to that obtained previously by applying site specific isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) to an ester derivative of citric acid. The combination of carbon 13 and deuterium measurements of extracted citric acid is proposed as a routine method for an optimum detection of exogenous citric acid in all kinds of fruit juices. PMID:15969486

Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca; Lees, Michèle

2005-06-29

128

The Level of Organic Acids in Some Nigerian Fruits and their Effect on Mineral Availability in Composite Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH, ascorbic, citric and total organic acid content of some local fruits in Nigeria were determined. The mineral content of the fruits, amaranthus vegetable and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were also determined. Orange juice had the highest level of ascorbic acid but low in citric acid while lime juice is very rich in citric acid. Pine apple juice

2003-01-01

129

Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits  

PubMed Central

The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 ?g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies.

Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine

2010-01-01

130

NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products. PMID:24520932

Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

2014-02-26

131

Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.  

PubMed

Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty acid composition and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit. PMID:24912701

Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-11-15

132

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

PubMed Central

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.

Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2010-01-01

133

Linking ascorbic acid production in Ribes nigrum with fruit development and changes in sources and sinks  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Understanding the synthesis of ascorbic acid (l-AsA) in green tissues in model species has advanced considerably; here we focus on its production and accumulation in fruit. In particular, our aim is to understand the links between organs which may be sources of l-AsA (leaves) and those which accumulate it (fruits). The work presented here tests the idea that changes in leaf and fruit number influence the accumulation of l-AsA. The aim was to understand the importance of leaf tissue in the production of l-AsA and to determine how this might provide routes for the manipulation of fruit tissue l-AsA. Methods The experiments used Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant), predominantly in field experiments, where the source–sink relationship was manipulated to alter potential leaf l-AsA production and fruit growth and accumulation of l-AsA. These manipulations included reductions in reproductive capacity, by raceme removal, and the availability of assimilates by leaf removal and branch phloem girdling. Natural variation in fruit growth and fruit abscission is also described as this influences subsequent experimental design and the interpretation of l-AsA data. Key Results Results show that fruit l-AsA concentration is conserved but total yield of l-AsA per plant is dependent on a number of innate factors many of which relate to raceme attributes. Leaf removal and phloem girdling reduced fruit weight, and a combination of both reduced fruit yields further. It appears that around 50 % of assimilates utilized for fruit growth came from apical leaves, while between 20 and 30 % came from raceme leaves, with the remainder from ‘storage’. Conclusions Despite being able to manipulate leaf area and therefore assimilate availability and stored carbohydrates, along with fruit yields, rarely were effects on fruit l-AsA concentration seen, indicating fruit l-AsA production in Ribes was not directly coupled to assimilate supply. There was no supporting evidence that l-AsA production occurred predominantly in green leaf tissue followed by its transfer to developing fruits. It is concluded that l-AsA production occurs predominantly in the fruit of Ribes nigrum.

Atkinson, Christopher J.; Davies, Michael J.; Taylor, June M.; Longbottom, Helen

2013-01-01

134

Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts.  

PubMed

This study was conceived to evaluate the essential fatty acids, secondary metabolites, antiradical and antimicrobial activities of unexploited Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. The obtained results indicated that the major components of fatty acids were oleic acid (88.12%) and elaidic acid (7.88%). Leaves contained higher amount of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins than fruits, although both methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activities. Significant correlations were observed between the total phenol or flavonoid contents in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activity estimated by using both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic radical-scavenging methods. In addition, both methanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition zone diameters and the minimal inhibition concentration values were in the range of 10-17 mm and 3.1-50 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24805194

Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Riahi, Leila; Maaroufi, Abderrazak; Hasnaoui, Brahim

2014-07-01

135

Involvement of Peroxidase and Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidase Isozymes from Pear, Tomato, and Blueberry Fruit in Ripening  

PubMed Central

Protein extracts were obtained from climacteric fruits (pear, tomato) and nonclimacteric fruits (blueberry) during various stages of ripening. The use of a gel electrophoresis technique revealed a consistent reinforcement in indoleacetic acid oxidase but not in peroxidase isozymes during ripening. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to the resistance of fruits to ripening and ethylene action. Images

Frenkel, Chaim

1972-01-01

136

Effects of pre-harvest gibberellic acid spraying on gene transcript accumulation during peach fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand early molecular events associated with increase in fruit size and woolliness prevention induced by\\u000a pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) spraying, differential transcript accumulation of genes encoding proteins putatively involved in protein folding and protection,\\u000a cell wall metabolism, and endomembrane transport was studied during fruit development of ‘Chiripá’ peach. Woolliness occurrence\\u000a reached 100% in untreated peach, was reduced

Camila Pegoraro; Fábio Clasen Chaves; Joceani Dal Cero; César Luís Girardi; Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

137

Utilisation of fruits waste for citric acid production by solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state fermentation method was used to utilise pineapple, mixed fruit and maosmi waste as substrates for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger DS 1. Experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of methanol at different moisture levels. In the absence of methanol the maximum citric acid was obtained at 60% moisture level whereas in the presence

D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

2003-01-01

138

Determination of vitamin C and organic acids in various fruits by HPLC.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatographic methodology for determination of vitamin C and organic acids in different fruits (whortleberry, blackberry, red currant, black currant, raspberry, babaco, feijoa, kiwano, passion fruit, red and yellow tamarillos, medlar, and persimmon) cultivated in Galicia, Spain are developed. Both methods use a C18 column and an RP-18 precolumn for the stationary phase. High-performance-liquid-chromatographic-(HPLC-) grade water is brought to pH 2.2 with sulphuric acid for the mobile phase. The flow rate is 0.4 mL/min, and UV detection is at 254 nm for vitamin C and 214 nm for organic acids. Coefficients of variation of 1.84, 1.20, 1.00, and 2.60% are obtained for the vitamin C, quinic acid, malic acid and citric acid, respectively. PMID:1474131

Romero Rodriguez, M A; Vazquez Oderiz, M L; Lopez Hernandez, J; Simal Lozano, J

1992-11-01

139

Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C?C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene

Kenji Matsui; Mizuyoshi Shibutani; Toshiharu Hase; Tadahiko Kajiwara

1996-01-01

140

Xylarinic acids A and B, new antifungal polypropionates from the fruiting body of Xylaria polymorpha.  

PubMed

Two new polypropionates designated as xylarinic acids A and B were isolated from the fruiting body of Xylaria polymorpha. Their structures were established as 4,6,8-trimethyl-2,4-decadienoic acid and 2,4,6-trimethyl-2-octenoic acid, respectively, on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Both compounds displayed significant antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi Pythium ultinum, Magnaporthe grisea, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria panax, and Fusarium oxysporium, whereas they did not show antibacterial and cytotoxic effect. PMID:18057699

Jang, Yun-Woo; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Lee, Sangku; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yu, Seung Hun; Yun, Bong-Sik

2007-11-01

141

?-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.  

PubMed

The results from this study showed that treatment with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 ?g/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen. PMID:24767023

Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

2014-09-15

142

Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue  

SciTech Connect

Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

1991-03-01

143

Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818?g/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2070?g/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1603?g/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10?g/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9?g/g extracts) and all-trans-?-carotene (4-6?g/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry. PMID:25038660

Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

2014-12-15

144

Absorption spectral analysis of proteins and free amino acids in Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the results of spectrophotometric studies of the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies, grown in natural conditions in different habitats of Chernivtsy region, in the spectral interval of 215 - 340 nm. It is shown that the samples reveal considerable difference both in free amino acid content and reserved protein content of albumins, globulins, prolamins, glutelins.

Kostyshyn, S.; Gorshynska, I.; Guminetsky, S. G.

2002-02-01

145

Free amino acid composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (pulp and peel) and jam.  

PubMed

Twenty-one free amino acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by GC/FID. The analyses showed some differences between quince pulps and peels. Generally, the highest content in total free amino acids and in glycine was found in peels. As a general rule, the three major free amino acids detected in pulps were aspartic acid, asparagine, and hydroxyproline. For quince peels, usually, the three most abundant amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid, and asparagine. Similarly, for quince jams the most important free amino acids were aspartic acid, asparagine, and glycine or hydroxyproline. This study suggests that the free amino acid analysis can be useful for the evaluation of quince jam authenticity. It seems that glycine percentage can be used for the detection of quince peel addition while high alanine content can be related to pear addition. PMID:14995121

Silva, Branca M; Casal, Susana; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

2004-03-10

146

HPLC\\/UV determination of organic acids in fruit juices and nectars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed phase HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids in fruit juices and nectars is presented. The method is based on the reaction of free organic acids with O-(4 nitrobenzyl)-N,N'-diisopropylisourea (PNBDI) in presence of dioxane. Excess of reagent was removed with a strong cation-exchange resin. The p-nitrobenzyl esters were separated on a C18 reversed phase column using

Sara C. Cunha; José O. Fernandes; Isabel M. Ferreira

2002-01-01

147

Fatty Acid, Tocopherol and Sterol Compositions of Canadian Prairie Fruit Seed Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of four prairie fruits—chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), thorny buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Woods’ rose (Rosa woodsii) and hawthorn (Crataegus × mordenensis)—from Southern Alberta were investigated. The lipid contents of the seeds were found to be 10.4, 11.5, 3.7 and 3.4%, respectively.\\u000a The tested seed lipids contained mainly linoleic acid in the range from 27.9 to 65.6% and oleic acid from 19.7 to

Farooq Anwar; Roman Przybylski; Magdalena Rudzinska; Eliza Gruczynska; John Bain

2008-01-01

148

Analysis of hydrolyzable tannins and other phenolic compounds in emblic leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) fruits by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds were extracted from dried emblic leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) fruits with methanol and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The raw extracts and fractions were analyzed with HPLC coupled with diode array UV spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry. Mucic acid gallate, mucic acid lactone gallate, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, putranjivain A, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, elaeocarpusin, and chebulagic acid were suggested to be the most abundant compounds in the crude methanol extracts of the fruits. In addition, 144 peaks were detected, of which 67 were tentatively identified mostly as ellagitannins, flavonoids, and simple gallic acid derivatives in the fractions. The results indicated the presence of neochebulagic acid, isomers of neochebuloyl galloylglucose, chebuloyl neochebuloyl galloylglucose, ellagic acid glycosides, quercetin glycosides, and eriodictyol coumaroyl glycosides in the fruits. The study provides a systematic report of the retention data and characteristics of UV, MS, and MS/MS spectra of the phenolic compounds in the fruits of emblic leafflower. The fruits of two varieties (Ping Dan No 1 and Fruity) from Guangxi Province differed from those of wild Tian Chuan emblic leafflower from Fujian Province in the content and profile of phenolic compounds. PMID:22889097

Yang, Baoru; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Liu, Pengzhan; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

2012-09-01

149

Incidence of Ripening and Chilling Injury on the Oxidative Activities and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Mitochondria from Mango Fruits  

PubMed Central

The succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria isolated from mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) stored at 4, 8, 12, and 20 C were investigated during storage. In normally ripening fruits (at 12 and 20 C) the oxidative capacities increased during the first 10 days and then decreased slowly. At lower temperatures (4 and 8 C), the fruits showed chilling injury symptoms, after about 10 days of storage and the succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria decreased progressively. Plots of succinate oxidation capacities as against storage temperature showed a marked discontinuity between 12 and 8 C, only when chilling injury was observed on fruits stored at low temperature. The variations of mitochondrial fatty acid composition during the storage of fruits at different temperatures were also investigated. A marked decrease of the molar ratio palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid, the predominant fatty acids in mitochondrial lipids, was observed to accompany both the succinate oxidation decrease and the induction of chilling injury.

Kane, Ousmane; Marcellin, Pierre; Mazliak, Paul

1978-01-01

150

Citric acid esters from fruit of Lonicera caerulea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compound (I) could be formed from the corresponding acid by methylation with diazomethane. The native nature of (I)was confirmed by its isolation from the initial unmethylated fraction after the elimination of citric acid from it with the use of AV-17 ion-exchange resin. The isolation of 7-oxologanin from plants of the genus Lonicera has not been reported previously.

E. V. Anikina; A. L. Vereshchagin; A. I. Syrchina; F. Larin; A. A. Semenov

1988-01-01

151

Effects of early-fruit removal on endogenous cytokinins and abscisic acid in relation to leaf senescence in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have shown that early-fruit removal enhances vegetative growth and development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). However, few studies have examined changes in leaf senescence and endogenous hormones due to fruit removal. The objective\\u000a of this study was to determine the correlation between some endogenous phytohormones, particularly the cytokinins and abscisic\\u000a acid (ABA), and leaf senescence following fruit removal.

Hezhong Dong; Yuehua Niu; Xiangqiang Kong; Zhen Luo

2009-01-01

152

The Effect of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Other Growth Regulators on the Ripening of Avocado Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

Observations were made of the effects of several plant regulators, indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, abscisic acid, and gibberellic acid, as well as of extracts prepared from leaves and fruit stalks on the respiration pattern, ethylene production, and the number of days to ripen of avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill.). These substances were vacuum infiltrated to insure good penetration and distribution. Kinetin, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, and the extracts had no effect on either ripening time or on the respiration pattern and ethylene production of the fruits. Indoleacetic acid, however, had a marked effect on ripening. At high concentrations (100 and 1000 ?m), indoleacetic acid stimulated respiration and induced preclimacteric ethylene production, resulting in accelerated ripening of the fruits. At the low concentrations (1 and 10 ?m), it delayed ripening of fruits and suppressed the climacteric respiration and ethylene production. The results reinforce several previous observations with other fruits that auxins may largely constitute `resistance to ripening' and may be responsible for the lack of ripening shown by unpicked fruits.

Tingwa, Peter O.; Young, Roy E.

1975-01-01

153

Dynamics of fatty-acid composition of neutral acylglycerols in maturing euonymus fruits.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of neutral acylglycerols (NAGs) composed of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAGs) and 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acDAGs) was determined in the fruit seeds and arils of three Euonymus L. species at three stages of their maturity. The NAG composition comprised 29 FAs, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and ?-linolenic acids being predominant. Noticeable amounts of other FAs, such as lauric, myristic, hexadec-9-enoic, stearic, (Z)-vaccenic, and arachidic acid, etc., could also be present. In the course of maturation, the qualitative composition of major FAs remained nearly unchanged, while the unsaturation index of FAs in seeds and in TAGs, as well as, but to a lesser extent, in arils and in acDAGs, respectively, always decreased. This decline was brought about by a sharp fall of the ?-linolenate level, a decrease of the linoleate content, and a corresponding rise in the oleate content. It is suggested that, in both seeds and arils, both classes of NAGs were formed at the expense of the same FA pool; the quantitative composition of this pool was characteristic of a given fruit part and strongly changed during maturation. The accumulation of TAGs in E. europaeus fruits was accompanied by a conversion of hexadec-9-enoic acid into (Z)-vaccenic acid via the C2 -elongation reaction. PMID:24706628

Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

2014-04-01

154

Purification and Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid N-Malonyltransferase from Tomato Fruit.  

PubMed Central

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) can be oxidized to ethylene or diverted to the conjugate 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) by an ACC N-malonyltransferase. We developed a facile assay for the ACC N-malonyltransferase that resolved [14C]MACC from [14C]ACC by thin-layer chromatography and detected and quantified them using a radioisotope-imaging system. Using this assay, we showed that ACC N-malonyltransferase activity has developmental and tissue-specific patterns of expression in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit. In the pericarp, activity was elevated for several days postanthesis, subsequently declined to a basal level, increased 3-fold at the onset of ripening, and again declined in overripe fruit. In the seed, activity increased throughout embryogenesis, maturation, and desiccation. Treatment of fruit with ethylene increased activity 50- to 100-fold in the pericarp. ACC N-malonyltransferase was purified 22,000-fold to a specific activity of 22,000 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DyeMatrex Green A affinity, anion-exchange, Cibacron Blue 3GA affinity, hydrophobic interaction, and molecular filtration chromatography. Native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured enzyme showed molecular masses of 38 kD, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme exhibited a Km for ACC of 500 [mu]M, was not inhibited by D- or L-amino acids, and did not conjugate [alpha]-aminoisobutyric acid or L-amino acids.

Martin, M. N.; Saftner, R. A.

1995-01-01

155

Purification and Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid N-Malonyltransferase from Tomato Fruit.  

PubMed

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) can be oxidized to ethylene or diverted to the conjugate 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) by an ACC N-malonyltransferase. We developed a facile assay for the ACC N-malonyltransferase that resolved [14C]MACC from [14C]ACC by thin-layer chromatography and detected and quantified them using a radioisotope-imaging system. Using this assay, we showed that ACC N-malonyltransferase activity has developmental and tissue-specific patterns of expression in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit. In the pericarp, activity was elevated for several days postanthesis, subsequently declined to a basal level, increased 3-fold at the onset of ripening, and again declined in overripe fruit. In the seed, activity increased throughout embryogenesis, maturation, and desiccation. Treatment of fruit with ethylene increased activity 50- to 100-fold in the pericarp. ACC N-malonyltransferase was purified 22,000-fold to a specific activity of 22,000 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DyeMatrex Green A affinity, anion-exchange, Cibacron Blue 3GA affinity, hydrophobic interaction, and molecular filtration chromatography. Native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured enzyme showed molecular masses of 38 kD, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme exhibited a Km for ACC of 500 [mu]M, was not inhibited by D- or L-amino acids, and did not conjugate [alpha]-aminoisobutyric acid or L-amino acids. PMID:12228541

Martin, M. N.; Saftner, R. A.

1995-07-01

156

Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.  

PubMed

In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease. PMID:24562629

Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

2014-06-01

157

Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.  

PubMed

The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8?g/100?g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9?g/100?g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7?g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets. PMID:23539474

Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

2013-12-01

158

Cloning of two isoforms of soluble acid invertase of Japanese pear and their expression during fruit development.  

PubMed

Soluble acid invertase (S-AIV; EC 3.2.1.26) in Japanese pear fruit has an important role in accumulating hexoses during fruit enlargement and regulates the sucrose-to-hexose ratio in the vacuole. Full-length cDNA of PsS-AIV1 and PsS-AIV2 isoforms were cloned from Japanese pear fruit and their amino acid sequences share 40% identity; PsS-AIV1 was confirmed to code S-AIV isozyme purified previously. The roles of PsS-AIV1 and PsS-AIV2 genes throughout fruit development and in sugar composition were investigated by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis using specific primers of their transcripts. PsS-AIV1 transcript had a maximum level at 34 days after full bloom (DAFB) and decreased rapidly during fruit development; PsS-AIV2 transcript increased gradually during fruit growth from 34 DAFB, had its maximum level at 79 DAFB and remained high until 107 DAFB at active fruit enlargement. The activity of S-AIV was highest at 34 DAFB, decreased during fruit growth until 66 DAFB, remained almost the same during early fruit enlargement until 79 DAFB and then decreased again. Soluble sugars fructose and glucose began accumulating predominantly during fruit enlargement from 66 DAFB; sucrose began increasing rapidly during fruit maturation from 121 DAFB. High expression of PsS-AIV1 transcript and high enzyme activity in the young fruit stage seems to have an important role in supplying a lot of substrate for energy needed for cell division and growth by hydrolyzing sucrose to hexoses. Increasing PsS-AIV2 expression during fruit enlargement may lead to rapid cell expansion through increased osmotic pressure by accumulation of a large amount of hexose in the vacuole. PMID:16884823

Yamada, Kunio; Kojima, Takuya; Bantog, Nancy; Shimoda, Tetsuji; Mori, Hitoshi; Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Yamaki, Shohei

2007-06-01

159

Effect of fruit on net acid and urinary calcium excretion in an acute feeding trial of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveConsumption of fruits and vegetables has been implicated in lowering net acid excretion (NAE), but few studies have directly examined NAE and urinary calcium effects. Further, there is no evidence that only fresh fruits and vegetables must be consumed for a beneficial effect on bone.

Janet Amy Bell; Susan Joyce Whiting

2004-01-01

160

Determination of acetic acid of fruit vinegars using near infrared spectroscopy and least squares-support vector machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two chemometric methods were performed for the determination of acetic acid of fruit vinegars using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Three varieties of fruit vinegars were prepared and 135 samples (45 samples for each variety) were selected for the calibration set, whereas 45 samples (15 samples for each variety) for the validation set. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was the calibration

Fei Liu; Li Wang; Yong He

2008-01-01

161

Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.  

PubMed

Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice. PMID:24433073

Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

2014-04-01

162

Addition of salicylic acid to nutrient solution combined with postharvest treatments (hot water, salicylic acid, and calcium dipping) improved postharvest fruit quality of strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of salicylic acid addition to nutrient solution and different postharvest treatments on fruit quality of strawberry cv. Camarosa after 7 days at 2°C. Plants were irrigated with two complete nutrient solutions, with salicylic acid (0.03mM) or without salicylic acid as the control. Fruits were then treated with eight different postharvest treatments (25°C

M. Shafiee; T. S. Taghavi; M. Babalar

2010-01-01

163

Inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the browning control of litchi fruit by glutathione and citric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.3.2) from litchi peel was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration, and a 16-fold purification of PPO achieved. The use of 10 mmol litre?1 glutathione and 100 mmol litre?1 citric acid was found to give good control of the browning of litchi fruit and 80–85% inhibition of PPO observed. Application of glutathione in

Yueming Jiang; Jiarui Fu

1998-01-01

164

Momordica charantia fruit juice stimulates glucose and amino acid uptakes in L6 myotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitacea) is used widely as a hypoglycaemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). The mechanism of the hypoglycaemic action of M. charantia in vitro is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of M. charantia juice on either 3H-2-deoxyglucose or N-methyl-amino-a-isobutyric acid (14C-Me-AIB) uptake in L6 rat muscle cells cultured to the myotube

E. Cummings; H. S. Hundal; H. Wackerhage; M. Hope; M. Belle; E. Adeghate; J. Singh

2004-01-01

165

Study of the organic acids composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit and jam.  

PubMed

The organic acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by HPLC. The sample preparation was simple, involving only extraction with methanol (40 degrees C) and filtration through a Sep-pack C18 cartridge. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an ion exclusion column, Nucleogel Ion 300 OA (300 x 7.7 mm), in conjunction with a column heating device at 30 degrees C. An isocratic elution with H(2)SO(4) 0.01 N as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min, and UV detection at 214 nm were used. These analyses showed that all samples presented a similar profile composed of at least six identified organic acids: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids. Several samples also contained oxalic acid. This study suggests that the organic acids levels and ratios may be useful for the determination of percent fruit content of quince jams. The citric acid value can also be used in the differentiation of the type of manufacture of the commercial quince jams (homemade or industrially manufactured). PMID:11929290

Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Mendes, Gisela C; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

2002-04-10

166

Sequential injection titration with spectrophotometric detection for the assay of acidity in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A simple sequential injection analysis (SIA) with spectrophotometric detection for an assay of acidity in fruit juice was investigated. An alkaline reagent (sodium hydroxide), a sample and an indicator (phenolphthalein) were first aspirated and stacked as adjacent zones in a holding coil. With flow reversal through a reaction coil to the detector, zone penetration occurred, leading to a neutralization reaction that caused a decrease in the color intensity of the indicator being monitored for absorbance at 552 nm. The effects of various parameters were studied. Linear calibration graphs for acidities of 0.2 - 1.0 and 0.5 - 2.5% w/v citric acid as a standard, with a relative standard deviation of 1% (acidity of 0.3 - 0.6% w/v as citric acid, n=11) and a sample throughput of 30 samples h(-1), were achieved. The developed method was validated by a standard titrimetric method for assaying the acidity of fruit juice samples. PMID:16429794

Jakmunee, Jaroon; Rujiralai, Thitima; Grudpan, Kate

2006-01-01

167

New 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives in Fruit of the Wild Eggplant Relative Solanum viarum.  

PubMed

Fruit of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena, Solanum aethiopicum, and Solanum macrocarpon, and wild relatives including Solanum anguivi and Solanum incanum, have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with potential human health benefits. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. By contrast, fruit from accession PI 319855 in the USDA eggplant core collection, unambiguously identified as Solanum viarum by morphological characters, were found to include several major, closely related hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with much longer C18-HPLC retention times than those of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid and other monocaffeoylquinic acid isomers. Four of these compounds were isolated from methanolic extracts of lyophilized fruit tissues by C18-HPLC, and structurally elucidated using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-TOF-MS. Isomeric compounds 1 and 2 are composed of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid with a malonyl group on the 3- or 4-hydroxyl of quinic acid, respectively, plus a 6-O-sinapoylglucose group 1-O-?-d linked with the 4-hydroxyl on the phenyl ring of the caffeoyl moiety (1?,4?-dihydroxy-3?-carboxyacetoxy- and 1?,3?-dihydroxy-4?-carboxyacetoxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 3 has the same structure as 1 and 2 without malonation of quinic acid (1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 4 differs from 3 by methylation of the carboxyl group on quinic acid (methyl 1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylate). Some features of these four new compounds, such as malonation and the specific linkages between caffeoyl, glucosyl, and sinapoyl moieties, are common in acylated and glycosylated phenylpropanoids, but have not previously been reported in complex derivatives of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. PMID:20886887

Ma, Chunhui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

2010-10-27

168

Fatty acid, triglyceride and tocopherol composition of Algerian Argan ( Argania spinosa ) fruit seed lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main focus of the present work is the analytical study of the fatty acid, triglyceride (TAG) and tocopherol composition\\u000a of oil extract from the fruit of Algerian tree Argania spinosa. The four dominant fatty acids (FA) found in the oil are: oleic C18:1 (52.86%), linoleic C18:2 (25.0%), palmitic C16:0 (14.65%)\\u000a and stearic C18:0 (7.06%). The distribution of FA between

Mohamed Yousfi; Isabelle Bombarda; Chahrazed Hamia; Amar Djeridane; Pierre Stocker; Emile Gaydou

2009-01-01

169

Circulating salicylic acid and metabolic and inflammatory responses after fruit ingestion.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that fruit ingestion provides measurable amounts of salicylic acid (SA) and produces different metabolic and inflammatory responses compared to mere fruit sugars. In a randomized-crossover study, 26 healthy subjects received a peach shake meal (PSM) (SA: 0,06?±?0,001 mg/100 g) and a mixed sugar meal (MSM), consisting in an aqueous solution with the same sugars found in the peach shake. In order to control for the SA contribution from meals in the previous day, 16 subjects (Group 1) abstained from fruits and vegetables consumption the evening before trials, and 10 subjects (Group 2) maintained their usual diet. Circulating SA, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, and interleukin-6 were determined. Basal SA was lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (0.09?±?0.02 vs. 0.30?±?0.03 ?mol/l, p?acids decreased more (p?fruit intake increases the concentration of SA in vivo, and provides non-nutrients capable to modulate the inflammatory and metabolic responses to carbohydrates. PMID:22392497

Rinelli, Samuele; Spadafranca, Angela; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Cocucci, Maurizio; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto

2012-03-01

170

Ammonium secretion during Colletotrichum coccodes infection modulates salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways of ripe and unripe tomato fruit.  

PubMed

The postharvest pathogens Colletotrichum coccodes remains quiescent after infection of unripe fruit. However, during fruit ripening, the pathogen assumes a necrotrophic life style, rapidly colonizing the tissue. C. coccodes secretes ammonium during germination and colonization of host tissue that induces host programmed cell death. We further examined the role of ammonia in the infection process by analyzing transcriptome expression from infected and ammonia-treated fruit tissue compared with healthy tissue. The analysis revealed 82 and 237 common upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of select transcripts in normal and transgenic NADPH oxidase antisense plants revealed that their expression was NADPH oxidase dependent. Common-upregulated genes showed overrepresentation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent genes as well as genes related to biotic stress. The downregulated genes showed overrepresentation of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent genes. Indeed, direct application of SA to the fruit enhanced C. coccodes necrotrophic colonization, whereas the application of JA delayed colonization. Importantly, green fruit and red fruit displayed similar gene expression patterns although only red fruit is susceptible to colonization. Thus, it is likely that the resistance of green fruit to C. coccodes colonization is due to additional factors. PMID:22150075

Alkan, Noam; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

2012-01-01

171

Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.  

PubMed

Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2014-07-01

172

Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds  

PubMed Central

Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed.

Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2014-01-01

173

Ascorbic Acid Determination in Commercial Fruit Juice Samples by Cyclic Voltammetry  

PubMed Central

A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in commercial fruit juice by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 490 mV on a Pt disc working electrode (versus SCE). The influence of the potential sweep speed on the peak height was studied. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between peak height and ascorbic acid concentration in the domain (0.1–10 mmol·L?1). The equation of the calibration graph was y = 6.391x + 0.1903 (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the anodic peak height, expressed as ?A and x the analyte concentration, as mmol·L?1, r2 = 0.9995, r.s.d. = 1.14%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2 mmol·L?1). The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juice. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged from 0.83 to 1.67 mmol·L?1 for orange juice, from 0.58 to 1.93 mmol·L?1 for lemon juice, and from 0.46 to 1.84 mmol·L?1 for grapefruit juice. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.35% and 104%. Ascorbic acid determination results obtained by cyclic voltammetry were compared with those obtained by the volumetric method with dichlorophenol indophenol. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement.

Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Kalinowski, Slawomir

2008-01-01

174

Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from delta-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits  

SciTech Connect

A new pathway for ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) biosynthesis, which utilizes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production to 232% of the control. The C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and radioactivity from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO/sub 2/ but not in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/. However, radioactivity from (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in CO/sub 2/, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ showed any radioactivity when (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA or (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and ACC.

El-Rayes, D.E.D.A.

1987-01-01

175

Occurrence of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters in fruits of Celastraceae plants.  

PubMed

Small amounts of a mixture of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters (FASCAEs) were obtained from the fruits of twelve plant species of Celastraceae family, and in five of them the FASCAEs were present not only in the arils but also in the seeds. These mixtures contained 32 individual FASCAE species, which formed four separate fractions, viz. FA methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and butyl esters (FAMEs, FAEEs, FAIPEs, and FABEs, resp.). The FASCAE acyl components included the residues of 16 individual C??-C?? saturated, mono-, di-, and trienoic FAs. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, and, in some cases, also ?-linolenic acid predominated in FAMEs and FAEEs, while myristic acid was predominant in FAIPEs. It can be suggested that, in the fruit arils of some plant species, FAMEs and FAEEs were formed at the expense of a same FA pool characteristic of a given species and were strongly different from FAIPEs and FABEs esters regarding the mechanism of their biosynthesis. However, as a whole, the qualitative and quantitative composition of various FASCAE fractions, as well as their FA composition, varied considerably depending on various factors. Therefore, separate FASCAE fractions seem to be synthesized from different FA pools other than those used for triacylglycerol formation. PMID:23776017

Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

2013-06-01

176

Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene treatment on chilling injury, fatty acid and cell wall polysaccharide composition in loquat fruit.  

PubMed

Loquat fruit was treated with 2.32 nmol L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 24 h at 20 degrees C, and then stored at 1 degrees C for 35 days to investigate the effect of 1-MCP treatment on chilling injury (CI) and fatty acid and cell wall polysaccharide composition. Loquat fruit developed CI, manifested as increased fruit firmness, internal browning and decreased extractable juice. These CI symptoms were reduced by 1-MCP treatment. 1-MCP-treated fruit exhibited higher levels of linoleic and linolenic acid and a higher unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio than control fruit during storage. The treatment also markedly delayed increase in alcohol insoluble residue, i.e. hemicellulose and cellulose. Meanwhile, the level of water- and CDTA-soluble pectins in treated fruit was higher than that in control. Our result suggested modifications of fatty acid and cell wall polysaccharide composition are associated with CI develpoment in loquat and 1-MCP treatment modulates the changes that seem to regulate the strength of cell wall and so to alleviate CI. PMID:19711912

Cao, Shifeng; Zheng, Yonghua; Wang, Kaituo; Rui, Huaijin; Tang, Shuangshuang

2009-09-23

177

Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).  

PubMed

Sweet melon cultivars contain a low level of organic acids and, therefore, the quality and flavor of sweet melon fruit is determined almost exclusively by fruit sugar content. However, genetic variability for fruit acid levels in the Cucumis melo species exists and sour fruit accessions are characterized by acidic fruit pH of <5, compared to the sweet cultivars that are generally characterized by mature fruit pH values of >6. In this paper, we report results from a mapping population based on recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the non-sour 'Dulce' variety and the sour PI 414323 accession. Results show that a single major QTL for pH co-localizes with major QTLs for the two predominant organic acids in melon fruit, citric and malic, together with an additional metabolite which we identified as uridine. While the acidic recombinants were characterized by higher citric and malic acid levels, the non-acidic recombinants had a higher uridine content than did the acidic recombinants. Additional minor QTLs for pH, citric acid and malic acid were also identified and for these the increased acidity was unexpectedly contributed by the non-sour parent. To test for co-localization of these QTLs with genes encoding organic acid metabolism and transport, we mapped the genes encoding structural enzymes and proteins involved in organic acid metabolism, transport and vacuolar H+ pumps. None of these genes co-localized with the major pH QTL, indicating that the gene determining melon fruit pH is not one of the candidate genes encoding this primary metabolic pathway. Linked markers were tested in two additional inter-varietal populations and shown to be linked to the pH trait. The presence of the same QTL in such diverse segregating populations suggests that the trait is determined throughout the species by variability in the same gene and is indicative of a major role of the evolution of this gene in determining the important domestication trait of fruit acidity within the species. PMID:22406955

Cohen, S; Tzuri, G; Harel-Beja, R; Itkin, M; Portnoy, V; Sa'ar, U; Lev, S; Yeselson, L; Petrikov, M; Rogachev, I; Aharoni, A; Ophir, R; Tadmor, Y; Lewinsohn, E; Burger, Y; Katzir, N; Schaffer, A A

2012-07-01

178

Effect of acid fruit juices combined with electric or sonic toothbrushing on root dentin permeability--an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this in vitro study was to quantify the alterations on human root dentin permeability after exposure to different acid fruit juices and to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing with electric or sonic toothbrush after acid exposure. The root dentin of 50 extracted third molars was exposed with a high speed bur. Crowns were sectioned above the cementoenamel junction and root fragments were used to prepare dentin specimens. Specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the fruit juice (kiwifruit, starfruit, green apple, pineapple and acerolla). Each specimen was connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure root dentin permeability using fluid filtration method after the following sequential steps: I) conditioning with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, II) root scaling, III) exposure to acid fruit juices for 5 min and IV) electric or sonic toothbrushing without dentifrice for 3 min. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance level. All fruit juices promoted a significant increase of dentin permeability while toothbrushing decreased it significantly (p<0.05). It may be concluded that all acid fruit juices increased root dentin permeability, while toothbrushing without dentifrice after acid exposure decreased the permeability. The toothbrush mechanism (electric or sonic) had no influence on the decrease of root dentin permeability. PMID:23338258

Batitucci, Roberta Grasselli; Zandim, Daniela Leal; Rocha, Fernanda Regina Godoy; Pinheiro, Michele Carolina; Fontanari, Lucas Amaral; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar

2012-01-01

179

Anti-diabetic effects of the Indian indigenous fruit Emblica officinalis Gaertn: active constituents and modes of action.  

PubMed

Dietary constituents are shown to play an important role in the development of diabetes. Studies have shown that the fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, colloquially known as Indian gooseberry or amla and/or some of its important constituents (including gallic acid, gallotanin, ellagic acid and corilagin), possess anti-diabetic effects through their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Amla has also been reported to prevent/reduce hyperglycemia, cardiac complications, diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, cataractogenesis and protein wasting. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and preliminary. For the first time this review summarizes the anti-diabetic affects of amla and also addresses the mechanisms mediating these properties. PMID:24577384

D'souza, Jason Jerome; D'souza, Prema Pancy; Fazal, Farhan; Kumar, Ashish; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2014-04-01

180

Influence of postharvest treatments on quality, carotenoids, and abscisic acid content of stored "spring belle" peach (prunus persica) fruit.  

PubMed

The influence of four postharvest treatments, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2), followed by fruit storage at 10 degrees C or of hydrocooling (H2O) at 1 degrees C, followed by storage at 0 degrees C on fruit quality, carotenoids, and abscisic acid (ABA) content as well as on ethylene and carbon dioxide production of "Spring Belle" peach fruits, has been examined. Ethylene production was reduced by all the treatments and raised after transfer the fruits at 20 degrees C, their ethylene production in general being lower than that of fruits continuously held at 20 degrees C. Nevertheless, 1-MCP removal enhanced the rise in ethylene occurring at 20 degrees C by the end of storage. Those changes were likely related to fruit softening but not to changes in color or in the soluble solid content (SSC). HPLC analyses showed a relative high content of xanthophylls, particularly violaxanthin. In fruits maintained in air at 20 degrees C, violaxanthin and beta-carotene contents decreased while beta-criptoxanthin increased. ABA content showed a great increase in 1-MCP and significant decrease in carbon dioxide and hydrocooling treated peaches. The results indicated hydrocooling, in combination with low temperature storage, as the best treatment maintaining fruit firmness due to the lowered respiration rate and the content of relevant carotenoids. PMID:19722584

Caprioli, Ivano; Lafuente, María T; Rodrigo, María J; Mencarelli, Fabio

2009-08-12

181

The arbuscular mycorrhizal status has an impact on the transcriptome profile and amino acid composition of tomato fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is the most widespread association between plant roots and fungi in natural and agricultural ecosystems. This work investigated the influence of mycorrhization on the economically relevant part of the tomato plant, by analyzing its impact on the physiology of the fruit. To this aim, a combination of phenological observations, transcriptomics (Microarrays and qRT-PCR) and biochemical analyses was used to unravel the changes that occur on fruits from Micro-Tom tomato plants colonized by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. Results Mycorrhization accelerated the flowering and fruit development and increased the fruit yield. Eleven transcripts were differentially regulated in the fruit upon mycorrhization, and the mycorrhiza-responsive genes resulted to be involved in nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in regulation and signal transduction. Mycorrhization has increased the amino acid abundance in the fruit from mycorrhizal plants, with glutamine and asparagine being the most responsive amino acids. Conclusions The obtained results offer novel data on the systemic changes that are induced by the establishment of AM symbiosis in the plant, and confirm the work hypothesis that AM fungi may extend their influence from the root to the fruit.

2012-01-01

182

[Determination of triterpenoic acids in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba using HPLC-MS with polymeric ODS column].  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method has been developed to simultaneously determine betunilic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba from different regions by HPLC-MS. This HPLC assay was performed on PAH polymeric C18 bonded stationary phase column with mobile phase contained acetonitrile-water (90: 10) and with negative ESI detection mode. The developed approach was characterized by short time consumption for chromatographic separation, high sensitivity and good reliability so as to meet the requirements for rapid analysis of large-batch fruits of Z. jujuba from different habitats. PMID:23717965

Zhang, Yong; Zhou, An; Xie, Xiao-Mei

2013-03-01

183

Effects of growing region and maturity stages on oil yield and fatty acid composition of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes on oil yield and fatty acid profiles were studied during maturation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits cultivated in Menzel Temime and Oued Beja, Tunisia. Oil and petroselinic acid biosynthesis proceeded at a steady rate up to 16 DAF in Oued Beja and in 33 DAF in Menzel Temime. The first results show that a rapid oil accumulation started

Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mouna Ben Taarit; Mohamed Hammami; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

184

Separation and determination of di- and tricarboxylic acids in fruits by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method for separation and determination of several di- and tricarboxylic acids, including oxalic, malic, tartaric and citric acids (OX, MA, TA and CI), found in fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection at a copper electrode was developed. Based on cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the detection mechanism for the analytes at a copper electrode was proved to

Wen-Chu Yang; Ai-Min Yu; Yi-Qing Dai; Hong-Yuan Chen

2000-01-01

185

Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric

Timothy J. Barden; Marguerite Y. Croft; E. John Murby; Robert J. Wells

1997-01-01

186

Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits  

PubMed Central

Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH? IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 ?g/ml) to inactive (389 ?g/ml).

Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.

2010-01-01

187

Characterization of Abscisic Acid-Induced Ethylene Production in Citrus Leaf and Tomato Fruit Tissues 1  

PubMed Central

Abscisic acid (ABA) significantly stimulated ethylene production in citrus (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck, cv Shamouti orange) leaf discs. The extent of stimulation was dependent upon the concentration of ABA (0.1-1 milimolar) and the duration of treatment (15-300 minutes). Aging the discs before applying ABA increased ABA-induced ethylene production due to enhancement of both ethylene-forming enzyme activity and the responsiveness of ABA. Discs excised from mature leaves were much more responsive to ABA than discs excised from young or senescing leaves. ABA stimulated ethylene production shortly after application, suggesting that ABA does not enhance ethylene production via the acceleration of senescence. The stimulating effect of ABA on ethylene production resulted mainly from the enhancement of 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthesis. Stimulation of ethylene production by ABA in intact citrus leaves and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Castlemart) fruit was small but could be increased by various forms of wounding.

Riov, Joseph; Dagan, Eliahu; Goren, Raphael; Yang, Shang Fa

1990-01-01

188

Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ?6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice.

PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.

2009-01-01

189

Bioactive compounds and phenolic-linked functionality of powdered tropical fruit residues.  

PubMed

Tropical fruit residues consisting of seeds, peels and residual pulp generated as by-products of fruit processing industry were investigated for bioactive compounds, the in vitro antioxidant capacity as well as alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Cyanidin, quercetin, ellagic acid (EA) and proanthocyanidins were found in acerola, jambolan, pitanga and cajá-umbu residue powders. Acerola powder had the highest phenolic content (8839.33?mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100?g) and also high-ascorbic acid (AA) concentration (2748.03?mg/100?g), followed by jambolan and pitanga. The greatest 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition was observed for jambolan (436.76?mmol Trolox eq/g) followed by pitanga (206.68?mmol Trolox eq/g) and acerola (192.60?mmol Trolox eq/g), while acerola had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay result (7.87?mmol Trolox eq/g). All fruit powders exhibited enzymatic inhibition against alpha-amylase (IC50 ranging from 3.40 to 49.5?mg CE/mL) and alpha-glucosidase (IC50 ranging from 1.15 to 2.37?mg CE/mL). Therefore, acerola, jambolan and pitanga dried residues are promising natural ingredients for food and nutraceutical manufacturers, due to their rich bioactive compound content. PMID:23014856

Correia, Roberta T P; Borges, Kátia C; Medeiros, Maria F; Genovese, Maria I

2012-12-01

190

Anthocyanins, Phenolic Acids and Antioxidant Properties of Juçara Fruits (Euterpe edulis M.) Along the On-tree Ripening Process.  

PubMed

Juçara (Euterpe edulis M.) fruits are an interesting source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, making them valuable to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Juçara fruits were harvested along the on-tree ripening process between March and June as practiced in Paraná state, Brazil and examined for their total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), total phenolic acid (TPA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAA). Overall, TAC increased (91.52-236.19 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/100 g dm) whereas TPC (81.69-49.09 mg GAE/g dm) and TPA (44.27-30.95 mg/100 g dm) decreased during ripening of juçara fruits. Use of tandem mass spectrometry allowed the identification of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside for the first time in juçara fruits. The analysis of the phenolic acids by HPLC-MS/MS indicated the presence of gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, sinapinic and ferulic acids. The high antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging capacity (655.89-745.32 ?mol TE/g dm) and ORAC assays (1088.10-2071.55 ?mol TE/g dm) showed that juçara fruits have potential as a source of novel natural antioxidants for disease prevention and health promotion, and also as natural food additives for developing new functional food products. PMID:24570272

Bicudo, Milene Oliveira Pereira; Ribani, Rosemary Hoffmann; Beta, Trust

2014-06-01

191

Metabolic Engineering of Tomato Fruit Organic Acid Content Guided by Biochemical Analysis of an Introgression Line1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Organic acid content is regarded as one of the most important quality traits of fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the complexity of carboxylic acid metabolism and storage means that it is difficult to predict the best way to engineer altered carboxylic acid levels. Here, we used a biochemical analysis of a tomato introgression line with increased levels of fruit citrate and malate at breaker stage to identify a metabolic engineering target that was subsequently tested in transgenic plants. Increased carboxylic acid levels in introgression line 2-5 were not accompanied by changes in the pattern of carbohydrate oxidation by pericarp discs or the catalytic capacity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes measured in isolated mitochondria. However, there was a significant decrease in the maximum catalytic activity of aconitase in total tissue extracts, suggesting that a cytosolic isoform of aconitase was affected. To test the role of cytosolic aconitase in controlling fruit citrate levels, we analyzed fruit of transgenic lines expressing an antisense construct against SlAco3b, one of the two tomato genes encoding aconitase. A green fluorescent protein fusion of SlAco3b was dual targeted to cytosol and mitochondria, while the other aconitase, SlAco3a, was exclusively mitochondrial when transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Both aconitase transcripts were decreased in fruit from transgenic lines, and aconitase activity was reduced by about 30% in the transgenic lines. Other measured enzymes of carboxylic acid metabolism were not significantly altered. Both citrate and malate levels were increased in ripe fruit of the transgenic plants, and as a consequence, total carboxylic acid content was increased by 50% at maturity.

Morgan, Megan J.; Osorio, Sonia; Gehl, Bernadette; Baxter, Charles J.; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Sweetlove, Lee J.

2013-01-01

192

A new 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-conjugating activity in tomato fruit.  

PubMed Central

A new conjugate, 1-(gamma-L-glutamylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (GACC), of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is identified. The only previously identified conjugate of ACC is 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC). GACC, not MACC, was the major conjugate formed by crude protein extracts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv Ailsa Craig) fruit pericarp and seeds incubated with [14C]ACC. GACC was resolved from [14C]ACC and [14C]MACC by reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography and subsequently detected and quantified using a radioisotope-imaging system. Proteins precipitated from crude extracts failed to catalyze formation of GACC unless the supernatant was added back. Reduced glutathione, but not other reducing agents, replaced the crude supernatant. When [35S-cysteine]glutathione and [3H-2-glycine]glutathione were used as substrates, neither radiolabeled glycine nor cysteine from the glutathione tripeptide was incorporated into GACC. Oxidized glutathione, S-substituted glutathione, and di- and tripeptides having an N-terminal gamma-L-glutamic acid, but lacking cysteine and glycine, also served as substrates for GACC formation. Peptides lacking the N-terminal gamma-L-glutamic acid did not serve as substrates. Acid hydrolysis of GACC yielded ACC, suggesting that GACC is an amide-linked conjugate of ACC. Taken together, these results indicate that GACC is 1-(gamma-glutamylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and that its formation is catalyzed by a gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the N-acetyl dimethyl ester of GACC confirmed this structure.

Martin, M N; Cohen, J D; Saftner, R A

1995-01-01

193

A new 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-conjugating activity in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

A new conjugate, 1-(gamma-L-glutamylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (GACC), of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is identified. The only previously identified conjugate of ACC is 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC). GACC, not MACC, was the major conjugate formed by crude protein extracts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv Ailsa Craig) fruit pericarp and seeds incubated with [14C]ACC. GACC was resolved from [14C]ACC and [14C]MACC by reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography and subsequently detected and quantified using a radioisotope-imaging system. Proteins precipitated from crude extracts failed to catalyze formation of GACC unless the supernatant was added back. Reduced glutathione, but not other reducing agents, replaced the crude supernatant. When [35S-cysteine]glutathione and [3H-2-glycine]glutathione were used as substrates, neither radiolabeled glycine nor cysteine from the glutathione tripeptide was incorporated into GACC. Oxidized glutathione, S-substituted glutathione, and di- and tripeptides having an N-terminal gamma-L-glutamic acid, but lacking cysteine and glycine, also served as substrates for GACC formation. Peptides lacking the N-terminal gamma-L-glutamic acid did not serve as substrates. Acid hydrolysis of GACC yielded ACC, suggesting that GACC is an amide-linked conjugate of ACC. Taken together, these results indicate that GACC is 1-(gamma-glutamylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and that its formation is catalyzed by a gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the N-acetyl dimethyl ester of GACC confirmed this structure. PMID:8552720

Martin, M N; Cohen, J D; Saftner, R A

1995-11-01

194

Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae)  

PubMed Central

The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg?1?day?1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders.

Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

2011-01-01

195

Linked dominant alleles or inter-locus interaction results in a major shift in pomegranate fruit acidity of ‘Ganesh’ × ‘Kabul Yellow’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Inheritance of fruit acidity in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) was studied in 3 sweet or low acid (‘Ganesh’, ‘Ruby’ and ‘Kabul Yellow’) and 3 sour or high acid (‘Nana’, ‘Daru’ and\\u000a ‘Double Flower’) varieties and their progenies. The F1 and F2 data of ‘Ganesh’ × ‘Nana’ showed that fruit acidity is monogenically controlled and the sour nature is dominant over sweet.\\u000a Further,

S. H. Jalikop

2007-01-01

196

Influence of fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, fruit order, planting date, shading, growing Environment, and genotype on the contents of selected phenolics in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits.  

PubMed

The influence of agricultural practices (fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, and planting date), environment (light and growing area), cultivar, and fruit order on the selected phenolic content and antioxidant activity in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits was studied. Three different levels of fertilization were given to plants in the fertilization experiment. The lowest fertilization level increased the contents of flavonols and ellagic acid from 19 to 57%. Between cultivars, up to 4-fold differences were found in the flavonol content, and it also varied according to growing environment. Planting date in glasshouse production was important for the phenolic content, and a statistically significant interaction was found between planting date and fruit order. Fruit order caused at highest 1.5-2.0-fold differences in the contents of phenolics. Interestingly, compared with other phenolics, anthocyanins were affected differently by many factors. Thus, the findings show that minor cultivation changes can increase the content of phenolics, especially in under-glass production where conditions can be easily manipulated. PMID:16569052

Anttonen, Mikko J; Hoppula, Kalle I; Nestby, Rolf; Verheul, Michél J; Karjalainen, Reijo O

2006-04-01

197

Effect of different environmental stresses on the expression of oleate desaturase genes and fatty acid composition in olive fruit.  

PubMed

The regulation of microsomal and plastidial oleate desaturases by low and high temperature, darkness, and wounding was investigated. To this end, their gene expression levels and the fatty acid composition was determined in the mesocarp tissue of olive fruit from the Picual and Arbequina varieties subjected to the corresponding stress treatments. Firstly, a plastidial oleate desaturase from olive was cloned and its functional identity was confirmed by overexpression in Escherichia coli. The results showed that temperature and light regulate olive oleate desaturase genes at transcriptional level. However, no correlation between their expression levels and the linoleic acid content in microsomal and plastidial lipids was found. In addition, the involvement of microsomal but not plastidial oleate desaturases in the wounding response of olive fruit mesocarp is demonstrated. The fatty acid analysis revealed the appearance of palmitolinoleic acid only in microsomal lipids, reaching a maximum 3h after wounding. PMID:21194717

Hernández, M Luisa; Padilla, María N; Sicardo, M Dolores; Mancha, Manuel; Martínez-Rivas, José M

2011-02-01

198

Calcium partitioning and allocation and blossom-end rot development in tomato plants in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid treatments  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as well as to analyse the effect of changes in Ca2+ partitioning and allocation on fruit susceptibility to the Ca2+ deficiency disorder blossom-end rot (BER) under water stress conditions. Tomato plants of the cultivar Ace 55 (Vf) were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to low Ca2+ conditions during fruit growth and development. Starting 1 day after pollination (DAP), the following treatments were initiated: (i) whole plants were sprayed weekly with deionized water (control) or (ii) with 500mg l?1 ABA; or fruit on each plant were dipped weekly (iii) in deionized water (control) or (iv) in 500mg l?1 ABA. At 15 DAP, BER was completely prevented by whole-plant or fruit-specific ABA treatments, whereas plants or fruit treated with water had 16–19% BER incidence. At 30 DAP, BER was prevented by the whole-plant ABA treatment, whereas fruit dipped in ABA had a 16% and water-treated plants or fruit had a 36–40% incidence of BER. The results showed that spraying the whole plant with ABA increases xylem sap flow and Ca2+ movement into the fruit, resulting in higher fruit tissue and water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations that prevent BER development. Although fruit-specific ABA treatment had no effect on xylem sap flow rates or Ca2+ movement into the fruit, it increased fruit tissue water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations and reduced fruit susceptibility to BER to a lesser extent.

Tonetto de Freitas, Sergio

2014-01-01

199

Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of organic acids in leaves, pulp, fruits, and rinds of Garcinia.  

PubMed

An improved liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determination of organic acids in leaves, pulp, fruits, and rinds of Garcinia. At present, the commonly used LC method for analysis of organic acids in Garcinia extracts uses direct application of the extracts on the column. This practice gradually reduces efficiency of the column and shortens its life. In the improved method, the interfering substances such as pigments and xanthones were effectively removed by passing the aqueous extract through an ODS cartridge. With subsequent injection on a C18 reversed-phase column, using 6.0 mM phosphoric acid as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 210 nm, the organic acids were determined in the extracts. The major organic acid was (-)-hydroxycitric acid at the level of 2.5, 0.8, 3.0, and 20.1% in leaf, pulp, fresh fruit, and dried rinds, respectively. Minor quantities of hydroxycitric acid lactone, oxalic acid, and citric acid were also identified. Limits of detection and recoveries were 0.9-1.5 microg and 93.9-99.8%, respectively. This is the first report on the composition of organic acids from Garcinia pedunculata. PMID:14632411

Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Jena, Bhabani S; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

2003-01-01

200

High folate levels in Aboriginal children after subsidised fruit and vegetables and mandatory folic acid fortification.  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy program for disadvantaged Aboriginal children in Australia, implemented alongside the introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread-making flour. Methods: A before-and-after evaluation was undertaken of a F&V subsidy program at three Aboriginal community-controlled health services in New South Wales. The program provided a weekly box of subsidised F&V linked to preventive health services and nutrition promotion for families. In this analysis, red blood cell (RBC) folate was assessed together with self-reported dietary intake at baseline and 12 months later in a cohort of 125 children (aged 0-17 years). Results: No children had low RBC folate at baseline or at follow-up; however, 33 children (26%) exceeded the reference range of RBC folate at baseline and 38 children (30%) exceeded the reference range at follow-up. Mean RBC folate levels increased substantially in children at follow-up (mean RBC folate z-score increased +0.55 (95%CI 0.36-0.74). Change in F&V intake (p=0.196) and mean bread intake (p=0.676) were not statistically significant predictors for change in RBC folate levels. Conclusions: RBC folate levels increased among these disadvantaged Aboriginal children following mandatory folic acid fortification and participation in a subsidised F&V program. Even before mandatory folic acid fortification, none of these children had low RBC folate. Implications: The effect on health of mandatory fortification of foods with folate is not clear, hence, ongoing population-based monitoring of folate levels to assess the impact of mandatory folic acid fortification is important. PMID:24890482

Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Smith, Fiona; O'Dea, Kerin

2014-06-01

201

Utilization of fluorogenic assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in acidic fruit juice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate interference by acids commonly found in fruit juice in Escherichia coli assays involving the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme reaction. Fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated (P < 0.001) with the volume of fresh citrus juice tested by the lauryl tryptose broth (LST)-MUG assay, and the permissible sample sizes were limited to 0.3 and 0.5 ml for fresh citrus juices with pHs of 3.3 and 3.9, respectively. In addition, false-negative results were visually observed under UV light when the E*Colite assay was used to test large volumes (5 to 10 ml per test) of fresh citrus juice or when the test broth used for the LST-MUG assay was supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acid at 2 to 4 g/liter. These results suggest that the size and pH of acidic samples should be controlled in MUG-based fluorogenic assays. The inhibitory effect on fluorescence was due to high acidity, which reduces fluorescence from 4-methylumbelliferone. Buffering improved the assays. When sodium bicarbonate was incorporated in the enrichment broth at 10 g/liter, the permissible sample sizes for fresh grapefruit juice (pH 3.1) increased from 0.3 to 1 ml for the LST-MUG (with 9.9 ml of broth) assay and from 3 to 10 ml for the E*Colite (with 99 ml of broth) assay. PMID:12495014

Pao, Steven; Davis, Craig L; Friedrich, Loretta M; Parish, Mickey E

2002-12-01

202

Identification of (2 E ,4 Z ,7 Z )-Decatrienoic Acid in Noni Fruit and Its Use in Quality Screening of Commercial Noni Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has been used traditionally as food and for medicinal purposes for over 2,000 years. Today, hundreds of different brands\\u000a of noni fruit juices appear on the market. In this study, we provide an analytical method for the quality assurance of noni\\u000a fruit juices based on the determination of two organic (scopoletin and (2E,4Z,7Z)-decatrienoic acid

Simla Basar; Johannes Westendorf

2011-01-01

203

Discrimination of fresh fruit juices by a fluorescent sensor array for carboxylic acids based on molecularly imprinted titania.  

PubMed

Design of chemical sensor arrays that can discriminate real-world samples has been highly attractive in recent years. Herein a fluorescent indicator-displacement sensor array for discrimination of fresh fruit juices was developed. By coupling the unique high affinity of titania to electron-donating anions and the cross-reactivity of molecularly imprinted materials to structurally similar species, a small array was fabricated using only one rhodamine-based fluorescent dye and three synthesized materials. Citric, malic, succinic and tartaric acids were chosen as indices. The recognition mechanism was investigated by spectrofluorimetric titration using a non-linear Langmuir-type adsorption model. The proposed method was applied to discriminate thirteen fruit juices through their carboxylic acid contents. Principal component analysis of the data clearly grouped the thirteen juices with the first principal component owning 98.2% of the total variation. The comparison of the sensor array with HPLC determination of the carboxylic acids was finally made. PMID:25038646

Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao

2014-12-15

204

Effect of the maturation process on the phenolic fractions, fatty acids, and antioxidant activity of the Chétoui olive fruit cultivar.  

PubMed

Maturity is one of the most important factors associated with the quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables. This work aims to investigate the effect of the maturation process of the olive fruit on the phenolic fraction and fatty acid of irrigated Chétoui cultivar. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by LC-MS and GC-MS analyses and fatty acids by GC. Oleuropein was the major phenolic compound at all stages of ripeness. Unexpectedly, both phenolic compounds hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein exhibited the same trends during maturation. Indeed, the oleuropein levels decreased during the ripening process and were not inversely correlated with the concentrations of hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was evaluated by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the beta-carotene linoleate model system. The IC 50 and AAC values of the olive extracts decreased from 3.68 to 1.61 microg/mL and from 645 to 431, respectively. There was a correlation between the antioxidant activity and the oleuropein concentration. The fatty acid composition was quantified in olive fruit during maturation and showed that fatty acids were characterized by the highest level of oleic acid, which reached 65.2%. PMID:18257524

Damak, Nahla; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ayadi, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Damak, Mohamed

2008-03-12

205

Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction followed by RP-HPLC for the simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis.  

PubMed

An optimized microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method and an efficient HPLC analysis method were developed for fast extraction and simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruit of Chaenomeles sinensis. The open vessel MAE process was optimized by using a central composite experimental design. The optimal conditions identified were microwave power 600 W, temperature 52 degrees C, solvent to material ratio 32 mL/g and extraction time 7 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumption. The HPLC-photodiode array detection analysis method was validated to have good linearity, precision, reproduction and accuracy. Compared with conventional extraction and analysis methods, MAE-HPLC-photodiode array detection is a faster, convenient and appropriate method for determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruits of C. sinensis. PMID:20183824

Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Yu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Guohui; Zhao, Jinpeng

2010-04-01

206

Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and Botrytis cinerea. The antagonistic activity of 496 LAB strains was tested in vitro and all tested microorganisms except P. expansum were inhibited by at least one isolate. The 496 isolates were also analyzed for the inhibition of P. expansum infection in wounds of Golden Delicious apples. Four strains (TC97, AC318, TM319, and FF441) reduced the fungal rot diameter of the apples by 20%; only Weissella cibaria strain TM128 decreased infection levels by 50%. Cell-free supernatants of selected antagonistic bacteria were studied to determine the nature of the antimicrobial compounds produced. Organic acids were the preferred mediators of inhibition but hydrogen peroxide was also detected when strains BC48, TM128, PM141 and FF441 were tested against E. carotovora. While previous reports of antifungal activity by LAB are scarce, our results support the potential of LAB as biocontrol agents against postharvest rot. PMID:19204894

Trias, Rosalia; Bañeras, Lluís; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

2008-12-01

207

Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid.  

PubMed

Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cultivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rates for fruits were higher during the night; they were maximal at 7 d before anthesis and decreased as development progressed. Fruits undergoing drought, imposed by detaching terminal stems bearing fruits, were 50% smaller than the control at 80 d after anthesis and did not ripen. Fruits injected with 2 ml of 500 ppm GA3 were 30% smaller than the control at 80 d after anthesis; they contained a large proportion of aborted seeds that produced a weak sink signal for dry mass accumulation. Gas exchange was higher at 21 d after anthesis for fruits treated with GA3. Total soluble sugars represented 40% of the fruit's dry mass until 45 d after anthesis, when the sugar content rapidly increased, reaching 90% at 73 d after anthesis. Such an increase was not observed for fruits treated with GA3, and the sugar content for fruits undergoing drought remained low throughout development. Starch content increased for developing fruits of O. ficus-indica until 14 d after anthesis and, except for the fruits undergoing drought, decreased thereafter. Fruit development for O. ficus-indica is apparently regulated by water availability as well as hormonal signals originating both within and outside the fruit. PMID:14966221

de La Barrera, Erick; Nobel, Park S

2004-03-01

208

Pigment Changes Associated with Application of Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid) to Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits.  

PubMed

The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to ;Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Chlorophylls a and b decreased rapidly within 4 days after Ethephon treatment, and degradation continued at a decreasing rate for an additional 4 days, at which time the fruits had attained their maximum diameter and were considered fully ripe. Levels of beta-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin decreased in a pattern similar to that of chlorophylls a and b. The rates of beta-carotene and lutein degradation were initially greater than those of the xanthophyll pigments. Degradation rates of the various carotenoids were comparable 4 to 8 days after treatment.There was no measurable anthocyanin synthesis during a 2- to 4-day period following Ethephon treatment. Beyond this lag phase, anthocyanin accumulation was linear, and the amount of pigment synthesized was a function of both light intensity and duration. Although Ethephon promoted the rate of anthocyanin accumulation, it did not increase the total amount of pigment synthesized in treated fruits. Etiolation of fruits from the time of Ethephon treatment until maturity stimulated an increase in growth and completely inhibited anthocyanin production in the skin. Ethephon-treated fruits which ripened while etiolated were larger in diameter and higher in both fresh and dry weights than nonetiolated controls. PMID:16659515

Puech, A A; Rebeiz, C A; Crane, J C

1976-04-01

209

Responses of reactive oxygen metabolism and quality in mango fruit to exogenous oxalic acid or salicylic acid under chilling temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

After being immersed in water, oxalic acid (OA) or salicylic acid (SA) aqueous solutions, mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) fruit were stored at 14? Co r at 5? C with shelf life to determine the effects of exogenous OA or SA on reactive oxygenmetabolism,qualityandchillinginjury(CI)ofthefruit.MangoCIcould be reduced by OA and SA treatments. Compared with that in control, accompanied with alleviated

Zhan-Sheng Ding; Shi-Ping Tiana; Xiao-Lin Zheng; Zhong-Wei Zhou; Yong Xu

2007-01-01

210

Effect of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide on Cryptosporidium parvum viability in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium parvum has historically been associated with waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis has been associated with unpasteurized apple cider. Infectious oocysts are shed in the feces of common ruminants like cattle and deer in and near orchards. In this study, the ability of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added to fruit juice to inhibit the survival of C. parvum was analyzed. Oocyst viability was analyzed by a cell culture infectivity assay with the use of a human ileocecal cell line (HCT-8) whose infectivity pattern is similar to that for human oral infectivity. Cell monolayers were infected with 10(6) treated oocysts or a series of 10-fold dilutions. Parasitic life stages were visualized through immunohistochemistry with 100 microscope fields per monolayer being counted. In vitro excystation assays were also used to evaluate these treatments. Organic acids and H2O2 were added to apple cider, orange juice, and grape juices on a weight/volume basis. Malic, citric, and tartaric acids at concentrations of 1 to 5% inhibited C. parvum's infectivity of HCT-8 cells by up to 88%. Concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 3% H2O2 were evaluated. The addition of 0.025% H2O2 to each juice resulted in a >5-log reduction of C. parvum infectivity as determined with a most-probable-number-based cell culture infectivity assay. As observed with differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy, reduced infectivity may be mediated through effects on the oocyst wall that are caused by the action of H2O2 or related oxygen radicals. The addition of low concentrations of H2O2 can represent a valuable alternative to pasteurization. PMID:14503720

Kniel, Kalmia E; Sumner, Susan S; Lindsay, David S; Hackney, Cameron R; Pierson, Merle D; Zajac, Anne M; Golden, David A; Fayer, Ronald

2003-09-01

211

Analysis of organic acids in fruit juices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an enhanced tool for authenticity testing.  

PubMed

Organic acid analysis plays a fundamental role in the testing of authenticity of fruit juices. Analytical methods used routinely for organic acids suffer from poor reproducibility, often give false positives/negatives for tartaric acid, and do not offer the possibility of analyte confirmation. There are conflicting reports in the literature on the presence/absence of tartaric acid in pomegranate juice, a potential indicator of adulteration with grape juice. In this work, a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for citric, malic, quinic, and tartaric acid in fruit juices. Validation data including precision and recovery in six types of juice are presented. Tartaric and quinic acids were confirmed in pomegranate juice at concentrations of 1-5 and ?1 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than those resulting from adulteration with grape juice and apple juice, respectively, at the 5% level. A separate method for isocitric acid in orange juice based on the single standard addition method is also described. PMID:21361392

Ehling, Stefan; Cole, Shannon

2011-03-23

212

Occurrence of indole-3-acetic Acid-producing bacteria on pear trees and their association with fruit russet.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A relatively high percentage of epiphytic bacteria on pear leaf and fruit surfaces had the ability to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in culture media supplemented with tryptophan. While over 50% of the strains produced at least small amounts of IAA in culture, about 25% of the strains exhibited high IAA production as evidenced by both colorimetric and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture supernatants. A majority of the strains that produced high amounts of IAA were identified as Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans), while some strains of Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas viridiflava, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, and Rahnella aquaticus that produced high amounts of IAA also were found on pear. Fruit russeting was significantly increased in 39 out of 46 trials over an 8-year period in which IAA-producing bacteria were applied to trees compared with control trees. A linear relationship was observed between fruit russet severity and the logarithm of the population size of different IAA-producing bacteria on trees in the 30 days after inoculation, when normalized for the amount of IAA produced by each strain in culture. On average, the severity of fruit russet was only about 77% that on control trees when trees were treated at the time of bloom with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A506, which does not produce IAA. Both total bacterial populations on pear in the 30-day period following full bloom and fruit russet severity varied greatly from year to year and in different commercial orchards over a 10-year period. There was a strong linear correlation between the logarithm of total bacterial population sizes and fruit russet severity. PMID:18944847

Lindow, S E; Desurmont, C; Elkins, R; McGourty, G; Clark, E; Brandl, M T

1998-11-01

213

Changes of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Content in Ripening Fruits in Relation to their Ethylene Production Rates 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the level of 1-amino cyclopropane- Icarboxylic acid (ACC) were compared to ethylene production during fruit ripening of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) banana (Musa sapientum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Preclimacteric tissues contained less than 0.1 nmol\\/g of ACC in all tissues. In avocado, the level of ACC increased to 45 nmol\\/g in the later stage of the

Neil E. Hoffman; Shang Fa Yang

1980-01-01

214

Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).  

PubMed

Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (?45% more anthocyanins and ?20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

2014-04-16

215

Lipid and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and seed of avocado fruits harvested at northern range in Japan.  

PubMed

The lipid and fatty acid composition of the mesocarp and seed of avocado fruit grown and harvested in Japan, which is located at the northern range of the avacado, was investigated and compared to an imported avocado purchased commercially. The potential of the avocado mesocarp as an agricultural product in Japan was also explored. Total lipids (TL) accounted for approximately 20% of the mesocarp. Further analysis showed that the neutral lipid (NL) fraction accounted for at least 95% of the TL, and almost 90% of NL was triacylglycerol. Monoenoic acids accounted for at least 65% of the total fatty acids, and oleic acid, which is regarded as an especially important functional component of avacado accounted for approximately 50% of the monounsaturated fatty acids. A comparison of the Japanese avocado cultivars and an imported avocado cultivar in the present study revealed no significant differences in the lipid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, production of avocado fruit, which is rich in various nutritional components, is expected to be increased on a larger number of farms in Japan in the future. It is believed to be necessary to carry out further verification, such as the establishment of a cultivation technique adoptable to Japan, examination of optimal soil and land features, and cultivar selection. PMID:18838831

Takenaga, Fumio; Matsuyama, Kaori; Abe, Shin; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Itoh, Shingo

2008-01-01

216

Acetaldehyde Stimulation of Net Gluconeogenic Carbon Movement from Applied Malic Acid in Tomato Fruit Pericarp Tissue 12  

PubMed Central

Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) (O Paz, HW Janes, BA Prevost, C Frenkel [1982] J Food Sci 47: 270-274) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied i-[U-14C]malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. The label from malate was recovered in respiratory CO2, in other organic acids, in ethanol insoluble material, and an appreciable amount in the ethanol soluble sugar fraction. In Rutgers tomatoes, the label recovery in the sugar fraction and an attendant label reduction in the organic acids fraction intensified with fruit ripening. In both Rutgers and in the nonripening tomato rin, these processes were markedly stimulated by 4000 ppm acetaldehyde. The onset of label apportioning from malic acids to sugars coincided with decreased levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the gluconeogenesis inhibitor. In acetaldehyde-treated tissues, with enhanced label mobilization, this decline reached one-half to one third of the initial fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. Application of 30 micromolar fructose-2,6-biphosphate or 2,5-anhydro-d-mannitol in turn led to a precipitous reduction in the label flow to sugars presumably due to inhibition of fructose-1,6-biphosphatase by the compounds. We conclude that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

Halinska, Anna; Frenkel, Chaim

1991-01-01

217

Global analysis of gene expression during development and ripening of citrus fruit flesh. A proposed mechanism for citric Acid utilization.  

PubMed

Microarrays of cDNA have been used to examine expression changes of 7000 genes during development and ripening of the fruit flesh of self-incompatible Citrus clementina, a non-climateric species. The data indicated that 2243 putative unigenes showed significant expression changes. Functional classification revealed that genes encoding for regulatory proteins were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated gene clusters. The transcriptomic study together with the analyses of selected metabolites highlighted key physiological processes occurring during citrus fruit development and ripening such as water accumulation, carbohydrate build-up, acid reduction, pigment substitutions (carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll decreases) and ascorbic acid diminution. Often, the combined analyses strongly suggested prevalence of specific metabolic alternatives. This observation has been exemplified with the proposal for a mechanism for citrate utilization, a process of much importance in citrus industry. Microarray data validated by real-time RT-PCR suggested that citrate was sequentially metabolyzed to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate. Thereafter, glutamate was both utilized for glutamine production and catabolyzed through the gamma-aminobutirate (GABA) shunt (GABA --> succinate semialdehyde --> succinate). This last observation appears to be of special relevance since it links the proton consuming reaction glutamate + H(+)--> GABA + CO(2) with high acid levels. GG-MS determinations showed that glutamate was constant while GABA levels decreased at ripening in agreement with a feasible activation of the GABA shunt during acid catabolism. This suggestion provides a convincing explanation for the strong reduction of both citrate and cytoplasmatic acidity that takes place in citrus fruit flesh during development and ripening. PMID:16897468

Cercós, Manuel; Soler, Guillermo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Gadea, José; Forment, Javier; Talón, Manuel

2006-11-01

218

Effect of gibberellic acid on ripening of strawberry fruits ( Fragaria annanassa Duch.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of GA3 on postharvest ripening in strawberry fruit was evaluated through different biochemical parameters. Strawberry slices at\\u000a different ripening stages were incubated with GA3. A significant decrease on respiratory activity depending on GA3 concentration was obtained. Also GA3 was applied to whole and deachened fruit at white and green ripening stages. Our results show that GA3 has an inhibitory

G. A. Martínez; A. R. Chaves; M. C. Añón

1994-01-01

219

A simple method for the preparation of pure 9-D-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid and methyl linoleate based on the positional specificity of lipoxygenase in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

Incubation of linoleic acid with crude homogenate of tomato fruit gave a high yield (69%) of linoleic acid hydroperoxides with a ratio of 9- to 13-hydroperoxide isomers of 96:4. After chromatography of the products, as free acids or methyl esters, hydroperoxides with 9- to 13-isomeric ratios of greater than 99:1 were obtained. The major product was characterized as 9-D-hydroperoxy-octadeca-trans-10,cis-12-dienoic acid. The results demonstrate the positional specificity of lipoxygenase from tomato fruit. PMID:403382

Matthew, J A; Chan, H W; Galliard, T

1977-03-01

220

Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit  

SciTech Connect

There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. (USDA, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

221

Enantioselective determination of acylamino acid fungicides in vegetables and fruits by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An efficient and sensitive enantioselective method for simultaneous determination of three acylamino acid fungicides in vegetables and fruits was presented by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The three fungicides (benalaxyl, furalaxyl, and metalaxyl) residues in samples were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and an aliquot was cleaned up with Si-(CH(2))(3)-NH-(CH(2))(2)-NH(2) and C(18) sorbent. Complete enantioseparation of three acylamino acid fungicides enantiomers was obtained under reversed-phase conditions on a cellulose tris (4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate) column at 25°C using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution (45:55, v/v) as a mobile phase. The elution orders of the eluted enantiomers were determined by a circular dichroism (CD) detector. The linearity, matrix effect, recovery, and precision were evaluated. Good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.5-250 ?g/L for each enantiomer in the standard solution and sample matrix calibration curves. There was no significant matrix effect for three fungicides determination based on the method. The inter-day mean recoveries, intra-day repeatability, and inter-day reproducibility varied from 81.3 to 95.7%, 2.2 to 9.4%, and 2.3 to 9.6%, respectively. The method provided high selectivity and sensitivity, and limits of quantification for enantiomers of three fungicides in vegetables and fruits were both 1 ?g/kg. PMID:22753298

Zhang, Hu; Wang, Xinquan; Jin, Lixia; Qian, Mingrong; Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Hao; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Minghua

2012-08-01

222

Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.  

PubMed

Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152). PMID:22397621

Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

2012-03-28

223

Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates for the microextraction of bisphenol A from canned vegetables and fruits.  

PubMed

Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates were proposed for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from canned vegetables and fruits prior to its determination by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection at lambda(exc) = 276 nm and lambda(em) = 306 nm. The procedure involved the extraction of minute quantities (300-700 mg) of homogenized food sample with an aqueous solution containing 10% of THF and 0.5% of decanoic acid, conditions under which the coacervate (around 340 microL) formed in situ and instantaneously. The overall sample treatment, which included extraction and centrifugation, took about 25-30 min, and several samples could be simultaneously treated using conventional lab equipment. No clean-up or solvent evaporation were required. Extraction efficiencies mainly depended on the decanoic acid and THF concentration in the aqueous solution and were not affected by the pH or the temperature in the ranges studied (1-4 and 20-60 degrees C, respectively). Recoveries in samples ranged between about 81 and 96%. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, was about 3% and the quantitation limit was around 9 ng g(-1), which was far below the current specific migration limit (SML) set for BPA by the EU Commission (600 ng g(-1)). The method was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in the solid content of canned fruit salad, peaches in syrup, mango slices, red peppers, sweetcorn, green beans and peas. BPA was present at concentrations in the range from 7.8 to 24.4 ng g(-1) in canned fruits and from 55 to 103 ng g(-1) in canned vegetables. PMID:18486640

García-Prieto, Amalia; Lunar, Loreto; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores

2008-06-01

224

Off-line solid-phase microextraction and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry to determine acidic pesticides in fruits.  

PubMed

A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (CE/ MS) is described for determining simultaneously five acidic pesticides (o-phenylphenol, ioxynil, haloxyfop, acifluorfen, picloram) in fruits. The CE device is coupled to an electrospray interface by a commercial sheath-flow adapter. Emphasis is placed on fulfillment of the speed and sensitivity requirements. The best separation is achieved using 32 mM ammonium formate/acid formic buffer at pH 3.1, with a working voltage of 25 kV. The MS detection of the five pesticides was performed in negative ionization mode. Full-scan spectra with base peaks corresponding to [M-H]- were obtained except for acifluorfen, which gives [M-H-CO2]- as most abundant ion. Compared with the conventional EC-UV, the limits of detection were lower for acifluorfen, haloxyfop, ioxynil, and picloram, by a factor of 20, 20, 50, and 2, respectively. Extraction involved fruit sample homogenization with an acetone-water solution (5:1), filtration, and acetone evaporation prior to fiber extraction. SPME conditions such as time, pH, ion strength, stationary phase of the fiber, sample matrix, and desorption solvents were examined. The recovery of the analytes ranged from 7 to 94%, and the relative standard deviation was between 3 and, 13%. The method was found to be linear between 0.02 and 500 mg kg(-1) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.992 to 0.997. The limits of quantification were from 0.02 to 5 mg kg(-1). The optimized method was successfully applied to the analysis of acid pesticides in fruit samples. PMID:12585470

Rodríguez, Rafael; Mañes, Jordi; Picó, Yolanda

2003-02-01

225

Changes in the abscisic acid levels and related gene expression during fruit development and ripening in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural plant hormone playing an important role in many physiological processes including fruit ripening and is also recently found to be potential for biomedical applications. This study was aimed to measure ABA levels and its biosynthesis in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which is one of the best sources of anthocyanins. Five ABA biosynthetic genes were isolated from bilberry and their expression profiles were studied in bilberry tissues, particularly during berry development. The level of ABA highly increased at the onset of bilberry fruit ripening, at the stage when expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (VmCHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (VmANS), also increased. In fully ripe berries and leaves, ABA levels were lower but none was detected in bilberry stem or rhizome. The expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VmNCED1) and putative neoxanthin synthase (VmNSY) was high in berry tissues and their expression increased markedly at the onset of berry ripening along with the accumulation of ABA. In contrast, the expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase (VmZEP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (VmSDR/ABA2) and aldehyde oxidase (VmAO) were most highly associated with leaf tissues with no obvious relation to ABA content during berry development. The obtained results indicate that the ABA biosynthesis may play an important role in the regulation of ripening of non-climacteric bilberry fruits through transcriptional regulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes. PMID:23850079

Karppinen, Katja; Hirvelä, Elina; Nevala, Tiina; Sipari, Nina; Suokas, Marko; Jaakola, Laura

2013-11-01

226

Rapid determination of the main organic acid composition of raw Japanese apricot fruit juices using near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to rapidly determine citric and malic acid contents of raw Japanese apricot (Japanese "ume", also known as the Japanese plum) fruit juice was investigated. In total, 314 raw juice samples with different organic acid compositions were collected over a long growth period, and spectra (1100-1850 nm) of these samples were acquired using an NIR spectrophotometer with a 1-mm path length. Calibrations were performed using a partial least-squares regression method based on a calibration sample set (211 samples), while validations were performed based on a validation sample set (103 samples). The results revealed good agreement between NIR spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis, including the correlation coefficient (r2), standard error of prediction (SEP), and bias; no statistically (p = 0.05) significant differences were found for these parameters. Moreover, standard deviation ratios of reference data in the validation sample set to the SEP were higher than 3, indicating that NIR spectroscopy may represent an acceptable method for quantitative evaluation of citric and malic acids in raw Japanese apricot fruit juice. PMID:17177483

Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Han; Matsunaga, Ryuji

2006-12-27

227

Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric and citric acids which are readily separated by GC. Using this procedure low concentrations of one acid can be detected and quantitated in the presence of very high concentrations of another. This new method detects tartaric acid at levels of 10 ppm in juices containing 10,000 ppm citric acid. Quantitation was performed either by using GC-FID with triethyl citrate or diethyl tartrate as internal standards or with the element specific calibration capability of the GC-AED. A simple new technique for the determination of citric/isocitric acid ratio is now available. Also, in contrast to HPLC methods, the identity of an analyte is readily confirmed by GC-MS. PMID:9409006

Barden, T J; Croft, M Y; Murby, E J; Wells, R J

1997-10-17

228

Antimicrobial properties of some West African medicinal plants iv. Antimicrobial activity of xylopic acid and other constituente of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae).  

PubMed

Xylopic acid and four other isolates from the fresh ripe fruits of Xylopia aethiopica a common ingredient in several Ghanaian folklore medicines and foods, have been examined for antimicrobial activity against five micro-organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Xylopic acid and two other diterpene isolates were found to have antimicrobial properties. PMID:600023

Boakye-Yiadom, K; Fiagbe, N I; Ayim, J S

1977-01-01

229

Attractiveness to mexican fruit flies of combinations of acetic acid with ammonium\\/amino attractants with emphasis on effects of hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium acetate was more attractive than other ammonium salts to Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens) in an orchard test. We hypothesized that acetic acid enhanced the attractiveness of ammonia in the orchard test and that acetic acid may similarly enhance attractiveness of AMPu, an attractant consisting of a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium carbonate, methylamine HCl, and putrescine. In

D. C. Robacker; D. S. Moreno; A. B. Demilo

1996-01-01

230

Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.  

PubMed

Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

231

Cloning and functional analysis of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) genes encoding a key enzyme during abscisic acid biosynthesis from peach and grape fruits.  

PubMed

Ripening and senescence are generally controlled by ethylene in climacteric fruits like peaches, and the ripening process of grape, a non-climacteric fruit, may have some relationship to abscisic acid (ABA) function. In order to better understand the role of ABA in ripening and senescence of these two types of fruits, we cloned the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene that encodes a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis from peaches and grapes using an RT-PCR approach. The NCED gene fragments were cloned from peaches (PpNCED1and PpNCED2, each 740bp) and grapes (VVNCED1, 741bp) using degenerate primers designed based on the conserved amino acids sequence of NCEDs in other plants. PpNCED1 showed 78.54% homology with PpNCED2, 74.90% homology with VVNCED1, and both showed high homology to NCEDs from other plants. The expression patterns of PpNCED1 and VVNCED1 were very similar. Both were highly expressed at the beginning of ripening when ABA content becomes high. The maximum ABA preceded ethylene production in peach fruit. ABA in the grape gradually increased from the beginning of ripening and reached the highest level at 20d before the harvest stage. However, ethylene remained at low levels during the entire process of fruit development, including ripening and senescence. ABA content, and ripening and softening of both types of fruits, were promoted or delayed by exogenous ABA or Fluridone (or NDGA) treatment. The roles of ABA and ethylene in the later ripening of fruit are complex. Based on results obtained in this study, we concluded that PpNCED1 and VVNCED1 initiate ABA biosynthesis at the beginning of fruit ripening, and that ABA accumulation might play a key role in the regulation of ripeness and senescence of both peach and grape fruits. PMID:19307046

Zhang, Mei; Leng, Ping; Zhang, Guanglian; Li, Xiangxin

2009-08-15

232

Chemopreventive efficacy of Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) fruit extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis--a dose-response study.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae), a novel natural fruit has long been used as a home remedy by the medical practitioners. In this report, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of P. emblica fruit methanolic extract (PFMet) on oxidant-antioxidant status in hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Buccal pouch carcinoma was induced in hamsters by painting with DMBA (0.5% in mineral oil) on the left buccal pouch three times a week for 14 weeks. By means of HPLC analysis, ascorbic acid (24.13%), gallic acid (10.45%), ellagic acid (1.74%) and quercetin (0.009%) were identified and quantified in the PFMet. The results showed that depleted activities of SOD, CAT and TBARS level and significant elevation were observed in the levels of GSH, vitamin E and activity of GPx in DMBA group of buccal pouch. The level of TBARS was significantly enhanced and the activities of enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymatic (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) antioxidants were diminished significantly in plasma of tumor bearing animals. The effects were dose dependent and the above noted parameters were renovated to near normal after supplementation with different doses of PFMet (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW). The data obtained in this study clearly indicate that PFMet at a dose of 200mg/kg BW possesses optimum chemopreventive effect against DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:23058484

Krishnaveni, Mani; Mirunalini, Sankaran

2012-11-01

233

Determination of triterpenic acids in fruits by a novel high performance liquid chromatography method with high sensitivity and specificity.  

PubMed

A novel and interesting pre-column derivatisation method was developed for the analysis of triterpenic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Each triterpenic acid produced two HPLC peaks with similar peak areas after derivatising with chiral 1-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) propan-2-yl-methanesulfonate (CPMS), while the fatty acid derivative of CPMS had only one peak. This phenomenon greatly increased the confidence in analyte confirmation. Compound with only one peak or two peaks differing greatly in their peak areas could be excluded from the target compound list. CPMS was compared with five other derivatising reagents, four of which produced only one peak for one triterpenic acid, to study the possible mechanism. Analytes with different behaviours were also studied to better interpret the mechanism. The proposed method also showed the merits of high sensitivity and less sample consumption. It was successfully applied to the analysis of triterpenic acids in fruit peels and flesh. There is no prior report on the two peak phenomenon of triterpenic acids. The information provided in this study will be helpful for those who are also engaged in derivatisation study. PMID:24176341

Zhang, Shijuan; Sun, Yuanpeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiaoyan; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

2014-03-01

234

The involvement of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase isogene, Pp-ACS1, in peach fruit softening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene promotes fruit ripening, including softening. The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L). Batsch) cultivar 'Akatsuki' produces increasing levels of ethylene, and the flesh firmness softens rapidly during the ripening stage. On the other hand, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars 'Yumyeong', 'Odoroki', and 'Manami' does not soften and pro- duces little ethylene during fruit ripening and storage.

Miho Tatsuki; Takashi Haji; Masami Yamaguchi

2006-01-01

235

Lemon juice improves the extractability and quality characteristics of pectin from yellow passion fruit by-product as compared with commercial citric acid extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environment-friendly procedure, allowing the extraction of safe pectin products with good functional properties from yellow passion fruit by-product, was developed using two natural acid extractants, namely, pure lemon juice and citric acid solvent. The results show that both of them solubilise, from cell wall material, pectins characterised by high galacturonic acid content (64–78% w\\/w), degree of esterification (52–73), viscosity-average

Beda M. Yapo

2009-01-01

236

Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).  

PubMed

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%). PMID:24630370

Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2014-08-01

237

Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) fruits: comparison of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoid profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3'-O-galactoside, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside, quercetin 3'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3'-O-pentosylhexoside, quercetin 3-O-6'malonylglucoside, quercetin 3'-O-malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-6'malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-malonylglucoside, myricetin 3-O-galactoside, and naringenin tri glycoside. This is the first report on extraction of nine additional flavonoids from the ber fruits. In addition, we also compared the impact of three different base hydrolysis techniques namely ultrasonic assisted base hydrolysis (UABH), microwave assisted base hydrolysis (MWABH), and pressurised liquid assisted base hydrolysis (PLABH) for the quantification of total phenolic acids. Nine phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acids, were identified and quantified. The three major phenolic acids identified in all four ber species were p-coumaric acid, vanillin and ferulic acids. Higher amounts (p<0.05) of total phenolic acids in all cultivars were obtained with the PLABH technique as compared to other two procedures (UABH and MWABH). PMID:23561136

Memon, Ayaz Ali; Memon, Najma; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Luthria, Devanand L

2013-08-15

238

Effect of detergents, trypsin and unsaturated fatty acids on latent loquat fruit polyphenol oxidase: basis for the enzyme's activity regulation.  

PubMed

The effects of detergents, trypsin and fatty acids on structural and functional properties of a pure loquat fruit latent polyphenol oxidase have been studied in relation to its regulation. Anionic detergents activated PPO at pH 6.0 below critical micelle concentration (cmc), but inhibited at pH 4.5 well above cmc. This behavior is due to a detergent-induced pH profile alkaline shift, accompanied by changes of intrinsic fluorescence of the protein. Gel filtration experiments demonstrate the formation of PPO-SDS mixed micelles. Partial PPO proteolysis suggest that latent PPO losses an SDS micelle-interacting region but conserves an SDS monomer-interacting site. Unsaturated fatty acids inhibit PPO at pH 4.5, the strongest being linolenic acid while the weakest was gamma-linolenic acid for both, the native and the trypsin-treated PPO. Down-regulation of PPO activity by anionic amphiphiles is discussed based on both, the pH profile shift induced upon anionic amphiphile binding and the PPO interaction with negatively charged membranes. PMID:17537396

Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Casado-Vela, Juan; Bru-Martínez, Roque

2007-08-15

239

Hyaluronic acid depolymerization by ascorbate-redox effects on solid state cultivation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in cashew apple fruit bagasse.  

PubMed

The cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) has been used as a promising agricultural resource for the production of low-molecular weight (M(W)) hyaluronic acid (HA) (10(4)-10(5) Da). The cashew juice is a rich source of vitamin C containing, 1.2-2.0 g L(-1). This work explores the effects of the initial concentration of the ascorbate on the solid fermentation of the juice-moisturized bagasse from the cashew apple fruit. The results show that the M(W) reduction of HA is proportional to the initial ascorbate concentration. The presence of ascorbate did not influence the Streptococcus zooepidemicus metabolism. However, the HA productivity was increased from 0.18 to 0.28 mg g(-1) h(-1) when the ascorbate concentration ranged from 1.7 to 10 mg mL(-1). These findings contribute to the controlled production of HA in a low M(W) range, which is important in cell signalization, angiogenesis and nanoparticles production. PMID:22806044

de Macedo, André Casimiro; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

2012-05-01

240

Role of DNA endoreduplication, lipotubuloids, and gibberellic acid in epidermal cell growth during fruit development of Ornithogalum umbellatum.  

PubMed

Cytophotometry of individual nuclei was used to examine the level of endoreduplication in epidermal cells from the upper and lower parts of the ovary during Ornithogalum umbellatum flower and fruit development. An increase in DNA content from 2-4C to 2-8C in both parts of the ovary was observed, while the epidermal cell surface area grew about 6-fold and 15-fold in the lower and upper parts of the ovary, respectively. However, the correlation between mean epidermal cell size and ploidy was distinct during epidermis growth. Lipotubuloids became bigger in the upper than in the lower part during ovary and fruit development. In addition, more dynamic growth of the epidermal cells of the upper than of the lower part of the ovary was connected to the higher content of gibberellic acid. A hypothesis has been put forward that the role of DNA endoreduplication in epidermal cell growth was modulated by the function of lipotubuloids and the gradient of gibberellin. PMID:17452750

Kwiatkowska, Maria; Poplonska, Katarzyna; Kazmierczak, Andrzej; Stepinski, Dariusz; Rogala, Katarzyna; Polewczyk, Katarzyna

2007-01-01

241

Dietary acid reduction with fruits and vegetables or bicarbonate attenuates kidney injury in patients with a moderately reduced glomerular filtration rate due to hypertensive nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutralization of dietary acid with sodium bicarbonate decreases kidney injury and slows the decline of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. The sodium intake, however, could be problematic in patients with reduced GFR. As alkali-induced dietary protein decreased kidney injury in animals, we compared the efficacy of alkali-inducing fruits and vegetables with

Nimrit Goraya; Jan Simoni; Chanhee Jo; Donald E Wesson

2012-01-01

242

[RP-HPLC determination of water-soluble active constituents and oleanolic acid in the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. collected from various areas].  

PubMed

The contents of p-hydroxyphenethyl-beta-D-glucoside, specnuezhenide and oleanolic acid in the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum collected from various areas in China were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The results could be used to evaluate the quality of the crude drug more comprehensively. PMID:11596264

Shi, L; Cai, Z; Wu, G; Yang, S; Ma, Y

1998-02-01

243

Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity. PMID:20069869

Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

2009-12-01

244

Quantitative analysis of malic and citric acids in fruit juices using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

1H NMR spectroscopy was applied to the quantitative determination of malic and citric acids in apple, apricot, pear, kiwi, orange, strawberry and pineapple juices. Aspartic acid was studied as a potential interference. The effect of the sample pH on the chemical shifts of signals from malic, citric and aspartic acids was examined and a value of 1.0 was selected to

Gloria del Campo; Iñaki Berregi; Raúl Caracena; J. Ignacio Santos

2006-01-01

245

A comparative study of thermal and acid inactivation kinetics in fruit juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg grown at acidic conditions.  

PubMed

Acid and heat inactivation in orange and apple juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (i.e., Spanish Type Culture Collection) 443 (CECT 443) (Salmonella Typhimurium) and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg CECT 4384 (Salmonella Senftenberg) grown in buffered brain heart infusion (pH 7.0) and acidified brain heart infusion up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic, and hydrochloric acids was evaluated. Acid adaptation induced an adaptive response that increased the subsequent resistance to extreme pH conditions (pH 2.5) and to heat, although the magnitude of these responses differed between the two isolates and fruit juices. The acid resistance in orange juice for acid-adapted cells (D-values of 28.3-34.5 min for Salmonella Senftenberg and 30.0-39.2 min for Salmonella Typhimurium) resulted to be about two to three times higher than that corresponding to non-acid-adapted cells. In apple juice, acid-adapted Salmonella Senftenberg cells survived better than those of Salmonella Typhimurium, obtaining mean D-values of 114.8 +/- 12.3 and 41.9 +/- 2.5 min, respectively. The thermotolerance of non-acid-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in orange (D(58)-value: 0.028 min) and apple juices (D(58)-value: 0.10 min) was approximately double for acid-adapted cells. This cross-protection to heat was more strongly expressed in Salmonella Senftenberg. D(58)-values obtained for non-acid-adapted cells in orange (0.11 min) and apple juices (0.19 min) increased approximately 10 and 5 times, respectively, after their growth in acidified media. The conditions prevailing during bacterial growth and heat treatment did not significantly influence the z-values observed (6.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Typhimurium and 7.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg). The enhanced acid resistance found for both isolates could enable them to survive for prolonged time periods in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the risk of illness. Further, it should be taken into account that microbial growth in acidified media also induces a cross-protection response against heat that should also be considered for the design of pasteurization processes for acid foods. PMID:19694554

Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

2009-11-01

246

Effect of drying methods with the application of vacuum microwaves on the bioactive compounds, color, and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of vacuum-microwave drying (240, 360, and 480 W) in the production process of dehydrated strawberry and to compare and contrast the quality of these dehydrated strawberries in terms of their polyphenol compounds, concentration of some heat liable components, and color to that of freeze-dried, convective, and vacuum-dried strawberry. Thus, the effect of vacuum-microwave drying and other drying methods on the antioxidant activity of berries was evaluated. Whole fresh and dried fruits were assessed for phenolics (anthocyanins, flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (all parameters were calculated on a dry matter basis). Analysis of data shows that ellagic acid and flavanol changes were affected by drying techniques and cultivar. Drying destroyed anthocyanins, flavanols, and ascorbic acid, and there was a significant decrease in antioxidant activity. The most striking result was that conventional and vacuum drying decreased antioxidant activity in both cultivars, whereas contradictory results were found for vacuum-microwave processed strawberry. This study has demonstrated that vacuum-microwave drying, especially at 240 W, can produce high-quality products, with the additional advantage of reduced processing times, compared to other processes such as freeze-drying. PMID:19170638

Wojdy?o, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Oszmia?ski, Jan

2009-02-25

247

Determination of ?-hydroxy acids and their enantiomers in fruit juices by ligand exchange CE with a dual central metal ion system.  

PubMed

The content of ?-hydroxy acids and their enantiomers can be used to distinguish authentic and adulterated fruit juices. Here, we investigated the use of ligand exchange CE with two kinds of central metal ion in a BGE for the simultaneous determination of enantiomers of dl-malic, dl-tartaric and dl-isocitric acids, and citric acid. Ligand exchange CE with 100 mM d-quinic acid as a chiral selector ligand and 10 mM Cu(II) ion as a central metal ion could enantioseparate dl-tartaric acid but not dl-malic acid or dl-isocitric acid. Addition of 1.8 mM Sc(III) ion to the BGE with 10 mM Cu(II) ion to create a dual central metal ion system permitted the simultaneous determination of these ?-hydroxy acid enantiomers and citric acid. The proposed ligand exchange CE was thus well suited for detecting adulteration of fruit juices. PMID:23423790

Kodama, Shuji; Aizawa, Sen-ichi; Taga, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Honda, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kemmei, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2013-05-01

248

Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage.

Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

2014-01-01

249

Determination of citric and isocitric acids in fruit juices by capillary isotachophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isotachophoretic method was developed to determine directly citric and isocitric acids in juice samples. Isotachophoretic separations were performed using a Villa Labeco ZKI 02 column-coupling isotachophoretic analyzer equipped with a conductivity detector. The analytical capillary (160 mmǴ.3 mm I.D.) was connected with a preseparation capillary (80 mmǴ.8 mm I.D.). The leading electrolyte contained hydrochloric acid (10 mmol\\/l), #-alanine (pH

Jana Sádecká; Jozef Polonský; Peter Šimko; Gabriela Karasová

2001-01-01

250

The Effect of Ethylene and Propylene Pulses on Respiration, Ripening Advancement, Ethylene-Forming Enzyme, and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Avocado Fruit 12  

PubMed Central

When early-season avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) were treated with ethylene or propylene for 24 hours immediately on picking, the time to the onset of the respiratory climacteric, i.e. the lag period, remained unchanged compared with that in untreated fruit. When fruit were pulsed 24 hours after picking, on the other hand, the lag period was shortened. In both cases, however, a 24 hour ethylene or propylene pulse induced a transient increase in respiration, called the pulse-peak, unaccompanied by ethylene production (IL Eaks [1980] Am Soc Hortic Sci 105: 744-747). The pulse also caused a sharp rise in ethylene-forming enzyme activity in both cases, without any increase in the low level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity. Thus, the shortening of the lag period by an ethylene pulse is not due to an effect of ethylene on either of the two key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. A comparison of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide profiles of in vitro translation products of poly(A+) mRNA from control and ethylene-pulsed fruit showed both up- and down-regulation in response to ethylene pulsing of a number of genes expressed during the ripening syndrome. It is proposed that the pulse-peak or its underlying events reflect an intrinsic element in the ripening process that in late-season or continuously ethylene-treated fruit may be subsumed in the overall climacteric response. A computerized system that allows continuous readout of multiple samples has established that the continued presentation of exogeneous ethylene or propylene to preclimacteric fruit elicits a dual respiration response comprising the merged pulse-peak and climacteric peak in series. The sequential removal of cores from a single fruit has proven an unsatisfactory sampling procedure inasmuch as coring induces wound ethylene, evokes a positive respiration response, and advances ripening.

Starrett, David A.; Laties, George G.

1991-01-01

251

Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models  

PubMed Central

Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid.

Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

2012-01-01

252

Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation  

SciTech Connect

Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

1999-01-01

253

Arachidonic Acid Alters Tomato HMG Expression and Fruit Growth and Induces 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase-Independent Lycopene Accumulation1  

PubMed Central

Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, we manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Our results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel; Gruissem, Wilhelm

1999-01-01

254

Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.  

PubMed

Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. PMID:23299756

Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A

2013-01-01

255

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON APPLE TREE PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed o...

256

Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage.  

PubMed

'Fengjiewancheng' (FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of 'Fengjie 72-1' navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of sucrose-and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Results showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering) and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant's gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1) was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its parental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes. PMID:17653673

Liu, YongZhong; Liu, Qing; Xiong, JingJing; Deng, XiuXin

2007-08-01

257

MACAIBA PALM: FATTY AND AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF FRUITS MACAÍBA: COMPOSICIÓN DE AMINOÁCIDOS Y ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE FRUTOS MACAÍBA: COMPOSICIÓN DE AMINOÁCIDOS E ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DE FROITOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid content of dried pulp and kernels of Acrocomia intumescens palm fruits grown in the Northeast region of Brazil was determined to be about 34.6 and 49.2.6%, respectively. The hexane extracted oils from these parts showed refractive indices - 1.4427 and 1.4310, specific gravity - 0.9012 and 0.9213, peroxide - 2.96 and 1.37, acid - 1.5 and 2.1, iodine

P. S. Bora; R. V. M. Rocha

2004-01-01

258

Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on sugar accumulation in the flesh tissue of peach fruit at the start of the maturation stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on14C-sorbitol, fructose, and glucose uptakeinto flesh discs, and sorbitol efflux from thediscs, with and without ABA application toexamine the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) onsugar accumulation in peach fruit flesh at thestart of the maturation stage in relation tomembrane transport. Total uptake of14C-sorbitol, fructose, and glucose intoflesh discs was effectively promoted by ABA ata concentration of 10-5M.

Kenji Kobashi; Sumuko Sugaya; Hiroshi Gemma; Shuichi Iwahori

2001-01-01

259

The fruit extract of three strawberry cultivars prevents lipid peroxidation and protects the unsaturated fatty acids in the Fenton reagent environment.  

PubMed

In this study, we detected the flavonoid ingredients of three different varieties of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch cultivar Camarosa, Selva and Dorit) grown in Elazig, and we researched on their effects on the radicals DPPH? and OH?. It was detected that in the manipulation of 50-100 ?l extract, it was efficient to turn the DPPH? radical over 85% to DPPH? OH? form. In in vitro environment in which hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent were used, it was also detected that the capacity of interception of lipid peroxidation is high. When the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA)-2-thiobarbituric acid was compared with that of the Fenton R group, the level was shown to be decreased in the groups in which a quite distinct level of the extract of strawberry fruit was given (p < 0.001). Depending on the decrease in LPO formation, the amounts of oleic acid and linoleic acid that were added to the reaction environment were preserved in in vitro environment in which the extract of strawberry fruit was added (p < 0.01, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01).Consequently, it has been confirmed that the strawberry fruit that has a scavenging effect against the radicals prevents that lipid peroxidation in in vitro environment. PMID:22032616

Ozsahin, Ayse Dilek; Gokce, Zehra; Yilmaz, Okkes; Kirecci, Oguz Ayhan

2012-05-01

260

Metabolic profiling of phenolic acids and oxidative stress markers after consumption of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of one-week consumption of 165 g/day fresh blue honeysuckle berries (208 mg/day anthocyanins) in 10 healthy volunteers. At the end of intervention, levels of benzoic (median 1782 vs 4156), protocatechuic (709 vs 2417), vanillic (2779 vs 4753), 3-hydroxycinnamic (143 vs 351), p-coumaric (182 vs 271), isoferulic (805 vs 1570), ferulic (1086 vs 2395), and hippuric (194833 vs 398711 ?g/mg creatinine) acids by LC/MS were significantly increased in the urine. Clinical chemistry safety markers were not altered. Oxidative stress markers, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (0.73 vs 0.88 U/g Hb) and catalase (2.5 vs 2.8 ?kat/g Hb) activities, and erythrocyte/plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (522 vs 612/33 vs 38 ?mol/g Hb/protein) levels were significantly increased, without change in plasma antioxidant status. Nonsignificant changes of advanced oxidation protein products and oxidized LDL were observed. The results provide a solid base for further study of metabolite excretion and antioxidant parameters after ingestion of anthocyanins. PMID:23581742

Heinrich, Jan; Valentová, Kate?ina; Vacek, Jan; Palíková, Irena; Zatloukalová, Martina; Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrbková, Jana; Šimánek, Vilím

2013-05-15

261

Rapid determination of amino acids in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by hydrophilic interaction ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, a sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free amino acids without derivatization using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed. The method was performed on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation system coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQ-MS) instrument. Sufficient separation of 23 underivatized amino acids was achieved on an Acquity BEH Amide column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 ?m) in a single run of 12 min. Then the method was applied for the analysis of the free amino acids in 46 batches of Ziziphus jujuba fruits which comprised 39 cultivars from 26 cultivation regions. Multivariate statistical analysis was also used to investigate the differences in free amino acid profiles among the samples. This study showed that HILIC-UHPLC-TQ-MS is an effective technique to analyze underivatized amino acids in the food samples. PMID:23413770

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Yefei; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Shang, Erxin

2013-03-20

262

The Occurrence of Abscisic Acid and Abscisyl-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Developing and Mature Citrus Fruit as Determined by Enzyme Immunoassay 1  

PubMed Central

The contents of (+)-cis-abscisic acid (ABA) and alkaline-hydrolyzable ABA-conjugate(s) were analyzed by means of enzyme immunoassay in partially purified extracts of developing and mature sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv Washington navel). A relatively small increase in ABA was observed in the fruit exocarp during the natural color transition from green to orange. At the same time, the ABA-conjugate level increased approximately 12-fold in this tissue. The contents of ABA and ABA-conjugate equaled 15.0 ± 0.7 and 107.8 ± 2.1 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, respectively, in the exocarp at harvest. Other tissues also contained considerable quantities of these compounds. Whereas the highest ABA content was observed in the exocarp, the highest ABA-conjugate content was observed in the central vascular axis of the fruit and equaled 187.0 ± 10.3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight. The only immunoreactive conjugate found in significant quantity in mature fruit was identified as abscisyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (ABA-GE) based on (a) immunological cross-reactivity, (b) thin layer chromatography co-chromatography with authentic standards in two solvent systems, (c) susceptibility to both chemical and enzymic degradation, and (d) mass spectroscopy.

Harris, Michael J.; Dugger, William M.

1986-01-01

263

Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant effects of the natural vitamin C analog 2-O-?- D -glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid isolated from Goji berry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-O-?-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2?G) is a natural derivative of vitamin C (Lascorbic acid, AA) isolated from Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. We evaluated the antioxidant activities of AA-2?G and AA using in vitro and in vivo model systems. In vitro radical scavenging assays demonstrated that AA-?G was capable of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl peroxide\\u000a and inhibiting H2O2-induced hemolysis better than

Ziping Zhang; Xiaoming Liu; Xu Zhang; Junhong Liu; Yanfang Hao; Xueyun Yang; Yujiong Wang

2011-01-01

264

Broad-spectrum antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria and their application in fruit models.  

PubMed

A large-scale screen of some 7,000 presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from animal, human, or plant origin, identified 1,149 isolates with inhibitory activity against the food-spoilage mould Penicillium expansum. In excess of 500 LAB isolates were subsequently identified to produce a broad spectrum of activity against P. expansum, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium notatum, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing of 94 broad spectrum isolates revealed that the majority of antifungal producers were strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. The remaining population was composed of Weissella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceous isolates. Characterization of six selected broad-spectrum antifungal LAB isolates revealed that antifungal activity is maximal at a temperature of 30 °C, a pH of 4.0 and is stable across a variety of salt concentrations. The antifungal compound(s) was shown to be neither proteinaceous nor volatile in nature. P. pentosaceous 54 was shown to have protective properties against P. expansum spoilage when applied in pear, plum and grape models, therefore representing an excellent candidate for food-related applications. PMID:23160868

Crowley, Sarah; Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

2013-07-01

265

Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant effects of the natural vitamin C analog 2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid isolated from Goji berry fruit.  

PubMed

2-O-?-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2?G) is a natural derivative of vitamin C (Lascorbic acid, AA) isolated from Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. We evaluated the antioxidant activities of AA-2?G and AA using in vitro and in vivo model systems. In vitro radical scavenging assays demonstrated that AA-?G was capable of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl peroxide and inhibiting H(2)O(2)-induced hemolysis better than AA. AA-2?G and AA had similar hydroxyl radical scavenging capabilities, but AA-2?G was incapable of scavenging superoxide anion radicals, and its capacity to scavenge nitrite (NO(2) (-)) was lower than that of AA. The overall in vitro reduction capability of AA-2?G was also significantly lower than that of AA. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that AA-2?G was capable of protecting the liver against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. These results suggest that AA-2?G is an important antioxidant component of Goji berry fruit, which may share similar but distinct antioxidant mechanistic properties with AA. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanisms of Goji berry fruit pharmacological activities on antiaging and antitumor properties as a traditional medicine and dietary supplement. PMID:21656366

Zhang, Ziping; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Junhong; Hao, Yanfang; Yang, Xueyun; Wang, Yujiong

2011-05-01

266

Bolus consumption of a specifically designed fruit juice rich in anthocyanins and ascorbic acid did not influence markers of antioxidative defense in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Exotic fruits such as açai, camu-camu, and blackberries rich in natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, anthocyanins) are marketed as "functional" foods supporting a pro-/antioxidant balance. Confirming data from human studies are lacking. Within a randomized controlled crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested 400 mL of a blended juice of these fruits or a sugar solution (control). Blood was drawn before and afterward to determine antioxidants in plasma, markers of antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC)] and oxidative stress [isoprostane, DNA strand breaks in leukocytes in vivo], and their resistance versus H?O?-induced strand breaks. Compared with sugar solution, juice consumption increased plasma ascorbic acid and maintained TOSC and partly Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (both P values < 0.05). Strand breaks in vivo increased after ingestion of both beverages (P < 0.001), probably due to postprandial and/or circadian effects. This anthocyanin-rich fruit juice may stabilize the pro-/antioxidant balance in healthy nonsmokers without affecting markers of oxidative stress. PMID:23072538

Ellinger, Sabine; Gordon, André; Kürten, Mira; Jungfer, Elvira; Zimmermann, Benno F; Zur, Berndt; Ellinger, Jörg; Marx, Friedhelm; Stehle, Peter

2012-11-14

267

RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) Papaya Fruit.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Bakar, Umi Kalsom Abu; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

2014-01-01

268

The peach 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase isogene, Pp-ACS1, is required for fruit softening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L). Batsch) produces increasing levels of ethylene, and the flesh firmness softens rapidly during the ripening stage. On\\u000a the other hand, stony hard peaches barely soften on the tree or after harvest, although the fruit changes colour normally,\\u000a contains highly soluble solids and has good flavour (Haji et al., 2001). It has been

T. Haji; M. Yamaguchi

269

An Acid Protease Produced by Monilinia fructigena in vitro and in Infected Apple Fruits, and its Possible Role in Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Monilinia fructigena grown in a liquid medium containing protein secreted a protease with many similarities to one extractable from apple fruits infected with this pathogen but absent from healthy fruit. Enzymes from both sources degraded several protein substrates optimally at pH 3.4. At this pH, haemoglobin was degraded optimally at 47 OC, while at 37 OC both enzymes

E. C. Hislop; JAN L. PAVER; J. P. R. KEONI

1982-01-01

270

1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid and 1,2, 3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in fruits.  

PubMed

1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (THCA) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA), as two diastereoisomers (1S,3S and 1R,3S), occurred in commercial fruits. Citrus fruits exhibited the highest content; other fruits contained very low levels or none at all. The content of MTCA was as follows: orange, 0.35-2.47 microg/g; lemon, 0.15-2.05 microg/g; grapefruit, 1.12-8.37 microg/g; mandarin, 0.57-2.5 microg/g; banana, nd-0.74 microg/g; pear, nd-0.017 microg/g; grape, 0.01-0.22 microg/g, tomato, 0.05-0.25 microg/g; and apple, nd-0.012 microg/g). THCA, if present, usually occurred at <0.05 microg/g. Fruit ripening and softening during storage were accompanied with a significant increase of MTCA, in both pears and bananas. Those and previous results confirm that foods are an important source of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines in humans. PMID:10606547

Herraiz, T

1999-12-01

271

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric fragmentation study of flavonoids as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: analysis of flavonoids, sugars, carboxylic and amino acids in model systems and in citrus fruits.  

PubMed

The fragmentation patterns and quantitation possibilities of three anthocyanidins (pelargonidin, cyanidin, malvidin), one flavonol (quercetin), two flavones (apigenin, luteolin) and two flavanones (naringenin, hesperetin) have been investigated as trimethylsilyl and as trimethylsilyl (oxime) derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results proved that anthocyanidins and flavanones form trimethylsilyl (oximes), while flavonol and flavones provide simple trimethylsilyl derivatives. In all cases, characteristic fragments of high masses are formed proper for quantitation purposes. Hydrolysis conditions for naringin, hesperidin and rutin have been optimized, resulting in the quantitative release of naringenin, hesperetin and quercetin together with their corresponding saccharides. These basic studies made possible the identification and quantification of the flavonoid, carboxylic-/amino acid and sugar constituents of citrus fruit juices and albedos, without any extraction/enrichment procedure. In total 33 compounds have been determined in hydrolyzed samples, such as 2 flavonoids (naringenin and hesperetin), 6 phenolic acids (trimethoxybenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, quinic, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids), 3 aliphatic carboxylic acids (levulinic, malic, citric acids), phosphoric acid, 4 amino acids (aspartic, glutamic acids, alanine, proline), 9 monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, fucose, fructose, galactose, glucose, galacturonic acid, sedoheptulose), inositol, sugarphosphate, 5 disaccharides and tocopherol. Measurements were carried out as the trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether/ester derivatives of constituents, in the concentration range of 2 x 10(-3) to 49.9%. Identification level of samples varied between 26.4 and 77.5%, expressed in dry matter content of juices and albedos. PMID:17289064

Füzfai, Zs; Molnár-Perl, I

2007-05-11

272

Rapid automated high performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of amino acids and biogenic amines in wine, fruit and honey.  

PubMed

This paper reports a new, simple, rapid and economical method for routine determination of 24 amino acids and biogenic amines in grapes and wine. No sample clean-up is required and total run time including column re-equilibration is less than 40min. Following automated in-loop automated pre-column derivatisation with an o-phthaldialdehyde, N-acetyl-l-cysteine reagent, compounds were separated on a 3mm×25cm C(18) column using a binary mobile phase. The method was validated in the range 0.25-10mg/l; repeatability was less than 3% RSD and the intermediate precision ranged from 2 to 7% RSD. The method was shown to be linear by the 'lack of fit' test and the accuracy was between 97 and 101%. The LLOQ varied between 10?g/l for aspartic and glutamic acids, ethanolamine and GABA, and 100?g/l for tyrosine, phenylalanine, putrescine and cadaverine. The method was applied to grapes, white wine, red wine, honey and three species of physalis fruit. Grapes and physalis fruit were crushed, sieved, centrifuged and diluted 1/20 and 1/100, respectively, for analysis; wines and honeys were simply diluted 10-fold. It was shown using this method that the amino acid content of grapes was strongly correlated with berry volume, moderately correlated with sugar concentration and inversely correlated with total acidity. PMID:20950817

Kelly, Mary T; Blaise, Alain; Larroque, Michel

2010-11-19

273

Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the Oil Palm for bioethanol production: A thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.  

PubMed

In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment. PMID:24662312

Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

2014-05-01

274

Anti-secretory and cyto-protective effects of chebulinic acid isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula on gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, the gastro protective mechanism of chebulinic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit was investigated. Chebulinic acid was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity of chebulinic acid was observed against CRU (62.9%), AS (55.3%), AL (80.67%) and PL (66.63%) induced ulcer models. The reference drug omeprazole (10 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 77.73% protection against CRU, 58.30% against AS and 70.80% against PL model. Sucralfate, another reference drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 65.67% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Chebulinic acid significantly reduced free acidity (48.82%), total acidity (38.29%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 59.75% respectively. Further, chebulinic acid significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC50 of 65.01 ?g/ml as compared to the IC50 value of omeprazole (30.24 ?g/ml) confirming its anti-secretory activity. PMID:23462212

Mishra, Vaibhav; Agrawal, Manali; Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Madhur, Gaurav; Rastogi, Preeti; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Palit, Gautam; Narender, Tadigoppula

2013-04-15

275

The hypocholesterolemic activity of Momordica charantia fruit is mediated by the altered cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating gene expression in rat liver.  

PubMed

Although many studies have demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic activity of Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd fruit (BGF), the relative hypocholesterolemic mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that BGF alters hepatic gene expression of cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating proteins to improve blood cholesterol profiles. To clarify the mechanism, we fed 7-week-old male Wistar rats a high-cholesterol (HC) diet containing 5% BGF for 4 weeks and determined the cholesterol levels in the serum, liver and feces, concentrations of the fecal total bile acid, and the expression level of cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating genes. The HC diet with BGF supplementation showed a significant serum hypocholesterolemic activity compared with the HC diet without BGF. BGF intake also significantly increased the levels of fecal total bile acid, suggesting that BGF inhibited the reabsorption of bile acids into the intestine. Hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver receptor homolog-1, which are both involved in cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) regulation, were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, by BGF intake. In addition, BGF tended to increase the hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level. Taken together, these results suggest that BGF not only decreases the reabsorption of bile acids into the intestine but also increases the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by CYP7A1 up-regulation through the down-regulation of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor/SHP pathway. PMID:23827133

Matsui, Sho; Yamane, Takumi; Takita, Toshichika; Oishi, Yuichi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo

2013-07-01

276

Gene Expression and Metabolite Profiling of Developing Highbush Blueberry Fruit Indicates Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Metabolism and Activation of Abscisic Acid Metabolism1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3?-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3?5?-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of blueberry flavonoid biosynthesis.

Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Zaharia, L. Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P.; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Kennedy, James A.; Constabel, C. Peter

2012-01-01

277

Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism.  

PubMed

Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of blueberry flavonoid biosynthesis. PMID:22086422

Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter

2012-01-01

278

Linoleic acid-induced activity of plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein in purified tomato fruit mitochondria during resting, phosphorylating, and progressively uncoupled respiration.  

PubMed

An uncoupling protein was recently discovered in plant mitochondria and demonstrated to function similarly to the uncoupling protein of brown adipose tissue. In this work, green tomato fruit mitochondria were purified on a self-generating Percoll gradient in the presence of 0.5% bovine serum albumin to deplete mitochondria of endogenous free fatty acids. The uncoupling protein activity was induced by the addition of linoleic acid during the resting state, and in the progressively uncoupled state, as well as during phosphorylating respiration in the presence of benzohydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase and with succinate (+ rotenone) as oxidizable substrate. Linoleic acid strongly stimulated the resting respiration in fatty acid-depleted mitochondria but had no effect on phosphorylating respiration, suggesting no activity of the uncoupling protein in this respiratory state. Progressive uncoupling of state 4 respiration decreased the stimulation by linoleic acid. The similar respiratory rates in phosphorylating and fully uncoupled respiration in the presence and absence of linoleic acid suggested that a rate-limiting step on the dehydrogenase side of the respiratory chain was responsible for the insensitivity of phosphorylating respiration to linoleic acid. Indeed, the ADP/O ratio determined by ADP/O pulse method was decreased by linoleic acid, indicating that uncoupling protein was active during phosphorylating respiration and was able to divert energy from oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, the respiration rates appeared to be determined by membrane potential independently of the presence of linoleic acid, indicating that linoleic acid-induced stimulation of respiration is due to a pure protonophoric activity without any direct effect on the electron transport chain. PMID:9857016

Jarmuszkiewicz, W; Almeida, A M; Sluse-Goffart, C M; Sluse, F E; Vercesi, A E

1998-12-25

279

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

280

Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.  

PubMed

Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

2007-01-01

281

Effects of irrigation regimes on fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antifungal properties of volatiles from fruits of Koroneiki cultivar grown under Tunisian conditions.  

PubMed

The olive tree is generally grown under rain-fed conditions. However, since the yield response to irrigation is great, even with low amounts of water, there is increasing interest in irrigated agriculture. The main goal of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes on olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Koroneiki) obtained from an intensively-managed orchard in a semi-arid area with a Mediterranean climate in Tunisia. Different irrigation treatments 50% ETc, 75% ETc and 100% ETc were applied to the olive orchard. Accordingly, the effects of three irrigation regimes on volatile compounds, fatty acid composition and biological activities of Koroneiki cultivar were studied. The total profile of the volatile constituents of all samples revealed the predominance of 3-ethenylpyridine (from 14.9-19.6%), phenylethyl alcool (from 7.8-19.2%) and benzaldehyde (from 9.0 to 13.8%). During watering level treatments studied, the major fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic. Antioxidant activity of the fresh fruit volatiles cultivated at a watering level of 100% ETc was higher than that obtained under 50 and 75% Etc. The results of antifungal activity showed that the fruits volatiles of the three irrigation treatments had varying degrees of growth inhibition against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24511688

Brahmi, Faten; Chehab, Hechmi; Flamini, Guido; Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Mastouri, Maha; Hammami, Mohamed

2013-11-15

282

Iron-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and reduction of cytosolic aconitase activity in Citrus fruit vesicles and calli.  

PubMed

Aconitase, which catalyses the conversion of citrate into isocitrate, requires Fe for its activity. The yeast and animal enzyme loses its enzymatic activity under Fe shortage and binds to RNA of genes involved in Fe homeostasis, altering their expression. Thus, the enzyme provides a regulatory link between organic acid metabolism and Fe cellular status. Roots and leaves of Fe-deficient plants show induction in organic acids, especially citrate. Although no RNA-binding activity has been so far demonstrated for the plant aconitase, whether alternations in enzyme activity by Fe could play a role in this induction remain unanswered. This question was investigated in lemon fruit [Citrus limon (L.) Burm var Eureka], characterized by the accumulation of citrate to about 0.3 M in the juice vesicles cells (pulp). Calli and isolated juice vesicles showed two- to three-fold induction in citrate level when subjected to Fe shortage. The mRNA level of aconitase exhibited no changes under reduced Fe concentrations. Analysis of aconitase isozymes demonstrated that out of two aconitase isozymes, typically detected in citrus fruit, only the cytosolic form displayed a reduced activity under low Fe concentrations. Our data support the notion of a limited Fe-availability-induced reduction in cytosolic aconitase, resulting in a slower rate of citrate breakdown and a concomitant increase in citrate levels. PMID:18251926

Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Marsh, Ken; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2007-09-01

283

Shocking Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how a piece of fruit can act as an electrolyte, conducting electricity between two different metals. In this way, learners construct a simple battery and record their observations. Educators can use this activity to introduce circuits, electrodes, and electrolytes. After completing this activity, learners can explore other fruit and vegetable conductors.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

284

Thermal death rate of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri ATCC 200957 in the presence of organic acids and preservatives in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Heat-resistant molds, including Neosartorya fischeri, are known to spoil thermally processed fruit products. The control measures required for such problems must not cause an appreciable loss of the organoleptic qualities of the final products. In the present study we determined the thermal death rates of ascospores of N. fischeri ATCC 200957 in fruit juices containing organic acids and preservatives. The ascospores were able to survive for more than 6 h of heating at 75 degrees C, 5 h at 80 degrees C, and 3 to 4 h at 85 degrees C in mango or grape juice. Of the four organic acids tested, citric acid exhibited the maximal destruction of ascospores in mango juice at 85 degrees C (1/k = 27.22 min), and tartaric acid the least (1/k = 61.73 min). The effect of common preservatives on the thermal death rates of ascospores at .85 degrees C in mango and grape juices was studied. Almost similar effects on thermal inactivation of ascospores were noted when potassium sorbate (1/k = 29.38 min) or sodium benzoate (1/k = 27.64 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 27.53 min) was used in mango juice. In grape juice, potassium sorbate (1/k = 25.07 min) was more effective than sodium benzoate (1/k = 50.08 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 40.79 min) in inactivation of ascospores of the mold. The thermal death rate (1/k) values in mango and grape juices in the absence of any preservative were 63.51 and 69.27 min respectively. PMID:9798155

Rajashekhara, E; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

1998-10-01

285

Edible film based on candelilla wax to improve the shelf life and quality of avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effect of addition of ellagic acid (at three different concentrations) into candelilla wax matrix on shelf life and quality of whole avocados was studied. Control treatments were avocados coated with candelilla wax without ellagic acid and avocados without coating. The fruits were chosen for their maturity, size, free from infection and physical defects. All those samples

Saul Saucedo-Pompa; Romeo Rojas-Molina; Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbó; Aide Saenz-Galindo; Heliodoro de La Garza; Diana Jasso-Cantú; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

2009-01-01

286

Global Analysis of Gene Expression During Development and Ripening of Citrus Fruit Flesh. A Proposed Mechanism for Citric Acid Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarrays of cDNA have been used to examine expression changes of 7000 genes during development and ripening of the fruit flesh of self-incompatible Citrus clementina, a non-climateric species. The data indicated that 2243 putative unigenes showed significant expression changes. Functional classification revealed that genes encoding for regulatory proteins were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated gene clusters. The transcriptomic study together

Manuel Cercós; Guillermo Soler; Domingo J. Iglesias; José Gadea; Javier Forment; Manuel Talón

2006-01-01

287

Eburicoic Acid, an Active Triterpenoid from the Fruiting Bodies of Basswood Cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea, Induces ER Stress-Mediated Autophagy in Human Hepatoma Cells.  

PubMed

Antrodia cinnamomea, a Taiwan-specific medicinal mushroom, can manipulate biological activities, including hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-hepatitis B virus activity, anticancer activity, etc. In this study, the anti-liver cancer activity and molecular mechanisms of eburicoic acid, the second most abundant triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea was investigated using the human hepatoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that eburicoic acid effectively reduced Hep 3B cell viability within 24 hours, and the IC50 was 18.4 ?M, which was equivalent to 8.7 ?g/mL. Besides, eburicoic acid induced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and a large number of autophagosomes/autolysosomes formation. In depth investigation for the molecular mechanisms, revealed that eburicoic acid firstly promoted reactive oxygen species generation and ATP depletion, leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress, followed by elevated cytosolic calcium ion concentration and BiP expression, downregulated phosphorylation of DAPK, upregulated phosphorylation of Beclin-1, JNK, and Bcl-2, and finally induced autophagy in Hep 3B cells. These results indicate that eburicoic acid has significant anti-liver cancer effects and more distinctive mechanisms. PMID:24716146

Su, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Chun-Ting; Chu, Yung-Lin; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sheen, Lee-Yan

2012-10-01

288

Proton re-uptake partitioning between uncoupling protein and ATP synthase during benzohydroxamic acid-resistant state 3 respiration in tomato fruit mitochondria.  

PubMed

The yield of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated tomato fruit mitochondria depleted of free fatty acids remains constant when respiratory rates are decreased by a factor of 3 by the addition of n-butyl malonate. This constancy makes the determination of the contribution of the linoleic acid-induced energy-dissipating pathway by the ADP/O method possible. No decrease in membrane potential is observed in state 3 respiration with increasing concentration of n-butyl malonate, indicating that the rate of ATP synthesis is steeply dependent on membrane potential. Linoleic acid decreases the yield of oxidative phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner by a pure protonophoric process like that in the presence of FCCP. ADP/O measurements allow calculation of the part of respiration leading to ATP synthesis and the part of respiration sustained by the dissipative H(+) re-uptake induced by linoleic acid. Respiration sustained by this energy-dissipating process remains constant at a given LA concentration until more than 50% inhibition of state 3 respiration by n-butyl malonate is achieved. The energy dissipative contribution to oxygen consumption is proposed to be equal to the protonophoric activity of plant uncoupling protein divided by the intrinsic H(+)/O of the cytochrome pathway. It increases with linoleic acid concentration, taking place at the expense of ADP phosphorylation without an increase in the respiration. PMID:10788438

Jarmuszkiewicz, W; Almeida, A M; Vercesi, A E; Sluse, F E; Sluse-Goffart, C M

2000-05-01

289

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

Sciencenter

2012-07-12

290

An improved and fast UHPLC-PDA methodology for determination of L-ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in fruits and vegetables. Evaluation of degradation rate during storage.  

PubMed

This study provides a versatile validated method to determine the total vitamin C content, as the sum of the contents of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), in several fruits and vegetables and its degradability with storage time. Seven horticultural crops from two different origins were analyzed using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic-photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA) system, equipped with a new trifunctional high strength silica (100% silica particle) analytical column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 ?m particle size) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phase, in isocratic mode. This new stationary phase, specially designed for polar compounds, overcomes the problems normally encountered in HPLC and is suitable for the analysis of large batches of samples without L-AA degradation. In addition, it proves to be an excellent alternative to conventional C18 columns for the determination of L-AA in fruits and vegetables. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity, detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits, accuracy, and inter/intra-day precision. Validation experiments revealed very good recovery rate of 96.6 ± 4.4% for L-AA and 103.1 ± 4.8 % for total vitamin C, good linearity with r(2)-values >0.999 within the established concentration range, excellent repeatability (0.5%), and reproducibility (1.6%) values. The LOD of the method was 22 ng/mL whereas the LOQ was 67 ng/mL. It was possible to demonstrate that L-AA and DHAA concentrations in the different horticulture products varied oppositely with time of storage not always affecting the total amount of vitamin C during shelf-life. Locally produced fruits have higher concentrations of vitamin C, compared with imported ones, but vegetables showed the opposite trend. Moreover, this UHPLC-PDA methodology proves to be an improved, simple, and fast approach for determining the total content of vitamin C in various food commodities, with high sensitivity, selectivity, and resolving power within 3 min of run analysis. PMID:22222913

Spínola, Vítor; Mendes, Berta; Câmara, José S; Castilho, Paula C

2012-05-01

291

Sulfur-containing constituents and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative from pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit.  

PubMed

Two sulfur-containing compounds, (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-carboxy-2-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)allylthio)ethyl-amino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (1) and (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-(carboxymethylamino)-3-((E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)allylthio)-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (2), and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative, 6-(3-(1H-pyrrole-2-carbonyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid (3), together with eighteen known phenolic compounds, were isolated from the fruits of pineapple. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. Some of these compounds showed inhibitory activities against tyrosinase. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values of compounds 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 are lower than 1 mM. These compounds may contribute to the well-known anti-browning effect of pineapple juice and be potential skin whitening agents in cosmetic applications. PMID:20843530

Zheng, Zong-Ping; Ma, Jinyu; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chao, Jianfei; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Wang, Mingfu

2010-12-01

292

Anti-allodynic and Anti-hyperalgesic effects of an ethanolic extract and xylopic acid from the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica in murine models of neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including headache and neuralgia. An animal model of vincristine-induced sensory neuropathy was developed after repeated intraperitoneal injection in rats and used in the present work to study the effects of the ethanolic extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and its diterpene xylopic acid (XA) in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Vincristine (0.1 mg kg-1 day-1) was administered during two cycles of five consecutive days to induce chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Static tactile anti-allodynic, anti-hyperalgesic, and cold anti-allodynic effects of XAE (30-300 mg kg-1) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1) were assessed using Von Frey filaments of bending forces of 4, 8, and 15 g, the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and cold water (4.5°C), respectively. Results: Administration of vincristine caused the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia with no significant motor deficit, spontaneous pain, and foot deformity. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1) exhibited anti-hyperalgesic, tactile, and cold anti-allodynic properties with XA exhibiting greater potency than XAE. Pregabalin (10-100 mg kg-1) used as control produced similar effect. Conclusion: These findings establish the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of the ethanolic fruit XAE and its major diterpene XA in vincristine-induced neuropathtic pain.

Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Woode, Eric; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K.M.; Kyekyeku, James Oppong; Adosraku, Reimmel K.

2014-01-01

293

Controlled atmosphere-induced changes in pH and organic acid metabolism may affect color of stored strawberry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin and flesh of ‘Selva’ strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) stored at 5°C in air or 2 kPa O2 became darker red and accumulated anthocyanin levels, but these changes were reduced in fruit stored in air+20 kPa CO2, 2 kPa O2+20 kPa CO2, 0.5 kPa O2,, and 0.5 kPa O2+20 kPa CO2 (balance N2 in all CA treatments). Increasing pH

Deirdre M. Holcroft; Adel A. Kader

1999-01-01

294

Studies on the diagnosis of hop stunt viroid in fruit trees: Identification of new hosts and application of a nucleic acid extraction procedure based on non-organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-radioactive digoxigenin-labelled RNA probe specific for hop stunt viroid (HSVd) diagnosis has been developed. The high sensitivity and specificity of this RNA probe in dot blot hybridizations to nucleic acids from field samples, allowed the confirmation of the presence of HSVd in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and its detection in two fruit tree species not previously described as hosts

Nathalie Astruc; Jose F. Marcos; Guy Macquaire; Thierry Candresse; Vicente Pallfis

1996-01-01

295

Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amounts of flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (ellagic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids) were analysed in six strawberry cultivars and in the berries of genus Vaccinium (four blueberry cultivars, wild bilberry, wild bog whortleberry). Differences between strawberries from organic vs. conventional cultivation were investigated and the influence of geographical origin on phenolic compounds of strawberries and

Sari H Häkkinen; A. Riitta Törrönen

2000-01-01

296

Merging a sensitive capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection method with chemometric exploratory data analysis for the determination of phenolic acids and subsequent characterization of avocado fruit.  

PubMed

Herein we present the development of a powerful CE-UV method able to detect and quantify an important number of phenolic acids in 13 varieties of avocado fruits at 2 ripening stages. All the variables involved in CE separation were exhaustively optimized and the best results were obtained with a capillary of 50 ?m i.d. × 50 cm effective length, sodium tetraborate 40 mM at a pH of 9.4, 30 kV, 25 °C, 10s of hydrodynamic injection (0.5 psi) and UV detection at 254 nm. This optimal methodology was fully validated and then applied to different avocado samples. The number of phenolic acids determined varied from 8 to 14 compounds; in general, they were in concentrations ranging from 0.13 ppm to 3.82 ppm, except p-coumaric, benzoic and protocatechuic acids, which were found at higher concentrations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to highlight the differences between varieties and ripening degrees, looking for the most influential analytes. PMID:23993512

Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

2013-12-15

297

Acetobacter senegalensis sp. nov., a thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium isolated in Senegal (sub-Saharan Africa) from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).  

PubMed

A thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium, designated strain CWBI-B418(T), isolated in Senegal from mango fruit (Mangifera indica), was characterized in detail by means of genotypic and phenotypic methods. The novel strain was strictly aerobic and exhibited optimal growth on YGM medium at 35 degrees C. Cells were Gram-negative, motile and coccoid. The strain was assigned to the genus Acetobacter on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with its phylogenetically closest relatives showed that strain CWBI-B418(T) represented a novel Acetobacter genospecies. The DNA G+C content of strain CWBI-B418(T) was 56.0 mol%. Phenotypic characteristics enabling the differentiation of strain CWBI-B418(T) from phylogenetically related Acetobacter species were: production of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid from D-glucose, but not 5-keto-D-gluconic acid, production of catalase but not oxidase, growth on yeast extract with 30 % d-glucose, growth with ammonium as sole nitrogen source with ethanol as carbon source, utilization of glycerol and ethanol but not maltose or methanol as carbon sources, and growth in the presence of 10 % ethanol. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data presented, strain CWBI-B418(T) clearly represents a novel Acetobacter species, for which the name Acetobacter senegalensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CWBI-B418(T) (=LMG 23690(T)=DSM 18889(T)). PMID:17625197

Ndoye, Bassirou; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Dubois-Dauphin, Robin; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Willems, Anne; Thonart, Phillipe

2007-07-01

298

Simultaneous gas chromatographic quantitation of sugars and acids in citrus fruits, pears, bananas, grapes, apples and tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The simultaneous quantitation of organic acids (glycolic, lactic, oxalic, sorbic, benzoic, succinic, malic, pimelic, tartaric, citric+isocitric, quinic, ascorbic, palmitic, caffeic, linoleic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, and chlorogenic acids), mannitol, sorbitol and sugars (arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, fructose, galactose, mannose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, isomaltose, raffinose and maltotriose) are reported. Optimum conditions for simultaneous silylation and quantitation of the 33 possible components of orange,

M. Morvai; I. Molnár-Perl

1992-01-01

299

Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.  

PubMed

The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

2008-02-27

300

What Do Mexican Fruit Flies Learn When They Experience Fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican fruit flies learn fruit characteristics that enable them to distinguish familiar fruits from novel fruits. We investigated whether mature Mexican fruit flies learn fruit color, size or odor. We found no evidence that female flies learn fruit color or size after experience with host fruit, including oviposition. However, green fruit and fruit models were more attractive than yellow and

David C. Robacker; Ivich Fraser

2005-01-01

301

Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature. The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and

U. G. AKPAN; A. S. KOVO

302

Investigation of the factors influencing the survival of Bifidobacterium longum in model acidic solutions and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of Bifidobacterium longum NCIMB 8809 was studied during refrigerated storage for 6weeks in model solutions, based on which a mathematical model was constructed describing cell survival as a function of pH, citric acid, protein and dietary fibre. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying the influence of four factors at three levels, i.e., pH (3.2–4), citric acid

Sawaminee Nualkaekul; Ivan Salmeron; Dimitris Charalampopoulos

2011-01-01

303

Oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys of rat exposed to trichloroacetic acid: protective role of date palm fruit.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and protective properties of date fruit aqueous extract (DFAE) on trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Oral administration of TCA as drinking water (0.5 and 2 g/L) daily for 2 months caused nephrotoxicity as evident by elevated levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were increased along with histopathological injuries. The oral administration of DFAE (4 mL/kg/day) to TCA-treated groups proved some significant correction by increasing the antioxidant activity of the CAT and GPx enzymes and normalizing the SOD activity and the MDA level (p?

El Arem, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Thouri, Amira; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Ayed, Amel; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

2014-06-01

304

Novel approach for mono-segmented flow micro-titration with sequential injection using a lab-on-valve system: a model study for the assay of acidity in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A new concept for micro-titration using a "lab-on-valve"(LOV) system with sequential injection of mono-segmented flow is proposed. The performance of the system was demonstrated by the assay of acidity in fruit juices which is based on acid-base neutralization. A standard/sample solution containing citric acid, indicator, sodium hydroxide, were sandwiched between air segments and were aspirated in microliter volumes through a selection valve into a holding coil. The acid, indicator, and base were mixed by flow reversal. After removing air segments, the solution was pushed to the detector for monitoring of the change in absorbance of the indicator color, which depended on the concentration of the remaining base. With LOV, microliter volumes of the solution can be detected without dispersion of the color zone. A calibration graph (plot of absorbance vs. acidity value) in the range of 0.2-1.2% (w/v) as citric acid was established. Sample throughput of 30 sample h(-1) and good reproducibility (RSD = 1.2%, n= 11 for 0.6% acidity) were achieved. The procedure has been applied to determine acidity in fruit juices. PMID:15724157

Jakmunee, Jaroon; Pathimapornlert, Lop; Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap; Grudpan, Kate

2005-03-01

305

Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

2013-07-01

306

Potentiodynamic studies on anodic dissolution and passivation of tin, indium and tin–indium alloys in some fruit acids solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anodic dissolution and passivation of tin, indium and tin–indium alloys were studied in 0.5M solutions of both malic and citric acids, using potentiodynamic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The E\\/I curves showed that the anodic behavior of all investigated electrodes exhibits active\\/passive transition. The active region of tin involves two anodic peaks

Abdel-Rahman El-Sayed; Hossnia S. Mohran; Hany M. Abd El-Lateef

2009-01-01

307

Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0 ?g L(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0 ?g mL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance. PMID:24206704

Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Dong, Ai-Jun; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing

2014-03-15

308

New compounds from acid hydrolyzed products of the fruits of Momordica charantia L. and their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatas 1B.  

PubMed

Four new cucurbitane-type triterpene sapogenins, compounds 1-4, together with other eight known compounds were isolated from the acid-hydrolyzed fruits extract of Momordica charantia L. Their chemical structures were established by NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated as a key target for therapy against type II diabetes. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9 were shown inhibitory activities of 77%, 62%, 62% 60% and 68% against PTP1B, respectively. All of these tested compounds were exhibited higher PTP1B inhibition activities than that of the Na3VO4, a known PTP1B inhibitor used as positive control in present study. Structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that the inhibition activity of PTP1B was associated with the presence and number of -OH groups. PMID:24836069

Zeng, Ke; He, Yan-Ni; Yang, Di; Cao, Jia-Qing; Xia, Xi-Chun; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Bi, Xiu-Li; Zhao, Yu-Qing

2014-06-23

309

Matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection of residues of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is described for the quantitative extraction of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) from tomato fruit. After application of 120 microL of HNO3 1M to the sample, the dispersion column was packed with 0.5 g of sample blended into 1 g of NH2-silica. Two aqueous fractions were obtained. First, AMPA was eluted from the column using deionized water (F1), and then a NaH2PO4 0.005 M solution was used for the elution of glyphosate (F2). Cleanup of F1 and F2 was made by ion exchange chromatography on a SAX anion exchange silica. Determination was done by HPLC with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl). Mean recoveries calculated at fortification levels of 0.5 microg/g for glyphosate and 0.4 microg/g for AMPA were 87% and 78%, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=7) for the total procedure were 10% and 16%. Detection limits were 0.05 microg/g for glyphosate and 0.03 microg/g for AMPA. PMID:16233879

de Llasera, M P García; Gómez-Almaraz, L; Vera-Avila, L E; Peña-Alvarez, A

2005-11-01

310

Hepatoprotective action of an oleanolic acid-enriched extract of Ligustrum lucidum fruits is mediated through an enhancement on hepatic glutathione regeneration capacity in mice.  

PubMed

The fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (FLL) were fractionated into petroleum ether (FLL-Pe), chloroform (FLL-Ch), butanol (FLL-Bu) and aqueous (FLL-Aq) fractions, of which FLL-Ch and FLL-Bu were found to be enriched with oleanolic acid (OLA). The in vivo antioxidant activities of various FLL fractions and OLA were assessed by examining the effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Pretreatment of animals with various FLL fractions could protect against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity to a varying degree, with OLA-enriched FLL-Bu and FLL-Ch being more potent. However, a mortality rate of 60% was observed in the FLL-Ch pretreated and CCl(4)-intoxicated mice. OLA pretreatment also produced a dose-dependent protection against CCl(4) hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotection afforded by FLL-Bu or OLA pretreatment was associated with an enhancement of hepatic-glutathione regeneration capacity (GRC). In contrast, the inability of FLL-Aq pretreatment to enhance hepatic GRC resulted in a failure to prevent CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury. The results suggest that the hepatoprotective action afforded by OLA-enriched FLL-Bu or OLA pretreatment may be mainly mediated by the enhancement of hepatic GRC, particularly under conditions of CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress. PMID:11746839

Yim, T K; Wu, W K; Pak, W F; Ko, K M

2001-11-01

311

Ethylene-promoted conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid to ethylene in peel of apple at various stages of fruit development.  

PubMed

Internal ethylene concentration, ability to convert 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene (ethylene-forming enzyme [EFE] activity) and ACC content in the peel of apples (Malus domestica Borkh., cv Golden Delicious) increased only slightly during fruit maturation on the tree. Treatment of immature apples with 100 microliters ethylene per liter for 24 hours increased EFE activity in the peel tissue, but did not induce an increase in ethylene production. This ability of apple peel tissue to respond to ethylene with elevated EFE activity increased exponentially during maturation on the tree. After harvest of mature preclimacteric apples previously treated with aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine, 0.05 microliter per liter ethylene did not immediately cause a rapid increase of development in EFE activity in peel tissue. However, 0.5 microliter per liter ethylene and higher concentrations did. The ethylene concentration for half-maximal promotion of EFE development was estimated to be approximately 0.9 microliter per liter. CO(2) partially inhibited the rapid increase of ethylene-promoted development of EFE activity. It is suggested that ethylene-promoted CO(2) production is involved in the regulation of autocatalytic ethylene production in apples. PMID:16664658

Bufler, G

1986-02-01

312

Effects Of Skin Coating Materials, Storage Conditions On PH,Titratable Acidity And Vitamin C Contents Of Citrus Fruits Stored At Room And Refrigerated Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out on fruits of five species of Citrus namely, Citrus sinensis, (sweet orange); C reticulate, (tangerine); C aurantium, (sour orange); C auratifolia, (lime); C paradise (grapefruit).The different citrus fruits were treated by dipping in a mixture of detergent solution and petroleum jelly and wrapping with aluminium foil and stored at room and refrigerated temperatures for 12

AREKEMASE Musa Olusegun; OYEYIOLA Ganiyu Passy

2011-01-01

313

The Abundant Class III Chitinase Homolog in Young Developing Banana Fruits Behaves as a Transient Vegetative Storage Protein and Most Probably Serves as an Important Supply of Amino Acids for the Synthesis of Ripening-Associated Proteins1  

PubMed Central

Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a ?-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas.

Peumans, Willy J.; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L.; Van Damme, Els J.M.

2002-01-01

314

Integrated methods for processing palm fruit bunches  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention is directed to an integrated method for the processing of palm fruit bunches to oil and other products. The method comprises inter alia separating palm fruit carrying bunches into fruits and lignocellulosic empty fruit bunches, processing the fruits to form palm oil, and at least one lignocellulosic processing coproduct; generating an aqueous stream; producing a non-oil, non-alcohol, non-fatty acid ester third product from the oil, the lignocellulosic processing coproduct, the aqueous stream or from a combination thereof; processing at least a portion of the lignocellulosic empty fruit bunches, lignocellulosic processing coproduct or a combination thereof into a fourth product and optionally producing at least one fifth conversion product from the fourth product; and using at least a portion of the fourth product or a product of its conversion or a combination thereof.

2012-09-18

315

Cherry Fruit Abscission  

PubMed Central

Initiation of abscission at the pedicel-fruit zone in the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) occurs near the transition of Stage II to Stage III of fruit growth. The preinitiation phase is characterized by a high fruit removal force (FRF) and explants prepared from fruits during this period do not undergo abscission as indexed by a reduction in FRF. Ethylene does not cause a significant reduction in FRF either in attached fruit or in explants prepared during this period. By contrast, after initiation (Stage III of fruit growth), there is a marked decrease in FRF with fruit development, explants prepared from fruits during this period undergo abscission, and ethylene markedly promotes the loss in break-strength. Neither the rate of evolution nor the internal concentration of ethylene in the fruit were correlated with fruit abscission. Similar abscission responses, as indexed by FRF and sensitivity to ethylene, were observed in attached fruit and in detached fruit explants.

Wittenbach, Vernon A.; Bukovac, Martin J.

1974-01-01

316

Attenuating effect of standardized fruit extract of punica granatum L in rat model of tibial and sural nerve transection induced neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background Injury to a nerve is the most common reason of acquired peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, searching for effective substance to recover of nerve after injury is need of present era. The current study investigates the protective potential of Standardized Fruit Extract of Punica granatum L (PFE) [Ellagic acid (41.6%), Punicalagins (10%), Granatin (5.1%)] in Tibial & Sural Nerve Transection (TST) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods TST was performed by sectioning tibial and sural nerve portions of the sciatic nerve and leaving the common peroneal nerve intact. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate, paint brush & Walking Track tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical heat, hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia & tibial functional index respectively. The levels of TNF-?, TBARS, GSH and Nitrite were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation & oxidative stress. Results TST led to significant development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS, TNF-?, GSH and Nitrite. Administrations of PFE (100 & 300 mg/kg oral), significantly attenuate TST induced behavioral & biochemical changes. Pretreatments of BADGE (120 mg/kg IP) a PPAR-? antagonist and nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg IP) abolished the protective effect of PFE. Whereas, pretreatment of L-NAME (5 mg/kg IP) a NOS inhibitor significantly potentiated PFE’s protective effect of PFE. Conclusion PFE shown to have attenuating effect in TST induced neuropathic pain which may be attributed to potential PPAR-gamma agonistic activity, nitric oxide inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and anti oxidative actions.

2013-01-01

317

Aqueous date fruit extract protects against lipid peroxidation and improves antioxidant status in the liver of rats subchronically exposed to trichloroacetic acid.  

PubMed

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a prominent by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. It induces cell damage by producing free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective role of the aqueous date extract (ADE) against TCA-induced liver injury. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight: group I served as the control; group II was given ADE by gavage; groups III and IV received TCA as drinking water at 0.5 and 2 g/L, respectively; and groups V and VI were treated with ADE by gavage and then received TCA at 0.5 and 2 g/L, respectively, as drinking water. The experiment was performed for 2 months. The hepatotoxicity of TCA administration was revealed by an increase in the levels of hepatic marker enzymes (transaminases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and conjugated bilirubin and a decrease in albumin level. The TCA administration induced also significant elevation of the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) paralleled with a significant decline in catalase (CAT) activity. These biochemical alterations were accompanied by histological changes marked by the appearance of vacuolization, necrosis, congestion, inflammation, and enlargement of sinusoids in the liver section. Treatment with date palm fruit extract restored the liver damage induced by TCA, as demonstrated by inhibition of hepatic lipid peroxidation; amelioration of SOD, GPx, and CAT activities; and improvement of histopathology changes. These results suggest that ADE has a protective effect over TCA-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. PMID:24573459

El Arem, Amira; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Thouri, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Ayed, Amel; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

2014-06-01

318

Tomato Fruit Cell Wall 1  

PubMed Central

Cell wall isolation procedures were evaluated to determine their effect on the total pectin content and the degree of methylesterification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cell walls. Water homogenates liberate substantial amounts of buffer soluble uronic acid, 5.2 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall. Solubilization appears to be a consequence of autohydrolysis mediated by polygalacturonase II, isoenzymes A and B, since the uronic acid release from the wall residue can be suppressed by homogenization in the presence of 50% ethanol followed by heating. The extent of methylesterification in heat-inactivated cell walls, 94 mole%, was significantly greater than with water homogenates, 56 mole%. The results suggest that autohydrolysis, mediated by cell wall-associated enzymes, accounts for the solubilization of tomato fruit pectin in vitro. Endogenous enzymes also account for a decrease in the methylesterification during the cell wall preparation. The heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was superior to the other methods studied since it reduces ?-elimination during heating and inactivates constitutive enzymes that may modify pectin structure. This heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was used in subsequent enzymatic analysis of the pectin structure. Purified tomato fruit polygalacturonase and partially purified pectinmethylesterase were used to assess changes in constitutive substrates during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase treatment of heat-inactivated cell walls from mature green and breaker stages released 14% of the uronic acid. The extent of the release of polyuronides by polygalacturonase was fruit development stage dependent. At the turning stage, 21% of the pectin fraction was released, a value which increased to a maximum of 28% of the uronides at the red ripe stage. Pretreatment of the walls with purified tomato pectinesterase rendered walls from all ripening stages equally susceptible to polygalacturonase. Quantitatively, the release of uronides by polygalacturonase from all pectinesterase treated cell walls was equivalent to polygalacturonase treatment of walls at the ripe stage. Uronide polymers released by polygalacturonase contain galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose. As a function of development, an increase in the release of galacturonic acid and rhamnose was observed (40 and 6% of these polymers at the mature green stage to 54 and 15% at the red ripe stage, respectively). The amount of galactose and arabinose released by exogenous polygalacturonase decreased during development (41 and 11% from walls of mature green fruit to 11 and 6% at the red ripe stage, respectively). Minor amounts of glucose and xylose released from the wall by exogenous polygalacturonase (4-7%) remained constant throughout fruit development.

Koch, James L.; Nevins, Donald J.

1989-01-01

319

High-performance liquid chromatography--two wavelength detection of triterpenoid acids from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba containing various cultivars in different regions and classification using chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive HPLC-DAD method has been developed for the first time to simultaneously determine 10 triterpenoid acids (ceanothic acid, alphitolic acid, zizyberanal acid, zizyberanalic acid, epiceanothic acid, ceanothenic acid, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, ursonic acid and zizyberenalic acid) in the dried fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (called Dazao) which has been widely used as one of the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). This HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C(18) column (250 mm x 4.6mm, 5 microm) with the column temperature at 35 degrees C. The mobile phase was composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (0.05% aqueous phosphoric acid, v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the detection wave length was set at 205 nm for reference compounds 1-9 and 238 nm for reference compound 10. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2)>0.9999) within the test range. The established method showed good precision and accuracy with overall intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.43-1.72% and 0.53-2.45%, respectively, and overall recoveries of 94.98-104.09% for the 10 compounds analyzed. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the 10 triterpenoid acids in 42 batches of Dazao which contained 36 cultivars from 22 cultivation regions, and were investigated and authenticated as Z. jujuba. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of the 10 triterpenoid acids. The presented HPLC-DAD method conjugated with chemometrics approach was demonstrated to be very helpful in using Dazao resources, and was possibly useful in chemotaxonomic characterization. PMID:19359121

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Tang, Yuping; Su, Shulan; Shang, Erxin; Ni, Shumao; Qian, Dawei

2009-07-12

320

Aqueous thermal degradation of gallic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous thermal degradation experiments show gallic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic carboxylic compound, decomposes rapidly at temperatures between 105° and 150°C, with an activation energy of 22.9 or 27.8 kcal/ mole, depending on pH of the starting solution. Pyrogallol is the primary product identified, indicating degradation via decarboxylation and a carbanion transition state. Relatively rapid degradation of vanillic, phthalic, ellagic and tannic acids has also been observed, suggesting that these and perhaps other aromatic acids could be short-lived in deep formation waters.

Snow Boles, Jennifer; Crerar, David A.; Grissom, Grady; Key, Tonalee C.

1988-02-01

321

Aqueous thermal degradation of gallic acid  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous thermal degradation experiments show gallic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic carboxylic compound, decomposes rapidly at temperatures between 105/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C, with an activation energy of 22.9 or 27.8 kcal/mole, depending on pH of the starting solution. Pyrogallol is the primary product identified, indicating degradation via decarboxylation and a carbanion transition state. Relatively rapid degradation of vanillic, phthalic, ellagic and tannic acids has also been observed,suggesting that these and perhaps other aromatic acids could be short-lived in deep formation waters.

Boles, J.S.; Crerar, D.A.; Grissom, G.; Key, T.C.

1988-02-01

322

An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant capacity of a group of fruits obtained in the Singapore markets was investigated. A total of 27 fruit pulps were tested for their general antioxidant capacity based on their ability to scavenge 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical. The contribution of l-ascorbic acid (AA) to the total antioxidant activity of fruits was investigated by using RP-HPLC. The antioxidant capacity

L. P Leong; G Shui

2002-01-01

323

Determination of free and total phenolic acids in plant-derived foods by HPLC with diode-array detection.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with diode-array detection (DAD) was used to identify and quantify free and total phenolic acids (m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ellagic acid) in plant foods. Free phenolic acids were extracted with a mixture of methanol and 10% acetic acid. Bound phenolic acids were liberated using first alkaline and then acid hydrolysis followed by extraction with diethyl ether/ethyl acetate (1:1). All fractions were quantified separately by HPLC. After HPLC quantification, results of alkali and acid hydrolysates were calculated to represent total phenolic acids. Ellagic acid was quantified separately after long (20 h) acid hydrolysis. The methods developed were effective for the determination of phenolic acids in plant foods. DAD response was linear for all phenolic acids within the ranges evaluated, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. Coefficients of variation for 4-8 sample replicates were consistently below 10%. Recovery tests of phenolic acids were performed for every hydrolysis condition using several samples. Recoveries were generally good (mean >90%) with the exceptions of gallic acid and, in some cases, caffeic acid samples. PMID:12059140

Mattila, Pirjo; Kumpulainen, Jorma

2002-06-19

324

Mechanism of Fruit Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The making of a fruit is a developmental process unique to plants. It requires a complex network of interacting genes and\\u000a signaling pathways. In fleshy fruit, it involves three distinct stages, namely, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening.\\u000a Of these, ripening has received most attention from geneticists and breeders, as this important process activates a whole\\u000a set of biochemical

M. Bouzayen; A. Latché; P. Nath; J. C. Pech

325

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from olive fruit and leaf.  

PubMed

This work establishes a new procedure for the extraction and analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes, with which fruits and leaves from three Spanish olive cultivars ("Picual", "Hojiblanca", and "Arbequina") has been studied. The leaf contains important amounts of oleanolic acid (3.0-3.5% DW), followed by significant concentrations of maslinic acid and minor levels of ursolic acid, erythrodiol, and uvaol. The abundance and profile of triterpenoids change during the leaf ontogeny. In the fruit, triterpenes are exclusively located in the epicarp at concentrations 30-fold lower than that in the leaf. Maslinic acid is the main triterpenoid, only accompanied of oleanolic acid. Along the ripening the levels of these triterpenes decreased. All the analyzed leaves and fruits come from the same agricultural estate, with identical climate and culturing conditions. For this reason, the found differences could majorly be attributable to the genetic factors of the olive cultivars. PMID:20712364

Guinda, Angeles; Rada, Mirela; Delgado, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Adánez, Pilar; Castellano, José María

2010-09-01

326

Redox spectrophotometric method involving electrolytically generated manganese(III) sulphate with diphenylamine for the determination of ascorbic acid present in the samples of various fruits, commercial juices and sprouted food grains.  

PubMed

A spectrophotometric method was developed for ascorbic acid present in various fruits, commercial fruit juices and sprouted food grains. The method involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid with excess manganese(III) following reduction of unreacted manganese(III) with diphenylamine or barium diphenylamine sulphonate forming a product ?(max) 570 nm the system 1 or 540 nm the system 2 and decrease in the colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of vitamin C with quantification range 0.3-3.0 ?g ml(-1). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values of the system 1 and the system 2 were 1.829 × 10(4) and 1.813 × 10(4)mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.0096 and 0.0097 ?g cm(-2) respectively. The stoichiometry was 4:1 between manganese(III) and diphenylamine. The ascorbic acid contents of the same samples were determined separately following the procedures of the developed method as well as the reference method and the results were comparable. PMID:23411340

Shyla, B; Nagendrappa, G

2013-06-01

327

Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit.  

PubMed Central

The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA (TOMSSF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was only slight in the endosperm and was undetectable in the embryo, shoot, petiole, and leaf tissues. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in parallel with that of SuSy, but acid invertase activity did not increase in response to the reduced SuSy activity. The only effect on the carbohydrate content of young fruit was a slight reduction in starch accumulation. The in vitro sucrose import capacity of fruits was not reduced by SuSy inhibition at 23 days after anthesis, and the rate of starch synthesized from the imported sucrose was not lessened even when SuSy activity was decreased by 98%. However, the sucrose unloading capacity of 7-day-old fruit was substantially decreased in lines with low SuSy activity. In addition, the SuSy antisense fruit from the first week of flowering had a slower growth rate. A reduced fruit set, leading to markedly less fruit per plant at maturity, was observed for the plants with the least SuSy activity. These results suggest that SuSy participates in the control of sucrose import capacity of young tomato fruit, which is a determinant for fruit set and development.

D'Aoust, M A; Yelle, S; Nguyen-Quoc, B

1999-01-01

328

Modified 2,2-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic Acid (ABTS) Method to Measure Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Small Fruits and Comparison to Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2‘Diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of antioxidant capacity in fruits differs from that of other biological samples due to their low pH and very low lipophilic antioxidant capacity. In this report, we present a modified 2,2- azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) method for fruits and compare its performance with the other commonly used antioxidant methods of 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The

Mustafa Ozgen; R. Neil Reese; Artemio Z. Tulio; Joseph C. Scheerens; A. Raymond Miller

2006-01-01

329

Mark's Fruit Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

Rieger, Mark

330

Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.  

PubMed

Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a better understanding of the biochemistry of fruit ripening as well as providing a hand for genetic manipulation of the entire ripening process. It is desirable that significant breakthroughs in such related areas will come forth in the near future, leading to considerable societal benefits. PMID:17364693

Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

2007-01-01

331

Studying Current-Potential Curves Using a Bipotentiometric Lodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voltammetry principles are introduced to students by means of a bipotentiometric method to determine vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. The aim is to draw attention to voltammetric methods, particular to the study of current-potential curves, stressing the potential applicability in areas of food quality control.

Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M.

2004-01-01

332

Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.  

PubMed

More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

2010-01-27

333

Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01mg of vitamin C/100gDW, and 1579.04-1680.90?M Trolox/100gDW or 340.18-362.18mg of vitamin C/100gDW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

2015-01-01

334

Metabolic changes in fruits of the tomato dx mutant.  

PubMed

The tomato DWARF cytochrome P450 protein catalyzes the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxo-castasterone to castasterone. The d(x) mutant does not produce a functional DWARF enzyme, and d(x) shoots display severe symptoms of brassinosteroid-deficiency. However, fruits express the CYP85A3 protein which compensates for the deficiency of the DWARF protein and produce bioactive brassinosteroids. Here, we report on the metabolic characterization of d(x) fruits. Fruit size, fresh weight, and pigment content were not altered. However, d(x) fruits showed reduced dry mass content. Levels of starch and various sugars were reduced, amino acid levels were elevated. BR application to d(x) leaves partially normalized dry mass content, sugar and amino acid levels in d(x) fruits. The data demonstrate that brassinosteroid in shoots is required for fruit development in tomato. PMID:16930643

Lisso, Janina; Altmann, Thomas; Müssig, Carsten

2006-10-01

335

Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.  

PubMed

Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2013-12-01

336

Metabolic profiling of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) during fruit development and maturation.  

PubMed

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch), a fruit of economic and nutritional importance, is also a model species for fleshy fruits and genomics in Rosaceae. Strawberry fruit quality at different harvest stages is a function of the fruit's metabolite content, which results from physiological changes during fruit growth and ripening. In order to investigate strawberry fruit development, untargeted (GC-MS) and targeted (HPLC) metabolic profiling analyses were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to explore the non-polar and polar metabolite profiles from fruit samples at seven developmental stages. Different cluster patterns and a broad range of metabolites that exerted influence on cluster formation of metabolite profiles were observed. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found in both fruits turning red and fruits over-ripening in comparison with red-ripening fruits. The levels of free amino acids decreased gradually before the red-ripening stage, but increased significantly in the over-ripening stage. Metabolite correlation and network analysis revealed the interdependencies of individual metabolites and metabolic pathways. Activities of several metabolic pathways, including ester biosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the shikimate pathway, and amino acid metabolism, shifted during fruit growth and ripening. These results not only confirmed published metabolic data but also revealed new insights into strawberry fruit composition and metabolite changes, thus demonstrating the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit quality formation, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops. PMID:21041374

Zhang, Juanjuan; Wang, Xin; Yu, Oliver; Tang, Juanjuan; Gu, Xungang; Wan, Xiaochun; Fang, Congbing

2011-01-01

337

Direct determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid, in fruits and vegetables by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel method was developed for the direct, sensitive, and rapid determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in fruit and vegetable samples by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography (HILIC/WAX) coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Homogenized samples were extracted with water, without derivatization or further clean-up, and the extracts were injected directly onto the Asahipak NH2P-50 4E column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m). The best results were obtained when the column was operated under mixed-mode HILIC/WAX elution conditions. An initial 10-min washing step with acetonitrile/water (10:90, v/v) in HILIC mode was used to remove potentially interfering compounds, and then the analytes were eluted in WAX mode with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1 molL(-1) ammonium hydroxide under gradient elution for the ESI analysis in negative ion mode. Limits of quantification of glyphosate and AMPA were 5 ?gkg(-1) and 50 ?gkg(-1), respectively, with limits of detection as low as 1.2 ?gkg(-1) for glyphosate and 15 ?gkg(-1) for AMPA. The linearity was satisfactory, with correlation coefficients (r)>0.9966. Recovery studies were carried out on spiked matrices (6 vegetables, 3 fruits) with glyphosate at four concentrations and AMPA at three concentrations. The mean recoveries for glyphosate and AMPA were 75.3-110% and 76.1-110%, respectively, with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.1-13.8%. The intra-day precision (n=7) for glyphosate and AMPA in vegetable and fruit samples spiked at an intermediate level between 5.9% and 7.5%, and the inter-day precision over 11 days (n=11) was between 7.0% and 13%. PMID:23261284

Chen, Ming-Xue; Cao, Zhao-Yun; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Wei

2013-01-11

338

Quince (Cydonia oblonga miller) fruit characterization using principal component analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents a large amount of data on the composition of quince fruit with regard to phenolic compounds, organic acids, and free amino acids. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried out to characterize this fruit. The main purposes of this study were (i) the clarification of the interactions among three factors-quince fruit part, geographical origin of the fruits, and harvesting year-and the phenolic, organic acid, and free amino acid profiles; (ii) the classification of the possible differences; and (iii) the possible correlation among the contents of phenolics, organic acids, and free amino acids in quince fruit. With these aims, quince pulp and peel from nine geographical origins of Portugal, harvested in three consecutive years, for a total of 48 samples, were studied. PCA was performed to assess the relationship among the different components of quince fruit phenolics, organic acids, and free amino acids. Phenolics determination was the most interesting. The difference between pulp and peel phenolic profiles was more apparent during PCA. Two PCs accounted for 81.29% of the total variability, PC1 (74.14%) and PC2 (7.15%). PC1 described the difference between the contents of caffeoylquinic acids (3-O-, 4-O-, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin 3-galactoside, rutin, kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, quercetin glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid, and kaempferol glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid). PC2 related the content of 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid with the contents of 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids. PCA of phenolic compounds enables a clear distinction between the two parts of the fruit. The data presented herein may serve as a database for the detection of adulteration in quince derivatives. PMID:15631517

Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Martins, Rui C; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

2005-01-12

339

Proteomic analysis of up-accumulated proteins associated with fruit quality during autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening is a complex phenomenon that makes berries attractive and also determines their nutritional value. Autumn olive ( Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) fruit is a rich source of many human health-related nutrients. The changes in pericarp color are initiated at early developmental stages, coinciding with the fast increase in fruit size. Fruit quality traits with special emphasis on soluble sugars, organic acids, lycopene, and total protein contents were assayed during the fruit ripening. In the fully ripe fruit, glucose and fructose were the principal sugars, malic acid was the most abundant organic acid, and lycopene concentration was extremely high. A proteomic analysis was used to identify up-accumulated proteins induced by the ripening. Among 63 up-accumulated protein spots, 43 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. All 43 proteins were novel for autumn olive, and 8 were first reported in the fruit. Twenty-one proteins of known function were involved in sugar metabolism, citric acid cycle, isoprenoid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and protein hydrolysis. The possible roles of these 21 accumulated proteins in autumn olive fruit quality are discussed. PMID:21175188

Wu, Man-Cheng; Hu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Li; Yang, Ling

2011-01-26

340

Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.  

PubMed

Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

Antonious, George F

2014-10-01

341

Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

PubMed

We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

2008-06-01

342

Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

2012-01-01

343

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

344

Ellagica acid inhibits arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity and DNA adduct formation in human bladder tumor cell lines (T24 and TSGH 8301)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that vitamin C (ascorbic acid) exhibits a protective effect in certain types of cancer is well documented. Our previous studies demonstrated that human bladder tumor cell line (T24) has N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity in cytosols and intact cells. The present studies examined the inhibition of arylamine NAT activity and carcinogen (2-aminofluorene)-DNA adduct formation by ellagic acid (EA) in human

S. Lin; C. Hung; Y. Tyan; C. Yang; T. Hsia; M. Yang; J. Chung

2001-01-01

345

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

346

Hormonal regulation of ripening in the strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanin accumulation is one measure of ripening in the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit. Neither aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase, nor inhibitors of ethylene action (silver, norbornadiene) affected anthocyanin accumulation in ripening fruit. When the achenes were removed from one half of an unripe fruit there was an accelerated accumulation of anthocyanin and induction of

N. K. Given; M. A. Venis; D. Gierson

1988-01-01

347

Attractant for Male Mediterranean Fruit Fly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention concerns a method for attracting male Mediterranean fruit flies. The attractant substance is methyl (E)-6-nonenoate and it may be used alone or in combination with (E)-6-nonen-1-o1 and mixtures of fatty acids to enhance its activity and long...

K. Ohinata M. Jacobson S. Nakagawa

1978-01-01

348

Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

The ripeness degree of climacteric fruits, such as avocado ( Persea americana Mill.), can be correlated with rheological properties. However, there remains little information on not only the postharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins but also the spatial variation within fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and composition of fatty acids and major nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of fruit tissue during ripening is unknown. The texture of different horizontally cut slices from individual fruits within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. The composition of fatty acids and NSCs in fruit mesocarp tissue was determined. The composition of fatty acids and oil and dry matter contents varied significantly according to origin. Significant changes in texture, mannoheptulose and perseitol contents, and linoleic acid percentage were found in avocado fruit flesh during ripening. Spatial variation within fruit was detected in both textural and biochemical characteristics. PMID:19580285

Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine Dorothée; Terry, Leon Alexander

2009-08-12

349

Composition of the cuticle of developing sweet cherry fruit.  

PubMed

The composition of wax and cutin from developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit was studied by GC-MS between 22 and 85 days after full bloom (DAFB). In this and our previous study, fruit mass and surface area increased in a sigmoidal pattern with time, but mass of the cuticular membrane (CM) per unit fruit surface area decreased. On a whole fruit basis, mass of CM increased up to 36 DAFB and remained constant thereafter. At maturity, triterpenes, alkanes and alcohols accounted for 75.6%, 19.1% and 1.2% of total wax, respectively. The most abundant constituents were the triterpenes ursolic (60.0%) and oleanolic acid (7.5%), the alkanes nonacosane (13.0%) and heptacosane (3.0%), and the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol (1.1%). In developing fruit triterpenes per unit area decreased, but alkanes and alcohols remained essentially constant. The cutin fraction of mature fruit consisted of mostly C16 (69.5%) and, to a lower extent, C18 monomers (19.4%) comprising alkanoic, omega-hydroxyacids, alpha,omega-dicarboxylic and midchain hydroxylated acids. The most abundant constituents were 9(10),16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic acid (53.6%) and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic acid (7.8%). Amounts of C16 and C18 monomers per unit area decreased in developing fruit, but remained approximately constant on a whole fruit basis. Within both classes of monomers, opposing changes occurred. Amounts of hexadecandioic, 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic, 9(10)-hydroxy-hexadecane-1,16-dioic and 9,10-epoxy-octadecane-1,18-dioic acids increased, but 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecenoic acids decreased. There were no qualitative and minor quantitative differences in wax and cutin composition between cultivars at maturity. Our data indicate that deposition of some constituents of wax and cutin ceased during early fruit development. PMID:17328933

Peschel, Stefanie; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Knoche, Moritz

2007-04-01

350

Mutant Fruit Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

0002-11-30

351

Banana Fruit Ripening as Influenced by Edible Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chitosan 1% and 1.5%, calcium chloride (CaCl2) 1% and 1.5%, chitosan 1% + gibberellic acid 100 ppm, chitosan 1.5% + gibberellic acid 100 ppm, jojoba wax, and glycerol (98%) coatings were evaluated on the shelf life and postharvest quality characteristics of banana fruits stored at 34 ± 1°C and 70–75% relative humidity, while uncoated fruits served as

Neeta B. Gol; T. V. Ramana Rao

2011-01-01

352

Anthelmintic activity of phenolic acids from the axlewood tree Anogeissus leiocarpus on the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi and drug-resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The effect of three phenols (ellagic, gentisic and gallic acids) from the axlewood tree Anogeissus leiocarpus on Onchocerca ochengi and drug-resistant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism for research on nematode parasites, is investigated. Worms were incubated in different concentrations of phenols and their survival was monitored after 48 h. Among the three acids, ellagic acid strongly affected the survival of O. ochengi microfilariae, O. ochengi adults, a wild-type C. elegans and anthelmintic-resistant strains of C. elegans, namely albendazole (CB3474), levamisole (CB211, ZZ16) and ivermectin (VC722, DA1316), with LC50 values ranging from 0.03 mm to 0.96 mm. These results indicate that the binding of ellagic acid in the worm differs from that of resistant strains of C. elegans. The efficacy of both gallic and gentisic acids was not significantly changed in resistant strains of C. elegans treated with levamisole (ZZ16, LC50= 9.98 mm, with gallic acid), albendazole (CB3474, LC50= 7.81 mm, with gentisic acid) and ivermectin (DA1316, LC50= 10.62 mm, with gentisic acid). The efficacy of these three pure compounds is in accordance with the use of A. leiocarpus from its locality of origin. The in vivo toxicity data reveal that the thresholds are up to 200 times higher than the determined LC50 values. Thus, ellagic acid could be a potential option for the treatment of nematode infections, even in cases of drug resistance towards established anthelmintic drugs. PMID:23768773

Ndjonka, D; Abladam, E D; Djafsia, B; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Achukwi, M D; Liebau, E

2013-06-17

353

Detection of in vivo genotoxicity of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds and suppression by ascorbic acid, teas and fruit juices.  

PubMed

The genotoxicity of endogenously formed N-nitrosamines from secondary amines and sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) was evaluated in multiple organs of mice, using comet assay. Groups of four male mice were orally given dimethylamine, proline, and morpholine simultaneously with NaNO(2). The stomach, colon, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, lung, brain, and bone marrow were sampled 3 and 24 h after these compounds had been ingested. Although secondary amines and the NaNO(2) tested did not yield DNA damage in any of the organs tested, DNA damage was observed mainly in the liver following simultaneous oral ingestion of these compounds. The administration within a 60 min interval also yielded hepatic DNA damage. It is considered that DNA damage induced in mouse organs with the coexistence of amines and nitrite in the acidic stomach is due to endogenously formed nitrosamines. Ascorbic acid reduced the liver DNA damage induced by morpholine and NaNO(2). Reductions in hepatic genotoxicity of endogenously formed N-nitrosomorpholine by tea polyphenols, such as catechins and theaflavins, and fresh apple, grape, and orange juices were more effective than was by ascorbic acid. In contrast with the antimutagenicity of ascorbic acid in the liver, ascorbic acid yielded stomach DNA damage in the presence of NaNO(2) (in the presence and absence of morpholine). Even if ascorbic acid acts as an antimutagen in the liver, nitric oxide (NO) formed from the reduction of NaNO(2) by ascorbic acid damaged stomach DNA. PMID:12948815

Ohsawa, Koh-ichi; Nakagawa, Shin-ya; Kimura, Masaaki; Shimada, Chihiro; Tsuda, Shuji; Kabasawa, Kazumi; Kawaguchi, Satomi; Sasaki, Yu F

2003-08-01

354

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel ( Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite design was employed to optimize the extraction of pectin with citric acid. The independent variables were citric acid concentration (0.086–2.91% w\\/v) and extraction time (17–102min). The combined effect of these variables on the degree of esterification was investigated. Results have shown that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship

Elo?´sa Rovaris Pinheiro; Iolanda M. D. A. Silva; Luciano V. Gonzaga; Edna R. Amante; Reinaldo F. Teófilo; Márcia M. C. Ferreira; Renata D. M. C. Amboni

2008-01-01

355

Functions of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family in Ganoderma lucidum: an essential role in ganoderic acid biosynthesis regulation, hyphal branching, fruiting body development, and oxidative-stress resistance.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum has drawn worldwide interest with regard to its secondary metabolism and pharmaceutical activity. However, the development of such research has been limited because of a lack of basic biological knowledge. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Nox) have recently been highlighted because of the many important biological roles in plants and animals; however, the exact functions of Nox are still not fully understood in fungi. In this study, we identified two Nox isoforms (NoxA and NoxB) and a regulator, NoxR. RNA interference was used, and silencing of the Nox isoforms and NoxR expression indicated a central role for these genes in hyphal branching, fruiting body development, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ROS resistance and ganoderic acid biosynthesis regulation. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that Nox-generated ROS elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels by activating a plasma membrane Ca(2+) influx pathway, thereby inducing the Ca(2+) signal pathway to regulate ganoderic acid biosynthesis and hyphal branching. Importantly, our results highlight the Nox functions in signal crosstalk between ROS and Ca(2+) , and these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify the potential pathway linking ROS networks to calcium signalling in fungi and suggest that plants, animals and fungi share a conserved signal-crosstalk mechanism. PMID:24238263

Mu, Dashuai; Li, Chenyang; Zhang, Xuchen; Li, Xiongbiao; Shi, Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Mingwen

2014-06-01

356

Six new secoiridoids from the dried fruits of Ligustrum lucidum.  

PubMed

Six new secoiridoid constituents, named isoligustrosidic acid (1), 6'-O-trans-cinnamoyl 8-epikingisidic acid (2), 6'-O-cis-cinnamoyl 8-epikingisidic acid (3), oleopolynuzhenide A (4), nuzhenals A (5) and B (6) were isolated from the dried fruits of Ligustrum lucidum AIT. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral and chemical data. PMID:22293486

Aoki, Syota; Honda, Yurika; Kikuchi, Tomoyuki; Miura, Takumi; Sugawara, Ryo; Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

2012-01-01

357

Antimutagenicity of some citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed

The antimutagenic effect of 10 citrus fruit juices was observed against the mutagenicity of N-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in TA97a and sodium azide in TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium using the Ames test. It was noticed that the juices of all these fruits reduced significantly the NPD and sodium azide induced revertant colonies. The inhibitory activity was enhanced if the mutagen and juice were co-incubated for about 30 min at 37 degrees C prior to performing the mutagenicity assay. Dilution with distilled water led to the reduction in the inhibitory activity. The antimutagenic activity of synthetic ascorbic acid or citric acid or combined ascorbic acid and citric acid was also seen. But the results with fruit juices tempted us to believe that in addition to ascorbic acid and citric acid, the presence of other factor(s) possessing antimutagenic properties cannot be ruled out. PMID:2646532

Bala, S; Grover, I S

1989-03-01

358

Allergenic potency of kiwi fruit during fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergies, including kiwi fruit allergy, have been the subject of extensive research in the last few years. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between the developmental stage of kiwi fruit and its allergenic potency. The protein and allergen patterns of kiwi fruit extracts in September, October, November and December fruit in the period from

Marija Gavrovic-Jankulovic; Natalija Polovic; Sladjana Prisic; Ratko M. Jankov; Marina Atanaskovic-Markovic; Olga Vuckovic; Tanja Cirkovic Velickovic

2005-01-01

359

Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Société d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicité (SECODIP) and Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet. PMID:16920856

Brat, Pierre; Georgé, Stéphane; Bellamy, Annick; Du Chaffaut, Laure; Scalbert, Augustin; Mennen, Louise; Arnault, Nathalie; Amiot, Marie Josèphe

2006-09-01

360

Phenolic and antioxidant profiles of rowan (Sorbus L.) fruits.  

PubMed

Fruits of different Sorbus L. species have been traditionally used in food production and in the treatment of various ailments. Besides common antioxidant active phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, tocopherols and carotenoids, fruits are rich in phenolic compounds that are of particular interest. In this study, profiles of separate antioxidant active compounds (reducing and radical-scavenging activities) were investigated using online assays with post-column reactions. Significant variations in phenolic acids and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity values were observed in the fruits of Sorbus L. species studied. Neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids were determined as markers of antioxidant activity. Characteristic patterns of antioxidant profiles obtained using HPLC post-column FRAP and ABTS assays significantly depend on specific Sorbus L. species and are suitable for equivalency research of Sorbus L. fruits. PMID:24628690

Raudonis, Raimondas; Raudon?, Lina; Gaivelyt?, Kristina; Viškelis, Pranas; Janulis, Valdimaras

2014-08-01

361

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1996-01-01

362

Study on lipid changes of leaves and fruits olive adapted to high temperature condition Inkhuzestan.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the quantitative changes of olive leaves and fruits lipid during fruit ripening in olive cv. Manzanillo and cv. Dezful. Total lipids were measured and analyzed fatty acids by gas chromatography (GC) in on and off years. Present results showed that; Major fatty acids of leaves and fruits were palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid. In spite of fruit, means total lipid of leave were significantly difference between on and off years; although total lipids and fatty acids increase during ripening but there are negative regression between palmitic and oleic acid content of leaves and fruits. Oleic and palmitic acid ratio to total fatty acid gradually increased in fruit and leave respectively. Fruit size of Dezful cv. smaller than Manzanillo cv. But its lipid amount was more than Manzanillo cv. Oleic content was equal in both fruit cultivar. Comparisons of these results with our previous results on Olive cv. zard from Guilan show those climate dose not have important effect on lipid accumulative and alternate bearing. But regard to saturated fatty acid of two mentioned cultivar in this research the result showed that it is higher than considerably in the Dezful and Manzanillo cv. The great amount of saturated fatty acids is a suitable character for plant grown in high temperature conditions. PMID:19093527

Nejad, Mansour Seyyed; Niroomand, Azadeh

2007-12-15

363

Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.  

PubMed

The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

2014-04-01

364

Effect of sample preparation on the measurement of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols in apple fruit by mid-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (i) to test different conditions of freezing, thawing, and grinding during sample preparation and (ii) to evaluate the possibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy for analyzing the composition of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols in apples. Seven commercial apple cultivars were chosen for their large variability in composition (total polyphenols from 406 to 1033 mg kg(-1) fresh weight). The different conditions of sample preparation affected only the phenolic compounds and not sugars or organic acids. The regression models of the mid-infrared spectra showed a good ability to estimate sugar and organic acid contents (R(2) ? 0.96), except for citric acid. Good predictions were obtained for total phenolic, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidins (R(2) ? 0.94) provided oxidation was avoided during sample preparation. A rapid and simple procedure was then proposed for phenolic compounds using sodium fluoride during sample homogenization at ambient temperature and freeze-drying before spectra acquisition. PMID:22409403

Bureau, Sylvie; Scibisz, Iwona; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Renard, Catherine M G C

2012-04-11

365

Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1  

PubMed Central

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production.

Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

2003-01-01

366

Fruits and vegetables (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

367

Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness.  

PubMed

The olive tree lacks dormancy and is low temperature sensitive, with differences in cold tolerance and oil quality among genotypes. The oil is produced in the drupe, and the unsaturated fatty acids contribute to its quality. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship among development, cold response, expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes, and unsaturated fatty acid composition in drupes belonging to genotypes differing in leaf cold tolerance, but producing good oil (i.e. the non-hardy Moraiolo, the semi-hardy Frantoio, and the hardy Canino). In all genotypes, cold sensitivity, evaluated by cold-induced transient increases in cytosolic calcium, was high in the epi-mesocarp cells before oil body formation, and decreased during oil biogenesis. However, genotype-dependent differences in cold sensitivity appeared at the end of oil production. Genotype-dependent differences in FAD2.1, FAD2.2, FAD6, and FAD7 expression levels occurred in the epi-mesocarp cells during the oleogenic period. However, FAD2.1 and FAD7 were always the highest in the first part of this period. FAD2.2 and FAD7 increased after cold applications during oleogenesis, independently of the genotype. Unsaturated fatty acids increased in the drupes of the non-hardy genotype, but not in those of the hardy one, after cold exposure at the time of the highest FAD transcription. The results show a direct relationship between FAD expression and lipid desaturation in the drupes of the cold-sensitive genotype, and an inverse relationship in those of the cold-resistant genotype, suggesting that drupe cold acclimation requires a fine FAD post-transcriptional regulation. Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed. PMID:21357772

Matteucci, M; D'Angeli, S; Errico, S; Lamanna, R; Perrotta, G; Altamura, M M

2011-06-01

368

Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness  

PubMed Central

The olive tree lacks dormancy and is low temperature sensitive, with differences in cold tolerance and oil quality among genotypes. The oil is produced in the drupe, and the unsaturated fatty acids contribute to its quality. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship among development, cold response, expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes, and unsaturated fatty acid composition in drupes belonging to genotypes differing in leaf cold tolerance, but producing good oil (i.e. the non-hardy Moraiolo, the semi-hardy Frantoio, and the hardy Canino). In all genotypes, cold sensitivity, evaluated by cold-induced transient increases in cytosolic calcium, was high in the epi-mesocarp cells before oil body formation, and decreased during oil biogenesis. However, genotype-dependent differences in cold sensitivity appeared at the end of oil production. Genotype-dependent differences in FAD2.1, FAD2.2, FAD6, and FAD7 expression levels occurred in the epi-mesocarp cells during the oleogenic period. However, FAD2.1 and FAD7 were always the highest in the first part of this period. FAD2.2 and FAD7 increased after cold applications during oleogenesis, independently of the genotype. Unsaturated fatty acids increased in the drupes of the non-hardy genotype, but not in those of the hardy one, after cold exposure at the time of the highest FAD transcription. The results show a direct relationship between FAD expression and lipid desaturation in the drupes of the cold-sensitive genotype, and an inverse relationship in those of the cold-resistant genotype, suggesting that drupe cold acclimation requires a fine FAD post-transcriptional regulation. Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed.

Matteucci, M.; D'Angeli, S.; Errico, S.; Lamanna, R.; Perrotta, G.; Altamura, M. M.

2011-01-01

369

[Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].  

PubMed

The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function. PMID:25055366

Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

2014-04-01

370

Chemical changes during the development and ripening of the fruit of Cucumis melo (Cv. Makdimon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the aroma volatiles, free amino acids, sugars, principal acids, and soluble minerals were studied during the development and ripening of the fruit of Cucumis melo L. Reticulatis group cv. Makdimon. Ethyl acetate was the most abundant volatile produced during the final growth stage, but ethanol was the major volatile found in immature fruit. Most of the free amino

Youming Wang; S. Grant Wyllie; David N. Leach

1996-01-01

371

Suberin production by isolated tomato fruit protoplasts.  

PubMed

The multilamellar wall secreted by protoplasts isolated from locule tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was purified, and an extract was obtained after depolymerization with BF(3)-methanol. Analysis of this extract using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters, and omega-hydroxy acid methyl esters. These components were quantified using an Iatroscan thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection system. The different chain lengths in each group were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. The results clearly indicated the presence of suberin. PMID:16663693

Rao, G S; Willison, J H; Ratnayake, W M

1984-07-01

372

Sink Metabolism in Tomato Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

Fruit of domesticated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) accumulate primarily glucose and fructose, whereas some wild tomato species, including Lycopersicon chmielewskii, accumulate sucrose. Genetic analysis of progeny resulting from a cross between L. chmielewskii and L. esculentum indicated that the sucrose-accumulating trait could be stably transferred and that the trait was controlled by the action of one or two recessive genes. Biochemical analysis of progeny resulting from this cross indicated that the sucrose-accumulating trait was associated with greatly reduced levels of acid invertase, but normal levels of sucrose synthase. Invertase from hexose-accumulating fruit was purified and could be resolved into three isoforms by chromatofocusing, each with isoelectric points between 5.1 and 5.5. The invertase isoforms showed identical polypeptide profiles on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, consisting of a primary 52 kilodalton polypeptide and two lower molecular mass polypeptides that appear to be degradation products of the 52 kilodalton polypeptide. The three invertase isoforms were indistinguishable based on pH, temperature, and substrate concentration dependence. Immunological detection of invertase indicated that the low level of invertase in sucrose-accumulating fruit was due to low levels of invertase protein rather than the presence of an invertase inhibitor. Based on comparison of genetic and biochemical data we speculate that a gene either encoding tomato fruit acid invertase or one required for its expression, plays an important role in determining sucrose accumulation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 10

Yelle, Serge; Chetelat, Roger T.; Dorais, Martin; DeVerna, Joseph W.; Bennett, Alan B.

1991-01-01

373

The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

2014-01-15

374

Reversible Inhibition of Tomato Fruit Gene Expression at High Temperature (Effects on Tomato Fruit Ripening).  

PubMed

The reversible inhibition of three ripening-related processes by high-temperature treatment (38[deg]C) was examined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Daniella) fruit. Ethylene production, color development, and softening were inhibited during heating and recovered afterward, whether recovery took place at 20[deg]C or fruit were first held at chilling temperature (2[deg]C) after heating and then placed at 20[deg]C. Ethylene production and color development proceeded normally in heated fruit after 14 d of chilling, whereas the unheated fruit had delayed ethylene production and uneven color development. Levels of mRNA for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, phytoene synthase, and polygalacturonase decreased dramatically during the heat treatment but recovered afterward, whereas the mRNA for HSP17 increased during the high-temperature treatment and then decreased when fruit were removed from heat. As monitored by western blots, the HSP17 protein disappeared from fruit tissue after 3 d at 20[deg]C but remained when fruit were held at 2[deg]C. The persistence of heat-shock proteins at low temperature may be relevant to the protection against chilling injury provided by the heat treatment. Protein levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase and polygalacturonase also did not closely follow the changes in their respective mRNAs. This implied both differences in relative stability and turnover rates of mRNA compared to protein and nontranslation of the message that accumulated in low temperature. The results suggest that high temperature inhibits ripening by inhibiting the accumulation of ripening-related mRNAs. Ripening processes that depend on continuous protein synthesis including ethylene production, lycopene accumulation, and cell-wall dissolution are thereby diminished. PMID:12226253

Lurie, S.; Handros, A.; Fallik, E.; Shapira, R.

1996-04-01

375

The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits.  

PubMed

The nutritional jujube ( Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruit belonging to the Rhamnaceous family grows mostly in Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and Australia, especially the inland region of northern China. Jujube has a long history of usage as a fruit and remedy. The main biologically active components are vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenic acids, and polysaccharides. Recent phytochemical studies of jujube fruits have shed some light on their biological effects, such as the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and gastrointestinal protective activities and inhibition of foam cell formation in macrophages. A stronger focus on clinical studies and phytochemical definition of jujube fruits will be essential for future research efforts. This review may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses and potential drug or food interactions and may be beneficial for people living where the jujube fruits are prevalent and health care resources are scarce. PMID:23480594

Gao, Qing-Han; Wu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Min

2013-04-10

376

Phenolic compounds, organic acids profiles and antioxidative properties of beefsteak fungus (Fistulina hepatica).  

PubMed

The phenolic compounds and the organic acids composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. The results showed a profile composed by five phenolic compounds (caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin) and six organic acids (oxalic, aconitic, citric, malic, ascorbic and fumaric acids). The quantification of the identified compounds revealed that ellagic acid (ca. 49.7%) and malic acid (ca. 57.9%) are the main compounds in this species. In a general way the phenolic profile revealed to be more constant than the organic acids one and could be more useful for the quality control of the species. Beefsteak fungus was also investigated for its capacity to act as a scavenger of DPPH() radical and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid). Good results were obtained against DPPH in a concentration-dependent manner. Beefsteak fungus also displayed good activity against superoxide radical, achieved by its capacity to act as both scavenger and xanthine oxidase inhibitor. A prooxidant effect was noticed for hydroxyl radical, which may be due to its capacity for iron ions reduction. Little ability for iron chelation was also observed. Beefsteak fungus showed a weak protective effect against hypochlorous acid. PMID:17493733

Ribeiro, Bárbara; Valentão, Patrícia; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

2007-10-01

377

The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance.

Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P.; Lo, Hui-Chen

2014-01-01

378

Diurnal Water Balance of the Cowpea Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

The vascular network of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) fruit exhibits the anatomical potential for reversible xylem flow between seeds, pod, and parent plant. Feeding of cut shoots with the apoplast marker acid fuchsin showed that fruits imported regularly via xylem at night, less frequently in early morning, and only rarely in the afternoon. The dye never entered seeds or inner dorsal pod strands connecting directly to seeds. Root feeding (early morning) of intact plants with 32PO4 or 3H2O rapidly (20 min) labeled pod walls but not seeds, consistent with uptake through xylem. Weak subsequent (4 hours) labeling of seeds suggested slow secondary exchange of label with the phloem stream to the fruit. Vein flap feeding of subtending leaves with [14C]sucrose, 3H2O, and 32PO4 labeled pod and seed intensely, indicating mass flow in phloem to the fruit. Over 90% of the 14C and 3H of fruit cryopuncture phloem sap was as sucrose and water, respectively. Specific 3H activities of transpired water collected from fruits and peduncles were assayed over 4 days after feeding 3H2O to roots, via leaf flaps, or directly to fruits. The data indicated that fruits transpired relatively less xylem-derived (apoplastic) water than did peduncles, that fruit and peduncle relied more heavily on phloem-derived (symplastic) water for transpiration in the day than at night, and that water diffusing back from the fruit was utilized in peduncle transpiration, especially during the day. The data collectively support the hypothesis of a diurnally reversing xylem flow between developing fruit and plant. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Pate, John S.; Peoples, Mark B.; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Kuo, John; Atkins, Craig A.

1985-01-01

379

Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits  

PubMed Central

Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening and non-climacteric fruit ripening in general.

2012-01-01

380

Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.  

PubMed

Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. PMID:24360417

Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

2014-05-01

381

Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content. PMID:22518928

Abu-Zahra, T R

2011-09-15

382

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops.

2014-01-01

383

Oil from the kernels of lalob fruit, balanites aegyptiaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Lalob fruit from the Sudan has been examined by modern chemical and physical methods. The kernels which amount to 9 to 10%\\u000a of the fruit contain approximately 46% oil. Extraction of the ground kernels with commercial hexane yields a light yellow\\u000a oil, having a composition calculated from iodine-thiocyanogen values corresponding to 43.8% linolein, 30.5% olein, 23.7% saturated\\u000a acid glycerides, and

S. A. Hussain; F. G. Dollear; R. T. O’Connor

1949-01-01

384

Analysis of the hydrodistillate from the fruits of Serenoa repens.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the hydrodistillate won by steam distillation from the fruits of Serenoa repens (W. Bartram), a well known phytomedicine against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), was analyzed by GC-MS. It resulted in the identification of 144 steam-volatile components including about 100 structures which have not been described as constituents of the fruits from S. repens so far. The main component detected was lauric acid (40.4 %). PMID:19140098

Rösler, Thomas W; Matusch, Rudolf; Weber, Berthold; Schwarze, Bodo

2009-02-01

385

Polyamine-induced prolongation of storage in tomato fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) of cv. ‘Rutgers’ and the line ‘