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1

Effects of Cultivar, Fruit Number and Reflected Photosynthetically Active Radiation on Fragaria × ananassa Productivity and Fruit Ellagic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Concentrations  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims A number of strawberry varieties were surveyed for their total ellagic acid concentration, and attempts were made to determine if ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations of two strawberry cultivars could be increased by polythene reflective mulches. • Methods After adjusting crop yields and cultivation using polythene mulches with two different PAR reflective capacities, field- and polytunnel-grown strawberries were analysed for ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations by HPLC. Comparative measurements of yield and fruit quality were determined along with plant developmental changes. • Key Results Ellagic acid concentration varied widely with strawberry cultivar (60–341?µg g?1 frozen weight), as did the ratio of conjugated ellagic acid?:?free ellagic acid. Also, there was significant year-to-year variation in total ellagic acid concentration with some cultivars. Mulches with different reflective capacities impacted on strawberry production; highly reflective mulches significantly increased growth and yield, the latter due to increases in fruit size and number. • Conclusions Highly reflective mulches significantly increased total concentrations of ellagic acid and ascorbic acid relative to control in fruit of different cultivars. The potential of agronomic practices to enhance the concentration and amounts of these important dietary bioactive compounds is discussed. PMID:16423867

ATKINSON, C. J.; DODDS, P. A. A.; FORD, Y. Y.; LE MIÈRE, J.; TAYLOR, J. M.; BLAKE, P. S.; PAUL, N.

2006-01-01

2

Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

2014-06-01

3

Effects of fruit ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, urolithin A, on Wnt signaling.  

PubMed

Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites, which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis, and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. This study investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET-rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method) and to EA content (by high-performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry = 20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry = 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate = 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET extracts (IC(50) = 28.0-30.0 microg/mL), EA (IC(50) = 19.0 microg/mL; 63 microM), and UA (IC(50) = 9.0 microg/mL; 39 microM) inhibited Wnt signaling, suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P

2010-04-14

4

The Effects of Proresolution of Ellagic Acid in an Experimental Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a disease of airway inflammation characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, and hypersecretion of mucus. Ellagic acid, a compound derived from medicinal plants and fruits, has shown anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental disease models. We used the classical experimental model, in BALB/c mice, of sensibilization with ovalbumin to determine the effect of ellagic acid (10?mg/kg; oral route) in the resolution of allergic airways response. Dexamethasone (1?mg/kg; subcutaneous route) was used as a positive control. The control group consisted of nonimmunized mice that received challenge with ovalbumin. Ellagic acid and dexamethasone or vehicle (water) were administered before or after intranasal allergen challenge. Ellagic acid accelerated the resolution of airways inflammation by decreasing total leukocytes and eosinophils numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the mucus production and lung inflammation in part by reducing IL-5 concentration, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity, and P-selectin expression, but not activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathways. In addition, ellagic acid enhanced alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of IgG-OVA-coated beads ex vivo, a new proresolving mechanism for the clearance of allergen from the airways. Together, these findings identify ellagic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for accelerating the resolution of allergic airways inflammation. PMID:24376308

de Freitas Alves, Claudiney; Angeli, Giovanna Natalia; Favarin, Daniely Cornélio; Lemos de Andrade, Edinéia; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Roberto da Silva, Paulo; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre

2013-01-01

5

Ellagic Acid and Embelin Affect Key Cellular Components of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Cancer and Stellate Cells  

PubMed Central

Ellagic acid is a polyphenolic phytochemical present in many fruits and nuts with anti-cancer properties demonstrated in experimental tumor studies. Embelin is a benzoquinone phytochemical isolated from the Japanese herb Ardisiae Japonicae and has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. We found that ellagic acid and embelin each dose-dependently increased apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells, MIA PaCa-2 and HPAF-II cells, and in pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) which are progenitors of pancreatic cancer desmoplasia. In each of these cell types, combinations of ellagic acid and embelin at low micromolar concentrations (0.5–3 ?M) induced synergistic increases in apoptosis and decreases in proliferation. Ellagic acid decreased NF-?B transcriptional activity, whereas embelin decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and protein expression of its downstream target survivin, in cancer cells. In vivo dietary ellagic acid alone or in combination with embelin decreased tumor size and tumor cellularity in a subcutaneous (s.c.) xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. These results show that ellagic acid and embelin interact with divergent intracellular signaling pathways resulting in augmentation of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation at low micromolar concentrations for the key cellular components of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:24127740

Edderkaoui, Mouad; Lugea, Aurelia; Hui, Hongxiang; Eibl, Guido; Lu, Qing-Yi; Moro, Aune; Lu, Xuyang; Li, Gang; Go, Vay-Liang; Pandol, Stephen J.

2014-01-01

6

Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).  

PubMed

The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. PMID:23561148

Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

2013-08-15

7

Prevention of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced lung tumorigenesis by ellagic acid and quercetin in mice.  

PubMed

The polyphenolic antioxidants, consumed as an integral part of vegetables, fruits and beverages, are suggested as possessing anticarcinogenic properties. In the present study we have looked into the anticarcinogenic potential of plant polyphenols ellagic acid (EA) and quercetin against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. Ellagic acid was able to significantly reduce tumour incidence to 20% from the control value of 72.2%. Similarly, tumour burden was also decreased, although not significantly, from 3.15 to 2.5. Quercetin (QR) caused the tumour incidence to decrease from 76.4% to 44.4% when fed until the third dose of carcinogen. Both of the polyphenols suppressed the tumour incidence mainly by acting at the initiation phase of the carcinogenesis, since continuing the feeding of polyphenols until the termination of the experiment did not cause any apparent change in tumour incidence or tumour burden. Besides this, ellagic acid was found to be a better chemopreventor than quercetin. In order to search for their mechanism of action, the effect of feeding of these compounds on reduced glutathione (GSH), an important endogenous antioxidant, and on lipid peroxidation was investigated. Both ellagic acid and QR caused a significant increase in GSH and decrease in NADPH- and ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation. Ellagic acid was found to be more effective in decreasing the lipid peroxidation and increasing the GSH. This may be one of the reasons for its observed better anticarcinogenic property as compared to quercetin. PMID:10418948

Khanduja, K L; Gandhi, R K; Pathania, V; Syal, N

1999-04-01

8

Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

2003-06-01

9

Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

10

Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

2004-01-01

11

Storage retention of stilbene, ellagic acid, favonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of ellagic acid and other other nutraceutical compounds in muscadine grapes add value and enhance the marketability of this southern U.S. specialty crop. Due to its nutraceutical profile, muscadines may potentially become the next “super fruit”. The objective of this study was to dete...

12

Pharmacokinetic study of ellagic acid in rat after oral administration of pomegranate leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of ellagic acid, the principal bioactive component of pomegranate leaf extract, in rats plasma following oral administration of pomegranate leaf extract was achieved by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The calibration curve for ellagic acid was linear (r2=0.9998) ver the concentration range 0.026–1.3?g\\/ml. The intra- and inter-day assays of ellagic acid from rat plasma were less than 6.52%

Fan Lei; Dong-Ming Xing; Lan Xiang; Yu-Nan Zhao; Wei Wang; Lu-Jun Zhang; Li-Jun Du

2003-01-01

13

Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 ?g/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

Kilic, Ismail; Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Bayrak, Yüksel

2014-09-01

14

Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes  

PubMed Central

DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on >95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG) and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17ß-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 ?M) than that for 8-oxodG (100 ?M). In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6) were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm) and dehydrated berries (5% w/w) with varying ellagic acid contents – blueberry (low), strawberry (medium) and red raspberry (high), for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%). However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001) and 48% (p < 0.01), respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3–8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA), DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5) and DNA ligase III (DNL3). These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair. PMID:19325752

Aiyer, Harini S.; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Stoyanova, Radka; Caprio, Gerard D.; Clapper, Margie L.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2008-01-01

15

Ability of ellagic acid to alleviate osmotic stress on chickpea seedlings.  

PubMed

Seed germination and growth of seedlings are critical phases of plant life that are adversely affected by various environmental cues. Water availability is one of the main factors that limit the productivity of many crops. This study was conducted to assess the changes in the sensitivity of chickpea seedlings to osmotic stress by prior treatment of chickpea seeds with a low concentration (50 ppm) of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid was isolated and purified from Padina boryana Thivy by chromatographic techniques. After ellagic acid treatment, seeds were germinated for 10 days under different osmotic potentials (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions. Ellagic acid treatment accelerated the germination and seedling growth of chickpea under osmotic stress conditions. Consistent with the accelerated growth, ellagic acid-treated seedlings also showed a significant increase in the total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) as well as an increase in the compatible solutes (proline and glycine betaine) content. Additionally, treated seedlings revealed lower lipid peroxidation levels (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL) and H2O2. Flavonoid and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR)] and enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway [phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS)] all showed a remarkable increase with ellagic acid pretreatment compared to untreated seedlings especially under mild osmotic stress values (-0.2 and -0.4 MPa). These results suggested that treatment with ellagic acid could confer an increased tolerance of chickpea seedlings to osmotic stress, through reducing levels of H2O2 and increasing antioxidant capacity. PMID:23938205

Abu El-Soud, Walid; Hegab, Momtaz Mohamed; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Asard, Han

2013-10-01

16

A rapid densitometric method for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid in herbal raw materials using HPTLC.  

PubMed

Gallic acid and ellagic acid are two widely occurring phenolic compounds of plant origin, to which many biological activities including anticancer and antiviral activity have been attributed. A simple HPTLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy. Instrumental precision was found to be 0.083 and 0.78, and the repeatability of the method was found to be 1.07 and 1.50 (% CV) for gallic acid and ellagic acid, respectively. The accuracy of the method was checked by a recovery study conducted at two different levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 101.02% for gallic acid and 102.42% for ellagic acid. The above method was used for the quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid content in seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn., whole plant of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn., and flowers of Nymphaea alba Linn. The proposed HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine quality control of herbal raw materials and for the quantification of these compounds in plant materials. PMID:15881089

Bagul, Milind; Srinivasa, H; Padh, Harish; Rajani, M

2005-04-01

17

[Studies on the structure of a new ellagic acid glycoside from the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb].  

PubMed

Four compounds were isolated from the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. On the basis of physico-chemical properties, spectroscopy (UV, IR, NMR, MS) and chemical degradation, a new compound was elucidated as ellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (XV), and three known compounds were identified as agrimonolide (XIII), tormentic acid (XIV), and ellagic acid (XVI). PMID:2099598

Pei, Y H; Li, X; Zhu, T R

1990-01-01

18

In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,

Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber

19

In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,

Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Yanjun Zhang; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber

2005-01-01

20

Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

2011-03-01

21

Antimutagenicity of ellagic acid against aflatoxin B 1 in the Salmonella microsuspension assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic compound with antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. It occurs naturally in some foods such as strawberries, raspberries, grapes, black currants and walnuts. In the present study, we used the Salmonella microsuspension assay to examine the antimutagenicity of EA against the potent mutagen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using tester strains TA98 and TA100. Further, we used a

Guadalupe Loarca-Piña; Paul A. Kuzmicky; Elvira González de Mejía; Norman Y. Kado; Dennis P. H. Hsieh

1996-01-01

22

Design of biodegradable nanoparticles: a novel approach to encapsulating poorly soluble phytochemical ellagic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosizing of poorly water soluble drugs or incorporating them into nanoparticles to increase their solubility and thereby the bioavailability has become a favoured approach today. This work describes a novel method for encapsulating poorly water soluble phytochemical ellagic acid that is also sparingly soluble/insoluble in routine solvents used to prepare nanoparticles.

Bala, I.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hariharan, S.; Sitterberg, J.; Bakowsky, U.; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi

2005-12-01

23

Biological Significance of Urolithins, the Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derived Metabolites: The Evidence So Far  

PubMed Central

The health benefits attributed to pomegranate have been associated with its high content in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins. This is also the case for other ellagitannin-containing fruits and nuts including strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, walnuts, and muscadine grapes. The bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid is however very low. These molecules suffer extensive metabolism by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that are much better absorbed. Urolithins circulate in plasma as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates at concentrations in the range of 0.2–20??M. It is therefore conceivable that the health effects of ellagitannin-containing products can be associated with these gut-produced urolithins, and thus the evaluation of the biological effects of these metabolites is essential. Recent research, mostly based on in vitro testing, has shown preliminary evidence of the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiglycative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of urolithins, supporting their potential contribution to the health effects attributed to pomegranate and ellagitannin-rich foods. The number of in vivo studies is still limited, but they show preventive effects of urolithins on gut and systemic inflammation that encourage further research. Both in vivo and mechanistic studies are necessary to clarify the health effects of these metabolites. Attention should be paid when designing these mechanistic studies in order to use the physiologically relevant metabolites (urolithins in gut models and their conjugated derivatives in systemic models) at concentrations that can be reached in vivo. PMID:23781257

Espín, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco

2013-01-01

24

Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China) [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

2009-12-25

25

Ellagic Acid Suppresses Lipid Accumulation by Suppressing Early Adipogenic Events and Cell Cycle Arrest.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural polyphenol found in various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EA on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis. Our data showed that EA reduced fat accumulation by down-regulating adipogenic markers such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. We found that the decrease in adipogenic markers resulted from reduced expression of some early adipogenic transcription factors such as KLF4, KLF5, Krox20, and C/EBP? within 24?h. Also, these inhibitions were correlated with down-regulation of TG synthetic enzymes, causing inhibition of triglyceride (TG) levels in 3T3-L1 cells investigated by ORO staining and in zebrafish investigated by TG assay. Additionally, the cell cycle analysis showed that EA inhibited cell cycle progression by arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25462071

Woo, Mi-Seon; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Seo, Min-Jung; Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Lee, Boo-Yong

2014-12-01

26

Antiviral activity and possible mode of action of ellagic acid identified in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves toward human rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cause billions of USD annually in medical visits and school and work absenteeism. An assessment was made of the cytotoxic and antiviral activities and possible mode of action of the tannin ellagic acid from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa toward HeLa cells and three rhinoviruses, HRV-2, -3, and -4. Methods The antiviral property and mechanism of action of ellagic acid were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with SYBR Green dye. Results were compared with those of the currently used broad-spectrum antiviral agent, ribavirin. Results As judged by 50% inhibitory concentration values, natural ellagic acid was 1.8, 2.3, and 2.2 times more toxic toward HRV-2 (38 ?g/mL), HRV-3 (31 ?g/mL), and HRV-4 (29 ?g/mL) than ribavirin, respectively. The inhibition rate of preincubation with 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid was 17%, whereas continuous presence of ellagic acid during infection led to a significant increase in the inhibition (70%). Treatment with 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid considerably suppressed HRV-4 infection only when added just after the virus inoculation (0 h) (87% inhibition), but not before -1 h or after 1 h or later (<20% inhibition). These findings suggest that ellagic acid does not interact with the HRV-4 particles and may directly interact with the human cells in the early stage of HRV infections to protect the cells from the virus destruction. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid strongly inhibited the RNA replication of HRV-4 in HeLa cells, suggesting that ellagic acid inhibits virus replication by targeting on cellular molecules, rather than virus molecules. Conclusions Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on L. speciosa leaf-derived materials containing ellagic acid as potential anti-HRV products or a lead molecule for the prevention or treatment of HRV infection. PMID:24885569

2014-01-01

27

Ellagic acid and natural sources of ellagitannins as possible chemopreventive agents against intestinal tumorigenesis in the Min mouse.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid has been shown to have chemopreventive effects in various experimental cancer models. We wanted to see whether pure ellagic acid and natural ellagitannins from cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) seed and pulp have any effect on adenoma formation in Apc-mutated Min mice. From the age of 5 wk, the mice were fed either a control diet, a diet containing pure ellagic acid at 1,564 mg/kg, or diets containing 4.7% (wt/wt) cloudberry seeds or 5.3% cloudberry pulp. The concentrations of ellagitannins and free ellagic acid in the seed diet were 807 and 42 mg/kg and in the pulp diet 820 and 34 mg/kg, respectively. After the 10-wk feeding period, ellagic acid had no effect on the number or size of adenomas in the distal or total small intestine, but it increased adenoma size in the duodenum when compared with the control diet (1.50+/-0.29 vs. 1.16+/-0.31 mm; P=0.029). Neither cloudberry seed nor pulp diets had any effect on the adenoma formation. Chemopreventive effects and mechanisms of whole cloudberry and other similar sources of phenolic compounds should, however, be studied, further taking into account food matrix and interactions with other dietary constituents that may be involved in the bioavailability and metabolism of ellagitannins. PMID:16800775

Päivärinta, Essi; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Törrönen, Riitta; Mutanen, Marja

2006-01-01

28

Influence of the solvents on the extraction of major phenolic compounds (punicalagin, ellagic acid and gallic acid) and their antioxidant activities in pomegranate aril.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds of fruits have been shown to maintain human health. However, the relative amounts of phenolic compounds and the variation in the types of phenolics are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most effective solvent for extracting the potent antioxidant compounds, especially phenolics from pomegranate aril. Pomegranate aril was subjected to extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether either alone or in combination, and the extraction yield, total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activity were investigated. The extracts derived from various solvents were also analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification of major polyphenols (punicalagins, ellagic acid and gallic acid) of pomegranate. Amongst the tested solvents, combination of ethanol, diethyl ether and water (8:1:1) extract exhibited the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging power (IC50 = 10.12 ?g mL-1). Further, HPLC analysis of different extracts revealed that ethanol, diethyl ether and water (8:1:1) mixture contained significantly higher (p?ellagic acid (34.5 ?g mg-1 extract) and gallic acid (3.37 ?g mg-1 extract) in comparison to the other solvents used for extraction. The results demonstrate that pomegranate aril is a good source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity and the antioxidant activity is dependent on the type of solvent system that extracts different phenolic compounds with varying polarity. The solvent extracts that showed effective antioxidants activities have the potential for application in suitable food products. PMID:25190865

Singh, Mithilesh; Jha, Alok; Kumar, Arvind; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Rai, Ashiwini K; Sharma, Divya

2014-09-01

29

Luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid are natural products that inhibit prostate cancer metastasis.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second cause of cancer deaths in men in the USA. When the cancer recurs, early stages can be controlled with hormone ablation therapy to delay the rate of cancer progression but, over time, the cancer overcomes its hormone dependence, becomes highly aggressive and metastasizes. Clinical trials have shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) inhibits PCa progression. We have previously shown that the PJ components luteolin (L), ellagic acid (E) and punicic acid (P) together inhibit growth of hormone-dependent and -independent PCa cells and inhibit their migration and chemotaxis towards CXCL12, a chemokine that is important in PCa metastasis. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that L+E+P inhibit PCa metastasis in vivo. To test this possibility, we used a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model in which luciferase-expressing human PCa cells were injected subcutaneously near the prostate. Tumor progression was monitored with bioluminescence imaging weekly. We found that L+E+P inhibits PC-3M-luc primary tumor growth, inhibits the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis for metastasis and none of the tumors metastasized. In addition, L+E+P significantly inhibits growth and metastasis of highly invasive Pten (-/-) ;K-ras (G12D) prostate tumors. Furthermore, L+E+P inhibits angiogenesis in vivo, prevents human endothelial cell (EC) tube formation in culture and disrupts preformed EC tubes, indicating inhibition of EC adhesion to each other. L+E+P also inhibits the angiogenic factors interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor as well as their induced signaling pathways in ECs. In conclusion, these results show that L+E+P inhibits PCa progression and metastasis. PMID:25023990

Wang, Lei; Li, Wenfang; Lin, Muqing; Garcia, Monika; Mulholland, David; Lilly, Michael; Martins-Green, Manuela

2014-10-01

30

Research progress on the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of ellagic acid.  

PubMed

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer treatments by chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation have not been highly effective in reducing the incidence of cancers and increasing the survival rate of cancer patients. In recent years, plant-derived compounds have attracted considerable attention as alternative cancer remedies for enhancing cancer prevention and treatment because of their low toxicities, low costs, and low side effects. Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenolic constituent. Recent in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that EA elicits anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, breaking DNA binding to carcinogens, blocking virus infection, and disturbing inflammation, angiogenesis, and drug-resistance processes required for tumor growth and metastasis. This review enumerates the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of EA. It also discusses future directions on the applications of EA. PMID:25009751

Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hao; Xu, Hao; Chen, Wen-Wen; Tao, Lin

2014-06-01

31

Phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity of four commercial phytochemical products: Olive leaf extract ( Olea europaea L.), lutein, sesamol and ellagic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercially available natural products (olive leaf extract, lutein, sesamol and ellagic acid) were investigated for in vitro antioxidant properties using the DPPH, ABTS+, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP), oxygen reducing antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Antioxidant potency followed the order: ellagic acid>sesamol>olive leaf extract>lutein for all antioxidant test methods. Total phenolic content of olive leaf extract was

J. E. Hayes; P. Allen; N. Brunton; M. N. O’Grady; J. P. Kerry

2011-01-01

32

Ellagic acid inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)-induced metalloproteinase (MMP) expression by modulating the protein kinase C-?/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/nuclear factor-?B (PKC-?/ERK/PPAR-?/NF-?B) signaling pathway in endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelium-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, a key event triggering acute myocardial infarction. In addition, studies have reported that the PKC-MEK-PPAR? signaling pathway is involved in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced expression of MMPs. Ellagic acid, a phenolic compound found in fruits and nuts, has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancerous properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its antiatherogenic effects remain to be clarified. This study aimed to assess whether the effects of ellagic acid on the fibrotic markers MMP-1 and MMP-3 are modulated by the PKC-ERK-PPAR-? signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that have been exposed to oxLDL. It was found that ellagic acid significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Pretreatment with ellagic acid and DPI, a well-known ROS inhibitor, attenuated the oxLDL-induced expression and activity of PKC-?. In addition, ellagic acid as well as pharmacological inhibitors of ROS, calcium, and PKC strongly suppressed the oxLDL-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and NF-?B activation. Moreover, ellagic acid ameliorated the oxLDL-induced suppression of PPAR-? expression. In conclusion, the data suggest that ellagic acid elicits its protective effects by modulating the PKC-?/ERK/PPAR-?/NF-?B pathway, resulting in the suppression of ROS generation and, ultimately, inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression in HUVECs exposed to oxLDL. PMID:21480623

Kuo, Mei-Ying; Ou, Hsiu-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jane; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Song, Tuzz-Ying; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Tsai, Chiou-Sheng; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

2011-05-11

33

The effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on lipid oxidation and oxymyoglobin oxidation in bovine and porcine muscle model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lutein (100, 200, 300?g\\/ml), sesamol (500, 1000, 2000?g\\/ml), ellagic acid (300, 600, 900?g\\/ml) and olive leaf extract (100, 200, 300?g\\/ml) on oxymyoglobin oxidation and lipid oxidation in bovine and porcine muscle model systems (25% M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum homogenates) was examined. Radical scavenging activity, using the DPPH assay, and iron-chelating activities of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid

J. E. Hayes; V. Stepanyan; P. Allen; M. N. O’Grady; N. M. O’Brien; J. P. Kerry

2009-01-01

34

Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.  

PubMed

The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, astragalin 6?-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 ?M), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6?-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 ?M) and isoquercitrin 6?-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 ?M), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, and astragalin 6?-gallate as active principles. PMID:24293032

Nugroho, Agung; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Choi, Moo-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee-Juhn

2014-07-01

35

A Validated High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Tannin-Related Marker Constituents Gallic Acid, Corilagin, Chebulagic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Chebulinic Acid in Four Terminalia Species from India.  

PubMed

A validated rapid HPLC-PDA method was developed for identification and quantification of five tannin-related constituents gallic acid (GA), corilagin (CL), chebulagic acid (CB), ellagic acid (EA) and chebulinic acid (CN) in the extracts prepared from the bark and fruits of four Terminalia species available in India. The separation of the five analytes was achieved on an RP-18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) at 25°C using a solvent mixture comprising of acetonitrile and (0.05%) trifluoroacetic acid-water in a gradient elution mode. Limit of detection was 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0 ?g/mL for GA, CL, CB, EA and CN, respectively. Similarly, limit of quantification was 2.5, 1.0, 2.5, 1.0 and 2.5 ?g/mL for GA, CL, CB, EA and CN, respectively. Good linearity (r(2) > 0.992) was observed for all the five compounds in wide concentration range. Using the developed HPLC method, the five analytes were identified and quantified in bark and fruit extracts of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia catappa. This is the first report of identification and quantification of the five tannin-related marker constituents in the bark and fruit extracts of T. chebula, T. bellirica, T. arjuna and T. catappa. PMID:25190275

Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal; Kumar, Satyanshu

2014-09-01

36

Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Enzymes of Estrogen Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In order to determine whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17? estradiol (E2) -induced mammary tumors by altering estrogen metabolism, we randomized ACI rats (n=6/group) into 5 groups ? sham implant + control diet (SH-CD), E2 ? implant + control diet (E2-CD), E2+2.5% black raspberry (E2-BRB); E2+2.5% blueberry (E2-BB) and E2+ 400ppm ellagic acid (E2-EA). Animals were euthanized at early (6wk), intermediate (18wk) and late (24wk) phases of E2-carcinogenesis and the mammary tissue analyzed for gene-expression changes using quantitative real-time PCR. At 6 weeks, E2-treatment caused 48-fold increase in cytochrome P4501A1(CYP1A1) (p<0.0001), which was attenuated by both BRB and BB diets to 12- and 21-fold, respectively (p<0.001). E2 did not alter CYP1B1 levels, but both berry and EA diets significantly suppressed it by 11- and 3.5-fold, respectively from baseline (p<0.05). There was a 5-fold increase in 17?-Hydroxysteroid dehyrdogenase(17?HSD7) and this was moderately abrogated to about 2-fold by all supplementation (p<0.05). At 18 weeks, CYP1A1 was elevated by 15-fold in E2-CD and only E2-BB reduced this increase to 7-fold (p<0.05). Catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) expression was elevated 2-fold by E2-treatment (p<0.05) and all supplementation reversed this. At 24 weeks, CYP1A1 expression was less pronounced, but still high (8-fold) in E2-treated rats. This increase was reduced to 3.2 and 4.6-fold, by E2-BRB and E2-EA, respectively (p<0.05), but not by E2-BB. Supplementation did not alter the effect of E2 on steroid receptors. The diets also significantly suppressed mammary tumor incidence (10–30%), volume (41–67%) and multiplicity (38 to 51%) (p<0.05). Berries may prevent mammary tumors by suppressing the levels of E2-metabolizing enzymes during the early phase of E2-carcinogenesis. PMID:20501861

Aiyer, Harini S.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2010-01-01

37

Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway  

SciTech Connect

Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

Ou, Hsiu-Chung [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Jane [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shin-Da [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Yang [Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Tsan-Hung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Kun-Ling [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Cheng [Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng, E-mail: whhsheu@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Technology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-10-15

38

Sildenafil enhances the peripheral antinociceptive effect of ellagic acid in the rat formalin test  

PubMed Central

Objective: Ellagic acid (EA), a major polyphenolic compound of pomegranate juice, produces antinociceptive effects, which are mediated through opioidergic and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathways. The present study was conducted to elucidate the peripheral antinociceptive effect of EA alone and in combination with sildenafil in the rat formalin test. Materials and Methods: Pain was produced by intraplantar injection of formalin (2.5%) in rats and nociceptive behavior was measured as the number of flinches every 5 min in 60 min after injection. Results: Local administration of EA and sildenafil dose-dependently increased the nociception threshold in both phases of the test. Moreover, sub-effective doses of sildenafil (25 or 50 mcg/paw, i.p.) significantly and dose-dependently enhanced the antinociception induced by a sub-effective dose of EA (60 mcg/paw, i.pl.) in both phases of the test. The antinociception produced by these drugs alone, or in combination, was due to a peripheral site of action, since the administration in the contralateral paw was ineffective. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EA has local peripheral antinociceptive activity, and enhancement of this effect with sildenafil probably occurs through the inhibition of cGMP metabolism. PMID:25097278

Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

2014-01-01

39

The Modulatory Effect of Ellagic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid on Ultraviolet-B-Induced Cytokine/Chemokine Gene Expression in Skin Keratinocyte (HaCaT) Cells  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet radiation (UV) induces an increase in multiple cutaneous inflammatory mediators. Ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) are natural anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds found in many plants, fruits, and nuts. We assessed the ability of EA and RA to modulate IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, and TNF-? gene expression in HaCaT cells after UVB irradiation. Cells were treated with UVB (100?mJ/cm2) and simultaneously with EA (5??M in 0.1% DMSO) or RA (2.7??M in 0.5% DMSO). Moreover, these substances were added to the UVB-irradiated cells 1?h or 6?h before harvesting, depending on the established UVB-induced cytokine expression peak. Cytokine gene expression was examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. RA produced a significant reduction in UVB-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-? when applied at the same time as irradiation. EA showed milder effects compared with RA, except for TNF-?. Both substances decreased IL-6 expression, also when applied 5?h after irradiation, and always produced a significant increase in UVB-induced IL-10 expression. Our findings suggest that EA and RA are able to prevent and/or limit the UVB-induced inflammatory cascade, through a reduction in proinflammatory mediators and the enhancement of IL-10, with its protective function. PMID:25162011

Lembo, Serena; Balato, Anna; Di Caprio, Roberta; Cirillo, Teresa; Giannini, Valentina; Gasparri, Franco; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

40

The effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on lipid oxidation and oxymyoglobin oxidation in bovine and porcine muscle model systems.  

PubMed

The effect of lutein (100, 200, 300?g/ml), sesamol (500, 1000, 2000?g/ml), ellagic acid (300, 600, 900?g/ml) and olive leaf extract (100, 200, 300?g/ml) on oxymyoglobin oxidation and lipid oxidation in bovine and porcine muscle model systems (25% M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum homogenates) was examined. Radical scavenging activity, using the DPPH assay, and iron-chelating activities of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract were assessed at concentrations ranging from 200 to 1000ppm. The radical scavenging activity was of the order: ellagic acid>sesamol>olive leaf extract>lutein. None of the natural antioxidants examined exhibited iron chelating activity. Following induced lipid oxidation (FeCl(3)/sodium ascorbate addition), lipid oxidation and oxymyoglobin oxidation were measured after 24h at 4°C. In bovine and porcine muscle model systems, lipid oxidation decreased (P<0.001) following addition of each of the natural antioxidants relative to the control and antioxidant potency followed the order: sesamol>ellagic acid>olive leaf extract>lutein. Ellagic acid and olive leaf extract decreased oxymyoglobin oxidation (P<0.001) while sesamol increased oxymyoglobin oxidation in both systems. The natural antioxidants examined may have applications in the development of nutritional enhanced meat products with enhanced shelf-life characteristics. PMID:20416759

Hayes, J E; Stepanyan, V; Allen, P; O'Grady, M N; O'Brien, N M; Kerry, J P

2009-10-01

41

Ellagic acid, a new antiglycating agent: its inhibition of N?-(carboxymethyl)lysine.  

PubMed

Non-enzymatic glycation is a complex series of reactions between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins. Accumulation of AGEs (advanced glycation end-products) due to non-enzymatic glycation has been related to several diseases associated with aging and diabetes. The formation of AGEs is accelerated in hyperglycaemic conditions, which alters the structure and function of long-lived proteins, thereby contributing to long-term diabetic complications. The present study describes AGE inhibition and the mechanism of action of a new antiglycating agent, EA (ellagic acid), a flavonoid present in many dietary sources. Inhibition of AGE formation by EA was demonstrated with different proteins, namely eye lens TSP (total soluble protein), Hb (haemoglobin), lysozyme and BSA, using different glycating agents such as fructose, ribose and methylglyoxal by a set of complementary methods. These results suggest that the antiglycating action of EA seems to involve, apart from inhibition of a few fluorescent AGEs, predominantly inhibition of CEL [N?-(carboxyethyl)lysine] through scavenging of the dicarbonyl compounds. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation-time-of-flight MS) analysis confirms inhibition of the formation of CEL on lysozyme on in vitro glycation by EA. Prevention of glycation-mediated ?-sheet formation in Hb and lysozyme by EA confirm its antiglycating ability. Inhibition of glycosylated Hb formation in human blood under ex vivo high-glucose conditions signifies the physiological antiglycating potential of EA. We have also determined the effectiveness of EA against loss of eye lens transparency through inhibition of AGEs in the lens organ culture system. These findings establish the antiglycating potential of EA and its in vivo utility in controlling AGE-mediated diabetic pathologies. PMID:22060242

Muthenna, Puppala; Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

2012-02-15

42

Ellagic acid promoted biomimetic synthesis of shape-controlled silver nanochains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, was utilized for the biomimetic synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles, which over a period of time formed extended branched nanochains of hexagonal-shaped silver nanoparticles. It was found that EA not only has the capability of reducing silver ions, resulting in the formation of Ag nanoparticles, due to its extended polyphenolic system, but also appears to recognize and affect the Ag nanocrystal growth on the (111) face, leading to the formation of hexagon-shaped Ag nanocrystals. Initially, various Ag nanocrystal shapes were observed; however, over a longer period of time, a majority of hexagonal-shaped nanocrystals were formed. Although the exact mechanism of formation of the nanocrystals is not known, it appears that EA attaches to the silver nuclei, leading to lower surface energy of the (111) face. Further, the nanocrystals fuse together, forming interfaces among the aggregates, and, with time, those interfaces become lesser, and the nanoparticles merge together and share the same single crystallographic orientation, which leads to the formation of long elongated chains of hexagonal nanoparticles. This biomimetic approach may be developed as a green synthetic method to prepare building blocks with tunable properties for the development of nanodevices. Further, we explored the antibacterial properties and found that the tandem of EA-Ag nanochains substantially enhanced the antibacterial properties of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria compared to silver nanoparticles or EA alone. Additionally, the materials were also utilized for imaging of mammalian NRK (normal rat kidney) cells.

Barnaby, Stacey N.; Yu, Samantha M.; Fath, Karl R.; Tsiola, Areti; Khalpari, Omid; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

2011-06-01

43

Ellagic Acid Mitigates SNO-PDI Induced Aggregation of Parkinsonian Biomarkers.  

PubMed

Nitrosative stress mediated S-nitrosylation (SNO) of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a housekeeping oxidoreductase, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's (PD) and Alzheimer's (AD) diseases. Previous cell line studies have indicated that SNO-PDI formation provokes synphilin-1 aggregation, the minor Parkinsonian biomarker protein. Yet no work exists investigating whether SNO-PDI induces ?-synuclein aggregation, the major Lewy body constituent associated with Parkinson's pathogenesis. Here, we report that SNO-PDI formation is linked to the aggregation of ?-synuclein and also provokes ?-synuclein:synphilin-1 deposits (Lewy-body-like debris) normally found in the PD brain. Furthermore, we have examined the ability of a small molecule, 2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione (ellagic acid; EA) to scavenge NOx radicals and to protect cells from SNO-PDI formation via rotenone insult both, cell-based and cell-independent in vitro experiments. Furthermore, EA not only mitigates nitrosative-stress-induced aggregation of synphilin-1 but also ?-synuclein and ?-synuclein:synphilin-1 composites (Lewy-like neurites) in PC12 cells. Mechanistic analyses of the neuroprotective phenomena revealed that EA lowered rotenone-instigated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in PC12 cells, imparted antiapoptotic tributes, and directly interfered with SNO-PDI formation. Lastly, we demonstrate that EA can bind human serum albumin (HSA). These results collectively indicate that small molecules can provide a therapeutic foothold for overcoming Parkinson's through a prophylactic approach. PMID:25247703

Kabiraj, Parijat; Marin, Jose Eduardo; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Zubia, Emmanuel; Narayan, Mahesh

2014-12-17

44

Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant phenols: Exceptional activity of ellagic acid  

PubMed Central

Ferulic, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ellagic acids, four naturally occurring plant phenols, inhibit the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of (±)-7?,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2), the only known ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene. The mutagenicity of 0.05 nmol of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in strain TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium is inhibited 50% by incubation of the bacteria and the diol epoxide with 150 nmol of ferulic acid, 75 nmol of caffeic acid, 50 nmol of chlorogenic acid or, most strikingly, 1 nmol of ellagic acid in the 0.5-ml incubation mixture. A 3-nmol dose of ellagic acid inhibits mutation induction by 90%. Ellagic acid is also a potent antagonist of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Mutations to 8-azaguanine resistance induced by 0.2 ?M diol epoxide are reduced by 50% when tissue culture media also contains 2 ?M ellagic acid. Similar to results obtained with the bacteria, ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids are approximately two orders of magnitude less active than ellagic acid in the mammalian cell assay. The antimutagenic effects of the plant phenols result from their direct interaction with B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2, because a concentration-dependent increase in the rate of diol epoxide disappearance in cell-free solutions of 1:9 dioxane/water, pH 7.0, is observed with all four phenols. In parallel with the mutagenicity studies, ellagic acid is 80-300 times more effective than the other phenols in accelerating the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2. Ellagic acid at 10 ?M increases the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 by approximately 20-fold relative to the spontaneous and hydronium ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of the diol epoxide at pH 7.0. Ellagic acid is a highly potent inhibitor of the mutagenic activity of bay-region diol epoxides of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, but higher concentrations of ellagic acid are needed to inhibit the mutagenic activity of the chemically less reactive bay-region diol epoxides of benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[c]phenanthrene. These studies demonstrate that ellagic acid is a potent antagonist of the adverse biological effects of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and suggest that this naturally occurring plant phenol, normally ingested by humans, may inhibit the carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:6752950

Wood, Alexander W.; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Chang, Richard L.; Newmark, Harold L.; Lehr, Roland E.; Yagi, Haruhiko; Sayer, Jane M.; Jerina, Donald M.; Conney, Allan H.

1982-01-01

45

Inhibition of allergic airway inflammation through the blockage of NF-?B activation by ellagic acid in an ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model.  

PubMed

Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation and the hypersecretion of mucus by goblet cells. Ellagic acid (EA), a natural polyphenolic compound present as ellagitannins in fruits and fruit juices, has been reported to show potent anti-inflammatory properties in various diseases. We aimed to investigate the effects of EA in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma model and to explore its potential mechanism of action. Our results showed that EA resulted in a significant reduction in lung eosinophilia, increased Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and increased OVA-induced specific IgE in serum samples. Moreover, histological examination showed that EA markedly inhibited lung eosinophilic inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia. In addition, EA attenuated the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and blocked NF-?B activation. These results demonstrate that EA shows obvious anti-inflammatory effects in OVA-induced asthma in a mouse model, possibly through inhibiting NF-?B activation. Therefore it may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:24998475

Zhou, Ershun; Fu, Yunhe; Wei, Zhengkai; Yang, Zhengtao

2014-09-01

46

Antitumor effect and mechanism of an ellagic acid derivative on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

In the present study, to identify the effective components of Chinese traditional herbs, Euphorbia hylonoma Hand.-Mazz. (Euphorbiaceae), a folk herb that has been used among the Qinling mountain area for hundreds of years, was investigated. 3,3'-Di-O-methyl ellagic acid-4'-O-?-d-xylopyranoside (JNE2), an ellagic acid derivative, was isolated from the acetone extract of the herb and its antitumor activity against human hepatoma HepG2 cells was detected in vitro. The results showed that JNE2 inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and blocked the cell cycle at the G1/S phase. A high dosage of JNE2 induced apoptosis of the tumor cells, but no significant differences were identified between the treatment groups. The invasiveness of HepG2 cells was also inhibited by JNE2. The mechanism of the antitumor effect of JNE2 at the molecular level was presumed to be due to the upregulation of the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and the downregulation of the protein expression of Bcl-2 and CCND1. The results suggested that JNE2 is a potential antitumor agent that merits further investigation. PMID:24396481

Zhang, Hui; Guo, Zeng-Jun; Xu, Wen-Ming; You, Xiao-Juan; Han, Ling; Han, Yan-Xia; Dai, Liu-Jiang

2014-02-01

47

Anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulatory activities of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

Background Caffeic acid (CA) and ellagic acid (EA) are phenolic acids naturally occurring in many plant foods. Cardiac protective effects of these compounds against dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice were examined. Methods Diabetic mice were divided into three groups (15 mice per group): diabetic mice with normal diet, 2% CA treatment, or 2% EA treatment. One group of non-diabetic mice with normal diet was used for comparison. After 12 weeks supplement, mice were sacrificed, and the variation of biomarkers for hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice were measured. Results The intake of CA or EA significantly increased cardiac content of these compounds, alleviated body weight loss, elevated plasma insulin and decreased plasma glucose levels in diabetic mice (p < 0.05). These treatments also significantly enhanced plasma antithrombin-III and protein C activities (p < 0.05); and decreased triglyceride content in cardiac tissue and plasma (p < 0.05), in which the hypolipidemic effects of EA were significantly greater than that of CA (p < 0.05). CA or EA significantly lowered cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (p < 0.05); and retained cardiac activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (p < 0.05). These compounds also significantly up-regulated cardiac mRNA expression of GPX1, SOD and catalase; and down-regulated IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 mRNA expression in diabetic mice (p < 0.05). Conclusion These results support that CA and EA could provide triglyceride-lowering, anti-coagulatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory protection in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. Thus, the supplement of these agents might be helpful for the prevention or attenuation of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19678956

Chao, Pei-chun; Hsu, Cheng-chin; Yin, Mei-chin

2009-01-01

48

The comparison of the effects of ellagic Acid and diclofenac sodium on intra-abdominal adhesion: an in vivo study in the rat model.  

PubMed

Abstract Peritoneal adhesions are seen frequently after abdominal surgery and can cause serious complications. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the oral use of diclofenac sodium and ellagic acid on formation of postoperative adhesions in rats Studies have shown that agents with anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidant substances can prevent adhesion by decreasing oxidative stress. We compared and evaluated the effects of ellagic acid that has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac sodium on peritoneal adhesion development in our experimental study. Laparotomy was performed with a midline incision under general anesthesia and an adhesion model was created on the antimesenteric side of the cecum in Groups I, II, and III. Group I received 85 mg/kg ellagic acid and Group II, 50 mg/kg diclofenac sodium through the nasogastric catheter while Group III received no medication. Only laparotomy was performed in Group IV. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the 14th day. Following macroscopic scoring, tissue samples were removed and subjected to biochemical and histopathologic evaluation. The degree of adhesion and the malondialdehyde level were decreased (P < 0.05), and glutathione level increased (P < 0.05) in Group I compared to Group II and Group III. The effects of ellagic acid on the prevention of peritoneal adhesion were found to be stronger than diclofenac sodium. This can be explained by the fact that ellagic acid is a strong antioxidant and decreases oxidative stress with anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects. PMID:25216418

Allahverdi, Tulay Diken; Allahverdi, Ertu?rul; Yayla, Sad?k; Deprem, Turgay; Merhan, O?uz; Vural, Sevil

2014-01-01

49

Ellagic Acid Reduces Adipogenesis through Inhibition of Differentiation-Prevention of the Induction of Rb Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Ellagic acid (EA) present in many fruits and nuts serves as antiproliferation, anti-inflammatory, and antitumorigenic properties. However, the effect of EA on preadipocytes adipogenesis and its mechanism(s) have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to examine the effect of EA on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and underlying mechanism(s) of action involved. Data show that EA administration decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets. The inhibition was diminished when the addition of EA was delayed to days 2–4 of differentiation. Clonal expansion was reduced in the presence of EA. FACS analysis showed that EA blocked the cell cycle at the G1/S transition. EdU incorporation also confirmed that EA refrained cell from entering S phase. Our data also revealed that the differentiation-induced protein expression of Cyclin A and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) were impaired by EA. Differentiation-dependent expression and DNA-binding ability of C/EBP? were also inhibited by EA. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the antiadipogenic action of EA. In conclusion, EA is capable of inhibiting adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly through reduction of Cyclin A protein expression and Rb phosphorylation. With the blocking of G1/S phase transition, EA suppresses terminal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:24302962

Wang, Lifeng; Li, Linlin; Ran, Xinjian; Long, Mei; Zhang, Minfang; Tao, Yicun; Luo, Xin; Wang, Ye; Ma, Xiaoli; Halmurati, Upur; Ren, Jun

2013-01-01

50

Protective effect of ellagic acid on concanavalin A-induced hepatitis via toll-like receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor ?B signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) is present in certain fruits and nuts, including raspberries, pomegranates, and walnuts, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to examine the protective effect of EA on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms in mice. Mice were orally administered EA at different doses before the intravenous delivery of Con A; the different experimental groups were as follows: (i) vehicle control, (ii) Con A alone without EA, (iii) EA at 50 mg/kg, (iv) EA at 100 mg/kg, and (v) EA at 200 mg/kg. We found that EA pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of plasma aminotransferase and liver necrosis in Con A-induced hepatitis. Also, EA significantly decreased the expression levels of the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 mRNA and protein in liver tissues. Further, EA decreased the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38. EA-treated groups showed suppressions of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and I?B-? degradation levels in liver tissues. In addition, EA pretreatment decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1? (IL-1?). These results suggest that EA protects against T-cell-mediated hepatitis through TLR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:25238033

Lee, Jae Hong; Won, Jong Hoon; Choi, Jong Min; Cha, Hye Hyeon; Jang, Yeo Jin; Park, Seohyeon; Kim, Han Gyeol; Kim, Hyung Chul; Kim, Dae Kyong

2014-10-15

51

Effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on the quality and shelf-life stability of packaged raw minced beef patties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lutein (100 and 200?g\\/g muscle), sesamol (250 and 500?g\\/g muscle), ellagic acid (300 and 600?g\\/g muscle) and olive leaf extract (100 and 200?g\\/g muscle) on total viable counts (TVCs), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), colour, oxymyoglobin oxidation, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), sensorial properties of raw beef patties (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) stored in modified atmosphere

J. E. Hayes; V. Stepanyan; P. Allen; M. N. O’Grady; J. P. Kerry

2010-01-01

52

Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis.  

PubMed

This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01-0.11? ? g/mL and 0.03-0.36? ? g/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19-103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38-0.73% and 0.49-2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r (2) values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

Kim, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

2013-01-01

53

Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01–0.11??g/mL and 0.03–0.36??g/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19–103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38–0.73% and 0.49–2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r2 values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

2013-01-01

54

Effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on the quality and shelf-life stability of packaged raw minced beef patties.  

PubMed

The effects of lutein (100 and 200 microg/g muscle), sesamol (250 and 500 microg/g muscle), ellagic acid (300 and 600 microg/g muscle) and olive leaf extract (100 and 200 microg/g muscle) on total viable counts (TVCs), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), colour, oxymyoglobin oxidation, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), sensorial properties of raw beef patties (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) stored in modified atmosphere packs (80% O(2):20% CO(2)) (MAP) aerobically at 4 degrees C for up to 8 and 12 days, respectively, were examined. All the nutraceuticals reduced (P<0.001) TVCs. The addition of sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract reduced (P<0.001) TBARS in raw beef patties in both packaging systems. Sesamol addition to beef resulted in lower (P<0.01) a* redness values and increased oxymyoglobin oxidation. Conversely, lutein and olive leaf extract reduced (P<0.001) oxymyoglobin oxidation relative to the control. The graded addition of ellagic acid and olive leaf extract improved (P<0.001) WHC. PMID:20374832

Hayes, J E; Stepanyan, V; Allen, P; O'Grady, M N; Kerry, J P

2010-04-01

55

Ellagic acid modulates lipid accumulation in primary human adipocytes and human hepatoma Huh7 cells via discrete mechanisms.  

PubMed

Previously, we have reported that consumption of a muscadine grape phytochemical powder (MGP) decreased lipid accumulation in high-fat fed mice. The aim of this study was to identify the responsible polyphenolic constituents and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In mice, MGP supplementation significantly reduced visceral fat mass as well as adipocyte size. To determine whether MGP affects adipogenesis or hypertrophic lipid accumulation, we used a human adipogenic stem cell (hASCs) model. Among the MGP, ellagic acid (EA) was identified as a potent negative regulator of adipogenesis of hASCs. In addition, EA substantially decreased the conversion of [(3)H]-acetyl CoA into fatty acids (FAs), suggesting that EA inhibits de novo synthesis of FA in mature adipocytes. Similarly, MGP supplementation significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels. The TG-lowering effects of EA were confirmed in human hepatoma Huh7 cells. EA reduced [(3)H]-oleic acid esterification into [(3)H]-TG as well as the de novo synthesis of FA from [(3)H]-acetyl CoA in Huh7 cells. Intriguingly, EA also increased oxygen consumption rate and ?-oxidation-related gene expression. Taken together, EA attenuated new fat cell formation and FA biosynthesis in adipose tissue, while it reduced the synthesis of TG and FA and increased FA oxidation in the liver. These results suggest that EA exerts unique lipid-lowering effects both in adipose tissue and liver via discrete mechanisms. PMID:25458530

Okla, Meshail; Kang, Inhae; Kim, Da Mi; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Shay, Neil; Gu, Liwei; Chung, Soonkyu

2015-01-01

56

Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC–DAD, LC–NMR, NMR, and LC–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because\\u000a of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC–DAD method\\u000a has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and

Martin Zehl; Christina Braunberger; Jürgen Conrad; Marija Crnogorac; Stanimira Krasteva; Bernhard Vogler; Uwe Beifuss; Liselotte Krenn

2011-01-01

57

Exploring the potential of gastro retentive dosage form in delivery of ellagic acid and aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

Approach of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) overcomes the limitations of conventional dosage forms. However, this concept is still not practiced to a large extent in delivery of herbal drugs in Ayurveda. Thus, the potential of herbal drugs has not been explored to its fullest. Hence, there is a growing need to amalgamate the concept of NDDS in delivery of herbal constituents. The present investigation is designed to deliver and retain two herbal constituents in stomach for better action against Helicobacter pylori induced gastric ulcers. The objective was to develop a bilayer floating tablet of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gel powder through rational combination of excipients to give the lowest possible lag time with maximum drug release in the period of 4 h. Formulation F9 containing 100 mg of HPMC K15M, 27 mg of crospovidone, 80 mg of mannitol and effervescent agents in the ratio 1:2 gave 92% drug release and desired floating properties. In vivo studies showed that combination of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gave 75 % ulcer inhibition in comparison to 57% ulcer inhibition in the group which was administered with ellagic acid alone. This suggests the use of bilayer floating tablet in gastric ulcer treatment. PMID:24261674

Ranade, Arati N; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Ramesh, C

2014-01-01

58

Ellagic acid normalizes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and attenuates inflammation-mediated cell proliferation in experimental liver cancer.  

PubMed

Despite great advances in our understanding of the molecular causes of liver cancer, significant gaps still remain in our knowledge of the disease pathogenesis and development of effective strategies for early diagnosis and treatment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemopreventive activity of ellagic acid (EA) against experimental liver cancer in rats. This is the first report that implies a possible role of EA in controlling liver cancer through activation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability via activating proteins such as Bax, bcl-2, cyt-C, and caspase-9, which play important roles in apoptosis. Downregulation of NF-?B, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were noted in EA-treated experimental rats and controlled inflammation mediated liver cancer when compared to the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced group. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the livers of experimental rats demonstrated that EA treatment renovated its internal architecture. Overall, these results demonstrate the value of molecular approaches in identifying the potential role of EA as an effective chemopreventive agent. PMID:24972653

Srigopalram, S; Jayraaj, I A; Kaleeswaran, B; Balamurugan, K; Ranjithkumar, M; Kumar, T Senthil; Park, J I; Nou, I S

2014-08-01

59

Ellagic acid inhibits proliferation and induced apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway in HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention is regarded as one of the most promising and realistic approaches in the prevention of human cancer. Ellagic acid (EA) has been known for its chemopreventive activity against various cancers and numerous investigations have shown its apoptotic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was focused to elucidate the anticancerous effect and the mode of action of EA against HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue assay at different concentrations. EA also promoted cell cycle arrest substantially at G2/M phase in HCT-15 cells. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were decreased upon EA treatment, which shows the antiproliferative and the cytotoxic effects, respectively. The production of reactive oxygen intermediates, which were examined by 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA), increased with time, after treatment with EA. In further studies, EA inhibited proliferation-associated markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by a strong inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway by EA. The expression of PI3K and pAkt was down-regulated in EA-treated cells, compared to normal cells. Further, EA promoted the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and cytochrome c, and suppression of Bcl-2 activity in HCT-15 cells that was determined by western blot analysis. Increased annexin V apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation also accompanied EA-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, EA increased the production of ROS, decreased cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in HCT-15 cells, and thus can be used as an agent against colon cancer. PMID:25355159

Umesalma, Syed; Nagendraprabhu, Ponnuraj; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

2015-01-01

60

Ellagic acid metabolism by human gut microbiota: consistent observation of three urolithin phenotypes in intervention trials, independent of food source, age, and health status.  

PubMed

Three phenotypes for urolithin production after ellagitannin and ellagic acid intake are consistently observed in different human intervention trials. Subjects can be stratified into three urolithin-producing groups. "Phenotype A" produced only urolithin A conjugates, which included between 25 and 80% of the volunteers in the different trials. "Phenotype B" produced isourolithin A and/or urolithin B in addition to urolithin A, this being the second relevant group (10-50%). "Phenotype 0" (5-25%) was that in which these urolithins were not detected. The three phenotypes were observed independently of the volunteers' health status and demographic characteristics (age, gender, body mass index (BMI)) and of the amount or type of ellagitannin food source ingested (walnuts and other nuts, strawberries, raspberries, and other berries or pomegranates). Interestingly, a higher percentage of phenotype B was observed in those volunteers with chronic illness (metabolic syndrome or colorectal cancer) associated with gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis). These urolithin phenotypes could show differences in the human gut microbiota and should be considered in intervention trials dealing with health benefits of ellagitannins or ellagic acid. Whether this phenotypic variation could be a biomarker related to differential health benefits or illness predisposition deserves further research. PMID:24976365

Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Villalba, Rocío; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Selma, María V; Espín, Juan C

2014-07-16

61

Physical and Chemical Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit in Maturation Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars obtained from different growing regions of Iran were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties. These properties included fruit fresh weight, volume and density, peel thickness, soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), EC, pH, vitamin C, ellagic acid content of juice and peel, total antioxidant activity of peel and juice and etc. Fruit weight

Vahid Akbarpour; Khodayar Hemmati; Mehdi Sharifani

2009-01-01

62

Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L.  

PubMed

Phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, ellagic, and syringic acid) as well as syringaldehyde and juglone were identified in ripe fruits of 10 walnut cultivars: Adams, Cisco, Chandler, Franquette, Lara, Fernor, Fernette, Alsoszentivani 117 (A-117), Rasna, and Elit. Analyses were done using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector. Significant differences in the contents of identified phenolics were observed among cultivars. Phenolics were determined separately in the kernel and in the thin skin of the walnut, termed the pellicle. Not only in the kernel but also in the pellicle did syringic acid, juglone, and ellagic acid predominate (average values of 33.83, 11.75, and 5.90 mg/100 g of kernel; and 1003.24, 317.90, and 128.98 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively), and the contents of ferulic and sinapic acid (average values of 0.06 and 0.05 mg/100 g of kernel and 2.93 and 2.17 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively) were the lowest in all cultivars. The highest differences in the sum of all identified phenolics were observed between Rasna and Fernette fruits; in Rasna there were >2-fold higher contents of identified phenolics in both kernel and pellicle. It was found that the walnut pellicle is the most important source of walnut phenolics. The ratio between the contents in pellicle and kernel varied by at least 14.8-fold for caffeic acid (cv. Adams) and by up to 752.0-fold for p-coumaric acid (cv. Elit). PMID:16076123

Colaric, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Solar, Anita; Hudina, Metka; Stampar, Franci

2005-08-10

63

A Comparative Study for the Evaluation of Two Doses of Ellagic Acid on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30?mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30?mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30?mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

2013-01-01

64

A comparative study for the evaluation of two doses of ellagic acid on hepatic drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10 mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30 mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30 mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30 mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

2013-01-01

65

Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS.  

PubMed

Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC-DAD method has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and D. rotundifolia). During elaboration of the method 13 compounds, including three substances not previously described for Drosera species, were detected and unambiguously identified by means of extensive LC-MS and LC-NMR experiments and by off-line heteronuclear 2D NMR after targeted isolation. The most prominent component of D. rotundifolia and D. anglica, 2?-O-galloylhyperoside, with myricetin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(2?-O-galloyl)-?-galactopyranoside, were identified for the very first time in this genus. The LC-DAD method for quantification was thoroughly validated, and enables, for the first time, separation and precise analysis of these analytes in Droserae herba. Simple sample preparation and use of a narrow-bore column guarantee low cost and simplicity of the suggested system, which is excellently suited to quality control of the drug or herbal medicinal products containing this drug. PMID:21298259

Zehl, Martin; Braunberger, Christina; Conrad, Jürgen; Crnogorac, Marija; Krasteva, Stanimira; Vogler, Bernhard; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

2011-06-01

66

Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.  

PubMed

The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082

Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta

2006-09-20

67

Antinociceptive effect of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. independent of anti-inflammatory activity of ellagic acid.  

PubMed

This study was performed to determine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (PEtExt) stem bark and its fractions using various animal models such as acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin-induced pain and croton oil-induced ear edema tests. The PEtExt inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, reduced the pain reaction time on both phases of the formalin test and decreased the edema in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect. Only the ethyl acetate fraction showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Our results also showed that this extract contains compounds with analgesic action independent of anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:21340514

Nascimento, Marcus Vinícius Mariano; Galdino, Pablinny Moreira; Florentino, Iziara Ferreira; Sampaio, Bruno Leite; Vanderlinde, Frederico Argollo; de Paula, José Realino; Costa, Elson Alves

2011-07-01

68

Ascorbic acid in exotic fruits: a liquid chromatographic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of ascorbic acid (AA) have been measured by means of an HPLC method in 11 different exotic fruits (avocado pear, babaco, feijoa, grapefruit, kiwi, kumquat, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit, pineapple) and, for comparative purposes, in two citrus fruits (lemon and orange). They were measured in the exotic fruits at two different stages of ripening: (i) immediately after

Giovanni Ruggieri

1995-01-01

69

Epigallocatechin gallate, ellagic acid, and rosmarinic acid perturb dNTP pools and inhibit de novo DNA synthesis and proliferation of human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells: Synergism with arabinofuranosylcytosine.  

PubMed

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) are natural polyphenols exerting cancer chemopreventive effects. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR; EC 1.17.4.1) converts ribonucleoside diphosphates into deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates being essential for DNA replication, which is why the enzyme is considered an excellent target for anticancer therapy. EGCG, EA, and RA dose-dependently inhibited the growth of human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, exerted strong free radical scavenging potential, and significantly imbalanced nuclear deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations without distinctly affecting the protein levels of RR subunits (R1, R2, p53R2). Incorporation of (14)C-cytidine into nascent DNA of tumor cells was also significantly lowered, being equivalent to an inhibition of DNA synthesis. Consequently, treatment with EGCG and RA attenuated cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, finally resulting in a pronounced induction of apoptosis. Sequential combination of EA and RA with the first-line antileukemic agent arabinofuranosylcytosine (AraC) synergistically potentiated the antiproliferative effect of AraC, whereas EGCG plus AraC yielded additive effects. Taken together, we show for the first time that EGCG, EA, and RA perturbed dNTP levels and inhibited cell proliferation in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, with EGCG and RA causing a pronounced induction of apoptosis. Due to these effects and synergism with AraC, these food ingredients deserve further preclinical and in vivo testing as inhibitors of leukemic cell proliferation. PMID:25636891

Saiko, Philipp; Steinmann, Marie-Thérèse; Schuster, Heike; Graser, Geraldine; Bressler, Sabine; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Lackner, Andreas; Grusch, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Jaeger, Walter; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas

2015-01-15

70

Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit  

SciTech Connect

Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

Robbins, C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Mulcahy, F. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Somayajula, K. (Coca-Cola Co., Atlanta, GA); Edenborn, H.M.

2006-10-01

71

Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, carnitinepalmitoyl transferase-1, and acyl-CoA oxidase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Reversed-phase liquid chromatography in combination with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis revealed four potential compounds (punicalagin B, ellagic acid, and two unidentified compounds) responsible for altered gene expression in HepG2 cells treated with PV as compared with the others. Further investigations are warranted to determine if drinking PV beverages may help to maintain a healthy body weight in overweight subjects. PMID:23766874

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook; Kwon, Oran

2013-06-01

72

Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, carnitinepalmitoyl transferase-1, and acyl-CoA oxidase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Reversed-phase liquid chromatography in combination with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis revealed four potential compounds (punicalagin B, ellagic acid, and two unidentified compounds) responsible for altered gene expression in HepG2 cells treated with PV as compared with the others. Further investigations are warranted to determine if drinking PV beverages may help to maintain a healthy body weight in overweight subjects. PMID:23766874

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook

2013-01-01

73

Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

2009-01-01

74

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

75

Urinary hippuric acid after ingestion of edible fruits.  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of simple phenols after ingestion of edible fruits and mixed food. It was analyzed hippuric acid in urine as biomarker of conjugation in the liver cells of glycine with aromatic phenolic acids such benzoic and salicylic acid from ingested food. Measurement of hippuric acid in urine samples of 10 healthy individuals: 5 female and 5 male with a mean age 51,5 years were recruited to participate in this study. Urine samples were collected for 24 hours. The additional meals 300 g of fruits: blueberry, cherry, raspberry, melon, blackberry and mixed food were given immediately before the 24 hr urine sampling. Otherwise, the meals given during 24 hr was a usually food. Biotransformation of phenols in edible fruits, that are together with liver glycins precursors of hippuric acid biosynthesis, was evaluated by direct spectrophotometric measurement of excreted hippuric acid in urine at 410 nm. It was established that the highest quantity of hippuric acid was after ingestion of 300 g of bilberry fruits (p< 0,003), and same quantity of cherries (p< 0,003). Concentration of excreted hippuric acid was twice higher after ingestion of these fruits in comparison with hippuric acid concentrations in urine after ingestion of common - mixed food. Quantity of biosynthesised hippuric acid was in direct correlation with the concentrations of its precursors, primarily phenol acids and other simple aromatic acids ingested with food. PMID:18318670

Toromanovi?, Jasmin; Kovac-Besovi?, Elvira; Sapcanin, Aida; Tahirovi?, Ismet; Rimpapa, Zlatan; Kroyer, Gerhard; Sofi?, Emin

2008-02-01

76

Diffusion Properties of Garcinia Fruit Acids (Garcinia atroviridis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion properties of garcinia fruit acids (Garcinia atroviridis) were investigated in a batch reactor. The influences of two variables were studied: material thickness and extraction temperature. Stirring was continuous to assure turbulent flow inside the vessel. Garcinia fruits were sliced into infinite slabs of two different thicknesses, 2.5 and 4.0 mm. Each group of a given thickness was then

Chairat SIRIPATANA

2007-01-01

77

Ascorbic Acid Content of Baobab Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Hausa-speaking farmers and Fulani cattle owners who live in the savannah regions of Northern Nigeria make free use of the leaves and fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata Linn.). The leaves, either fresh or dried and pulverized, are used in the soup which is poured over the dish of porridge made from guineacorn (sorghum) or millet (pennisetum and

Bruce M. Nicol

1957-01-01

78

Multisensory flavor perception: Assessing the influence of fruit acids and color cues on the perception of fruit-flavored beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study designed to investigate the influence of fruit acids (in particular, citric and malic acid) on people’s perception of the identity and the intensity of a variety of different fruit-flavored solutions. Participants had to identify the flavor of fruit-flavored drinks that were colored yellow, grey, orange, red, or else were presented as colorless solutions. The participants also

Massimiliano Zampini; Emma Wantling; Nicola Phillips; Charles Spence

2008-01-01

79

Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.  

PubMed

The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits. PMID:1852726

Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

1991-04-01

80

Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

2011-01-01

81

Variations in essential oil and fatty acid composition during Myrtus communis var. italica fruit maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and fatty acid composition of Myrtus communis var. italica fruit during its ripening was determined. The effect of the harvesting time on some physical properties of Myrtus fruits, fruit weight and moisture content, were significant. The increase of fruit weight (from 2.54 to 8.79g% fruits) during ripeness was correlated positively with that of moisture content (from 28%

Wissem Aidi Wannes; Baya Mhamdi; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

82

EFFECT OF MILD HEAT PRE TREATMENT ON THE ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT OF FRESH-CUT FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits are the major suppliers of the vitamin C (including ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) to human diets. Fresh-cut fruits, an important new class of food products, present attributes such as convenience and fresh-like quality. The ascorbic acid content of fresh-cut fruits is affected by minimal processing and along storage period. Mild heat pre treatments (MHPT) when applied to whole

M Abreu; S Beirão-da-Costa; A Steiner; L Correia; ML Beirão-da-Costa; AE Leitão; J Empis

83

Ascorbic acid metabolism during bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit development.  

PubMed

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) possesses a high antioxidant capacity in berries due to the presence of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid (AsA). Accumulation of AsA and the expression of the genes encoding the enzymes of the main AsA biosynthetic route and of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as well as the activities of the enzymes involved in AsA oxidation and recycling were investigated for the first time during the development and ripening of bilberry fruit. The results showed that the AsA level remained relatively stable during fruit maturation. The expression of the genes encoding the key enzymes in the AsA main biosynthetic route showed consistent trends with each other as well as with AsA levels, especially during the first stages of fruit ripening. The expression of genes and activities of the enzyme involved in the AsA oxidation and recycling route showed more prominent developmental stage-dependent changes during the ripening process. Different patterns of activity were found among the studied enzymes and the results were, for some enzymes, in accordance with AsA levels. In fully ripe berries, both AsA content and gene expression were significantly higher in skin than in pulp. PMID:22608079

Cocetta, Giacomo; Karppinen, Katja; Suokas, Marko; Hohtola, Anja; Häggman, Hely; Spinardi, Anna; Mignani, Ilaria; Jaakola, Laura

2012-07-15

84

Gibberellic acid causes earlier flowering and synchronizes fruit ripening of coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 100 mgl-1 gibberellic acid (GA3) on flowering and fruit ripening synchrony, fruit set, fruit fresh weight, and vegetative growth were studied for different size classes of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. Guatemalan) flower buds. Flower buds that were > 4 mm, but not developed to the candle stage at the time of GA3 treatment, reached anthesis 20

Ursula K. Schuch; Leslie H. Fuchigami; Mike A. Nagao

1990-01-01

85

The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.  

PubMed

Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

2014-01-01

86

Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.  

PubMed

Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. PMID:25466077

Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

2015-04-15

87

Sugar Content, Acidity and Effect on Plaque pH of Fruit Juices, Fruit Drinks, Carbonated Beverages and Sport Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of fructose, glucose and sucrose, the pH and the titratable amount of acid were analyzed in the following groups of soft drinks (8–11 samples per group): (1) fruit juices, (2) fruit drinks, (3) carbonated beverages and (4) sport drinks. Moreover, the effect of representative products on pH changes of dental plaque was studied in two groups of teenagers

D. Birkhed

1984-01-01

88

Comparison of lipid content and fatty acid composition between Tuber fermentation mycelia and natural fruiting bodies.  

PubMed

A comparison of lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition between Tuber fermentation mycelia and natural fruiting bodies indicates that the lipid content in Tuber fermentation mycelia is higher than that in fruiting bodies. Unsaturated FAs (particularly linoleic acid and oleic acid) were the predominant constituents in total FAs in both Tuber fermentation mycelia and fruiting bodies. A total of 23 FAs, including arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and ?-linolenic acids, were first identified in the Tuber species. A hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the FA profile of fermentation mycelia was quite similar, regardless of Tuber species. However, the FA profile of the fruiting bodies was significantly influenced by its species and habitat environments. Interestingly, the FA profile of the Tuber indicum and Tuber aestivum fruiting bodies was nearly identical to that of the Tuber fermentation mycelia, which partially confirms the similarity between the Tuber fermentation mycelia and the fruiting bodies. PMID:21449542

Tang, Yang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

2011-05-11

89

Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) fruit during fruit maturation.  

PubMed

Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways. PMID:25455100

Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2015-01-01

90

Changes in fatty acid composition of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit during maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits cultivated in the North-East of Tunisia (Charfine). The fruits matured in 55 days after flowering (DAF). Oil and petroselinic acid synthesis proceeded at a steady rate up to 32 DAF. The first results showed a rapid oil accumulation started at newly formed fruits (9.6±0.2%) and continued

Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mouna Ben Taarit; Thouraya Chahed; Mohamed Hammami; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

91

Evolution of the aroma volatiles of pear fruits supplemented with Fatty Acid metabolic precursors.  

PubMed

To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored "Nanguoli" fruits than in green-flavored "Dangshansuli" fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in "Dangshansuli" fruits were higher than in "Nanguoli" fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in "Dangshansuli" was approximately three times that in "Nanguoli". The higher contents of hexyl esters in "Dangshansuli" may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented. PMID:25474290

Qin, Gaihua; Tao, Shutian; Zhang, Huping; Huang, Wenjiang; Wu, Juyou; Xu, Yiliu; Zhang, Shaoling

2014-01-01

92

INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF CHLORINE WITH MALIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, AND VARIOUS FRUIT JUICES, A SOURCE OF MUTAGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...

93

Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.  

PubMed

In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. PMID:25577050

Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

2015-05-15

94

A New Hydroxy-acid in the Peel of Apple Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the examination of paper chromatograms of extracts from whole mature Edward VII apples, a faint acid spot appeared which did not correspond in position with any of the usual fruit acids. On chromatograms of extracts of peel tissue only, the unknown acid appeared to be present in an amount approximately one-quarter that of the malic acid present (the chief

A. C. Hulme

1953-01-01

95

ACIDIC FRUIT INTAKE IN RELATION TO INCIDENCE AND PROGRESSION OF URINARY INCONTINENCE  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis Acidic fruits are commonly cited in the lay press as potential bladder irritants that may promote urinary incontinence (UI), but no epidemiologic studies have examined this issue. We hypothesized that higher intake of acidic fruits might be related to greater risk of UI incidence and progression in women. Methods In one set of analyses, we included women without UI at study baseline in the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS), with 34,144 women aged 54–79 in NHS I and 31,024 women aged 37–54 in NHS II. These cohorts were established among women living in the United States. Incident UI was ascertained over four years of follow up, and acidic fruit consumption was measured by food frequency questionnaire prior to UI onset. In a second set of analyses, we examined UI progression over two years of follow up among 11,764 women in NHS I and 11,299 women in NHS II with existing UI. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks were calculated for the associations of acidic fruit intake and UI incidence and progression. Results We found no relation between acidic fruit intake and risk of developing UI, including urgency, mixed, and stress UI. In addition, there was no association between consumption of acidic fruits and UI progression, regardless of UI type. Conclusion No associations were detected between acidic fruit intake and UI in this large, prospective study of women. These data have implications for the development of evidence-based dietary guidelines around acidic fruits and UI, particularly because acidic fruits likely have many health benefits. PMID:22878474

Townsend, Mary K.; Devore, Elizabeth E.; Resnick, Neil M.; Grodstein, Francine

2012-01-01

96

Indole3-acetic acid concentration and ethylene evolution during early fruit development in peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene evolution was measured from greenhouse-grown ‘Jerseyglo’ peach fruits beginning 29 days after anthesis. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were measured in the pericarp and seed tissues of individual fruits on a single shoot when variable ethylene evolution was noted. Despite hand-pollinating all flowers on the same day, variability within the shoot existed in fruit fresh weight, IAA levels, and ethylene

Anita Nina Miller; Christopher S. Walsh

1990-01-01

97

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel  

E-print Network

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis; Accepted in revised form 1 April 2008) Summary Pectin was extracted from passion fruit peel using threeH and extraction time had highly significant effects on the pectin yield. A central composite design with face

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

98

Ascorbic Acid Content in Relation to Ascorbic Acid Oxidase Activity and Polyamine Content in Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruits During Development, Maturation and Senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv. XPH-1251) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, cv. New ace) plants were grown in a greenhouse in controlled hydroponic conditions, and fruits were harvested at different intervals from 18 to 94 days from fruit set. Total ascorbic acid was higher in bell pepper than in tomato fruit. In pepper fruit, the level increased rapidly during its

Elhadi M. Yahia; Margarita Contreras-Padilla; Gustavo Gonzalez-Aguilar

2001-01-01

99

New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

100

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

101

Light avoidance reduces ascorbic acid accumulation in the peel of Citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Citrus fruits are highly consumed worldwide and represent one of the most important sources of ascorbic acid (AsA). However, information about the molecular mechanisms regulating AsA accumulation in Citrus fruit and the effects of environmental factors is scarce. In this study we have investigated the effect of fruit shading on AsA content and the expression of AsA biosynthetic, degrading and recycling genes in fruits of different Citrus species. Immature-green fruits were covered at the end of the cell enlargement phase and AsA concentration in the flavedo declined and remained at low levels as compared with light-exposed fruits. Fruit shading marginally altered the expression of genes from the l-galactose pathway and this effect was variable in the four Citrus species. However, specific isoforms (GalUR8 or GalUR12) from the l-galacturonic acid pathway were significantly repressed paralleling the reduction in AsA concentration. No significant effect of shading was detected in transcription of genes of the myo-inositol and l-gulose pathways as well as recycling and degradation. Collectively, results indicate that light avoidance inhibited accumulation of AsA in the flavedo of Citrus fruits and suggest that the l-galacturonic acid pathway has a relevant contribution to AsA content in this tissue. PMID:25575999

Lado, Joanna; Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2015-02-01

102

Phenotypic and fine genetic characterization of the D locus controlling fruit acidity in peach  

PubMed Central

Background Acidity is an essential component of the organoleptic quality of fleshy fruits. However, in these fruits, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that control fruit acidity remain unclear. In peach the D locus controls fruit acidity; low-acidity is determined by the dominant allele. Using a peach progeny of 208 F2 trees, the D locus was mapped to the proximal end of linkage group 5 and co-localized with major QTLs involved in the control of fruit pH, titratable acidity and organic acid concentration and small QTLs for sugar concentration. To investigate the molecular basis of fruit acidity in peach we initiated the map-based cloning of the D locus. Results In order to generate a high-resolution linkage map in the vicinity of the D locus, 1,024 AFLP primer combinations were screened using DNA of bulked acid and low-acid segregants. We also screened a segregating population of 1,718 individuals for chromosomal recombination events linked to the D locus and identified 308 individuals with recombination events close to D. Using these recombinant individuals we delimited the D locus to a genetic interval of 0.4 cM. We also constructed a peach BAC library of 52,000 clones with a mean insert size of 90 kb. The screening of the BAC library with markers tightly linked to D locus indicated that 1 cM corresponds to 250 kb at the vicinity of the D locus. Conclusion In the present work we presented the first high-resolution genetic map of D locus in peach. We also constructed a peach BAC library of approximately 15× genome equivalent. This fine genetic and physical characterization of the D locus is the first step towards the isolation of the gene(s) underlying fruit acidity in peach. PMID:19445673

2009-01-01

103

Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits.  

PubMed

The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 mug Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies. PMID:20548930

Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine

2010-01-01

104

NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products. PMID:24520932

Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

2014-02-26

105

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

PubMed Central

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2010-01-01

106

Radical scavenging capacity of methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. extract: anthocyanin and phenolic acids composition of fruits.  

PubMed

Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and IC(50) values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW of fruits. PMID:23364751

Ayranci, Erol; Erkan, Naciye

2013-01-01

107

Changes in sugars, acids, and volatiles during ripening of koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.  

PubMed

The columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller, Cactaceae (koubo), is grown commercially in Israel. The unripe fruits are green, and the color changes to violet and then to red when the fruit is fully ripe. The content of soluble sugars was found to increase 5-fold during ripening. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars accumulated in the fruit pulp, and each increased from 0.5 to 5.5 g/100 g fresh weight during ripening. The polysaccharides content decreased during ripening from 1.4 to 0.4 g/100 g fresh weight. The titratable acidity decreased and the pH increased during ripening. The major organic acid found in the fruit was malic acid, which decreased from 0.75 g/100 g fresh weight at the mature green stage to 0.355 g/100 g fresh weight in ripe fruits. Citric, succinic, and oxalic acids were found in concentrations lower than 0.07 g/100 g fresh weight. Prominent accumulation of aroma volatiles occurred toward the end of the ripening process. The main volatile found in the ripe fruit was linalool, reaching concentrations of 1.5-3.5 microg/g fresh weight. PMID:12537460

Ninio, Racheli; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef; Sitrit, Yaron

2003-01-29

108

Separation of Hydroxycitric Acid Lactone from Fruit Pectins and Polyhydroxyphenols on Poly(4-Vinylpyridine) Weak-Base Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) has been used for the separation of hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL) from polyhydroxyphenols and fruit pectins, as the study has relevance to the problem of extraction of the antiobesity substance hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia fruits, a rich source of the acid. PVP has been used both in free-base form and in protonated or salt form as a

M. CHANDA; G. L. REMPEL

2000-01-01

109

Evaluation of sampling and extraction procedures for the analysis of ascorbic acid from pear fruit tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suitable method of extraction of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) from Conference pears during storage was developed. Analytes determination was carried out by HPLC with UV detection at 254 nm. Three sampling procedures from fresh fruit and three extraction procedures from frozen tissue were tested. Recovery data were achieved by running at the same time the sample

Anna Rizzolo; Ada Brambilla; Sabrina Valsecchi; Paola Eccher-Zerbini

2002-01-01

110

High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits, Vegetables and Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruits, vegetables and juices. Samples were homogenized with 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 2.0 and extracted with 3% metaphosphoric acid. Ascorbic acid was analyzed on a polymer C18 column (RLRP-S 100A) with UV detection at 244 nm. The mobile phase was 1.8% tetrahydrofuran and 0.3%

R. J. Bushway; J. M. King; B. Perkins; M. Krishnan

1988-01-01

111

Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C?C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene

Kenji Matsui; Mizuyoshi Shibutani; Toshiharu Hase; Tadahiko Kajiwara

1996-01-01

112

In vitro biological activities and fatty acid profiles of Pistacia terebinthus fruits and Pistacia khinjuk seeds.  

PubMed

This study reports in vitro anticholinesterase, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethanol-water extracts prepared from Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits and Pistacia khinjuk Stocks seeds as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and fatty acid compositions. Ethanol and ethanol-water extracts of both species exhibited higher anticholinesterase activity than galanthamine. Among ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC assays, the highest antioxidant capacity of the extracts was found in the last one. P. terebinthus ethanol extract being rich in flavonoid content showed the best cupric reducing effect. All extracts possessed no antimicrobial activity. The main fatty acid in P. terebinthus fruits (52.52%) and P. khinjuk seeds (59.44%) was found to be oleic acid. Our results indicate that P. terebinthus fruits and P. khinjuk seeds could be a good source of anticholinesterase compounds, and could be phytochemically investigated. PMID:25115646

Hac?bekiro?lu, I??l; Y?lmaz, Pelin Köseo?lu; Ha?imi, Nesrin; K?l?nç, Ersin; Tolan, Veysel; Kolak, Ufuk

2014-08-12

113

Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

2014-01-01

114

Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue  

SciTech Connect

Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

1991-03-01

115

Modeling the vacuolar storage of malate shed lights on pre- and post-harvest fruit acidity.  

PubMed

BackgroundMalate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. Several studies suggest that malate accumulation in fruit cells is controlled at the level of vacuolar storage. However, the regulation of vacuolar malate storage throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the malate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we adapted the mechanistic model of vacuolar storage proposed by Lobit et al. in order to study the accumulation of malate in pre and postharvest fruits. The main adaptation concerned the variation of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis during fruit development. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having separate growth and post-harvest ripening stages, during which malate concentration undergoes substantial changes. Moreover, the concentration of malate in banana pulp varies greatly among cultivars which make possible to use the model as a tool to analyze the genotypic variability. The model was calibrated and validated using data sets from three cultivars with contrasting malate accumulation, grown under different fruit loads and potassium supplies, and harvested at different stages.ResultsThe model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of malate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars (mean RRMSE¿=¿0.25-0.42). The sensitivity of the model to parameters and input variables was analyzed. According to the model, vacuolar composition, in particular potassium and organic acid concentrations, had an important effect on malate accumulation. The model suggested that rising temperatures depressed malate accumulation. The model also helped distinguish differences in malate concentration among the three cultivars and between the pre and post-harvest stages by highlighting the probable importance of proton pump activity and particularly of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis and vacuolar pH.ConclusionsThis model appears to be an interesting tool to study malate accumulation in pre and postharvest fruits and to get insights into the ecophysiological determinants of fruit acidity, and thus may be useful for fruit quality improvement. PMID:25403512

Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Lobit, Philippe; Bugaud, Christophe

2014-11-18

116

?-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.  

PubMed

The results from this study showed that treatment with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 ?g/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen. PMID:24767023

Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

2014-09-15

117

Metabolic engineering of tomato fruit organic acid content guided by biochemical analysis of an introgression line.  

PubMed

Organic acid content is regarded as one of the most important quality traits of fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the complexity of carboxylic acid metabolism and storage means that it is difficult to predict the best way to engineer altered carboxylic acid levels. Here, we used a biochemical analysis of a tomato introgression line with increased levels of fruit citrate and malate at breaker stage to identify a metabolic engineering target that was subsequently tested in transgenic plants. Increased carboxylic acid levels in introgression line 2-5 were not accompanied by changes in the pattern of carbohydrate oxidation by pericarp discs or the catalytic capacity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes measured in isolated mitochondria. However, there was a significant decrease in the maximum catalytic activity of aconitase in total tissue extracts, suggesting that a cytosolic isoform of aconitase was affected. To test the role of cytosolic aconitase in controlling fruit citrate levels, we analyzed fruit of transgenic lines expressing an antisense construct against SlAco3b, one of the two tomato genes encoding aconitase. A green fluorescent protein fusion of SlAco3b was dual targeted to cytosol and mitochondria, while the other aconitase, SlAco3a, was exclusively mitochondrial when transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Both aconitase transcripts were decreased in fruit from transgenic lines, and aconitase activity was reduced by about 30% in the transgenic lines. Other measured enzymes of carboxylic acid metabolism were not significantly altered. Both citrate and malate levels were increased in ripe fruit of the transgenic plants, and as a consequence, total carboxylic acid content was increased by 50% at maturity. PMID:23166354

Morgan, Megan J; Osorio, Sonia; Gehl, Bernadette; Baxter, Charles J; Kruger, Nicholas J; Ratcliffe, R George; Fernie, Alisdair R; Sweetlove, Lee J

2013-01-01

118

Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.  

PubMed

Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil(®)-L-Val and Lipodex(®) E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), ?-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (<70 mg/kg DM) of L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, ?-alanine, and in some samples (<20 mg/kg DM) of (S)-?-aminoisobutyric acid and (<10 mg/kg DM) L-allo-isoleucine. In one date fruit, traces of ?-aminoadipic acid could be determined. Enantiomeric analysis of 6 M DCl/D2O hydrolysates of AAs using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of very low amounts of D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Glu, D-Ser and D-Phe (1.2-0.4%, relative to the corresponding L-enantiomers), besides traces (0.2-1%) of other D-AAs. The possible relevance of non-proteinogenic amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed. PMID:24938763

Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

2014-09-01

119

Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two consecutive seasons, 40 Spanish pomegranate cultivars (cvs) were analysed and their individual organic acids and\\u000a sugars compositions were examined. Intervarietal differences in acidity content reported by different authors were confirmed.\\u000a According to organoleptic characteristics and chemical compositions three groups of varieties were established: sweet (SWV),\\u000a soursweet (SSWV) and sour (SV). On average, for two seasons, total organic acids

Pablo Melgarejo; Domingo Manuel Salazar; F. Artés

2000-01-01

120

Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818 ?g/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2,070 ?g/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1,603 ?g/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10 ?g/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9 ?g/g extracts) and all-trans-?-carotene (4-6 ?g/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry. PMID:25038660

Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

2014-12-15

121

Absorption spectral analysis of proteins and free amino acids in Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the results of spectrophotometric studies of the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies, grown in natural conditions in different habitats of Chernivtsy region, in the spectral interval of 215 - 340 nm. It is shown that the samples reveal considerable difference both in free amino acid content and reserved protein content of albumins, globulins, prolamins, glutelins.

Kostyshyn, S.; Gorshynska, I.; Guminetsky, S. G.

2002-02-01

122

Differential-pulse polarographic determination of iron in acids, waters, fruit juices and wines.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of iron by differential-pulse polarography, based on the formation of a 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,2,3-trione 1,2-dioxime 3-thiosemicarbazone-iron(II) complex, is proposed. The method was applied to the determination of iron in acids, waters, wines and fruit juices. PMID:7943746

Vázquez Diaz, M E; Jiménez Sánchez, J C; Callejón Mochón, M; Guiraúm Pérez, A

1994-07-01

123

The role of abscisic acid in regulating cucumber fruit development and ripening and its transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a kind of fruit usually harvested at the immature green stage, belongs to non-climacteric fruit. To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) to cucumber fruit development and ripening, variation in ABA level was investigated and a peak in ABA level was found in pulp before fruit get fully ripe. To clarify this point further, exogenous ABA was applied to cucumber fruits at two different development stages. Results showed that ABA application at the turning stage promotes cucumber fruit ripening, while application at the immature green stage had inconspicuous effects. In addition, with the purpose of understanding the transcriptional regulation of ABA, two partial cDNAs of CsNCED1 and CsNCED2 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthetic pathway; one partial cDNA of CsCYP707A1 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA and two partial cDNAs of CsBG1 and CsBG2 for ?-glucosidase (BG) that hydrolyzes ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA were cloned from cucumber. The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of these obtained genes respectively showed high similarities to their homologous genes in other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ABA content may be regulated by its biosynthesis (CsNCEDs), catabolism (CsCYP707A1) and reactivation genes (CsBGs) at the transcriptional level during cucumber fruit development and ripening, in response to ABA application, dehydration and pollination, among which CsNCED1, CsCYP707A1 and CsBG1 were highly expressed in pulp and may play more important roles in regulating ABA metabolism. PMID:23376370

Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai; Dai, Shengjie; Hu, Ying; Sun, Liang; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Sun, Yufei; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Dian; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

2013-03-01

124

Cytotoxic chalcones and antioxidants from the fruits of a Syzygium samarangense (Wax Jambu)  

PubMed Central

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts of the pulp and seeds of the fruits of Syzygium samarangense Merr. & Perry (Blume) led to the identification of four cytotoxic compounds and eight antioxidants on the basis of HPLC-PDA analysis, MS, and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Three C-methylated chalcones, 2?,4?-dihydroxy-3?,5?-dimethyl-6?-methoxychalcone (1), 2?,4?-dihydroxy-3?-methyl-6?-methoxychalcone (stercurensin, 2), and 2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxychalcone (cardamonin, 3), were isolated and displayed cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 10, 35, and 35 ?M, respectively) against the SW-480 human colon cancer cell line. Also a number of known antioxidants were obtained including six quercetin glycosides: reynoutrin (4), hyperin (5), myricitrin (6), quercitrin (7), quercetin (9), and guaijaverin (10), one flavanone: (S)-pinocembrin (8), and two phenolic acids: gallic acid (11) and ellagic acid (12). PMID:22359426

Simirgiotis, Mario J.; Adachi, Seiji; To, Satoshi; Yang, Hui; Reynertson, Kurt A.; Basile, Margaret J.; Gil, Roberto R.; Weinstein, I. Bernard; Kennelly, Edward J.

2011-01-01

125

Antioxidant properties of fruit and vegetable juices: more to the story than ascorbic acid.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements such as vitamin C have become popular for their perceived ability to enhance the body's antioxidant defenses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to cause a broad spectrum of damage to biological systems. Scavenging of ROS is part of a healthy, well-balanced, antioxidant defense system. The present study used the Fenton reaction as a source of hydroxyl radicals and xanthine/xanthine oxidase as a source of superoxide radicals to investigate the scavenging capabilities of various fruit and vegetable juices against these radicals. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping was used for free radical detection and measurement. Using a colormetric assay, the present study also investigated the protective effects of fruit and vegetable juices against lipid peroxidation induced in cell membranes by hydroxyl radicals. The present study showed that the free radical scavenging capability of each individual juice, but not its ascorbic acid content, is correlated with its protective effect on free radical induced lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that ascorbic acid is only one facet of the protective effect of fruit and vegetable juices. It appears that consumption of whole fruits and vegetables would be superior to an ascorbic acid supplement for antioxidant effectiveness. PMID:12017203

Leonard, Stephen S; Cutler, Deborah; Ding, Min; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vincent; Shi, Xianglin

2002-01-01

126

Chlorophenoxyacetic acid and chloropyridylphenylurea accelerate translocation of photoassimilates to parthenocarpic and seeded fruits of muskmelon (Cucumis melo).  

PubMed

We compared the effect of p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (p-CPA) and 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) on parthenocarpic and seeded muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruits in regards to fruit development and the transport of photoassimilates from leaves exposed to ¹?CO? to the developing fruits. Ten days after anthesis (DAA), the fresh weight, total ¹?C-radioactivity and contents of ¹?C-sucrose and ¹?C-fructose were higher in the CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits than in seeded fruits. However, at 35 DAA, fresh weight and sucrose content in mesocarp, placenta and empty seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower than in seeded fruits. Also, total ¹?C-radioactivity and ¹?C-sugar content of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower as well as the translocation rate of ¹?C-photoassimilates into these fruits. Application of p-CPA to the parthenocarpic fruits at 10 and 25 DAA increased fresh weight and sugar content. Moreover, these treatments elevated the total ¹?C-radioactivity, ¹?C-sucrose content and the translocation rate of ¹?C-photoassimilates. The ¹?C-radioactivity along the translocation pathway from leaf to petiole, stem, lateral shoot and peduncle showed a declining pattern but dramatically increased again in the fruits. These results suggest that the fruit's sink strength was regulated by the seed and enhanced by the application of p-CPA. PMID:21168241

Li, Xin-Xian; Kobayashi, Fumiyuki; Ikeura, Hiromi; Hayata, Yasuyoshi

2011-06-15

127

Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.  

PubMed

Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86mgg(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation. PMID:25466081

Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

2015-04-15

128

Direct analysis of oligosaccharides and alpha hydroxy acids in fruits using electrosonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Electrosonic spray ionization (ESSI) is a derivative technique of electrospray ionization (ESI) for mass spectrometry (MS) in which droplets are charged in the course of sonic spray. In this study, we applied ESSI MS to direct analysis of oligosaccharides and alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in fruits. The components were extracted from fruit fleshes by a feasible method prior to ESSI MS analysis, but the fruit juices were analyzed without further pretreatment. The results demonstrate that mainly alkali metal adducts of oligosaccharides are favorably produced in positive ion mode, while deprotonated AHAs and oligosaccharides are produced in negative ion mode. Compared with mass spectra obtained using electrospray droplet impact/secondary ion mass spectrometry (EDI/SIMS), mass spectra using ESSI make the identification of oligosaccharides more straightforward in positive ion mode than in negative ion mode. PMID:21804962

Chen, Rui; Wang, Liping; Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Yueming; Zhen, Cheng; Zhang, Ning; Tang, Yin; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianing; Nie, Zongxiu; Chen, Yi

2011-09-21

129

Glycerolipid and fatty acid distribution in pericarp, seed and whole fruit oils of Myrtus communis var. italica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed, pericarp and whole berry of Myrtus communis var. italica were compared in terms of oils, glycerolipid classes and fatty acids. The fruit is composed of pericarp and approximately 9 seeds which constituted 63.5 and 36.5% of the whole ripe fruit, respectively. The latter presented a weight of 8.8g% fruits while seed had only 0.5g% seeds. The moisture contents were

Wissem Aidi Wannes; Baya Mhamdi; Jazia Sriti; Brahim Marzouk

2010-01-01

130

Chlorogenic acid content swap during fruit maturation in Coffea pseudozanguebariae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are products of phenylpropanoid metabolism, i.e. one branch of the phenolic pathway. A wild species, Coffea pseudozanguebariae, native of East Africa, is a caffeine-free species with low CGA content (1.2% dmb in green beans). It is also used as a gene donor to improve C. canephora cup taste quality. In the current study, contents of the different

Claire Bertrand; Michel Noirot; Sylvie Doulbeau; Alexandre de Kochko; Serge Hamon; Claudine Campa

2003-01-01

131

Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.  

PubMed

The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8?g/100?g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9?g/100?g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7?g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets. PMID:23539474

Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

2013-12-01

132

Acid and Neutral Invertases in the Mesocarp of Developing Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv Prince) Fruit  

PubMed Central

Acid and neutral invertases were found in the mesocarp of developing muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv Prince) fruit and the activities of these enzymes declined with maturation of the fruit, concomitantly with the accumulation of sucrose. Neutral invertase was only present in the soluble fraction and acid invertase was present in both the soluble and cell-wall fractions. The cell-wall fraction contained three types of acid invertase: a NaCl-released invertase; an EDTA-released invertase, and a tightly bound invertase that still remained on the cell wall after treatment with NaCl and EDTA. The soluble acid and neutral invertases could be separated from one another by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and they exhibited clear differences in their properties, namely, in their pH optima, substrate specificity, Km values for sucrose, and inhibition by metal ions. The EDTA-released invertase and the soluble acid invertase were similar with regard to their chromatographic behavior on DEAE-cellulose, but the NaCl-released invertase was different because it was adsorbed to a column of CM-cellulose. The soluble acid invertase and two cell-wall bound invertases had very similar characteristics with regard to optimal pH and temperature, Km value for sucrose, and substrate specificity. PMID:16668269

Ranwala, Anil P.; Iwanami, Shun-Suke; Masuda, Hiroshi

1991-01-01

133

Inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the browning control of litchi fruit by glutathione and citric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.3.2) from litchi peel was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration, and a 16-fold purification of PPO achieved. The use of 10 mmol litre?1 glutathione and 100 mmol litre?1 citric acid was found to give good control of the browning of litchi fruit and 80–85% inhibition of PPO observed. Application of glutathione in

Yueming Jiang; Jiarui Fu

1998-01-01

134

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  

PubMed

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

135

Identification of bioaccessible and uptaken phenolic compounds from strawberry fruits in in vitro digestion/Caco-2 absorption model.  

PubMed

Strawberry fruits are highly valued for their taste and nutritional value. However, results describing the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds from strawberries are still scarce. In our study, a combined in vitro digestion/Caco-2 absorption model was used to mimic physiological conditions in the gastrointestinal track and identify compounds transported across intestinal epithelium. In the course of digestion, the loss of anthocyanins was noted whilst pelargonidin-3-glucoside remained the most abundant compound, amounting to nearly 12 mg per 100 g of digested strawberries. Digestion increased the amount of ellagic acid available by nearly 50%, probably due to decomposition of ellagitannins. Only trace amounts of pelargonidin-3-glucoside were found to be absorbed in the intestine model. Dihydrocoumaric acid sulphate and p-coumaric acid were identified as metabolites formed in enterocytes and released at the serosal side of the model. PMID:25306347

Kosi?ska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Diering, Sascha; Prim, Denis; Andlauer, Wilfried

2015-03-01

136

The genetic architecture of branched-chain amino acid accumulation in tomato fruits  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of the genetic architecture of fruit metabolic composition have allowed us to identify four strongly conserved co-ordinate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). This study has been extended here to encompass the other 23 enzymes described to be involved in the pathways of BCAA synthesis and degradation. On coarse mapping the chromosomal location of these enzymes, it was possible to define the map position of 24 genes. Of these genes eight co-localized, or mapped close to BCAA QTL including those encoding ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD), and isopropylmalate dehydratase (IPMD). Quantitative evaluation of the expression levels of these genes revealed that the S. pennellii allele of IPMD demonstrated changes in the expression level of this gene, whereas those of KARI and DHAD were invariant across the genotypes. Whilst the antisense inhibition of IPMD resulted in increased BCAA, the antisense inhibition of neither KARI nor DHAD produced a clear effect in fruit BCAA contents. The results are discussed both with respect to the roles of these specific enzymes within plant amino acid metabolism and within the context of current understanding of the regulation of plant branched-chain amino acid metabolism. PMID:21436187

Kochevenko, Andrej; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2011-01-01

137

Ascorbic Acid Determination in Commercial Fruit Juice Samples by Cyclic Voltammetry  

PubMed Central

A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in commercial fruit juice by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 490 mV on a Pt disc working electrode (versus SCE). The influence of the potential sweep speed on the peak height was studied. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between peak height and ascorbic acid concentration in the domain (0.1–10 mmol·L?1). The equation of the calibration graph was y = 6.391x + 0.1903 (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the anodic peak height, expressed as ?A and x the analyte concentration, as mmol·L?1, r2 = 0.9995, r.s.d. = 1.14%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2 mmol·L?1). The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juice. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged from 0.83 to 1.67 mmol·L?1 for orange juice, from 0.58 to 1.93 mmol·L?1 for lemon juice, and from 0.46 to 1.84 mmol·L?1 for grapefruit juice. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.35% and 104%. Ascorbic acid determination results obtained by cyclic voltammetry were compared with those obtained by the volumetric method with dichlorophenol indophenol. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:19343183

Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Kalinowski, Slawomir

2008-01-01

138

Proteome approach to characterize proteins induced by antagonist yeast and salicylic acid in peach fruit.  

PubMed

Proteins induced by antagonist yeast Pichia membranefaciens and salicylic acid (SA) in peach fruit were determined using proteome analysis in this study. Both the yeast and SA enhanced the resistance of peach fruit and delayed the initiation infection of Penicillium expansum. When quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer was used, a total of 25 proteins could be identified as significantly up- or down-regulated in response to at least one activitor. According to the function, these proteins were attributed to protein metabolism, defense response, transcription, energy metabolism, and cell structure. Among them, 6 antioxidant and 3 pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were induced by P. membranefaciens or SA treatments. The induction results of these proteins were related to treatment time. Six other proteins were identified as the enzymes which catalyze the reactions of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, both the yeast and SA treatments enhanced the transcript and translation expression of the catalase gene. These results suggested that antioxidant and PR proteins, as well as enzymes associated with sugar metabolism, were involved in resistance of peach fruit induced by P. membranefaciens and SA. PMID:17381148

Chan, Zhulong; Qin, Guozheng; Xu, Xiangbin; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

2007-05-01

139

Evidence for light-stimulated fatty acid synthesis in soybean fruit  

PubMed

In leaves, the light reactions of photosynthesis support fatty acid synthesis but disagreement exists as to whether this occurs in green oilseeds. To address this question, simultaneous measurements of the rates of CO(2) and O(2) exchange (CER and OER, respectively) were made in soybean (Glycine max L.) fruits. The imbalance between CER and OER was used to estimate the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR) in the equation: DRUR = 4 x (OER + CER). This yielded a quantitative measure of the rate of synthesis of biomass that is more reduced per unit carbon than glucose (in photosynthesizing tissues) or than the substrates of metabolism (in respiring tissues). The DRUR increased by about 2.2-fold when fruits were illuminated due to a greater increase in OER than decrease in CER. This characteristic was shown to be a property of the seed (not the pod wall), to be present in fruits at all developmental stages, and to reach a maximal response at relatively low light. When seeds were provided with (13)CO(2), light reduced (12)CO(2) production but had little effect on (13)CO(2) fixation. When they were provided with (18)O(2), light stimulated (16)O(2) production but had no effect on (18)O(2) uptake. Together, these findings indicate that light stimulates fatty acid synthesis in photosynthetic oilseeds, probably by providing both ATP and carbon skeletons. PMID:10444095

Willms; Salon; Layzell

1999-08-01

140

Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from delta-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits  

SciTech Connect

A new pathway for ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) biosynthesis, which utilizes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production to 232% of the control. The C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and radioactivity from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO/sub 2/ but not in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/. However, radioactivity from (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in CO/sub 2/, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ showed any radioactivity when (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA or (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and ACC.

El-Rayes, D.E.D.A.

1987-01-01

141

Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in Citrus fruits.  

PubMed

4'-Geranyloxyferulic (GOFA) and boropinic acid have been discovered during the last decade as interesting phytochemicals having valuable pharmacological effects as cancer chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-Helicobacter pylori agents. A reverse-phase HPLC-UV/Vis method for the separation and quantification of the title oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in extracts obtained from peels of nine edible Citrus and Fortunella fruits was successfully applied. Concentration values showed a great variation between the different species, being orange (C. sinensis) the fruit richest in GOFA (0.141?±?0.011 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight) and kumquat (Fortunella japonica) the one in which boropinic acid was recorded as the most abundant phytochemical (0.206?±?0.002 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight). Both secondary metabolites were not detected only in three species. The set-up methodology showed limits of quantification (LOQ) values, that were able to selectively quantify both GOFA and boropinic acid. Results described herein depict a potential chemopreventive dietary feeding role for the Rutaceae spp. under investigation. PMID:24928688

Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Epifano, Francesco

2014-09-01

142

Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds  

PubMed Central

Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2014-01-01

143

Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit  

PubMed Central

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

2014-01-01

144

Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.  

PubMed

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

2014-11-01

145

Effects of growing region and maturity stages on oil yield and fatty acid composition of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes on oil yield and fatty acid profiles were studied during maturation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits cultivated in Menzel Temime and Oued Beja, Tunisia. Oil and petroselinic acid biosynthesis proceeded at a steady rate up to 16 DAF in Oued Beja and in 33 DAF in Menzel Temime. The first results show that a rapid oil accumulation started

Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mouna Ben Taarit; Mohamed Hammami; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

146

The role of abscisic acid in fruit ripening and responses to abiotic stress.  

PubMed

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role not only in fruit development and ripening, but also in adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In these processes, the actions of ABA are under the control of complex regulatory mechanisms involving ABA metabolism, signal transduction, and transport. The endogenous ABA content is determined by the dynamic balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, processes which are regulated by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A), respectively. ABA conjugation by cytosolic UDP-glucosyltransferases, or release by ?-glucosidases, is also important for maintaining ABA homeostasis. Recently, multiple putative ABA receptors localized at different subcellular sites have been reported. Among these is a major breakthrough in the field of ABA signalling-the identification of a signalling cascade involving the PYR/PYL/RCAR protein family, the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), and subfamily 2 of the SNF1-related kinases (SnRK2s). With regard to transport, two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins and two ABA transporters in the nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter (NRT1/PTR) family have been identified. In this review, we summarize recent research progress on the role of ABA in fruit ripening, stress response, and transcriptional regulation, and also the functional verification of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes. In addition, we suggest possible commercial applications of genetic manipulation of ABA signalling to improve fruit quality and yields. PMID:24821949

Leng, Ping; Yuan, Bing; Guo, Yangdong

2014-08-01

147

The arbuscular mycorrhizal status has an impact on the transcriptome profile and amino acid composition of tomato fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is the most widespread association between plant roots and fungi in natural and agricultural ecosystems. This work investigated the influence of mycorrhization on the economically relevant part of the tomato plant, by analyzing its impact on the physiology of the fruit. To this aim, a combination of phenological observations, transcriptomics (Microarrays and qRT-PCR) and biochemical analyses was used to unravel the changes that occur on fruits from Micro-Tom tomato plants colonized by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. Results Mycorrhization accelerated the flowering and fruit development and increased the fruit yield. Eleven transcripts were differentially regulated in the fruit upon mycorrhization, and the mycorrhiza-responsive genes resulted to be involved in nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in regulation and signal transduction. Mycorrhization has increased the amino acid abundance in the fruit from mycorrhizal plants, with glutamine and asparagine being the most responsive amino acids. Conclusions The obtained results offer novel data on the systemic changes that are induced by the establishment of AM symbiosis in the plant, and confirm the work hypothesis that AM fungi may extend their influence from the root to the fruit. PMID:22452950

2012-01-01

148

Chlorophenoxyacetic acid and chloropyridylphenylurea accelerate translocation of photoassimilates to parthenocarpic and seeded fruits of muskmelon ( Cucumis melo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effect of p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (p-CPA) and 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) on parthenocarpic and seeded muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruits in regards to fruit development and the transport of photoassimilates from leaves exposed to 14CO2 to the developing fruits. Ten days after anthesis (DAA), the fresh weight, total 14C-radioactivity and contents of 14C-sucrose and 14C-fructose were higher in the CPPU-induced parthenocarpic

Xin-Xian Li; Fumiyuki Kobayashi; Hiromi Ikeura; Yasuyoshi Hayata

2011-01-01

149

Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

2013-11-01

150

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

PubMed

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

151

Role of Indoleacetic Acid and Abscisic Acid in the Correlative Control by Fruits of Axillary Bud Development and Leaf Senescence 1  

PubMed Central

When fully filled pods of bean plants were deseeded, the rate of axillary bud growth and the chlorophyll content of leaves were increased. Application of 0.1% indoleacetic acid (IAA) in lanolin on the deseeded pods caused abscission of axillary buds, inhibited growth of the remaining buds, and decreased leaf chlorophyll content. The response of bud development to fruit-applied IAA was concentration dependent between 0.001 and 0.1% IAA (representing from 2 to 200 micrograms IAA per fruit) resulting in greater growth inhibition at higher IAA concentrations. When plants were defruited so that the number of fruits per plant was adjusted to 0, 6, 12, or 18, a dosage effect of fruits on photosynthesis was observed. Removal of all fruits caused a rise in the CO2-exchange rate (CER). With increasing fruit dosage, plants showed leaf senescence of increasing intensity and a corresponding decline in CER. In contrast to the effect of fruit-applied IAA on leaves and buds, it delayed the senescence of treated fruits. When axillary buds were treated directly with aqueous solutions of IAA, no growth inhibition occurred. Abscisic acid (AbA) applied on deseeded pods, up to a concentration of 0.1% AbA in lanolin, failed to inhibit axillary bud development or to cause leaf senescence. The results support the hypothesis that the correlative control of axillary bud development and leaf senescence by fruits involves the participation of both IAA and AbA. IAA, released by the seeds, may play the role of the correlative signal that moves from the fruit to the target organ, where it stimulates the synthesis or accumulation of AbA. AbA, in turn, may be responsible for the inhibition of axillary bud development and the enhancement of leaf senescence. PMID:16661940

Tamas, Imre A.; Engels, Carol J.; Kaplan, Stuart L.; Ozbun, Jim L.; Wallace, Donald H.

1981-01-01

152

Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).  

PubMed

Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10?M MJ, 2mM SA or 10?M MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10?M MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10?M MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD. PMID:25216124

Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

2014-11-15

153

Mass Spectrometric Detection and Formation of D-Amino Acids in Processed Plant Saps, Syrups, and Fruit Juice Concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-Amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date),

154

Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Chebulagic Acid from the Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we firstly compared rat intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity by different ethanol-aqueous extractions from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. The enzymatic assay showed that the 80% ethanol extract was more potent against maltase activity than both 50% and 100% ethanol extracts. By HPLC analysis, it was determined that the 80% ethanol extract had a higher content of chebulagic acid than each of 50% or 100% ethanol extract. Next, we investigated how efficiently chebulagic acid could inhibit sugar digestion by determining the glucose level on the apical side of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The result showed that the maltose-hydrolysis activity was down-regulated by chebulagic acid, which proved to be a reversible inhibitor of maltase in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, chebulagic acid showed a weak inhibition of sucrose-hydrolysis activity. Meanwhile, chebulagic acid did not have an obvious influence on intestinal glucose uptake and was not effective on glucose transporters. Further animal studies revealed that the oral administration of chebulagic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels by 11.1% in maltose-loaded Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats compared with the control group, whereas the oral administration of chebulagic acid did not show a suppressive effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in sucrose- or glucose-loaded SD-rats. The results presented here suggest that chebulagic acid from T. chebula can be used to control blood glucose and manage type 2 diabetes, although clinical trials are needed. PMID:22754367

Huang, Yi-Na; Zhao, Dong-Dong; Gao, Bo; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Wang-Jun; Jia, Li-Rong; Gao, Hong

2012-01-01

155

Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits  

PubMed Central

Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH? IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 ?g/ml) to inactive (389 ?g/ml). PMID:21340048

Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.

2010-01-01

156

Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  

PubMed

Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

2012-07-01

157

Metabolic Engineering of Tomato Fruit Organic Acid Content Guided by Biochemical Analysis of an Introgression Line1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Organic acid content is regarded as one of the most important quality traits of fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the complexity of carboxylic acid metabolism and storage means that it is difficult to predict the best way to engineer altered carboxylic acid levels. Here, we used a biochemical analysis of a tomato introgression line with increased levels of fruit citrate and malate at breaker stage to identify a metabolic engineering target that was subsequently tested in transgenic plants. Increased carboxylic acid levels in introgression line 2-5 were not accompanied by changes in the pattern of carbohydrate oxidation by pericarp discs or the catalytic capacity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes measured in isolated mitochondria. However, there was a significant decrease in the maximum catalytic activity of aconitase in total tissue extracts, suggesting that a cytosolic isoform of aconitase was affected. To test the role of cytosolic aconitase in controlling fruit citrate levels, we analyzed fruit of transgenic lines expressing an antisense construct against SlAco3b, one of the two tomato genes encoding aconitase. A green fluorescent protein fusion of SlAco3b was dual targeted to cytosol and mitochondria, while the other aconitase, SlAco3a, was exclusively mitochondrial when transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Both aconitase transcripts were decreased in fruit from transgenic lines, and aconitase activity was reduced by about 30% in the transgenic lines. Other measured enzymes of carboxylic acid metabolism were not significantly altered. Both citrate and malate levels were increased in ripe fruit of the transgenic plants, and as a consequence, total carboxylic acid content was increased by 50% at maturity. PMID:23166354

Morgan, Megan J.; Osorio, Sonia; Gehl, Bernadette; Baxter, Charles J.; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Sweetlove, Lee J.

2013-01-01

158

Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

2014-09-01

159

Simultaneous determination of soluble sugars and organic acids as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in apricot fruits by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine a reliable procedure for the quantification of organic acids, alcohol soluble sugars and sugar alcohols in fruit fresh by means of a rapid GLC method, without resorting to methoximation of sugars and employing apricot as a model. The use of two internal standards, an accurate derivatization and a proper calibration of the

Francesco Bartolozzi; Gianpaolo Bertazza; Daniele Bassi; Graziella Cristoferi

1997-01-01

160

Optimization of a method for determination of phenolic acids in exotic fruits by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

In this work, the separation of nine phenolic acids (benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, syringic, and vanillic acid) was approached by a 3(2) factorial design in electrolytes consisting of sodium tetraborate buffer (STB) in the concentration range of 10-50 mmol L(-1) and methanol in the volume percentage of 5-20%. Derringer's desirability functions combined globally were tested as response functions. An optimal electrolyte composed by 50 mmol L(-1) tetraborate buffer at pH 9.2, and 7.5% (v/v) methanol allowed baseline resolution of all phenolic acids under investigation in less than 15 min. In order to promote sample clean up, to preconcentrate the phenolic fraction and to release esterified phenolic acids from the fruit matrix, elaborate liquid-liquid extraction procedures followed by alkaline hydrolysis were performed. The proposed methodology was fully validated (linearity from 10.0 to 100 microg mL(-1), R(2)>0.999; LOD and LOQ from 1.32 to 3.80 microg mL(-1) and from 4.01 to 11.5 microg mL(-1), respectively; intra-day precision better than 2.8% CV for migration time and 5.4% CV for peak area; inter-day precision better than 4.8% CV for migration time and 4.8-11% CV for peak area; recoveries from 81% to 115%) and applied successfully to the evaluation of phenolic contents of abiu-roxo (Chrysophyllum caimito), wild mulberry growing in Brazil (Morus nigra L.) and tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea). Values in the range of 1.50-47.3 microg g(-1) were found, with smaller amounts occurring as free phenolic acids. PMID:19545963

Fukuji, Tatiana S; Tonin, Fernando G; Tavares, Marina F M

2010-01-20

161

Rapid Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fresh Vegetables and Fruits with Electrochemically Treated Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study demonstrates a new electrochemical method for rapid determination of ascorbic acid in real samples with electrochemically\\u000a pretreated screen-printed carbon electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry results indicated that the electrochemically activated electrodes\\u000a possessed an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward ascorbic acid oxidation and can be successfully used for its selective\\u000a and sensitive determination in fresh vegetables and fruits. The proposed method was

Ling Xiang; Hua Ping; Liu Zhao; Zhihong Ma; Ligang Pan

2010-01-01

162

The Fruit Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by fruit enthusiast Jeroen Goedhart, The Fruit Pages proclaim: "Everything you want to know about fruit." That claim may be a bit of a stretch, yet in over 150 pages, the Fruit Pages certainly serve up a sizeable amount of fruit information. From fruit nutrition facts to comparisons of acidic and sweet fruit to fruit selection, this website covers a fair amount of ground. Examples of website sections include: The Energy in Fruit, Fruit Sites For Kids, Fruit From All Over The World, and Fruit & Detoxification, just to name a few. A wide variety of individual fruits are profiled as well, with information about common, scientific, and family names, storage, recipes, and more.

Goedhart, Jeroen

163

Compositional Variation in Sugars and Organic Acids at Different Maturity Stages in Selected Small Fruits from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Selected soluble sugars and organic acids were analyzed in strawberry, sweet cherry, and mulberry fruits at different ripening stages by HPLC. The amounts of fructose, glucose and sucrose were found to be: strawberry (1.79–2.86, 1.79–2.25 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g FW), sweet cherry (0.76–2.35, 0.22–3.39 and 0.03–0.13 g/100 g) and mulberry (3.07–9.41, 1.53–4.95 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g) at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. The strawberry, sweet cherry and mulberry mainly contained tartaric, citric and ascorbic acids in the range of 16–55, 70–1934 and 11–132 mg/100 g; 2–8, 2–10 and 10–17 mg/100 g; 2–118, 139–987 and 2–305 mg/100 g at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. Fructose and glucose were established to be the major sugars in all the tested fruit while citric and ascorbic acid were the predominant organic acids in strawberry and mulberry while tartaric acid was mainly present in sweet cherry. The tested fruits mostly showed an increase in the concentration of sugars and organic acids with ripening. PMID:22408396

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Boyce, Mary C.; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

164

Abscisic Acid Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Strawberry Fruit Ripening1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in fruit development, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking. Here, we report that ABA promotes strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit ripening. Using a newly established Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing technique in strawberry fruit, the expression of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene (FaNCED1), which is key to ABA biosynthesis, was down-regulated, resulting in a significant decrease in ABA levels and uncolored fruits. Interestingly, a similar uncolored phenotype was observed in the transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) fruits, in which the expression of a putative ABA receptor gene encoding the magnesium chelatase H subunit (FaCHLH/ABAR) was down-regulated by virus-induced gene silencing. More importantly, the uncolored phenotype of the FaNCED1-down-regulated RNAi fruits could be rescued by exogenous ABA, but the ABA treatment could not reverse the uncolored phenotype of the FaCHLH/ABAR-down-regulated RNAi fruits. We observed that down-regulation of the FaCHLH/ABAR gene in the RNAi fruit altered both ABA levels and sugar content as well as a set of ABA- and/or sugar-responsive genes. Additionally, we showed that exogenous sugars, particularly sucrose, can significantly promote ripening while stimulating ABA accumulation. These data provide evidence that ABA is a signal molecule that promotes strawberry ripening and that the putative ABA receptor, FaCHLH/ABAR, is a positive regulator of ripening in response to ABA. PMID:21734113

Jia, Hai-Feng; Chai, Ye-Mao; Li, Chun-Li; Lu, Dong; Luo, Jing-Jing; Qin, Ling; Shen, Yuan-Yue

2011-01-01

165

Effect of fruit load on 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA), GA and jasmonic acid concentrations in apple buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA), GAs and jasmonic acid (JA) and flower bud formation influenced by fruit load in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) was investigated. The endogenous KODA and JA concentrations in apical buds in plants subjected to flower thinning treatment (FTT), under which all flowers were removed were higher than those in plants subjected to heavy crop treatment

M. Kittikorn; N. Shiraishi; K. Okawa; H. Ohara; M. Yokoyama; O. Ifuku; S. Yoshida; S. Kondo

2010-01-01

166

Discrimination of fresh fruit juices by a fluorescent sensor array for carboxylic acids based on molecularly imprinted titania.  

PubMed

Design of chemical sensor arrays that can discriminate real-world samples has been highly attractive in recent years. Herein a fluorescent indicator-displacement sensor array for discrimination of fresh fruit juices was developed. By coupling the unique high affinity of titania to electron-donating anions and the cross-reactivity of molecularly imprinted materials to structurally similar species, a small array was fabricated using only one rhodamine-based fluorescent dye and three synthesized materials. Citric, malic, succinic and tartaric acids were chosen as indices. The recognition mechanism was investigated by spectrofluorimetric titration using a non-linear Langmuir-type adsorption model. The proposed method was applied to discriminate thirteen fruit juices through their carboxylic acid contents. Principal component analysis of the data clearly grouped the thirteen juices with the first principal component owning 98.2% of the total variation. The comparison of the sensor array with HPLC determination of the carboxylic acids was finally made. PMID:25038646

Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao

2014-12-15

167

Effect of the maturation process on the phenolic fractions, fatty acids, and antioxidant activity of the Chétoui olive fruit cultivar.  

PubMed

Maturity is one of the most important factors associated with the quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables. This work aims to investigate the effect of the maturation process of the olive fruit on the phenolic fraction and fatty acid of irrigated Chétoui cultivar. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by LC-MS and GC-MS analyses and fatty acids by GC. Oleuropein was the major phenolic compound at all stages of ripeness. Unexpectedly, both phenolic compounds hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein exhibited the same trends during maturation. Indeed, the oleuropein levels decreased during the ripening process and were not inversely correlated with the concentrations of hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was evaluated by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the beta-carotene linoleate model system. The IC 50 and AAC values of the olive extracts decreased from 3.68 to 1.61 microg/mL and from 645 to 431, respectively. There was a correlation between the antioxidant activity and the oleuropein concentration. The fatty acid composition was quantified in olive fruit during maturation and showed that fatty acids were characterized by the highest level of oleic acid, which reached 65.2%. PMID:18257524

Damak, Nahla; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ayadi, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Damak, Mohamed

2008-03-12

168

Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae).  

PubMed

The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg(-1)?day(-1), p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders. PMID:19770265

Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

2011-01-01

169

Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae)  

PubMed Central

The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg?1?day?1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders. PMID:19770265

Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

2011-01-01

170

Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC. PMID:19679456

Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C

2010-05-01

171

Expression profiling of ascorbic acid-related genes during tomato fruit development and ripening and in response to stress conditions  

PubMed Central

L-Ascorbate (the reduced form of vitamin C) participates in diverse biological processes including pathogen defence mechanisms, and the modulation of plant growth and morphology, and also acts as an enzyme cofactor and redox status indicator. One of its chief biological functions is as an antioxidant. L-Ascorbate intake has been implicated in the prevention/alleviation of varied human ailments and diseases including cancer. To study the regulation of accumulation of this important nutraceutical in fruit, the expression of 24 tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genes involved in the biosynthesis, oxidation, and recycling of L-ascorbate during the development and ripening of fruit have been characterized. Taken together with L-ascorbate abundance data, the results show distinct changes in the expression profiles for these genes, implicating them in nodal regulatory roles during the process of L-ascorbate accumulation in tomato fruit. The expression of these genes was further studied in the context of abiotic and post-harvest stress, including the effects of heat, cold, wounding, oxygen supply, and ethylene. Important aspects of the hypoxic and post-anoxic response in tomato fruit are discussed. The data suggest that L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase could play an important role in regulating ascorbic acid accumulation during tomato fruit development and ripening. PMID:19129160

Ioannidi, Eugenia; Kalamaki, Mary S.; Engineer, Cawas; Pateraki, Irene; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Giovannonni, James; Kanellis, Angelos K.

2009-01-01

172

Quantification and histochemical localization of ascorbic acid in 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji' apple fruit during on-tree development and cold storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple fruit are subject to multiple stressors during pre- and post-harvest development. Stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be detrimental to the fruit, and ascorbic acid (AsA) is involved in many of the antioxidant pathways that detoxify ROS. An inclusive study to characterize AsA dy...

173

Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).  

PubMed

Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (?45% more anthocyanins and ?20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

2014-04-16

174

Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit  

SciTech Connect

There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. (USDA, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

175

Melanogenesis-inhibitory saccharide fatty acid esters and other constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni).  

PubMed

Five new saccharide fatty acid esters, named nonioside P (3), nonioside Q (4), nonioside R (8), nonioside S (10), and nonioside T (14), and one new succinic acid ester, butyl 2-hydroxysuccinate (=4-butoxy-3-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid) (31), were isolated, along with 26?known compounds, including eight saccharide fatty acid esters, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 13, three hemiterpene glycosides, 15, 17, and 18, six iridoid glycosides, 21-25, and 27, and nine other compounds, 20, 28, 29, and 32-37, from a MeOH extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni). Upon evaluation of these and five other glycosidic compounds, 11, 16, 19, 26, and 30, from M. citrifolia fruit extract for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), most of the saccharide fatty acid esters, hemiterpene glycosides, and iridoid glycosides showed inhibitory effects with no or almost no toxicity to the cells. These compounds were further evaluated with respect to their cytotoxic activities against two human cancer cell lines (HL-60 and AZ521) and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. PMID:22700235

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tochizawa, Shun; Takahashi, Nami; Yamamoto, Ayako; Zhang, Jie; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka

2012-06-01

176

Determination of ascorbic acid content of some fruit juices and wine by voltammetry performed at pt and carbon paste electrodes.  

PubMed

A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in fruit juices and wine by differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 530 mV (versus SCE) on a Pt strip working electrode and at about 470 mV on a carbon paste working electrode. The influence of the operational parameters like the pulse amplitude and the pulse period on the analytical signal was investigated. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between the peak height and ascorbic acid concentration within the range 0.31-20 mM with a Pt working electrode, and within the range 0.07-20 mM with a carbon paste working electrode. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 21.839x + 35.726, r² = 0.9940, when a Pt strip electrode was used (where y represents the value of the current intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as µA and x the analyte concentration, as mM). R.S.D. = 2.09%, n = 10, C(ascorbic acid) = 2.5 mM. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 3.4429x + 5.7334, r² = 0.9971, when a carbon paste electrode was used (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as µA and x the analyte concentration, as mM). R.S.D. = 2.35%, n = 10, C(ascorbic acid) = 2.5 mM. The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juices and wine. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged between 6.83 mg/100 mL juice for soft drinks (Fanta Madness) and 54.74 mg/100 mL for citrus (lemon) juices obtained by squeezing fruit. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.74 and 104.97%. The results of ascorbic acid assessment by differential pulse voltammetry were compared with those obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:21285920

Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Pop, Aneta; Negulescu, Gheorghe Petre; Pisoschi, Aurel

2011-01-01

177

Integration of metabolomics and subcellular organelle expression microarray to increase understanding the organic acid changes in post-harvest citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Citric acid plays an important role in fresh fruit flavor and its adaptability to post-harvest storage conditions. In order to explore organic acid regulatory mechanisms in post-harvest citrus fruit, systematic biological analyses were conducted on stored Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis) fruits. High-performance capillary electrophoresis, subcellular organelle expression microarray, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and conventional physiological and biochemical analyses were undertaken. The results showed that the concentration of organic acids in HBP underwent a regular fluctuation. GC-MS-based metabolic profiling indicated that succinic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamine contents increased, but 2-oxoglutaric acid content declined, which further confirmed that the GABA shunt may have some regulatory roles in organic acid catabolism processes. In addition, the concentration of organic acids was significantly correlated with senescence-related physiological processes, such as hydrogen peroxide content as well as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, which showed that organic acids could be regarded as important parameters for measuring citrus fruit post-harvest senescence processes. PMID:23758915

Sun, Xiaohua; Zhu, Andan; Liu, Shuzhen; Sheng, Ling; Ma, Qiaoli; Zhang, Li; Nishawy, Elsayed Mohamed Elsayed; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Ma, Zhaocheng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

2013-11-01

178

Separation, characterization, and quantitation of phenolic acids in a little-known blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit by HPLC-MS.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the qualitative and quantitative determination of free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound phenolic acids in the blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit. A method for the determination of the profile of phenolic acids of four different phenolic fractions in the fruit was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Thirteen compounds (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, syringic, sinapic, salicylic, and trans-cinnamic acids) were identified and quantified in the berry. These experimental results showed that the predominant phenolic acid in the fruit of V. arctostaphylos is caffeic acid in free and insoluble ester-bound forms and p-coumaric acid in soluble ester and glycoside forms. Seven phenolic acids were identified as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (HBAs) and four as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAs). Total content of HBAs and HCAs in the four phenolic fractions constituted 30.1 and 69.9% of the free, 27.9 and 72.1% of the ester, 24.7 and 75.3% of the glycoside, and 51.7 and 48.3% of the ester-bound forms, respectively. Total phenolics as the sum of individual phenolic acids identified is 698.5 ng/g of fresh weight (fw) for the free, 3399.2 ng/g of fw for the ester, 3522.1 ng/g of fw for the glycoside, and 3671.6 ng/g of fw for the ester-bound phenolic fractions. The present results were compared with reported levels of phenolic acids in the fruits of different Vaccinium species. These data suggest that the fruit can be considered as a potentially good dietary source of phenolic acids. PMID:16218652

Ayaz, Faik A; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Gruz, Jiri; Novak, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav

2005-10-19

179

A reliable methodology for quantitative extraction of fruit and vegetable physiological amino acids and their subsequent analysis with commonly available HPLC systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High performance liquid chromatography of dabsyl derivatives of amino acids was employed for quantification of physiological amino acids in selected fruits and vegetables. This method was found to be particularly useful because the dabsyl derivatives of glutamine and citrulline were sufficiently se...

180

Enhancement of Growth and Fruit Maturity in 2-year-old Grapevines cv. Delaware by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on the growth, photosynthesis, and fruit quality of gibberellin-induced seedless\\u000a 2-year-old “Delaware“ grapevine was examined. The result of soil treatment (0.1–10 mg l?1) and foliar spray treatment (30–300 mg l?1) with ALA after flowering was significant growth improvement, up to 55% in the lateral shoot, and up to 38% in leaf area.\\u000a Optimal doses were 1 mg l?1 soil treatment

K. Watanabe; E. Nishihara; S. Watanabe; T. Tanaka; K. Takahashi; Y. Takeuchi

2006-01-01

181

Changes in the abscisic acid levels and related gene expression during fruit development and ripening in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural plant hormone playing an important role in many physiological processes including fruit ripening and is also recently found to be potential for biomedical applications. This study was aimed to measure ABA levels and its biosynthesis in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which is one of the best sources of anthocyanins. Five ABA biosynthetic genes were isolated from bilberry and their expression profiles were studied in bilberry tissues, particularly during berry development. The level of ABA highly increased at the onset of bilberry fruit ripening, at the stage when expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (VmCHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (VmANS), also increased. In fully ripe berries and leaves, ABA levels were lower but none was detected in bilberry stem or rhizome. The expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VmNCED1) and putative neoxanthin synthase (VmNSY) was high in berry tissues and their expression increased markedly at the onset of berry ripening along with the accumulation of ABA. In contrast, the expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase (VmZEP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (VmSDR/ABA2) and aldehyde oxidase (VmAO) were most highly associated with leaf tissues with no obvious relation to ABA content during berry development. The obtained results indicate that the ABA biosynthesis may play an important role in the regulation of ripening of non-climacteric bilberry fruits through transcriptional regulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes. PMID:23850079

Karppinen, Katja; Hirvelä, Elina; Nevala, Tiina; Sipari, Nina; Suokas, Marko; Jaakola, Laura

2013-11-01

182

The Effect of Wick Action upon Moisture Distribution in Ellagate Treated Pinus radiata Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sapwood stakes of Pinus radiata D. Don were treated with water-soluble tetraguanidinium, tetracholine and tetrakis-benzyltrimethylammonium ellagates. The effect of these treatments upon moisture distribution was investigated by wick action. Given that chemical reactions within the wood substrate between nutrients and treatment solutions may alter the properties of the wood with regard to moisture distribution, the presence of Cu2+ in the

Simon R. Przewloka; Barry J. Shearer; Jeffrey A. Hann

183

Effect of exogenous application of gibberellic acid on color change and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chlorophyllase, and peroxidase activities during ripening of strawberry fruit ( Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of exogenously applied gibberellic acid (GA3) on the postharvest color change of strawberry fruit was evaluated through their external color and surface color parameters.\\u000a A significant delay on color evolution was observed in fruits treated with GA3. The evolution of activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chlorophyllase, and peroxidase was also analyzed. PAL\\u000a activity increased during strawberry ripening, but

G. A. Martínez; A. R. Chaves; M. C. Afidnt

1996-01-01

184

Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.  

PubMed

Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5 K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest. PMID:24423544

Cid, A; Morales, J; Mejuto, J C; Briz-Cid, N; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J

2014-05-15

185

Changes in ascorbic acid, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. ‘Gialla’) were manually peeled, then placed in plastic boxes sealed with a film with high permeability to gases, and kept at 4°C for 9 days. After 3, 6 and 9 days, chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters, total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were determined. In-package gas concentrations were measured almost

A Piga; A. Del Caro; I Pinna; M Agabbio

2003-01-01

186

Effect of tannic acid on iron absorption in straw-colored fruit bats(Eidolon helvum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. It is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; however, manufacturing a diet with commonly available foodst...

187

Suppression of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase, Which Encodes a Key Enzyme in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis, Alters Fruit Texture in Transgenic Tomato1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), ?-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-?-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp). PMID:22108525

Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

2012-01-01

188

Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

PubMed Central

1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild. 2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments. 3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost. PMID:19081752

Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carey, James R.; Zwaan, Bas J.

2008-01-01

189

Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:20013479

Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

2010-01-01

190

Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 ?g/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 ?g/ml and 15.88 ?g/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:23110485

2012-01-01

191

A comparative study of thermal and acid inactivation kinetics in fruit juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg grown at acidic conditions.  

PubMed

Acid and heat inactivation in orange and apple juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (i.e., Spanish Type Culture Collection) 443 (CECT 443) (Salmonella Typhimurium) and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg CECT 4384 (Salmonella Senftenberg) grown in buffered brain heart infusion (pH 7.0) and acidified brain heart infusion up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic, and hydrochloric acids was evaluated. Acid adaptation induced an adaptive response that increased the subsequent resistance to extreme pH conditions (pH 2.5) and to heat, although the magnitude of these responses differed between the two isolates and fruit juices. The acid resistance in orange juice for acid-adapted cells (D-values of 28.3-34.5 min for Salmonella Senftenberg and 30.0-39.2 min for Salmonella Typhimurium) resulted to be about two to three times higher than that corresponding to non-acid-adapted cells. In apple juice, acid-adapted Salmonella Senftenberg cells survived better than those of Salmonella Typhimurium, obtaining mean D-values of 114.8 +/- 12.3 and 41.9 +/- 2.5 min, respectively. The thermotolerance of non-acid-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in orange (D(58)-value: 0.028 min) and apple juices (D(58)-value: 0.10 min) was approximately double for acid-adapted cells. This cross-protection to heat was more strongly expressed in Salmonella Senftenberg. D(58)-values obtained for non-acid-adapted cells in orange (0.11 min) and apple juices (0.19 min) increased approximately 10 and 5 times, respectively, after their growth in acidified media. The conditions prevailing during bacterial growth and heat treatment did not significantly influence the z-values observed (6.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Typhimurium and 7.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg). The enhanced acid resistance found for both isolates could enable them to survive for prolonged time periods in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the risk of illness. Further, it should be taken into account that microbial growth in acidified media also induces a cross-protection response against heat that should also be considered for the design of pasteurization processes for acid foods. PMID:19694554

Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

2009-11-01

192

Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally or rectally prior to ulcer induction. BEC (10 mg/Kg), prednisolone (5 mg/Kg), hydrocortisone acetate enema (20 mg/Kg) and normal saline (5 mL/Kg) were considered as respective controls. The tissue was assessed macroscopically for damage scores, area, index and weight/length ratio. They were also examined histopathologically for inflammation extent and severity, crypt damage, invasion involvement and total colitis index. Results indicated that greater doses of oral BFE (750, 1500 mg/Kg) as well as BEC (10 mg/Kg) were effective to protect against colonic damage. By rectal pretreatment, the extract was only effective to diminish the ulcer index and the efficacy was not significant for mucosal inflammation parameters. In conclusion BFE, which is nearly devoid of berberine, was effective to protect against colitis and this might be attributed to its anthocyanin constituents. PMID:24363687

Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham

2011-01-01

193

Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity. PMID:20069869

Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

2009-12-01

194

Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit and seeds from the jujube plant (Ziziphus jujuba) possess nutritional and medicinal including antimicrobial properties. We measured free amino acid content by ion-exchange chromatography, individual phenolic content by HPLC, UV, and mass spectral methods, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocal...

195

Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

196

The occurrence of abscisic acid in inhibitors B 1 and C from immature fruit of Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) and in commercial carob syrup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of abscisic acid in the inhibitors B1 and C from immature carob fruit, whole and minus seed, has been established by thin-layer and gas chromatography and by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Abscisic acid has been identified in commercial carob syrup by the same means. Most, if not all, of the growth inhibitory activity in these fractions is accounted

B. H. Most; P. Gaskin; J. MacMillan

1970-01-01

197

Procerenone: a Fatty Acid Triterpenoid from the Fruit Pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum (Sapotaceae).  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the fruit pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum which exhibited antiplasmodial activity during preliminary screening led to the isolation of the new fatty ester triterpenoid 3?-hexadecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1), together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of the new compound as well as those of the known compounds was established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 1- 4 were evaluated in-vitro for their cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines and antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi (species responsible for human malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively). The tested compounds showed weak to moderate antiprotozoal activity and, no significant effect was detected regarding their cytotoxic potency. PMID:25587333

Ngamgwe, Rosine Fotsing; Yankam, Raoul; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Lanz, Christian; Furrer, Julien; Schürch, Stefan; Kaiser, Marcel; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Brenneisen, Rudolf

2014-01-01

198

Procerenone: a Fatty Acid Triterpenoid from the Fruit Pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum (Sapotaceae)  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the fruit pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum which exhibited antiplasmodial activity during preliminary screening led to the isolation of the new fatty ester triterpenoid 3?-hexadecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1), together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of the new compound as well as those of the known compounds was established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 1- 4 were evaluated in-vitro for their cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines and antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi (species responsible for human malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively). The tested compounds showed weak to moderate antiprotozoal activity and, no significant effect was detected regarding their cytotoxic potency. PMID:25587333

Ngamgwe, Rosine Fotsing; Yankam, Raoul; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Lanz, Christian; Furrer, Julien; Schürch, Stefan; Kaiser, Marcel; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Brenneisen, Rudolf

2014-01-01

199

An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4–8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1?S-1?-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n?=?34; placebo: n?=?32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets containing preparations of pomegranate fruit extract and rhizome of greater galangal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01357044 PMID:25275520

Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T.; Fedder, Jens

2014-01-01

200

Carbohydrate esters of cinnamic acid from fruits of Physalis peruviana, Psidium guajava and Vaccinium vitis-idaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-O-trans-Cinnamoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranose was isolated from fruits of Physalis peruviana and 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-?-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranose was obtained from fruits of Psidium guajava. Fruits of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and P. guajava were found to be rich sources of 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-?-d-glucopyranose.

Stefan Latza; Dietmar Ganßer; Ralf G. Berger

1996-01-01

201

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using  

E-print Network

passion fruit (P. edulis Sims), typically consumed fresh due to its sweeter taste, and the yellow passionOptimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis for extraction of high-ester yellow passion fruit pectin. Ã? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

202

Determination of ?-hydroxy acids and their enantiomers in fruit juices by ligand exchange CE with a dual central metal ion system.  

PubMed

The content of ?-hydroxy acids and their enantiomers can be used to distinguish authentic and adulterated fruit juices. Here, we investigated the use of ligand exchange CE with two kinds of central metal ion in a BGE for the simultaneous determination of enantiomers of dl-malic, dl-tartaric and dl-isocitric acids, and citric acid. Ligand exchange CE with 100 mM d-quinic acid as a chiral selector ligand and 10 mM Cu(II) ion as a central metal ion could enantioseparate dl-tartaric acid but not dl-malic acid or dl-isocitric acid. Addition of 1.8 mM Sc(III) ion to the BGE with 10 mM Cu(II) ion to create a dual central metal ion system permitted the simultaneous determination of these ?-hydroxy acid enantiomers and citric acid. The proposed ligand exchange CE was thus well suited for detecting adulteration of fruit juices. PMID:23423790

Kodama, Shuji; Aizawa, Sen-ichi; Taga, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Honda, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kemmei, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2013-05-01

203

Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage. PMID:24914296

Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

2014-01-01

204

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON APPLE TREE PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed o...

205

Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500?gL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100?gL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100?gL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3?gL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

2014-10-31

206

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee

1983-01-01

207

Functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.  

PubMed

We report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) at different maturity stages. The results demonstrated that SA enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against Penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. Based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after SA treatment at earlier (A) and later (B) maturity stage, respectively. Seven antioxidant proteins and three pathogenesis related-proteins were identified at both A and B stages, while five heat shock proteins and four dehydrogenases were only detected at B stage. SA treatment also stimulated higher transcript levels of peroxidase, but repressed that of catalase. Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at later maturity stages. PMID:18924108

Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Qing; Xu, Xiangbin; Meng, Xianghong; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

2008-11-01

208

Antioxidant activity of brocchlin carboxylic acid and its methyl ester from Chrozophora brocchiana.  

PubMed

The analogue of brevifolin carboxylic acid and its methyl ester were isolated and identified from the aqueous ethanolic extract of the leaves of Chrzophora brocchiana in addition to eight known compounds identified as gallic acid, methyl and ethyl gallate, ellagic acid, monomethoxy and methylenedioxy ellagic acid, apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside. The structures were determined primarily by ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The assignment of NMR signals was preformed by means of 1H-H COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. The antioxidant activity of the new compounds was determined by checking the scavenging activity against DPPH free radical. PMID:17613821

Hawas, Usama W

2007-06-01

209

Amino acid sequence and some properties of phytolacain G, a cysteine protease from growing fruit of pokeweed, Phytolacca americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protease, phytolacain G, has been found to appear on CM-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography of greenish small-size fruits of pokeweed, Phytolacca americana L, from ca. 2 weeks after flowering, and increases during fruit enlargement. Reddish ripe fruit of the pokeweed contained both phytolacain G and R. The molecular mass of phytolacain G was estimated to be 25.5 kDa by SDS–PAGE. Its

Tetsuya Uchikoba; Kazunari Arima; Hiroo Yonezawa; Masayuki Shimada; Makoto Kaneda

2000-01-01

210

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee

1983-01-01

211

Metabolic profiling of phenolic acids and oxidative stress markers after consumption of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of one-week consumption of 165 g/day fresh blue honeysuckle berries (208 mg/day anthocyanins) in 10 healthy volunteers. At the end of intervention, levels of benzoic (median 1782 vs 4156), protocatechuic (709 vs 2417), vanillic (2779 vs 4753), 3-hydroxycinnamic (143 vs 351), p-coumaric (182 vs 271), isoferulic (805 vs 1570), ferulic (1086 vs 2395), and hippuric (194833 vs 398711 ?g/mg creatinine) acids by LC/MS were significantly increased in the urine. Clinical chemistry safety markers were not altered. Oxidative stress markers, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (0.73 vs 0.88 U/g Hb) and catalase (2.5 vs 2.8 ?kat/g Hb) activities, and erythrocyte/plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (522 vs 612/33 vs 38 ?mol/g Hb/protein) levels were significantly increased, without change in plasma antioxidant status. Nonsignificant changes of advanced oxidation protein products and oxidized LDL were observed. The results provide a solid base for further study of metabolite excretion and antioxidant parameters after ingestion of anthocyanins. PMID:23581742

Heinrich, Jan; Valentová, Kate?ina; Vacek, Jan; Palíková, Irena; Zatloukalová, Martina; Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrbková, Jana; Šimánek, Vilím

2013-05-15

212

Seasonal abscisic acid signal and a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, DkbZIP5, regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in persimmon fruit.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to plant protection and crop quality. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) has a unique characteristic of accumulating large amounts of PAs, particularly in its fruit. Normal astringent-type and mutant nonastringent-type fruits show different PA accumulation patterns depending on the seasonal expression patterns of DkMyb4, which is a Myb transcription factor (TF) regulating many PA pathway genes in persimmon. In this study, attempts were made to identify the factors involved in DkMyb4 expression and the resultant PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in differential changes in the expression patterns of DkMyb4 and PA biosynthesis in astringent-type and nonastringent-type fruits depending on the development stage. To obtain an ABA-signaling TF, we isolated a full-length basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF, DkbZIP5, which is highly expressed in persimmon fruit. We also showed that ectopic DkbZIP5 overexpression in persimmon calluses induced the up-regulation of DkMyb4 and the resultant PA biosynthesis. In addition, a detailed molecular characterization using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient reporter assay indicated that DkbZIP5 recognized ABA-responsive elements in the promoter region of DkMyb4 and acted as a direct regulator of DkMyb4 in an ABA-dependent manner. These results suggest that ABA signals may be involved in PA biosynthesis in persimmon fruit via DkMyb4 activation by DkbZIP5. PMID:22190340

Akagi, Takashi; Katayama-Ikegami, Ayako; Kobayashi, Shozo; Sato, Akihiko; Kono, Atsushi; Yonemori, Keizo

2012-02-01

213

Comprehensive insights on how 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid retards senescence in post-harvest citrus fruits using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches  

PubMed Central

Auxin-like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a high-efficiency anti-stalling agent for the post-harvest fresh fruit industry, has had its use restricted due to environmental concerns. However, no other substitutes for 2,4-D are available to the post-harvest industry. Insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of 2,4-D on fruit quality preservation will provide a theoretical basis for exploring new safe and effective anti-stalling agents. This study comprehensively analysed changes in the peel of Olinda Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] induced by 500 ppm 2,4-D using ‘omic’-driven approaches. Transcriptional profiling revealed that transcriptional factor (mainly AP2/ERF, WRKY, and NAC family members), transport, and hormone metabolism genes were over-represented and up-regulated within 24h post-treatment (HPT). Stress defence genes were up-regulated, while cell wall metabolism genes were down-regulated after 48 HPT. However, secondary metabolism genes, especially phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis-related genes, were over-represented at all the time points. Comparative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of proteins implicated in stress responses (25%), hormone metabolism, and signal transduction (12%) significantly accumulated at the post-transcriptional level. Hormone levels detected by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 2,4-D significantly increased, while ethylene production (detected by gas chromatography) decreased after 2,4-D treatment. In addition, lignin and water content in the fruit peel also increased and the epicuticle wax ultrastructure was modified. In conclusion, 2,4-D retarded fruit senescence by altering the levels of many endogenous hormones and by improving stress defence capabilities by up-regulating defence-related genes and proteins. PMID:24215076

Cheng, Yunjiang

2014-01-01

214

Comprehensive insights on how 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid retards senescence in post-harvest citrus fruits using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches.  

PubMed

Auxin-like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a high-efficiency anti-stalling agent for the post-harvest fresh fruit industry, has had its use restricted due to environmental concerns. However, no other substitutes for 2,4-D are available to the post-harvest industry. Insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of 2,4-D on fruit quality preservation will provide a theoretical basis for exploring new safe and effective anti-stalling agents. This study comprehensively analysed changes in the peel of Olinda Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] induced by 500 ppm 2,4-D using 'omic'-driven approaches. Transcriptional profiling revealed that transcriptional factor (mainly AP2/ERF, WRKY, and NAC family members), transport, and hormone metabolism genes were over-represented and up-regulated within 24h post-treatment (HPT). Stress defence genes were up-regulated, while cell wall metabolism genes were down-regulated after 48 HPT. However, secondary metabolism genes, especially phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis-related genes, were over-represented at all the time points. Comparative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of proteins implicated in stress responses (25%), hormone metabolism, and signal transduction (12%) significantly accumulated at the post-transcriptional level. Hormone levels detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 2,4-D significantly increased, while ethylene production (detected by gas chromatography) decreased after 2,4-D treatment. In addition, lignin and water content in the fruit peel also increased and the epicuticle wax ultrastructure was modified. In conclusion, 2,4-D retarded fruit senescence by altering the levels of many endogenous hormones and by improving stress defence capabilities by up-regulating defence-related genes and proteins. PMID:24215076

Ma, Qiaoli; Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Zhang, Li; Wei, Qingjiang; Cheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Lingling; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

2014-01-01

215

Purification and partial characterization of an acidic ?-glucan-protein complex from the fruiting body of Pleurotus sajor-caju and its effect on macrophage activation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to purify an acidic ?-glucan-protein complex from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor-caju by using the cell wall-degrading enzymes, xylanase and cellulase. The acidic glucan-protein complex was separated from a polysaccharide extract by using DEAE Toyopearl 650M anion-exchange and Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. Its homogeneity was ensured by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and agarose gel electrophoresis. The acidic glucan-protein complex had a molecular weight of approximately 182 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the acidic glucan-protein complex revealed an ?-glycosidic bond and the typical characteristics of polysaccharides and proteins. The amino acid composition of the protein moiety was dominated by proline, glycine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, indicating that the protein was highly flexible and had a negative charge. Atomic force microscopy proved that the acidic ?-glucan-protein complex existed in a spherical conformation. The acidic ?-glucan-protein complex stimulated the activation of macrophages, including the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-?. PMID:23047100

Satitmanwiwat, Saranya; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Kyu, Khin Lay

2012-01-01

216

RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

2014-01-01

217

PREVENTION OF HORMONAL MAMMARY CARCINOGENESIS IN RATS BY DIETARY BERRIES AND ELLAGIC ACID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women around the world. The hormone 17-estradiol (E2) is strongly implicated as a causative agent in this cancer. Since estrogen acts as a complete carcinogen, agents that interfere with the carcinogenic actions of E2 are required. Most agents effective against experimental mammary carcinogenesis have been employed as pure compounds disregarding the

Harini Sankaran Aiyer

2007-01-01

218

Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.  

PubMed

In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment. PMID:24662312

Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

2014-05-01

219

A comparison of ready-to-use systems for evaluating the microbiological quality of acidic fruit juices using non-pasteurized orange juice as an experimental model.  

PubMed

Several alternative analytical methods are currently available for the rapid microbiological testing of food. Due to their many advantages, particularly their convenience of use, the popularity of ready-to-use systems for the enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms is increasing. However, the ability of these systems to enumerate stressed microorganisms, such as those that may be found growing in acidic foods, is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Petrifilm(tm) and SimPlate(tm) plates for the enumeration of total aerobes and fungi (yeasts and molds) in acidic fruit juices, using non-pasteurized orange juice as an experimental model. The samples were analyzed before and after neutralization of pH, and the results were compared with those obtained using conventional procedures, i.e. pour-plates containing Standard Methods Agar, acidified potato dextrose agar, or dichloran-glycerol agar. The results obtained with Petrifilm and SimPlate for counts of mesophilic aerobes as well as for yeast and mold correlated well with those obtained using conventional procedures. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between counts of non-neutralized and neutralized samples (alpha >/== 0.05), better correlation indexes were observed in the neutralized samples. Both Petrifilm and SimPlate proved to be good alternative methods for testing the microbiological quality of acidic fruit juices. PMID:15906261

Ramazotti-Ferrati, Anali; Tavolaro, Paula; Destro, Maria Teresa; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M

2005-03-01

220

Effects of 2,4DP (2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid) plant growth regulator on fruit size and yield of Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis Osb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Valencia orange is a high-quality fruit grown in Turkey; however, small fruit sizes and high fruit discard percentages are common in Valencia oranges. Small fruit size is the main factor limiting the marketing of Valencia oranges; thus, synthetic auxins are commonly used to enhance the size of citrus fruit. The objective of the present study was to observe the

B Y?ld?r?m; T Ye?ilo?lu; M ?ncesu; MU Kamilo?lu; B Çimen; ? Tamer

2012-01-01

221

Effects of 2,4DP (2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid) plant growth regulator on fruit size and yield of Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis Osb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Valencia orange is a high-quality fruit grown in Turkey; however, small fruit sizes and high fruit discard percentages are common in Valencia oranges. Small fruit size is the main factor limiting the marketing of Valencia oranges; thus, synthetic auxins are commonly used to enhance the size of citrus fruit. The objective of the present study was to observe the

B Y?ld?r?m; T Ye?ilo?lu; M ?ncesu; M U Kamilo?lu; B Çimen; ? Tamer

2011-01-01

222

The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites  

PubMed Central

In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant. PMID:25153628

Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

2014-01-01

223

Comparison of Various Preparation Methods for Determination of Organic Acids in Fruit Vinegars with a Simple Ion-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion-exclusion liquid chromatography with mobile phase 0.005 mol L?1 H2SO4 and step flow rate gradient (0.2 mL min?1 in the first 40 min and 0.5 mL min?1 from 41 to 60 min) was used to determine 20 organic acids simultaneously at 17 °C within 51 min. The peak resolutions (Rs)\\u000a were 0.45?3.02 and separation factors (?) were all higher than 1. Impurities in fruit vinegar executed with direct injection

Jau-Tien Lin; Shih-Chuan Liu; You-Cheng Shen; Deng-Jye Yang

224

Terpenes and sterols from the fruits of Prunus mume and their inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation by suppressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity.  

PubMed

The fruits of Prunus mume are a common commercial product and a valuable source of food and medicinal material in Eastern Asian countries. Our phytochemical investigation of the P. mume fruit led to the isolation of nine terpenes, including three ursane-type triterpenes (1-3), two cycloartane-type triterpenes (4 and 5), and four tocopherols (10-13), as well as four sterols (6-9). Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and ESI-MS, and the majority of these compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The anti-osteoporosis activities of 1-13 were evaluated by measuring their inhibitory effects on tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 2-7 and 9-12 significantly suppressed TRAP activity down to 47.96 ± 2.45-86.45 ± 3.07 % relative to the control at a concentration of 1 ?M. These results suggest that the fruits of P. mume could be an excellent source of anti-osteoporosis phytochemicals that may be developed as natural nutraceuticals and functional foods. PMID:24771352

Yan, Xi-Tao; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Li, Wei; Jang, Hae-Dong; Kim, Young-Ho

2015-02-01

225

Gene Expression and Metabolite Profiling of Developing Highbush Blueberry Fruit Indicates Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Metabolism and Activation of Abscisic Acid Metabolism1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3?-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3?5?-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of blueberry flavonoid biosynthesis. PMID:22086422

Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Zaharia, L. Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P.; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Kennedy, James A.; Constabel, C. Peter

2012-01-01

226

The antimicrobial activity of fruits from some cultivar varieties of Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis.  

PubMed

Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid. PMID:25131001

Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Ha?asa, R; G?ód, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orze?, A

2014-10-01

227

Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effects and Potential Mechanisms of Action of the Caffeoylquinic Acid-Rich Pandanus tectorius Fruit Extract in Hamsters Fed a High Fat-Diet  

PubMed Central

Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD). The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b) was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-c) and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol) in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPAR? and PPAR?-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPAR? was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPAR? and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities. PMID:23613974

Wu, Haifeng; Sheng, Linghui; Su, Yan; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Tian, Yu; Ji, Yubin; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong

2013-01-01

228

Effects of irrigation regimes on fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antifungal properties of volatiles from fruits of Koroneiki cultivar grown under Tunisian conditions.  

PubMed

The olive tree is generally grown under rain-fed conditions. However, since the yield response to irrigation is great, even with low amounts of water, there is increasing interest in irrigated agriculture. The main goal of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes on olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Koroneiki) obtained from an intensively-managed orchard in a semi-arid area with a Mediterranean climate in Tunisia. Different irrigation treatments 50% ETc, 75% ETc and 100% ETc were applied to the olive orchard. Accordingly, the effects of three irrigation regimes on volatile compounds, fatty acid composition and biological activities of Koroneiki cultivar were studied. The total profile of the volatile constituents of all samples revealed the predominance of 3-ethenylpyridine (from 14.9-19.6%), phenylethyl alcool (from 7.8-19.2%) and benzaldehyde (from 9.0 to 13.8%). During watering level treatments studied, the major fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic. Antioxidant activity of the fresh fruit volatiles cultivated at a watering level of 100% ETc was higher than that obtained under 50 and 75% Etc. The results of antifungal activity showed that the fruits volatiles of the three irrigation treatments had varying degrees of growth inhibition against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24511688

Brahmi, Faten; Chehab, Hechmi; Flamini, Guido; Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Mastouri, Maha; Hammami, Mohamed

2013-11-15

229

Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.  

PubMed

The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2°C for 12days plus 2days at 20°C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations. PMID:25529719

Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

2015-05-01

230

Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of the gene encoding fatty acid 13-hydroperoxide lyase from guava fruit ( Psidium guajava )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guava fruit was identified as a particularly rich source of 13-hydroperoxide lyase activity. The enzyme proved stable to chromatographic\\u000a procedures and was purified to homogeneity. Based on gel filtration and gel electrophoresis, the native enzyme appears to\\u000a be a homotetramer with subunits of 55 kD. Starting with primers based on the peptide sequence, the enzyme was cloned by polymerase\\u000a chain

Nathalie Tijet; Urs Wäspi; Duncan J. H. Gaskin; Peter Hunziker; Bernard L. Muller; Evgeny N. Vulfson; Alan Slusarenko; Alan R. Brash; Ian M. Whitehead

2000-01-01

231

Efficient production of fermentable sugars from oil palm empty fruit bunch by combined use of acid and whole cell culture-catalyzed hydrolyses.  

PubMed

Empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm trees was converted to fermentable sugars by the combined use of dilute acids and whole fungal cell culture catalyzed hydrolyses. EFB (5%, w/v) was hydrolyzed in the presence of 0.5% H2 SO4 and 0.2% H3 PO4 at 160°C for 10 min. The solid fraction was separated from the acid hydrolysate by filtration and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50°C using the whole cell culture of Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 (2%, w/v), which was prepared by cultivating at 30°C for 7 days to reach its maximal cellulase activity. The combined hydrolyses of EFB gave a total sugar yield of 82.0%. When used as carbon sources for cultivating E. coli in M9 medium at 37°C, the combined EFB hydrolysates were shown to be more favorable or at least as good as pure glucose for cell growth in terms of the higher (1.1 times) optical density of E. coli cells. The byproducts generated during the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis seemed not to obviously affect the cell growth. The combined use of acid and whole cell culture hydrolyses might be a commercially promising method for pretreatment of lignocellulose to get fermentable sugars. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:24329860

Li, Qingxin; Ng, Wei Ting; Puah, Sze Min; Bhaskar, Ravindran Vijay; Soh, Loon Siong; Macbeath, Calum; Parakattil, Pius; Green, Phil; Wu, Jin Chuan

2013-12-12

232

Sensitive Determination of Taurine, ?-Aminobutyric Acid and Ornithine in Wolfberry Fruit and Cortex Lycii by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection and Online Mass Spectrometry Identification.  

PubMed

A new, simple and highly sensitive method for the determination of taurine, ?-aminobutyric acid and ornithine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection is described. Three non-protein amino acids were derivatized by a novel precolumn derivatization reagent 2-[2-(dibenzocarbazol)-ethoxy]ethyl chloroformate before injected. Optimum derivatization was obtained at 40°C for 5 min in the presence of sodium borate buffer (pH 9.0). Derivatives were sufficiently stable to be efficiently analyzed by HPLC without pretreatment. On a reversed-phase Hypersil BDS C8 column, the amino acids were separated in conjunction with a gradient elution with a good baseline resolution. The identification of derivatives was carried out by online postcolumn mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode. Excellent linear responses were observed with the correlation coefficients of >0.9996, and instrument detection limits (at a signal to noise of 3 : 1) were in the range of 0.30-0.33 nmol/L. The proposed method is sensitive and reproducible for the precise determination of the amino acids from wolfberry fruit and cortex lycii samples. PMID:24996656

Chen, Xiangming; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui; Fan, Baolei

2014-07-01

233

CULTURAL SYSTEM AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN STRAWBERRIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) vs. matted row (MR)] and genotypes interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid and citric acid content were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also ...

234

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

235

Efficient determination of protocatechuic Acid in fruit juices by selective and rapid magnetic molecular imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC.  

PubMed

Magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have been prepared as solid phase material to selectively extract protocatechuic acid (PCA) from fruit juices with high capacity and fast binding kinetics. The resulting MMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and VSM. The adsorption process between PCA and MMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 7.5 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding kinetics (equilibrium time at 40 min). In addition, the prepared MMIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and reusability (retained 94.9% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMIPs were successfully applied for selective enrichment and determination of PCA from fruit juices (0.45 ?g/mL in grape juice but not detected in apple juice, pineapple juice, orange juice, and peach juice) with satisfactory recoveries (92-107%). The results indicated that synthesized MMIPs can be used for efficient and selective extraction of PCA from complex matrices. PMID:25075753

Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

2014-08-13

236

A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.  

PubMed

Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma for low pH or high acidity in apple. PMID:22806345

Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Li, Mingjun; Fazio, Gennaro; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

2012-08-01

237

Oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys of rat exposed to trichloroacetic acid: protective role of date palm fruit.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and protective properties of date fruit aqueous extract (DFAE) on trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Oral administration of TCA as drinking water (0.5 and 2 g/L) daily for 2 months caused nephrotoxicity as evident by elevated levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were increased along with histopathological injuries. The oral administration of DFAE (4 mL/kg/day) to TCA-treated groups proved some significant correction by increasing the antioxidant activity of the CAT and GPx enzymes and normalizing the SOD activity and the MDA level (p?

El Arem, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Thouri, Amira; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Ayed, Amel; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

2014-06-01

238

Structural characterization and bioactivity evaluation of an acidic proteoglycan extract from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies for PTP1B inhibition and anti-diabetes.  

PubMed

A water-soluble PTP1B inhibitor, named FYGL-a, was fractionated for structure investigation and bioactivity evaluation. FYGL-a is an ingredient of a reported antihyperglycemia extract from Ganoderma Lucidum fruiting bodies. Composition analysis indicated that FYGL-a was a 100.2 kDa acidic proteoglycan, consisting of 85?±?2% heteropolysaccharide chain with rhamnose, galactose, glucose, and glucuronic acid residues in a mole ratio of 1.0:3.7:3.9:2.0, and the 15?±?2% protein moiety of FYGL-a was covalently bonded to the polysaccharide chain in O-linkage type via threonine residues. The complete sequence of FYGL-a was characterized systematically by periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, (1) H & (13) C 1D NMR, and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, COSY, & TOCSY). The chemical structure of FYGL-a was determined as following, which may play special role in the competitive inhibition of PTP1B and antihyperglycemia potency. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 613-623, 2014. PMID:24127303

Pan, Deng; Wang, Linqiang; Hu, Bingwen; Zhou, Ping

2014-06-01

239

Development and validation of a predictive model for the influences of selected product and process variables on ascorbic acid degradation in simulated fruit juice.  

PubMed

A predictive response surface model for the influences of product (soluble solids and titratable acidity) and process (temperature and heating time) parameters on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AA) in heated simulated fruit juices (SFJs) was established. Physicochemical property ranges of freshly squeezed and processed juices, and a previously established decimal reduction times of Escherichiacoli O157:H7 at different heating temperatures were used in establishing a Central Composite Design of Experiment that determined the combinations of product and process variable used in the model building. Only the individual linear effects of temperature and heating time significantly (P<0.05) affected AA reduction (%AAr). Validating systems either over- or underestimated actual %AAr with bias factors 0.80-1.20. However, all validating systems still resulted in acceptable predictive efficacy, with accuracy factor 1.00-1.26. The model may be useful in establishing unique process schedules for specific products, for the simultaneous control and improvement of food safety and quality. PMID:25660889

Gabriel, Alonzo A; Cayabyab, Jochelle Elysse C; Tan, Athalie Kaye L; Corook, Mark Lester F; Ables, Errol John O; Tiangson-Bayaga, Cecile Leah P

2015-06-15

240

Novel approach for mono-segmented flow micro-titration with sequential injection using a lab-on-valve system: a model study for the assay of acidity in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A new concept for micro-titration using a "lab-on-valve"(LOV) system with sequential injection of mono-segmented flow is proposed. The performance of the system was demonstrated by the assay of acidity in fruit juices which is based on acid-base neutralization. A standard/sample solution containing citric acid, indicator, sodium hydroxide, were sandwiched between air segments and were aspirated in microliter volumes through a selection valve into a holding coil. The acid, indicator, and base were mixed by flow reversal. After removing air segments, the solution was pushed to the detector for monitoring of the change in absorbance of the indicator color, which depended on the concentration of the remaining base. With LOV, microliter volumes of the solution can be detected without dispersion of the color zone. A calibration graph (plot of absorbance vs. acidity value) in the range of 0.2-1.2% (w/v) as citric acid was established. Sample throughput of 30 sample h(-1) and good reproducibility (RSD = 1.2%, n= 11 for 0.6% acidity) were achieved. The procedure has been applied to determine acidity in fruit juices. PMID:15724157

Jakmunee, Jaroon; Pathimapornlert, Lop; Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap; Grudpan, Kate

2005-03-01

241

Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.  

PubMed

The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

2008-02-27

242

Simultaneous determination of anthocyanins, coumarins and phenolic acids in fruits, kernels and liqueur of Prunus mahaleb L.  

PubMed

In the fresh tissues of Prunus mahaleb L., three classes of phenolics were characterised: phenolic acid derivatives (main compound being o-coumaric acid glucoside), quercetin glycosides, and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-xylosyl-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside). Coumarin was also identified. The kernels showed a high content of coumarin (0.87 mgg(-1)) which is the main class of metabolites in this sample, but present in pitted berries as well (0.63 mgg(-1)). Flavonoids are mainly concentrated in the skin and pulp (0.55 mgg(-1)). In 'Mirinello di Torremaggiore' liqueur, produced from P. mahaleb L. in accordance with traditional procedures, anthocyanins make up 16.5%, phenolic acids 43.3%, coumarin 36.2% and flavonoids 4% of total compounds. Anthocyanins are the main class in solid residues from liqueur production (70%). These findings point out that solid residues of P. mahaleb can be considered an interesting and innovative source of appreciable amounts of cyanidin glycosides (3.3 mgg(-1)). PMID:22980784

Ieri, Francesca; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

2012-12-15

243

Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

244

Effects of fruit load, shading, and 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA) application on MdTFL1 and MdFT1 genes in apple buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fruit load, shading, and 9, 10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA) application on the expression of MdTFL1 and MdFT1 genes were investigated in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). The expression of MdTFL1 in apical buds from 21 to 63 days after full bloom (DAFB) in plants subjected to heavy crop treatment (HCT) was higher than\\u000a that in plants subjected to flower thinning

M. Kittikorn; K. Okawa; H. Ohara; N. Kotoda; M. Wada; M. Yokoyama; O. Ifuku; S. Yoshida; S. Kondo

2011-01-01

245

What Do Mexican Fruit Flies Learn When They Experience Fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican fruit flies learn fruit characteristics that enable them to distinguish familiar fruits from novel fruits. We investigated whether mature Mexican fruit flies learn fruit color, size or odor. We found no evidence that female flies learn fruit color or size after experience with host fruit, including oviposition. However, green fruit and fruit models were more attractive than yellow and

David C. Robacker; Ivich Fraser

2005-01-01

246

Aqueous date fruit extract protects against lipid peroxidation and improves antioxidant status in the liver of rats subchronically exposed to trichloroacetic acid.  

PubMed

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a prominent by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. It induces cell damage by producing free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective role of the aqueous date extract (ADE) against TCA-induced liver injury. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight: group I served as the control; group II was given ADE by gavage; groups III and IV received TCA as drinking water at 0.5 and 2 g/L, respectively; and groups V and VI were treated with ADE by gavage and then received TCA at 0.5 and 2 g/L, respectively, as drinking water. The experiment was performed for 2 months. The hepatotoxicity of TCA administration was revealed by an increase in the levels of hepatic marker enzymes (transaminases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and conjugated bilirubin and a decrease in albumin level. The TCA administration induced also significant elevation of the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) paralleled with a significant decline in catalase (CAT) activity. These biochemical alterations were accompanied by histological changes marked by the appearance of vacuolization, necrosis, congestion, inflammation, and enlargement of sinusoids in the liver section. Treatment with date palm fruit extract restored the liver damage induced by TCA, as demonstrated by inhibition of hepatic lipid peroxidation; amelioration of SOD, GPx, and CAT activities; and improvement of histopathology changes. These results suggest that ADE has a protective effect over TCA-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. PMID:24573459

El Arem, Amira; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Thouri, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Ayed, Amel; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

2014-06-01

247

Attenuating effect of standardized fruit extract of punica granatum L in rat model of tibial and sural nerve transection induced neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background Injury to a nerve is the most common reason of acquired peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, searching for effective substance to recover of nerve after injury is need of present era. The current study investigates the protective potential of Standardized Fruit Extract of Punica granatum L (PFE) [Ellagic acid (41.6%), Punicalagins (10%), Granatin (5.1%)] in Tibial & Sural Nerve Transection (TST) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods TST was performed by sectioning tibial and sural nerve portions of the sciatic nerve and leaving the common peroneal nerve intact. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate, paint brush & Walking Track tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical heat, hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia & tibial functional index respectively. The levels of TNF-?, TBARS, GSH and Nitrite were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation & oxidative stress. Results TST led to significant development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS, TNF-?, GSH and Nitrite. Administrations of PFE (100 & 300 mg/kg oral), significantly attenuate TST induced behavioral & biochemical changes. Pretreatments of BADGE (120 mg/kg IP) a PPAR-? antagonist and nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg IP) abolished the protective effect of PFE. Whereas, pretreatment of L-NAME (5 mg/kg IP) a NOS inhibitor significantly potentiated PFE’s protective effect of PFE. Conclusion PFE shown to have attenuating effect in TST induced neuropathic pain which may be attributed to potential PPAR-gamma agonistic activity, nitric oxide inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and anti oxidative actions. PMID:24499201

2013-01-01

248

Labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid contained in fruits of Cupressus sempervirens suppresses benign prostatic hyperplasia in rat and in vitro human models through inhibition of androgen and STAT-3 signaling.  

PubMed

Fruit extract of Cupressus sempervirens (CS), which is used traditionally to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)-like urinary symptoms in patients, was scientifically validated for anti-BPH activity. The ethanolic fruit extract of CS inhibited proliferation of human BPH-stromal cells and the activity was localized to its chloroform-soluble, diterpene-rich fraction. Eight major diterpenes isolated from this fraction exhibited moderate to potent activity and the most active diterpene (labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid) exhibited an IC50 of 37.5??M (antiproliferative activity against human BPH-stromal cells). It significantly inhibited activation (phosphorylation) of Stat-3 in BPH-stromal cells and prevented transactivation of androgen sensitive KLK3/PSA and TMPRSS2 genes in LNCaP cells. Labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid-rich CS fraction prevented prostatic hyperplasia in rat model and caused TUNEL labeling of stromal cells with lower expressions of IGF-I, TGF-ß and PCNA, and bcl-2/bax ratio. Human BPH tissues exhibited precise lowering of stromal component after incubation in labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid, ex vivo. We conclude that labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid contained in CS exhibits anti-BPH activity through inhibition of stromal proliferation and suppression of androgen action in the prostate, presenting a unique lead structure for further optimization of anti-BPH activity. PMID:24399792

Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Rajeev; Khan, Mohammad F; Singh, Anil K; Sharma, Rolee; Arya, Kamal R; Maikhuri, J P; Dalela, Diwakar; Maurya, Rakesh; Gupta, Gopal

2014-08-01

249

Cell Number and Cell Size in Parthenocarpic vs . Pollinated Blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei) Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid (GA3) promotes parthenocarpic fruit development and is used commercially to increase fruit set in many crops. However, fruit size is usually smaller than that of pollinated fruit. The purpose of this work was to determine the anatomical basis for differences in fruit size between pollinated and GA3-induced parthenocarpic blueberry (Vaccinium asheiReade) fruits. Fresh weights at ripening averaged 1.6

RAQUEL CANO-MEDRANO; REBECCA L. DARNELL

1997-01-01

250

Lesson 21: Fruits [Matunda  

E-print Network

/ matunda [fruit / fruits] penda [like] kula kununua hapendi hupendi [eat] [to buy] [he/she does not like fruits.] 2. Unapenda kununua matunda gani? [What fruits do you like to buy?] a). Ninapenda kununua ndizi. [I like to buy bananas.] b). Sipendi kununua matunda. [I do not like to buy fruits.] c). Sipendi

251

Modified 2,2-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic Acid (ABTS) Method to Measure Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Small Fruits and Comparison to Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2‘Diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of antioxidant capacity in fruits differs from that of other biological samples due to their low pH and very low lipophilic antioxidant capacity. In this report, we present a modified 2,2- azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) method for fruits and compare its performance with the other commonly used antioxidant methods of 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The

Mustafa Ozgen; R. Neil Reese; Artemio Z. Tulio; Joseph C. Scheerens; A. Raymond Miller

2006-01-01

252

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumula- tion, whereas

Blumwald, Eduardo

253

An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant capacity of a group of fruits obtained in the Singapore markets was investigated. A total of 27 fruit pulps were tested for their general antioxidant capacity based on their ability to scavenge 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical. The contribution of l-ascorbic acid (AA) to the total antioxidant activity of fruits was investigated by using RP-HPLC. The antioxidant capacity

L. P Leong; G Shui

2002-01-01

254

Molecular regulation of fruit ripening  

PubMed Central

Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2013-01-01

255

Studying Current-Potential Curves Using a Bipotentiometric Lodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voltammetry principles are introduced to students by means of a bipotentiometric method to determine vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. The aim is to draw attention to voltammetric methods, particular to the study of current-potential curves, stressing the potential applicability in areas of food quality control.

Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M.

2004-01-01

256

FRUIT & NUT Blackberries  

E-print Network

principles. Blackberries have very high production poten- tial, and fresh fruit commands good prices, makingTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Blackberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Brambles or caneberries are fruits in the Ru- bus genus

Mukhtar, Saqib

257

Volatile components of ripe fruits of Morinda citrifolia and their effects on Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only larval resource of the specialist species, Drosophila sechellia, is ripe fruits of Morinda citrifolia. The chemical composition of this fruit, which is very toxic to most Drosophila species, was investigated and 51 compounds were abundant enough to be identified by GC-MS. The ripe fruit is characterized by a large amount of carboxylic acids, especially octanoic and hexanoic acids.

Jean-Pierre Farine; Luc Legal; Brigitte Moreteau; Jean-Luc Le Quere

1996-01-01

258

Enhancing health benefits of berries through phenolic antioxidant enrichment: focus on cranberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging epidemiological evidence is increasingly pointing to the beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables in managing chronic and infectious diseases. These beneficial effects are now suggested to be due to the constituent phenolic phytochemicals having antioxidant activity. Cranberry like other fruits is also rich in phenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and ellagic acid. Consumption of cranberry has been

Dhiraj A Vattem; Reza Ghaedian; Kalidas Shetty

2005-01-01

259

Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.  

PubMed

Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. PMID:23553505

Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

2013-08-15

260

p CPA increases the endogenous IAA content of parthenocarpic muskmelon fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of seed formation andpara-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (p-CPA)treatment on the growth and endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA) content ofmuskmelon fruit. The growth of parthenocarpic muskmelon fruit induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) declined 15 days after anthesis (DAA),resulting in smaller fruit than those pollinated at harvest.p-CPA improved the growth of parthenocarpic fruit thatweretreated between 10 and 25 DAA. Endogenous IAA

Xin-Xian Li; Yasuyoshi Hayata; Yutaka Osajima

2002-01-01

261

Influence of temperature and packaging on physiological and chemical profiles of imported litchi fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to detail the physiological and biochemical changes in non-adulterated and commercially-treated litchi fruit stored in different packaging films under different storage temperatures. Litchi fruit cv. Mauritius treated with either SO2 and acid (commercially-treated fruit), or free from both SO2 and acid (non-adulterated fruit), were imported from Israel and packed using two different packaging films

Nettra Somboonkaew; Leon A. Terry

2011-01-01

262

Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

Füzfai, Zsófia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovács, Etelka; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya

2004-12-15

263

Anthelmintic activity of phenolic acids from the axlewood tree Anogeissus leiocarpus on the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi and drug-resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The effect of three phenols (ellagic, gentisic and gallic acids) from the axlewood tree Anogeissus leiocarpus on Onchocerca ochengi and drug-resistant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism for research on nematode parasites, is investigated. Worms were incubated in different concentrations of phenols and their survival was monitored after 48 h. Among the three acids, ellagic acid strongly affected the survival of O. ochengi microfilariae, O. ochengi adults, a wild-type C. elegans and anthelmintic-resistant strains of C. elegans, namely albendazole (CB3474), levamisole (CB211, ZZ16) and ivermectin (VC722, DA1316), with LC50 values ranging from 0.03 mm to 0.96 mm. These results indicate that the binding of ellagic acid in the worm differs from that of resistant strains of C. elegans. The efficacy of both gallic and gentisic acids was not significantly changed in resistant strains of C. elegans treated with levamisole (ZZ16, LC50= 9.98 mm, with gallic acid), albendazole (CB3474, LC50= 7.81 mm, with gentisic acid) and ivermectin (DA1316, LC50= 10.62 mm, with gentisic acid). The efficacy of these three pure compounds is in accordance with the use of A. leiocarpus from its locality of origin. The in vivo toxicity data reveal that the thresholds are up to 200 times higher than the determined LC50 values. Thus, ellagic acid could be a potential option for the treatment of nematode infections, even in cases of drug resistance towards established anthelmintic drugs. PMID:23768773

Ndjonka, D; Abladam, E D; Djafsia, B; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Achukwi, M D; Liebau, E

2014-12-01

264

Volatile Constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi L. Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit were isolated by steam distillation with subsequent extraction of the distillate with dichloromethane. The concentrated extract was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty-three components were identified, aliphatic acids accounting for 47.8% of the total volatiles with hexadecanoic acid (20.4%) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid predominating. Among the 12 esters found butyl nicotinate (1.6%)

K. C. Wong; S. N. Wong

1995-01-01

265

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

266

How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

267

FUTURE FRUIT EXPLORATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fruits of the earth have nurtured and intrigued humanity throughout history. Genome complexities of cultivated fruit species combined with people’s increased nutritional needs insure that the future will be no different. Prospecting for wild fruit will continue. The global nature of science and ...

268

BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

269

FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

or machines, with the majority of fruit grown in Texas picked by hand and sold for fresh consump- tionTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Rabbiteye Blueberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas, & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

Mukhtar, Saqib

270

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

2014-08-01

271

Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.  

PubMed

Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

Antonious, George F

2014-01-01

272

Fruit growth and chemical properties of Ribes magellanicum “parrilla”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the time course and pattern of fruit growth and the evolution of some of the chemical attributes such as soluble solids, acidity, and anthocyanin content in Ribes magellanicum plants growing in a natural environment near Ushuaia city, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Fruit growth and composition presented significant changes along the days from

Miriam E. Arena; Laureano J. Coronel

2011-01-01

273

Liming and quality of guava fruit cultivated in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted on guava trees Psidium guajava L. (cv. Paluma) grown in the Experimental Citrus Culture Station of Bebedouro, SP, on dystrophic, acid Typical Hapludox in order to assess the effects of application of increasing lime doses to the soil on the quality of guava fruits on the basis of the physicochemical changes observed in the fruits after

Renato de Mello Prado; William Natale; José Antônio Alberto da Silva

2005-01-01

274

Liming and quality of guava fruit cultivated in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted on guava trees Psidium guajava L. (cv. Paluma) grown in the Experimental Citrus Culture Station of Bebedouro, SP, on dystrophic, acid Typical Hapludox in order to assess the effects of application of increasing lime doses to the soil on the quality of guava fruits on the basis of the physicochemical changes observed in the fruits after

Renato de Mello Prado; William Natale; JoseAntonio Alberto da Silva

275

Hormonal regulation of fruit set, parthenogenesis induction and fruit expansion in Japanese pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of applied gibberellins (GAs), GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 with a cytokinin, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea (CPPU) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on fruit set, parthenogenesis induction and fruit expansion of a number\\u000a of Rosaceae species were assessed. These included Japanese pear cv. ‘Akibae’ (self-compatible) and cv. ‘Iwate yamanashi’ (a\\u000a seedless cultivar). Other Rosaceae species (Pyrus communis, Chaenomeles sinensis, Cydonia oblonga, and

Caixi Zhang; Ugyong Lee; Kenji Tanabe

2008-01-01

276

Influence of Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the Fruit Composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir: Free Amino Acids, Sugars, and Organic Acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Individual free amino acids, yeast assimilable amino acid (YAN) content, ammonium, organic acids, and simple sugars of berries from GLRaV-2 or GLRaV-3 infected vines were compared with paired vines free of these viruses. Samples were taken from two commercial vineyards during two growing seasons (20...

277

Simultaneous Quantification of Flavonol Glycosides, Terpene Lactones, Biflavones, Proanthocyanidins, and Ginkgolic Acids in Ginkgo biloba Leaves from Fruit Cultivars by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

On the basis of liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry working in multiple reaction monitoring mode, an analytical method has been established to simultaneously determine flavonol glycosides, terpene lactones, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, and ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100?mm × 2.1?mm, 1.7??m) with gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.10% formic acid (v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4?mL/min, and column temperature 30°C. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and sensitivity. The optimized method was successfully applied to analyze twenty-two G. biloba leaf samples of fruit cultivars collected from different places in China. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was performed to evaluate and classify the samples according to the contents of the twenty-four chemical constituents. All of the results demonstrated that the developed method was useful for the overall evaluation of the quality of G. biloba leaves, and this study was also helpful for the comprehensive utilization and development of G. biloba resources. PMID:23533996

Yao, Xin; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Tang, Yu-Ping; Qian, Ye-Fei; Guan, Han-Liang; Pang, Hanqing; Zhu, Shaoqing; Mo, Xuan; Su, Shu-Lan; Jin, Chun; Qin, Yong; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

2013-01-01

278

Functions of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family in Ganoderma lucidum: an essential role in ganoderic acid biosynthesis regulation, hyphal branching, fruiting body development, and oxidative-stress resistance.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum has drawn worldwide interest with regard to its secondary metabolism and pharmaceutical activity. However, the development of such research has been limited because of a lack of basic biological knowledge. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Nox) have recently been highlighted because of the many important biological roles in plants and animals; however, the exact functions of Nox are still not fully understood in fungi. In this study, we identified two Nox isoforms (NoxA and NoxB) and a regulator, NoxR. RNA interference was used, and silencing of the Nox isoforms and NoxR expression indicated a central role for these genes in hyphal branching, fruiting body development, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ROS resistance and ganoderic acid biosynthesis regulation. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that Nox-generated ROS elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels by activating a plasma membrane Ca(2+) influx pathway, thereby inducing the Ca(2+) signal pathway to regulate ganoderic acid biosynthesis and hyphal branching. Importantly, our results highlight the Nox functions in signal crosstalk between ROS and Ca(2+), and these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify the potential pathway linking ROS networks to calcium signalling in fungi and suggest that plants, animals and fungi share a conserved signal-crosstalk mechanism. PMID:24238263

Mu, Dashuai; Li, Chenyang; Zhang, Xuchen; Li, Xiongbiao; Shi, Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Mingwen

2014-06-01

279

Anticancer and health protective properties of citrus fruit components.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies indicates that there is a low risk of degenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cataract, stroke and, in particular, cancers in people with a high intake of fruit and vegetables. This protective effect is assumed to be associated mainly with the antioxidant activities of either individual or interacting bioactive components present in the fruits and vegetables, and with other biochemical and physical characteristics of the identified and unknown bioactive components. The implicated bioactive components present in citrus fruits include vitamin C, beta-carotene, flavonoids, limonoids, folic acid, and dietary fibre. A high intake of citrus fruits may reduce the risk of degenerative diseases. PMID:11890643

Silalahi, Jansen

2002-01-01

280

INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON NICKEL ACCUMULATION AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COFFEE PLANTS DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and physiological significance of micronutrients in coffee plants, especially with regard to nickel (Ni) is still unknown. The dynamics of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and Ni accumulation in coffee fruits, as well as their relationships with total soluble protein, amino acids, reducing sugars, and starch content during coffee fruit development (green, ripe, and dry fruits), were investigated.

Andre Rodrigues dos Reis; Jose Laercio Favarin; Luiz Antonio Gallo; Milton Ferreira Moraes; Tiago Tezotto; Jose Lavres Junior

2011-01-01

281

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

282

ANTIOXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF EDIBLE WILD BULGARIAN FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and aqueous-methanolic extracts from six Bulgarian wild edible fruits have been studied for their antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS cation radical decolorization assay and presented as Uric Acid Equivalents (UAE) per gram dry weight. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and calculated as Quercetin

Y. Kiselova; S. Marinova; D. Ivanov; D. Gerov; B. Galunska; T. Chervenkov; T Yankova

283

NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS IN SELECT FLORIDA TROPICAL FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), total fib...

284

Effect of sample preparation on the measurement of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols in apple fruit by mid-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (i) to test different conditions of freezing, thawing, and grinding during sample preparation and (ii) to evaluate the possibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy for analyzing the composition of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols in apples. Seven commercial apple cultivars were chosen for their large variability in composition (total polyphenols from 406 to 1033 mg kg(-1) fresh weight). The different conditions of sample preparation affected only the phenolic compounds and not sugars or organic acids. The regression models of the mid-infrared spectra showed a good ability to estimate sugar and organic acid contents (R(2) ? 0.96), except for citric acid. Good predictions were obtained for total phenolic, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidins (R(2) ? 0.94) provided oxidation was avoided during sample preparation. A rapid and simple procedure was then proposed for phenolic compounds using sodium fluoride during sample homogenization at ambient temperature and freeze-drying before spectra acquisition. PMID:22409403

Bureau, Sylvie; Scibisz, Iwona; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Renard, Catherine M G C

2012-04-11

285

Preserving Fresh Fruit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

2000-01-01

286

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

2013-01-01

287

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

288

Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

-to-good crop on sucker wood the season after freeze injury. The fruit is medium to large with brown skin and light amber pulp. It is prominently swollen at the fruit base with a very open eye. Fruiting is spread over a long period if the tree is pruned... is yellow to green with seeds and amber pulp. The fruit is excellent canned or preserved. Do not plant this variety in drier areas of Texas. PLANTING Do not apply fertilizer at planting time. Fig trees survive better if set 2 to 4 inches deeper than...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

1987-01-01

289

Influence of grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the fruit composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir: Free amino acids, sugars, and organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual free amino acids, yeast assimilable amino acid (YAN) content, ammonia, organic acids, and simple sugars of berries from vines infected with GLRaV-2 or -3 were compared with paired vines free of these viruses. Samples were taken from two commercial vineyards during two growing seasons (2005 and 2006), with three different rootstock\\/scion combinations. Vines infected with GLRaV-2 did not differ

Jungmin Lee; Karen E. Keller; Christopher Rennaker; Robert R. Martin

2009-01-01

290

Proteomic analysis of apricot fruit during ripening.  

PubMed

Ripening of climacteric fruits involves a complex network of biochemical and metabolic changes that make them palatable and rich in nutritional and health-beneficial compounds. Since fruit maturation has a profound impact on human nutrition, it has been recently the object of increasing research activity by holistic approaches, especially on model species. Here we report on the original proteomic characterization of ripening in apricot, a widely cultivated species of temperate zones appreciated for its taste and aromas, whose cultivation is yet hampered by specific limitations. Fruits of Prunus armeniaca cv. Vesuviana were harvested at three ripening stages and proteins extracted and resolved by 1D and 2D electrophoresis. Whole lanes from 1D gels were subjected to shot-gun analysis that identified 245 gene products, showing preliminary qualitative differences between maturation stages. In parallel, differential analysis of 2D proteomic maps highlighted 106 spots as differentially represented among variably ripen fruits. Most of these were further identified by means of MALDI-TOF-PMF and nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS as enzymes involved in main biochemical processes influencing metabolic/structural changes occurring during maturation, i.e. organic acids, carbohydrates and energy metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, cell wall restructuring and stress response, or as protein species linkable to peculiar fruit organoleptic characteristics. In addition to originally present preliminary information on the main biochemical changes that characterize apricot ripening, this study also provides indications for future marker-assisted selection breeding programs aimed to ameliorate fruit quality. PMID:23178875

D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Rocco, Mariapina; Verrillo, Francesca; Novi, Gianfranco; Viscosi, Vincenzo; Marra, Mauro; Scaloni, Andrea

2013-01-14

291

Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.  

PubMed

The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

2014-04-01

292

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations and  

E-print Network

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations. The moths overwinter as full-grown larvae in cocoons in tree bark crevices, weed stems, trash on the ground. Are conditions right for Oriental fruit moth? Forecast models for Oriental fruit moth are available at Enviro

293

Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit  

PubMed Central

Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P?<0.05) (1748 genes) were studied by assigning a predicted function (when known) based on BLAST to the TAIR database. Among them several genes belong to cell wall, hormone metabolism and response (auxin in particular), and metabolism of sugars and lipids. Up-regulation of lipid transfer proteins and differential expression of several indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)- and ethylene-associated genes were observed in transgenic parthenocarpic fruits. Despite differences in several fatty acids, amino acids, and other metabolites, the fundamental metabolic profile remains unchanged. This work showed that parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Reagan, Russell L.; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M.; Gasser, Charles S.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2009-01-01

294

Non GMO fruit factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple structural and regulatory genes modulate biosynthetic pathways, such as those leading to the accumulation and profile of sugars and carotenoids in the mature tomato fruit. Natural genetic variation among wild relatives of the cultivated tomato provides an important, non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO), resource for improving both horticultural and fruit quality traits of elite tomato varieties. Unfortunately, this natural resource

Ilan Levin; Avraham Lalazar; Moshe Bar; Arthur A. Schaffer

2004-01-01

295

Fruiting of Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several enzymes were assayed in extracts from mycelium-colonised compost during growth and fruiting of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. Comparison of changes of enzyme levels in axenic and nonaxenic cultures and in cultures of non-fruiting strains indicated that they were associated directly with the fungal mycelium. Large changes were found in the amounts of laccase and cellulase which were correlated with

D. A. Wood; P. W. Goodenough

1977-01-01

296

Mutant Fruit Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

0000-00-00

297

Fresh Fruit Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practices recommended for the preservation of environmental quality and effective management of the bog physical plant (e. g., water control structures, erosion control, pesticide storage and handling) are universally applicable regardless of whether a bed is producing fruit for processing or for the fresh market. However, certain practices require modification to effectively produce abundant, high quality cranberries for fresh fruit.

Carolyn DeMoranville; Frank L. Caruso; Joseph DeVerna

2003-01-01

298

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients  

E-print Network

instead of cups, making great "ice cubes" in fruit juice or diet soda. Try other fruits or juice. This material is partially funded by USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program ­ SNAP. The Supple- mental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help you

Liskiewicz, Maciej

299

Phenolic acids in the flowers and leaves of Grindelia robusta Nutt. and Grindelia squarrosa Dun. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

2D-TLC and RP-HPLC methods were applied to qualitatively determinate free phenolic acids and those liberated by acid and alkaline hydrolysis in the flowers and leaves of G. robusta and G. squarrosa. The presence of eleven phenolic acids, namely: caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic salicylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and ellagic acids was determined. Quantitative estimate of phenolic acids, expressed as caffeic acid, has been analyzed by the method described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII. The content of phenolic acids in G. robusta reached 7.33 mg/g and 6.23 mg/g for flowers and leaves, respectively. The flowers and leaves of G. squarrosa were characterized by similar level of phenolic acids, namely 6.81 mg/g and 6.59 mg/g, respectively. PMID:22876612

Nowak, S?awomira; Rychli?ska, Izabela

2012-01-01

300

Effect of Freezing and Frozen Storage on Phenolic Compounds of Raspberry and Blackberry Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compounds in raspberry and blackberry cultivars grown in Turkey were determined by liquid chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry (MS)\\/MS in fresh, just-frozen, and stored fruits at ?22 °C for 6 months period. The major phenolic compounds\\u000a in water extracted samples were ellagic acid (1,350.36–727.9 mg\\/kg fresh fruit), ferulic acid (820.78–338.27 mg\\/kg fresh fruit),\\u000a caffeic acid (754.85–202.78 mg\\/kg fresh fruit), p-coumaric acid (361.68–142.63 mg\\/kg fresh fruit), p-hydroxybenzoic acid

Cihat Türkben; Esra Sar?burun; Cevdet Demir; Vildan Uyla?er

2010-01-01

301

FaPYR1 is involved in strawberry fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Although the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in the ripening of non-climatic fruit, direct genetic/molecular evidence is lacking. In the present study, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis ABA receptor gene PYR1, named FaPYR1, was isolated and characterized. The 627 bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 208 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were detected by homology analysis. Using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), the FaPYR1 gene was silenced in strawberry fruit. Down-regulation of the FaPYR1 gene not only significantly delayed fruit ripening, but also markedly altered ABA content, ABA sensitivity, and a set of ABA-responsive gene transcripts, including ABI1 and SnRK2. Furthermore, the loss of red colouring in FaPYR1 RNAi (RNA interference) fruits could not be rescued by exogenously applied ABA, which could promote the ripening of wild-type fruits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the putative ABA receptor FaPYR1 acts as a positive regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. It was also revealed that the application of the VIGS technique in strawberry fruit could be used as a novel tool for studying strawberry fruit development. PMID:21778181

Chai, Ye-Mao; Jia, Hai-Feng; Li, Chun-Li; Dong, Qing-Hua; Shen, Yuan-Yue

2011-10-01

302

Effect of p -CPA-parthenocarpic setting on the delayed ripening of netted-melon fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of plant growth regulators may induce parthenocarpic fruit setting, avoiding problems due to poor pollination. Their influence on the ripening of netted-melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.), however, is not yet well understood. The ripening behavior of parthenocarpic melon fruit (treated with 50 ppm 4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (p-CPA) and 350 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) at anthesis) was compared with that of hand-pollinated

Juan A. T. Pariasca; Toshihiko Kato; Manabu Oka; Tamayo Ohtani; Yuka Yaegashi; Tetsuo Hirabayashi; Hiroki Nakagawa; Takahide Sato

2005-01-01

303

Effects of Fe deficiency chlorosis on yield and fruit quality in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).  

PubMed

The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on fruit yield and quality were measured in two peach cultivars, Carson (yellow-skin fruit) and Babygold (red-skin fruit). In both cultivars, Fe deficiency caused major decreases in fruit fresh weight per tree and number of fruits per tree. Fruits from Fe-deficient peach trees had a smaller size, resulting in a large decrease in the percentage of commercially acceptable fruits, whereas fruit firmness was unaffected. In cv. Babygold, Fe deficiency greatly decreased the red color of the fruit skin. Part of these results was likely associated with a delay in fruit ripening. When fruits with similar appearance were compared, taking into account fruit size, color, and firmness, Fe deficiency generally led to higher concentrations of organic anions (especially succinate and quinate), vitamin C, and phenolic compounds and to lower total sugar/total organic acid ratios. This could lead to decreased fruit eating quality and to a slight improvement in fruit nutritional value. PMID:12952427

Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Paniagua, Pilar; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación

2003-09-10

304

Modeling C and N Transport to Developing Soybean Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

Xylem sap and phloem exudates from detached leaves and fruit tips were collected and analyzed during early pod-fill in nodulated soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Wilkin) grown without (?N) and with (+N) NH4NO3. Ureides were the predominant from (91%) of N transported in the xylem of ?N plants, while amides (45%) and nitrate (23%) accounted for most of the N in the xylem of +N plants. Amino acids (44%) and ureides (36%) were the major N forms exported in phloem from leaves in ?N plants, but amides (63%) were most important in +N plants. Based on the composition of fruit tip phloem, ureides (55% and 33%) and amides (26% and 47%) accounted for the majority of N imported by fruits of ?N and +N plants, respectively. C:N weight ratios were lowest in xylem exudate (1.37 and 1.32), highest in petiole phloem (24.5 and 26.0), and intermediate in fruit tip exudate (12.6 and 12.1) for the ?N and +N treatments, respectively. The ratios were combined with data on fruit growth and respiration to construct a model of C and N transport to developing fruits. The model indicates xylem to phloem transfer provides 35% to 52% of fruit N. Results suggest the phloem entering fruits oversupplies their N requirement so that 13% of the N imported is exported from fruit in the xylem. PMID:16662669

Layzell, David B.; LaRue, Thomas A.

1982-01-01

305

Variations in Chemical Compositions of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa canina L. Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kazaz S., Baydar H., Erbas S. (2009): Variations in chemical compositions of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa canina L. frui ts . Czech J. Food Sci., 27: 178-184. In this study, fruits, fruit flesh and seeds of damask rose ( Rosa damascena Mill.) and rose hip ( Rosa canina L.) were assayed for the composition of fatty acids, ascorbic acid,

Soner Kazaz; Hasan BaydaR

306

Suberin production by isolated tomato fruit protoplasts.  

PubMed

The multilamellar wall secreted by protoplasts isolated from locule tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was purified, and an extract was obtained after depolymerization with BF(3)-methanol. Analysis of this extract using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters, and omega-hydroxy acid methyl esters. These components were quantified using an Iatroscan thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection system. The different chain lengths in each group were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. The results clearly indicated the presence of suberin. PMID:16663693

Rao, G S; Willison, J H; Ratnayake, W M

1984-07-01

307

Gleaning unexpected fruits from hard-won synthetases: probing principles of permissivity in non-canonical amino acid-tRNA synthetases.  

PubMed

The site-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins is an important tool for understanding biological function. Traditionally, each new ncAA targeted for incorporation requires a resource-consuming process of generating new ncAA aminoacyl tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pairs. However, the discovery that some tRNA synthetases are "permissive", in that they can incorporate multiple ncAAs, means that it is no longer always necessary to develop a new synthetase for each newly desired ncAA. Developing a better understanding of what factors make ncAA synthetases more permissive would increase the utility of this new approach. Here, we characterized two synthetases selected for the same ncAA that have markedly different "permissivity profiles." Remarkably, the more permissive synthetase incorporated an ncAA for which we had not been able to generate a synthetase through de novo selection methods. Crystal structures revealed that the two synthetases recognize their parent ncAA through a conserved core of interactions, with the more permissive synthetase displaying a greater degree of flexibility in its interaction geometries. We also observed that intraprotein interactions not directly involved in ncAA binding can play a crucial role in synthetase permissivity and suggest that optimization of such interactions might provide an avenue to engineering synthetases with enhanced permissivity. PMID:25044993

Cooley, Richard B; Karplus, P Andrew; Mehl, Ryan A

2014-08-18

308

GROWTH HABITS IN STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...

309

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1996-01-01

310

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

O'Toole, Alice J.

311

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

O'Toole, Alice J.

312

Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

313

The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

2014-01-15

314

Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

Raduni?, Mira; Juki? Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

2015-06-15

315

Name That Fruit!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

Lauri Christopher

2012-07-20

316

Reversible Inhibition of Tomato Fruit Gene Expression at High Temperature (Effects on Tomato Fruit Ripening).  

PubMed

The reversible inhibition of three ripening-related processes by high-temperature treatment (38[deg]C) was examined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Daniella) fruit. Ethylene production, color development, and softening were inhibited during heating and recovered afterward, whether recovery took place at 20[deg]C or fruit were first held at chilling temperature (2[deg]C) after heating and then placed at 20[deg]C. Ethylene production and color development proceeded normally in heated fruit after 14 d of chilling, whereas the unheated fruit had delayed ethylene production and uneven color development. Levels of mRNA for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, phytoene synthase, and polygalacturonase decreased dramatically during the heat treatment but recovered afterward, whereas the mRNA for HSP17 increased during the high-temperature treatment and then decreased when fruit were removed from heat. As monitored by western blots, the HSP17 protein disappeared from fruit tissue after 3 d at 20[deg]C but remained when fruit were held at 2[deg]C. The persistence of heat-shock proteins at low temperature may be relevant to the protection against chilling injury provided by the heat treatment. Protein levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase and polygalacturonase also did not closely follow the changes in their respective mRNAs. This implied both differences in relative stability and turnover rates of mRNA compared to protein and nontranslation of the message that accumulated in low temperature. The results suggest that high temperature inhibits ripening by inhibiting the accumulation of ripening-related mRNAs. Ripening processes that depend on continuous protein synthesis including ethylene production, lycopene accumulation, and cell-wall dissolution are thereby diminished. PMID:12226253

Lurie, S.; Handros, A.; Fallik, E.; Shapira, R.

1996-04-01

317

A dynamic interplay between phytohormones is required for fruit development, maturation, and ripening  

PubMed Central

Plant species that bear fruit often utilize expansion of an ovary (carpel) or accessory tissue as a vehicle for seed dispersal. While the seed(s) develop, the tissue(s) of the fruit follow a common progression of cell division and cell expansion, promoting growth of the fruit. Once the seed is fully developed, the fruit matures and the surrounding tissue either dries or ripens promoting the dissemination of the seed. As with many developmental processes in plants, plant hormones play an important role in the synchronization of signals between the developing seed and its surrounding fruit tissue(s), regulating each phase of fruit development. Following pollination, fruit set is achieved through a de-repression of growth and an activation of cell division via the action of auxin and/or cytokinin and/or gibberellin. Following fruit set, growth of the fruit is facilitated through a relatively poorly studied period of cell expansion and endoreduplication that is likely regulated by similar hormones as in fruit set. Once the seeds reach maturity, fruit become ready to undergo ripening and during this period there is a major switch in relative hormone levels of the fruit, involving an overall decrease in auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin and a simultaneous increase in abscisic acid and ethylene. While the role of hormones in fruit set and ripening is well documented, the knowledge of the roles of other hormones during growth, maturation, and some individual ripening components is sketchy. PMID:23616786

McAtee, Peter; Karim, Siti; Schaffer, Robert; David, Karine

2013-01-01

318

The control of polyphenol oxidase activity in fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of this research was to find alternative methods for the control of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fruits and vegetables with the purpose of reducing or eliminating the use of SO2 for this purpose. Interactions between the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, EDTA, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment (70 °C for 2 min) in the control of PPO

M. E. M. Almeida; J. N. Nogueira

1995-01-01

319

The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits.  

PubMed

The nutritional jujube ( Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruit belonging to the Rhamnaceous family grows mostly in Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and Australia, especially the inland region of northern China. Jujube has a long history of usage as a fruit and remedy. The main biologically active components are vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenic acids, and polysaccharides. Recent phytochemical studies of jujube fruits have shed some light on their biological effects, such as the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and gastrointestinal protective activities and inhibition of foam cell formation in macrophages. A stronger focus on clinical studies and phytochemical definition of jujube fruits will be essential for future research efforts. This review may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses and potential drug or food interactions and may be beneficial for people living where the jujube fruits are prevalent and health care resources are scarce. PMID:23480594

Gao, Qing-Han; Wu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Min

2013-04-10

320

Metabolomic analysis of avocado fruits by GC-APCI-TOF MS: effects of ripening degrees and fruit varieties.  

PubMed

In order to investigate avocado fruit ripening, nontargeted GC-APCI-TOF MS metabolic profiling analyses were carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to explore the metabolic profiles from fruit samples of 13 varieties at two different ripening degrees. Mannoheptulose; pentadecylfuran; aspartic, malic, stearic, citric and pantothenic acids; mannitol; and ?-sitosterol were some of the metabolites found as more influential for the PLS-DA model. The similarities among genetically related samples (putative mutants of "Hass") and their metabolic differences from the rest of the varieties under study have also been evaluated. The achieved results reveal new insights into avocado fruit composition and metabolite changes, demonstrating therefore the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit ripening development, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops. PMID:25381615

Hurtado-Fernández, E; Pacchiarotta, T; Mayboroda, O A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

2015-01-01

321

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

322

Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content. PMID:22518928

Abu-Zahra, T R

2011-09-15

323

Quantification by UHPLC of total individual polyphenols in fruit juices.  

PubMed

The present work proposes a new UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence method able to identify and quantify the main polyphenols present in commercial fruit juices in a 28-min chromatogram. The proposed method improve the IFU method No. 71 used to evaluate anthocyanins profiles of fruit juices. Fruit juices of strawberry, American cranberry, bilberry, sour cherry, black grape, orange, and apple, were analysed identifying 70 of their main polyphenols (23 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids, 14 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanones, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavan-3-ols and 2 stilbenes). One standard polyphenol of each group was used to calculate individual polyphenol concentration presents in a juice. Total amount of polyphenols in a fruit juice was estimated as total individual polyphenols (TIP). A good correlation (r(2)=0.966) was observed between calculated TIP, and total polyphenols (TP) determined by the well-known colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. In this work, the higher TIP value corresponded to bilberry juice (607.324 mg/100mL fruit juice) and the lower to orange juice (32.638 mg/100mL fruit juice). This method is useful for authentication analyses and for labelling total polyphenols contents of commercial fruit juices. PMID:23411199

Díaz-García, M C; Obón, J M; Castellar, M R; Collado, J; Alacid, M

2013-06-01

324

Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneficial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents. PMID:25317174

Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Memon, Mushtaq A.; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Akbar, Mohammed

2014-01-01

325

Native Australian fruits — a novel source of antioxidants for food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve native Australian fruits, finger lime (red and yellow), riberry, brush cherry, Cedar Bay cherry, muntries, Illawarra plum, Burdekin plum, Davidson's plum, Kakadu plum, Molucca raspberry and Tasmanian Pepper, were investigated for their antioxidant capacity and presence of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. The radical scavenging activities of five of the evaluated fruits were significantly higher (3.1 to 5.2-fold

Michael Netzel; Gabriele Netzel; Qingguo Tian; Steven Schwartz; Izabela Konczak

2007-01-01

326

Determination of Antioxidant Constituents in Cactus Pear Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin,\\u000a myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids

José A. Fernández-López; Luís Almela; José M. Obón; Rosario Castellar

2010-01-01

327

Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of (3H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids—mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant—that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. Objective: The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of (3H)-oleic acid 0.16 ?Ci/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 ?Ci) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 ?L), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100?L) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in ?gEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces, and urine samples of rats that did not receive (3H)-oleic acid were used as controls. Excretion was expressed as the percentage of the radioactivity excreted via each route with respect to the total radioactive dose administered to each rat. Results: A total of 50 rats were included in the experiment (mean age, 4 weeks; mean weight, 310 g). Absorption was rapid; mean Cmax was 195.56 (31.12) ?gEq/mL, and mean Tmax was 2 hours. Thereafter, a biphasic decay of TR was found: a rapid first phase (t1/2?, 1.33 hours), followed by a slower second elimination phase (t1/2?, 36.07 hours). Radioactivity was rapidly and broadly distributed throughout the tissues, with more accumulating in the prostate than elsewhere. In the first 8 hours, accumulation of TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by the liver, small intestine, and plasma. Subsequently, TR increased in the small intestine, while it decreased in the liver and plasma. In contrast, over the periods of 24 and 144 hours after administration, TR increased in the adipose tissue, while it decreased in the other tissues and plasma. During those intervals, TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by adipose tissue. Mean peak radioactivity in the prostate (562.41 ?gEq/g) was reached at 4 hours and decreased slowly thereafter. The prostate had the highest values of t1/2? and cumulative AUC compared with the other tissues and plasma. Mean (SD) TR was similar in feces (33.48% [4.90%]) and urine (28.96% [5.32%]), with total excretion being 62.40% (5.90%) of the administered dose. Conclusions: In this experimental study, after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid in rats, TR was rapidly and widely distributed across the tissues, with the prostate having the highest accumulation of radioactivity. Excretion of TR was limited, with similar amounts being excreted in feces and urine. The broad distribution of radiolabeled oleic acid and/or its metabolites suggests (SD) pharmacokinetic rationale for the effectiveness of D-004 in

Pérez, L. Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; González, Rosa M.

2006-01-01

328

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops. PMID:24655934

2014-01-01

329

Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.  

PubMed

An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778

Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

2010-09-01

330

The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.  

PubMed

Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

2014-09-01

331

Acidity and taste in kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although total titratable acidity levels in ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit appear quite stable during storage at 0°C under New Zealand conditions it is known that citric acid levels decline but malic acid levels are maintained. By contrast, malic acid levels tend to increase with storage at 4°C. These observations formed the basis of a sensory comparison of fruit stored at 0, 4,

K. Marsh; S. Attanayake; S. Walker; A. Gunson; H. Boldingh; E. MacRae

2004-01-01

332

Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits  

PubMed Central

Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

2014-01-01

333

[Effects of debagging time and picking off leaf on fruit quality of "Red Fuji" apple].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of debagging time and picking off leaves around fruits on the fruit quality and 1-year old shoots stored nutrition of "Red Fuji" apple. Properly advancing debagging time significantly increased the mean mass, anthocyanin content, and coloration area of the fruits (P < 0.05). Comparing with those of the fruits debagged on September 30, the mean mass, anthocyanin content, and coloration area of the fruits debagged on September 24 increased by 10.98%, 28.15%, and 13.44%, respectively, and the fruit firmness, soluble solid content, and titratable acidity had less differences. When the leaves within 15, 30, and 45 cm away from the fruits were wholly picked off, the light environment around the fruits improved significantly (P < 0.01), with the light intensity increased by 70%, 95%, and 115%, respectively, compared with no leaf picked off treatment. Picking off the leaves within 30-45 cm away from the fruits benefited the fruit coloration and anthocyanin accumulation. No significant effects were observed on the 1-year old shoots stored nutrition and their budding in next year among the treatments of picking off leaves. Advancing debagging time and picking off the leaves within 30-45 cm away from the fruits could improve fruit appearance and quality. PMID:21043099

Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Yue, Yu-Ling; Wei, Qin-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Qiang

2010-08-01

334

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-04-21

335

Home Fruit Production - Pears.  

E-print Network

System ? College Station, Texas (Blank Pa,ge -in Origi.aI BoHetiDl ' : . 1 r . .- HOME FRUIT PRODUCTION - PEARS John A. Upe, Calvin Lyons and Larry Stein* Pears are long-lived attractive trees for Texas land scapes. Selected varieties produce good... fruit with few management problems. The three basic types of pears grown in the United States are European or French pears, Oriental hybrids and Asian pears. The common pears include such popular varieties as Bartlett, Bosc and D...

Lipe, John A.; Lyons, Calvin; Stein, Larry

1988-01-01

336

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

337

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

338

Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits. PMID:25477663

Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Pawe?; Sroka, Pawe?; Pogo?, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

2014-12-01

339

Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.  

PubMed

Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and ?-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured. PMID:25348501

Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

2014-10-28

340

Sensory properties of fruit skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory characteristics of fruit skins were determined for a range of produce including large fruit (apples, pears, and tomatoes) and small fruit (grapes, strawberries, blueberries, and cherry tomatoes). These results provided a context within which to study the sensory properties of skins from novel kiwifruit (Actinidia). The kiwifruit skins ranged from the edible skins of grape-sized Actinidia arguta through

Rachel L. Amos

2007-01-01

341

Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.  

PubMed

Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. PMID:25442527

Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

2015-04-01

342

???????????????????????????????? ??? ??????????????? Study on Peel Morphology and Stomata of Mulberry (Morus spp.) Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus spp.) can be grown well in temperate and tropical regions. The mulberry fruit contains 0.21% calcium, vitamin B 6 930 mg.\\/kg, and folic acid 6.87 mg\\/kg. The fruit is in high demand for the world market for fresh consumption and for producing wine. However, after harvest, mulberry fruit loses water quickly and disease occurs. It has a short

David W. Turner; Kasawan Phaphom; Naul-anong Narkkong; Sucharit Suanphairoch; Sathaporn Wongareonwanakit

2006-01-01

343

Fat Fruit Flies  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Breaking news from South Korea's hi-tech frontline. With the help of drosophila, or the fruit fly, scientists here have discovered strands of genetic material that control growth in the body. They're called micro-RNA and people...

Hacker, Randi

2010-08-11

344

Emerging fruit crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

345

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

Liskiewicz, Maciej

346

Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 Golden Delicious apples 2 Red Delicious apples 2 banana 1 1/2 cups Directions 1. Leave the skin on the apple and cut in half through the core. Then cut each piece in half again

Liskiewicz, Maciej

347

Dried Fruits and Nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...

348

Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients  

E-print Network

Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients: non stick cooking spray 3 bananas 1 cup raisins 2 cups rolled oats. Peel and coarsely mash bananas in mixing bowl. 3. Add raisins, oats, apple butter, walnuts, oil and vanilla extract with bananas and stir to mix well. 4. Let stand for 10 minutes. 5. Drop by teaspoonful

Liskiewicz, Maciej

349

Cell division and cell enlargement in fruit of Lagenaria leucantha as influenced by pollination and plant growth substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid), GA3 (gibberellic acid), CPPU (N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea) and pollination on fruit set, cell division and enlargement were studied in Lagenaria leucantha, an important vegetable. NAA and GA3 were ineffective in inducing parthenocarpy, whereas CPPU induced parthenocarpic fruit significantly larger than fruit that resulted from pollination. Cell division, which occurred during the first 4 days after pollination

Jing Quan Yu; Ying Li; Ya Rong Qian; Zhu Jun Zhu

2001-01-01

350

Plant oil emulsion modifies internal atmosphere, delays fruit ripening, and inhibits internal browning in Chinese pears  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Laiyang Chili’ and ‘Ya Li’ (Pyrusbertschneideri Reld) pears were treated with 3, 6, and 9% emulsions of commercial or refined (reduced ?-tocopherol levels) plant (soybean, corn, peanut, linseed, and cottonseed) oils at harvest an stored at 0°C for 6 months. Effects of oil treatments on ethylene production, respiration, fruit firmness, fruit color, soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acids (TA), internal

Zhiqiang Ju; Yousheng Duan; Zhiguo Ju

2000-01-01

351

Ionizing radiation treatment to improve postharvest life and maintain quality of fresh guava fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and

S. P. Singh; R. K. Pal

2009-01-01

352

The noni fruit ( Morinda citrifolia L.): A review of agricultural research, nutritional and therapeutic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morinda citrifolia L., the “noni”, has been used in traditional Polynesian medicine for over 2000 years. Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) is an evergreen shrub whose ripe fruit has a strong butyric acid smell and flavor. The leaves and especially the fruit are consumed in different forms by various communities (e.g., the Polynesians) throughout the world; the root is used as a

Yanine Chan-Blanco; Fabrice Vaillant; Ana Mercedes Perez; Max Reynes; Jean-Marc Brillouet; Pierre Brat

2006-01-01

353

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Broussonetia papyrifera Fruits  

PubMed Central

Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs) was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC–MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products. PMID:22389678

Sun, Jie; Liu, Shao-fang; Zhang, Chu-shu; Yu, Li-na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Qing-li

2012-01-01

354

Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit  

PubMed Central

Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5?mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1?RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

2013-01-01

355

Alginate Coatings Preserve Fruit Quality and Bioactive Compounds during Storage of Sweet Cherry Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet cherry fruits harvested at commercial maturity stage were treated with an edible coating based on sodium alginate at\\u000a several concentrations (1%, 3% or 5% w\\/v). The coatings were effective on delaying the evolution of the parameters related to postharvest ripening, such as colour,\\u000a softening and loss of acidity, and reducing respiration rate. In addition, the edible coatings showed a

Huertas M. Díaz-Mula; María Serrano; Daniel Valero

356

Chemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Prunus avium L.: The widely studied fruits and the unexplored stems.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterise sweet cherry regarding nutritional composition of the fruits, and individual phytochemicals and bioactive properties of fruits and stems. The chromatographic profiles in sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds were established. All the preparations (extracts, infusions and decoctions) obtained using stems revealed higher antioxidant potential than the fruits extract, which is certainly related with its higher phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids) concentration. The fruits extract was the only one showing antitumor potential, revealing selectivity against HCT-15 (colon carcinoma) (GI50?74?g/mL). This could be related with anthocyanins that were only found in fruits and not in stems. None of the preparations have shown hepatotoxicity against normal primary cells. Overall, this study reports innovative results regarding chemical and bioactive properties of sweet cherry stems, and confirmed the nutritional and antioxidant characteristics of their fruits. PMID:25466123

Bastos, Claudete; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-04-15

357

The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits  

PubMed Central

Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato. PMID:24659489

Bastías, Adriana; Osorio, Sonia; Casaretto, José A.

2014-01-01

358

The apple skin : colourful healthiness. Developmental and environmental regulation of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate objective of the production, handling and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables is to satisfy consumers requirements. In general the attractiveness of fruits and vegetables to consumers is determined both by visible (e.g. colour) and invisible (e.g. healthiness) quality attributes. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, secondary metabolites, contribute largely to both fruit colour and, through fruit consumption, to

M. A. G. Awad

2001-01-01

359

Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

360

Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...

361

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the

A. Frandas; V. Surducan; G. Nagy; D. Bicanic

1999-01-01

362

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

363

Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.  

PubMed

Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

2013-10-01

364

Science 101: How do fruits ripen?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people love to eat fresh fruits, and today there are dozens to choose from--from "standard" fruits like apple, orange, and banana to more exotic fruits like mango, star fruit, and lychee. But how exactly do fruits ripen to taste so good?

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

365

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

366

Effects of fruit thinning agents on apple tree canopy photosynthesis and dark respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects on photosynthesis of the fruit thinning agents naphthaleneaceticacid (NAA) and three commercial plant growth regulator formulations,naphthaleneacetic acid ('Rhodofix') and naphthaleneacetamide('Amidthin') and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid('Ethrel')were evaluated with respect to the stress they impose on the fruit tree, usingthe alternate-bearing sensitive apple cv. 'Elstar'. This work wasbased on the hypothesis that plant stress in the form of large reductions inleaf photosynthesis are

Ralf Untiedt; Michael Blanke

2001-01-01

367

Chemical changes during myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) fruit development and ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of fruit belonging to ‘Barbara’ and ‘Daniela’ myrtle cultivars was monitored during development from fruit-set to an over-ripe stage (July–January), with the aim to identify a reliable maturity index. Acidity, pH, reducing and total sugars, phenols, tannins, anthocyans, carbon dioxide and ethylene production rates were monitored over two different year seasons. Titratable acidity decreased during maturation, with

A. Fadda; M. Mulas

2010-01-01

368

Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home.  

E-print Network

for drying.) Pare. Cut in half lengthwise and core. Cut in quarters or eighths or slices VB" to V4" thick. To prevent browning during preparation, treat with ascorbic acid as for apricots. 8 Choose one: ? Steam-blanch 5 to 20 minutes, depending...DOC . TA24S.7 ,8"13 0.1214 Drying Fruits and Vegetables at home -II!. Texas Agricultural Extension Service. The Texas A&M University System ~ ~ Daniel C. Pfannstiel ; Director ? College Station, Texas 6-1214 (BtaRk Page in 0riPtat Bu...

Putnam, Peggy H.

1981-01-01

369

Genes Expressed During Fruiting Body Formation of Agrocybe cylindracea.  

PubMed

Agrocybe cylindracea, an edible mushroom belonging to Bolbitiaceae, Agaricales, is widely used as invaluable medicinal material in the oriental countries. This study was initiated to find the genes expressed during the fruiting body formation of A. cylindracea. The cDNAs expressed differentially during fruiting body morphogenesis of A. cylindracea were isolated through subtractive hybridization between vegetative mycelia and fruiting bodies. The cDNAs expressed in the fruiting body morphogenesis of A. cylindracea were cloned and twenty genes were identified. Eleven were homologous to genes of known functions, three were homologous to genes in other organism without any function known. Six were completely novel genes specific to A. cylindracea so far examined. Some genes with known functions were a pleurotolysin, a self-assembling poreforming cytolysins; Aa-Pri1 and Pir2p, specifically induced genes during fruiting initiation of other mushroom, Agrocybe aegerita; an amino acid permease; a cytochrome P450; a MADS-box gene; a peptidylprolyl isomerase; and a serine proteinase. For other clones, no clear function was annotated so far. We believe the first report of the differentially expressed genes in fruiting process of A. cylindracea will be great helps for further research. PMID:24039501

Shim, Sung Mi; Kim, Sang Beom; Kim, Hey Young; Rho, Hyun-Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn; Im, Kyung Hoan; Lee, Tae Soo

2006-12-01

370

Genes Expressed During Fruiting Body Formation of Agrocybe cylindracea  

PubMed Central

Agrocybe cylindracea, an edible mushroom belonging to Bolbitiaceae, Agaricales, is widely used as invaluable medicinal material in the oriental countries. This study was initiated to find the genes expressed during the fruiting body formation of A. cylindracea. The cDNAs expressed differentially during fruiting body morphogenesis of A. cylindracea were isolated through subtractive hybridization between vegetative mycelia and fruiting bodies. The cDNAs expressed in the fruiting body morphogenesis of A. cylindracea were cloned and twenty genes were identified. Eleven were homologous to genes of known functions, three were homologous to genes in other organism without any function known. Six were completely novel genes specific to A. cylindracea so far examined. Some genes with known functions were a pleurotolysin, a self-assembling poreforming cytolysins; Aa-Pri1 and Pir2p, specifically induced genes during fruiting initiation of other mushroom, Agrocybe aegerita; an amino acid permease; a cytochrome P450; a MADS-box gene; a peptidylprolyl isomerase; and a serine proteinase. For other clones, no clear function was annotated so far. We believe the first report of the differentially expressed genes in fruiting process of A. cylindracea will be great helps for further research. PMID:24039501

Shim, Sung Mi; Kim, Sang Beom; Kim, Hey Young; Rho, Hyun-Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn; Im, Kyung Hoan

2006-01-01

371

Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of two common Gleditsia sinensis fruits using HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis and Gleditsiae Sinensis Fructus are obtained from different developmental stages of fruits from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (Leguminosae). The possible interchangeable usage of the two fruits, however, has long been very controversial. Here, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was developed to explore their chemical fingerprinting profiles. Besides, the amounts of aglycones of saponin compounds, echinocystic acid and oleanolic acid in both fruits were quantified. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the content of aglycones from the two types of fruits. However, their chromatographic fingerprints showed distinct characteristics. Therefore, the interchangeable application of these fruits has to be taken with a specific precaution. PMID:24451075

Chen, Jianping; Li, Zhonggui; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Guo, Ava J Y; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Zhan, Janis Y X; Dong, Tina T X; Su, Ziren; Tsim, Karl W K

2013-12-01

372

Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in the fruit processing environment--a review.  

PubMed

Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for reconstituted fruit beverages to compete with beverages that are made from fresh fruits. In recent years, Alicyclobacillus spp. have become a major concern to the beverage industry worldwide as many high-acid, concentrated fruit products have been found to be contaminated with these spoilage microbes. The thermo-acidophilic nature of alicyclobacilli and highly resistant endospores allows for their survival during the production of concentrated fruit products. Under favourable conditions, endospores can germinate and multiply to numbers high enough to cause spoilage and product deterioration through the production of chemical taint compounds. It is imperative to understand the nature of Alicyclobacillus within the fruit concentrate processing environment so as to develop effective control strategies and to prevent spoilage in juice and beverage products that are reconstituted from fruit concentrates. This paper reviews the occurrence of alicyclobacilli in the fruit processing environment, control measures, as well as detection, identification and standardised test methods that are currently used for Alicyclobacillus in concentrated fruit products. PMID:21463910

Steyn, Catharina E; Cameron, Michelle; Witthuhn, R Corli

2011-05-14

373

Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

374

Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality. PMID:23972229

Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime

2013-09-18

375

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

2006-10-01

376

IONIZING RADIATION PROCESSING OF FRUITS AND FRUIT PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food irradiation is a physical treatment in which food is exposed to ionizing radiation, i.e., radiation of high enough energy to expel electrons from atoms and to ionize molecules. Irradiation may be used to control the physiology of fruits, or to eliminate harmful bacteria from fruit products. Thi...

377

Children's perception of fresh fruit and fruit snacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain children's perception of fruit and fruit snacks and the influences on their choice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – One hundred primary school children (the majority aged 7-11 years), from three schools, were surveyed or interviewed. A quota sample was taken with a balance of age and gender. A questionnaire survey (n = 50)

John A. Bower; Jessica Ferguson

2008-01-01

378

Varietal difference in vitamin C content in the fruit of kiwifruit and other actinidia species.  

PubMed

Vitamin C content in the fruit of various cultivars of kiwifruit and other Actinidia species was estimated by determination of L-ascorbic acid and L-dehydroascorbic acid using ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fruit of A. deliciosa cv. Hayward, the most common commercially available cultivar, contained 65.5 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) vitamin C. Vitamin C content in A. deliciosa fruit varied from 29 mg/100 g FW to 80 mg/100 g FW. In most cultivars of A. chinensis, vitamin C content in fruit was higher than that of Hayward. In particular, vitamin C content in cv. Sanuki Gold fruit reached more than 3-fold that of Hayward on a weight for weight basis. In A. argutafruit, there was wide variation in vitamin C content, with concentrations ranging from 37 to 185 mg/100 g FW. In cv. Gassan, Issai, and Mitsuko, vitamin C content of the fruit was much higher than that of Hayward. In A. arguta fruit, the ratio of L-ascorbic acid to total ascorbic acid tended to be higher than that of other species. PMID:15315387

Nishiyama, Ichiro; Yamashita, Yuka; Yamanaka, Miho; Shimohashi, Atsuko; Fukuda, Tetsuo; Oota, Tadachika

2004-08-25

379

Fruit Xylophone: Fruit Salad Instrument of the Future!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a perfect summertime lunch activity! Pico Cricket is required (micro controller). First, get a bunch of cut up fruit, line them up, then plug a piece of fruit with a Pico Cricket sensor clip. Next, hold the other Pico Cricket sensor clip in your hand and touch each of the fruits with it to see what kind of music it makes! This activity contains the programming instructions you need to read the resistance in the fruit, which assigns that resistance number a sound. This activity is a great way to explore the conductivity of fruit and vegetables and their resistance. This activity is an easy programming activity for beginners. Note: an older version of the Pico Cricket is shown in this activity, please revise where necessary.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-26

380

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2014-04-01

381

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2012-04-01

382

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2013-04-01

383

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of the following citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus grandis, Osbeck, commonly called grapefruit, and (b) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called...

2010-01-01

384

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

385

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

386

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

387

Temperate fruit production in Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the adaptation, culture, and management of temperate fruit trees in the tropics of Guatemala are remarkable in comparison with fruit production developments observed in the tropical highlands of Mexico and other Central American countries. Several cultivars of apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica) have been adapted and form part of home

2006-01-01

388

Vegetables, Fruit, and Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon.

KRISTI A. STEINMETZ; JOHN D. POTTER

1996-01-01

389

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

1999-03-01

390

Fruit Set and Yield Patterns in Six Capsicum Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit set and yield patterns were studied in detail in six pepper cultivars. Fruit set differed largely between the cultivars: cultivars with small fruits (fruit fresh weight 20 to 40 g) showed higher fruit set (50%) than cultivars with large fruits (fruit fresh weight 120 to 200 g; 11% to 19%). The former showed continuous fruit set (four to five

A. M. Wubs; Y. T. Ma; L. Hemerik; E. Heuvelink

2009-01-01

391

Influence of mitochondria origin on fruit quality in a citrus cybrid.  

PubMed

Sugar, organic acid, and carotenoid are the most important indicators of fruit taste and nutritional and organoleptic quality. These components were studied on fruit pulp of the cybrid between Willow leaf mandarin ( Citrus deliciosa Ten.) and Eureka lemon [ Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] and the two parents. The cybrid possessed nuclear and chloroplast genomes of Eureka lemon plus mitochondria from Willow leaf mandarin. The impact of new mitochondria on fruit quality was studied during the mature period. Levels of organic acids were slightly higher in the cybrid fruit pulp than in Eureka lemon. No significant difference in sugar and carotenoid content was observed between the cybrid and the lemon. Results confirm that the main genetic information for the biosynthesis of sugars, organic acids, and carotenoids is contained in the nucleus. In Citrus, cybridization can be used as a strategy to breed specific traits associated with mitochondrial genomes, such as male sterility, without affecting the main organoleptic and nutritional qualities. PMID:18729377

Bassene, Jean-Baptiste; Berti, Liliane; Carcouet, Elodie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Bouffin, Jean; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann

2008-09-24

392

Survival of salmonella on dried fruits and in aqueous dried fruit homogenates as affected by temperature.  

PubMed

A study was done to determine the ability of Salmonella to survive on dried cranberries, raisins, and strawberries and in date paste, as affected by storage temperature. Acid-adapted Salmonella, initially at 6.57 to 7.01 log CFU/g, was recovered from mist-inoculated cranberries (water activity [aw] 0.47) and raisins (aw 0.46) stored at 25°C for 21 days but not 42 days, strawberries (aw 0.21) for 42 days but not 84 days, and date paste (aw 0.69) for 84 days but not 126 days. In contrast, the pathogen was detected in strawberries stored at 4°C for 182 days (6 months) but not 242 days (8 months) and in cranberries, date paste, and raisins stored for 242 days. Surface-grown cells survived longer than broth-grown cells in date paste. The order of rate of inactivation at 4°C was cranberry > strawberry > raisin > date paste. Initially at 2.18 to 3.35 log CFU/g, inactivation of Salmonella on dry (sand)&ndash inoculated fruits followed trends similar to those for mist-inoculated fruits. Survival of Salmonella in aqueous homogenates of dried fruits as affected by fruit concentration and temperature was also studied. Growth was not observed in 10% (aw 0.995 to 0.999) and 50% (aw 0.955 to 0.962) homogenates of the four fruits held at 4°C, 50% homogenates at 25°C, and 10% cranberry and strawberry homogenates at 25°C. Growth of the pathogen in 10% date paste and raisin homogenates stored at 25°C was followed by rapid inactivation. Results of these studies suggest the need to subject dried fruits that may be contaminated with Salmonella to a lethal process and prevent postprocess contamination before they are eaten out-of-hand or used as ingredients in ready-to-eat foods. Observations showing that Salmonella can grow in aqueous homogenates of date paste and raisins emphasize the importance of minimizing contact of these fruits with high-moisture environments during handling and storage. PMID:24988015

Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

2014-07-01

393

Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits  

SciTech Connect

Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

1989-04-01

394

[A comparative study of postharvest fruit senescence in different litchi cultivars].  

PubMed

Among the 5 tested litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivars ("Huaizhi", "Guiwei", "Nuomici", "Hongmili" and "Shuijingqiu", "Nuomici" became deteriorated much faster than other cultivars while "Guiwei" fruit was the slowest in the rotting process (Fig. 1A). Fruit deterioration was accompanied by fruit desiccation (Fig. 2B), but the speed of water loss was not significantly correlated to fruit deterioration rate, indicating that it was not the key factor causing the difference in postharvest performance among cultivars. Fruit deterioration rate was significantly positively correlated to membrane leakage (Fig. 2A), suggesting the capacity to maintain membrane integrity is closely related to the shelflife of litchi. Skin browning potential, uronic acid concentration, degree of methylation of pectin and soluble Ca content in pericarp as well as total Ca content in the pulp were not significantly correlated with fruit deterioration. Content of structural Ca (water-insoluble but acetic acid-soluble calcium, membrane or wall-bound Ca), the major form of Ca in the pericarp, was negatively correlated to fruit deterioration rate (Fig. 2E). The results proved that differences in fruit desiccation rate, browning potential, Ca other than structural form were not the major cause leading to difference in postharvest performance among different cultivars. "Guiwei" being more tolerant to desiccation than other cultivars is likely associated its higher structural Ca concentration in the pericarp. PMID:16222101

Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Li, Jian-Guo; Luo, Shi; Yuan, Wei-Qun; Lu, Jie-Mei; Yin, Jin-Hua; Huang, Hui-Bai

2005-10-01

395

Contribution of fruit research in the developments in Dutch fresh fruit chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the poor financial results of the fruit industry in the last decade, the changing trade structures and more consumer-driven fruit chains, Dutch fruit growers change their market behaviour. In these circumstances, the fruit industry itself and the applied fruit research are also changing. Applied Plant Research (PPO-Fruit) is involved in different projects related to consumer-driven fruit chain development

M. J. Groot; G. Peppelman

2004-01-01

396

Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in the Diet12  

PubMed Central

Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements. PMID:23674808

Liu, Rui Hai

2013-01-01

397

Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet.  

PubMed

Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements. PMID:23674808

Liu, Rui Hai

2013-05-01

398

Fruits and vegetables dehydration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

2015-01-01

399

Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on health-promoting compounds and organoleptic properties of tomato fruits grown in greenhouse.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on the main health-promoting compounds and organoleptic characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits grown in greenhouse. The contents of health-promoting compounds, including lycopene, ?-carotene, and ascorbic acid, as well as the flavour, indicated by sugars, titrable acidity, and sugar/acid ratio, were markedly increased in CO2 enrichment fruits. Furthermore, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced other organoleptic characteristics, including colour, firmness, aroma, and sensory attributes in tomato fruits. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment has potential in promoting the nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes. PMID:24491715

Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yongsong; Wang, Qiaomei

2014-06-15

400

Cloning and sequencing of the Aa-Pri1 gene specifically expressed during fruiting initiation in the edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita, and analysis of the predicted amino-acid sequence.  

PubMed

A gene (Aa-Pri1) specifically expressed during fruiting initiation of the basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita was cloned. The total length of the Aa-Pri1 gene was 492 bp including a class-II intron of 54 bp size located at nt +125; the open reading frame encoded for a 145-aa protein of 16 093 Da. CCAAT (-156) and TATAAAT (- 83) boxes, and T(A)5T(A)2 (+593) and T(A)3T(A)4T(A)6T (+608) putative polyadenylation sequences were identified. The putative transcription start point was located at position 49. The Aa-Pri1 transcript was abundant only during fruiting initiation and was undetectable in the other stages of development. The Aa-Pri1 protein was hydrophilic, with a 20-aa hydrophobic motif in the NH2-terminal part, determining a putative alpha-helix. Two putative glycosylation sites were identified. Aa-Pri1 protein activity may be controlled by the phosphorylation of several residues by different protein kinases. PMID:9388298

Fernandez Espinar, M T; Labarère, J

1997-12-01

401

Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes.  

PubMed

Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids, and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular tools and ripening-affected mutants has permitted researchers to establish a framework for the control of ripening. Tomato is a climacteric fruit, with an absolute requirement for the phytohormone ethylene to ripen. This dependence upon ethylene has established tomato fruit ripening as a model system for study of regulation of its synthesis and perception. In addition, several important ripening mutants, including rin, nor, and Cnr, have provided novel insights into the control of ripening processes. Here, we describe how ethylene and the transcription factors associated with the ripening process fit together into a network controlling ripening. PMID:22060040

Klee, Harry J; Giovannoni, James J

2011-01-01

402

Over-expression of mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter enhances fruit quality in tomato.  

PubMed

Diamine putrescine (Put) and polyamines; spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are essential component of every cell because of their involvement in the regulation of cell division, growth and development. The aim of this study is to enhance the levels of Put during fruit development and see its implications in ripening and quality of tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter (2A11) were developed. Transgenic fruits exhibited enhanced levels of Put, Spd and Spm, with a concomitant reduction in ethylene levels, rate of respiration and physiological loss of water. Consequently such fruits displayed significant delay of on-vine ripening and prolonged shelf life over untransformed fruits. The activation of Put biosynthetic pathway at the onset of ripening in transgenic fruits is also consistent with the improvement of qualitative traits such as total soluble solids, titratable acids and total sugars. Such changes were associated with alteration in expression pattern of ripening specific genes. Transgenic fruits were also fortified with important nutraceuticals like lycopene, ascorbate and antioxidants. Therefore, these transgenic tomatoes would be useful for the improvement of tomato cultivars through breeding approaches. PMID:25537646

Pandey, Roopali; Gupta, Aarti; Chowdhary, Anuj; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

2015-02-01

403

Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

404

Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

405

Differential expression of proteins in red pear following fruit bagging treatment.  

PubMed

Fruit bagging is a very effective method for study of fruit qualities and anthocyanin synthesis. The characterization of differentially expressed proteins that were isolated from both bagged and normal fruit skin tissue is apparently an essential parameter for understanding the effect of shading on fruit qualities and to understand the mechanism of fruit coloring in Pyrus communis. Proteome maps of both bagged and normal P. communis 'Placer' fruit skin were obtained by performing two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis and compared to assess the extent to which protein distribution differed in pear skin. The comparative analysis showed 38 differentially expressed proteins between the two samples: with three protein spots up-regulated and 35 down-regulated in the bagged fruit. Differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis and the data compared to that of known proteins to deduce their possible functions. Of these, 21 protein spots were identified and classified into functional classes. These identified proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, signal transduction, energy pathway, protein folding and assembly, and carbohydrate and acidity metabolisms, and were under-expressed in bagged fruit skins. This work provides a first characterization of the proteome changes in response to fruit bagging treatment in red pears. PMID:21409615

Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen; Zhang, Yanmin; Wang, Yanling; Song, Yang; Chen, Xiao-liu; Li, Xiugen; Li, Min; Liu, Jin; Wang, Quanzheng; Liu, Meiyan

2011-03-01

406

Effect of hypobaric storage on quality, antioxidant enzyme and antioxidant capability of the Chinese bayberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Background The Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) is a subtropical fruit native to China, with unique flavor, sweet and sour taste, and high nutrition and health values. The fruit is highly perishable and susceptible to mechanical injury, physiological deterioration and fungal decay once harvested. This study was to investigate the effect of hypobaric storage on the quality of Chinese bayberry fruit and then develop storage technology to prolong the supply of the fruit. Results The fruit stored under hypobaric conditions exhibited lower decay, higher titratable acidity and total phenolics compared with those stored under normal atmospheric conditions. Hypobaric storage significantly reduced malonaldehyde accumulation, respiratory rate and maintained high catalase and peroxidase activities of Chinese bayberry fruit. Ferric reducing antioxidant power was also higher in the fruit stored under hypobaric condition than those under normal atmospheric conditions. Conclusion Hypobaric storage improved the metabolism, antioxidant system and postharvest quality of Chinese bayberry fruit and provided an effective alternative method to prolong the storage life of this fruit. PMID:23311675

2013-01-01

407

Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics  

PubMed Central

As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics. PMID:25343046

Ray, Ramesh Chandra

2014-01-01

408

The degree of enamel erosion by five different kinds of fruit.  

PubMed

It could be expected that the degree of enamel erosion by different fruits containing different kinds of organic acids, or different ratios of acids, and other different chemical components, will vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of enamel erosion by different kinds of fruits (by determining the depths of enamel removed at different stages) over a period of 40 minutes. Statistically significant differences (p less than 0.05) were found among the slopes of apricot and that of grape, guava, apple, and orange. The results demonstrated that the degree of enamel erosion (etch depth) over a six-minute period had the following sequence: apricot more than grape and guava more than apple and orange; while over a 40-minute period the degree of etch depth was grape greater than apricot greater than guava greater than apple greater than orange. The degree of enamel erosion initiated by a fruit juice, as marketed, was about 5-8 times higher than that of the fruit (minced fruit juice). It also became clear that the degree of enamel erosion by different fruits depended on a combination of factors, such as the pH, amounts, and ratios, as well as the types of organic acids and other chemical components present in the fruits. PMID:2638951

Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Kotze, T J

1989-01-01

409

Fruit Development in Trillium1  

PubMed Central

Leaves are the main source of carbon for fruit maturation in most species. However, in plants seeing contrasting light conditions such as some spring plants, carbon fixed during the spring could be used to support fruit development in the summer, when photosynthetic rates are low. We monitored carbohydrate content in the rhizome (a perennating organ) and the aboveground stem of trillium (Trillium erectum) over the entire growing season (May–November). At the beginning of the fruiting stage, stems carrying a developing fruit were harvested, their leaves were removed, and the leafless stems were maintained in aqueous solution under controlled conditions up to full fruit maturation. These experiments showed that stem carbohydrate content was sufficient to support fruit development in the absence of leaves and rhizome. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of complete fruit development sustained only by a temporary carbohydrate reservoir. This carbohydrate accumulation in the stem during the spring enables the plant to make better use of the high irradiances occurring at that time. Many other species might establish short-term carbohydrate reservoirs in response to seasonal changes in growing conditions. PMID:9576787

Lapointe, Line

1998-01-01

410

Suberin Production by Isolated Tomato Fruit Protoplasts 1  

PubMed Central

The multilamellar wall secreted by protoplasts isolated from locule tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was purified, and an extract was obtained after depolymerization with BF3-methanol. Analysis of this extract using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters, and ?-hydroxy acid methyl esters. These components were quantified using an Iatroscan thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection system. The different chain lengths in each group were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. The results clearly indicated the presence of suberin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16663693

Rao, Gonella S. R. L.; Willison, J. H. Martin; Ratnayake, W. M. Nimal

1984-01-01

411

Engineering Melon Plants with Improved Fruit Shelf Life Using the TILLING Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening. Methodology/Principal Findings To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect. Conclusions/Significance We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be widely exploited by the scientific community. PMID:21209891

Lévêque, Sylvie; Alsadon, Abdullah A.; Aldoss, Abdullah A.; Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

2010-01-01

412

Physical properties of kumquat fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some physical properties of kumquat were investigated. Physical properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, volume, projected area, density, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and also packaging coefficient were calculated. Mechanical properties such as the elasticity modulus, rupture force and energy required for initial rupture have been determined. The experiments were carried out at moisture content of 82.6% (w.b.). The results show that the kumquat fruit is one of the smallest fruit in the citrus family.

Jaliliantabar, F.; Lorestani, A. N.; Gholami, R.

2013-01-01

413

Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

are expensive and they are not recommend- ed by any federal agency to clean fresh produce. Fruit and vegetable waxes Some fruits and vegetables may have waxy coatings to keep them fresh, to protect them from bruising and to prevent the growth of mold. Waxes... also make fruits and vegetables more at- tractive. These waxes are safe to eat. Washing fresh produce with water may not remove the wax, but soap should not be used to wash fresh produce. If you prefer, you can remove the waxed skin before eating...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

414

Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

*Program Specialist, The Texas A&M System Fresh fruits and vegetables provide vita- mins, minerals and fiber to help keep your body healthy. To make sure that your fruits and vegetables are safe to eat, it is important to know how to select good...-quality produce. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated by harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. Produce can be contaminated at any...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

415

Fruit quality preservation of 'Laetitia' plums under controlled atmosphere storage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled atmosphere (CA) on quality preservation of 'Laetitia' plums, mainly on internal breakdown, in order to determine the best CA storage conditions. Two experiments were carried out one in 2010, and another in 2011. In 2010, besides cold storage (CS; 21.0 kPa O2 + 0.03 kPa CO2), the fruits were stored under the following CA conditions (kPa O2+kPa CO2): 1+3, 1+5, 2+5, 2+10, and 11+10. In 2011, the fruits were stored under CS and CA of 1+0, 1+1, 2+1, and 2+2. The fruit stored under different CA conditions had lower respiration and ethylene production, better preservation of flesh firmness, texture and titratable acidity, lower skin red color, and lower incidence of skin cracking than the fruit in CS. In 2010, the fruit under CA with 2+5, 1+5, and 1+3 had a pronounced delay in ripening, although it exhibited a high incidence of internal breakdown. In 2011, the CA conditions with 2+1 and 2+2 provided the best delay in ripening and a reduced incidence of internal breakdown. The best CA condition for cold storage (at 0.5°C) of 'Laetitia' plums is 2 kPa O2 + 2 kPa CO2. PMID:24676180

Steffens, Cristiano André; do Amarante, Cassandro V T; Alves, Erlani O; Brackmann, Auri

2014-03-01

416

Proximate Analysis of Five Wild Fruits of Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Mozambique is rich in wild fruit trees, most of which produce fleshy fruits commonly consumed in rural communities, especially during dry seasons. However, information on their content of macronutrients is scarce. Five wild fruit species (Adansonia digitata, Landolphia kirkii, Sclerocarya birrea, Salacia kraussii, and Vangueria infausta) from different districts in Mozambique were selected for the study. The contents of dry matter, fat, protein, ash, sugars, pH, and titratable acidity were determined in the fruit pulps. Also kernels of A. digitata and S. birrea were included in the study. The protein content in the pulp was below 5?g/100?g of dry matter, but a daily intake of 100?g fresh wild fruits would provide up to 11% of the recommended daily intake for children from 4 to 8 years old. The sugar content varied between 2.3% and 14.4% fresh weight. The pH was below 3, except for Salacia kraussii, for which it was slightly below 7. Kernels of A. digitata contained, on average, 39.2% protein and 38.0% fat, and S. birrea kernels 32.6% protein and 60.7% fat. The collection of nutritional information may serve as a basis for increased consumption and utilization. PMID:23983641

Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

2013-01-01

417

Proximate analysis of five wild fruits of Mozambique.  

PubMed

Mozambique is rich in wild fruit trees, most of which produce fleshy fruits commonly consumed in rural communities, especially during dry seasons. However, information on their content of macronutrients is scarce. Five wild fruit species (Adansonia digitata, Landolphia kirkii, Sclerocarya birrea, Salacia kraussii, and Vangueria infausta) from different districts in Mozambique were selected for the study. The contents of dry matter, fat, protein, ash, sugars, pH, and titratable acidity were determined in the fruit pulps. Also kernels of A. digitata and S. birrea were included in the study. The protein content in the pulp was below 5 g/100 g of dry matter, but a daily intake of 100 g fresh wild fruits would provide up to 11% of the recommended daily intake for children from 4 to 8 years old. The sugar content varied between 2.3% and 14.4% fresh weight. The pH was below 3, except for Salacia kraussii, for which it was slightly below 7. Kernels of A. digitata contained, on average, 39.2% protein and 38.0% fat, and S. birrea kernels 32.6% protein and 60.7% fat. The collection of nutritional information may serve as a basis for increased consumption and utilization. PMID:23983641

Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

2013-01-01

418

Fruit Salad with Light Whipped Topping Ingredients  

E-print Network

Fruit Salad with Light Whipped Topping Ingredients: 16 ounces fruit cocktail in juice 20 ounces fruit cocktail and pineapple chunks. 2. Place fruit in bowl. 3. Stir in yogurt and whipped topping. 4 Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex

Liskiewicz, Maciej

419

Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

420

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2011-04-01

421

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2010-04-01

422

Electrochemical Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Freshness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits and vegetables are natural sources of electrolytes. A voltaic cell consisting of a fruit or vegetable and two dissimilar electrodes may show a detectable potential difference. Seven different fruits and vegetables are studied for analyzing their freshness. At first, a few experiments are conducted on the vegetables and fruits using two different sets of electrodes, copper-iron probe and gold-iron

MOHAMMAD N. AMIN; PRADIP PETER DEY

423

Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening, fruits undergo many changes, which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances plus minerals and vitamins, the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-López

2011-01-01

424

Fruit Quality: New Insights for Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development.

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-lópez

2012-01-01

425

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2012-01-01

426

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2013-01-01

427