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Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.  


The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata



Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.  


A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution. PMID:20645841

Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak



Novel Bioactivity of Ellagic Acid in Inhibiting Human Platelet Activation  

PubMed Central

Pomegranates are widely consumed either as fresh fruit or in beverage form as juice and wine. Ellagic acid possesses potent antioxidative properties; it is known to be an effective phytotherapeutic agent with antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic qualities. Ellagic acid (20 to 80??M) exhibited a potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen; however, it did not inhibit platelet aggregation stimulated by thrombin, arachidonic acid, or U46619. Treatment with ellagic acid (50 and 80??M) significantly inhibited platelet activation stimulated by collagen; this alteration was accompanied by the inhibition of relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)?2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Akt, as well as hydroxyl radical (OH?) formation. In addition, ellagic acid also inhibited p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, ellagic acid did not significantly affect PKC activation and platelet aggregation stimulated by PDBu. This study is the first to show that, in addition to being considered a possible agent for preventing tumor growth, ellagic acid possesses potent antiplatelet properties. It appears to initially inhibit the PLC?2-PKC cascade and/or hydroxyl radical formation, followed by decreased phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, ultimately inhibiting platelet aggregation. PMID:23533502

Chang, Yi; Chen, Wei-Fan; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lin, Li-Jyun; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Chang, Chao-Chien



Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ellagic Acid on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Acid in Mice  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar edema and uncontrolled neutrophil migration to the lung, and no specific therapy is still available. Ellagic acid, a compound present in several fruits and medicinal plants, has shown anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental disease models. We used the nonlethal acid aspiration model of ALI in mice to determine whether preventive or therapeutic administration of ellagic acid (10?mg/kg; oral route) could interfere with the development or establishment of ALI inflammation. Dexamethasone (1?mg/kg; subcutaneous route) was used as a positive control. In both preventive and therapeutic treatments, ellagic acid reduced the vascular permeability changes and neutrophil recruitment to the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and to lung compared to the vehicle. In addition, the ellagic acid accelerated the resolution for lung neutrophilia. Moreover, ellagic acid reduced the COX-2-induced exacerbation of inflammation. These results were similar to the dexamethasone. However, while the anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone treatment were due to the reduced activation of NF-?B and AP-1, the ellagic acid treatment led to reduced BALF levels of IL-6 and increased levels of IL-10. In addition, dexamethasone treatment reduced IL-1?. Together, these findings identify ellagic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI-associated inflammation. PMID:23533300

Cornélio Favarin, Daniely; Martins Teixeira, Maxelle; Lemos de Andrade, Ednéia; de Freitas Alves, Claudiney; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Artério Sorgi, Carlos; Paula Rogerio, Alexandre



Antioxidant assay-guided purification and LC determination of ellagic acid in pomegranate peel.  


On the basis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay-guided purification, ellagic acid was isolated from the methanol extract of pomegranate fruit peel by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographic techniques. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was described for determination of ellagic acid in pomegranate fruit peel extract. The method involved the use of a TSK-gel ODS-80Tm column with a mixture of 2% aqueous acetic acid and methanol (gradient elution mode: 0-15 min, 40-60% v/v methanol and 15-20 min, 60% v/v methanol) as the mobile phase and detection at 254 nm. The parameters of linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, and specificity of the method were evaluated. The recovery of the method was 98.5% and linearity (r(2) > 0.9995) was obtained for ellagic acid. A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values less than 5%) were also achieved. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.00 and 2.50 microg/mL, respectively. The solvent for extraction of ellagic acid from pomegranate fruit peel was examined in order to maximize the ellagic acid content of the extract. A solution of 10% v/v water in methanol was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content in the extract up to 7.66% w/w. The ellagic acid content and antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction separated from the crude extract using water and ethyl acetate partition was higher than that of the crude extract. PMID:20822660

Panichayupakarananta, Pharkphoom; Issuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak; Wang, Wei



The Effects of Proresolution of Ellagic Acid in an Experimental Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a disease of airway inflammation characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, and hypersecretion of mucus. Ellagic acid, a compound derived from medicinal plants and fruits, has shown anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental disease models. We used the classical experimental model, in BALB/c mice, of sensibilization with ovalbumin to determine the effect of ellagic acid (10?mg/kg; oral route) in the resolution of allergic airways response. Dexamethasone (1?mg/kg; subcutaneous route) was used as a positive control. The control group consisted of nonimmunized mice that received challenge with ovalbumin. Ellagic acid and dexamethasone or vehicle (water) were administered before or after intranasal allergen challenge. Ellagic acid accelerated the resolution of airways inflammation by decreasing total leukocytes and eosinophils numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the mucus production and lung inflammation in part by reducing IL-5 concentration, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity, and P-selectin expression, but not activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathways. In addition, ellagic acid enhanced alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of IgG-OVA-coated beads ex vivo, a new proresolving mechanism for the clearance of allergen from the airways. Together, these findings identify ellagic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for accelerating the resolution of allergic airways inflammation. PMID:24376308

de Freitas Alves, Claudiney; Angeli, Giovanna Natalia; Favarin, Daniely Cornélio; Lemos de Andrade, Edinéia; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Roberto da Silva, Paulo; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre



Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.



Storage retention of stilbene, ellagic acid, favonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of ellagic acid and other other nutraceutical compounds in muscadine grapes add value and enhance the marketability of this southern U.S. specialty crop. Due to its nutraceutical profile, muscadines may potentially become the next “super fruit”. The objective of this study was to dete...


A new ellagic acid derivative from Polygonum runcinatum.  


A new ellagic acid derivative, 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid-4'-O-(6?-galloyl)-?-d-glucoside, named runcinatside (5), together with four known compounds 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid (1), 3,3',4'-trimethylellagic acid (2), 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid-4'-O-?-d-glucoside (3) and 3-methylellagic acid-4'-O-?-l-rhamno-pyranoside (4), was isolated from the roots of Polygonum runcinatum Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Var. sinense Hemsl and the structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previously reported data. All compounds showed antioxidant activities in vitro and compound 5 possessed the highest activity. PMID:25560313

Zhou, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Min-Zhuo; Wang, Meng-Hua; Qu, Wei; Sun, Jian-Bo; Liang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Fei-Hua



Extraction and analysis of ellagic acid from novel complex sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellagic acid (EA) was quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) coupled with photodiode\\u000a array detection (DAD) in five fine-powdered plants collected from the semiarid region of Mexico. Samples analysed included\\u000a Jatropha dioica branches (Dragon’s blood), Euphorbia antisyphyllitica branches (Candelilla), Turnera diffusa Willd leaves (Damiana), Flourensia cernua leaves (hojasén) and Punica granatum husk (pomegranate) at two maturity stages (“turning” or

Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbo; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Cristóbal N. Aguilar; Ernesto Favela-Torres



Method development and validation for pharmacokinetic and tissue distributions of ellagic acid using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).  


Ellagic acid is a dietary polyphenol found in numerous fruits and vegetables, possessing several health benefits such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-atherosclerotic biological properties. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ellagic acid in rats. A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine the ellagic acid in plasma and tissue samples was developed and validated. The separation was achieved using reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and the mass spectrometric detection was achieved using heated electrospray ionization (negative mode) and multiple ion monitoring (m/z 301/229). A sample cleanup with a solid phase extraction (SPE) step prior to the UPLC-MS/MS analysis was also developed. The SPE and UPLC-MS/MS method established here was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic profiles and tissue distribution of ellagic acid. After oral administration dosing at 50 mg/kg, plasma levels of ellagic acid peaked at about 0.5 h, with Cmax value of 93.6 ng/mL, and the results showed that the ellagic acid was poorly absorbed after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic profile of ellagic acid fitted to a two-compartment model with t1/2? 0.25 h and t1/2? 6.86 h, respectively. Following oral administration, ellagic acid was detected in all examined tissues including kidney, liver, heart, lung and brain et al., and the highest levels were found in kidney and liver. PMID:25412040

Yan, Linlin; Yin, Peipei; Ma, Chao; Liu, Yujun



Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 ?g/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

Kilic, Ismail; Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Bayrak, Yüksel



Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid.  


Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 ?g/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTS+ scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties. PMID:24813273

Kilic, Ismail; Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Bayrak, Yüksel



Ellagic acid and quercetin interact synergistically with resveratrol in the induction of apoptosis and cause transient cell cycle arrest in human leukemia cells.  


Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables are well established. Although polyphenols naturally occur as combinations, little information is available regarding possible synergistic or antagonistic biochemical interactions between compounds. Identifying potential interactions between polyphenols may provide information regarding the efficiency of polyphenol-containing foods in cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactions of ellagic acid and quercetin with resveratrol, polyphenols which occur in muscadine grapes, with the hypothesis that the selected polyphenols would interact synergistically in the induction of apoptosis and reduction of cell growth in human leukemia cells (MOLT-4). To test this hypothesis, alterations in cell cycle kinetics, proliferation, and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) were examined after incubation with ellagic acid, quercetin, and resveratrol as single compounds and in combination. Results showed a more than additive interaction for the combination of ellagic acid with resveratrol and furthermore, significant alterations in cell cycle kinetics induced by single compounds and combinations were observed. An isobolographic analysis was performed to assess the apparent synergistic interaction for the combinations of ellagic acid with resveratrol and quercetin with resveratrol in the induction of caspase 3 activity, confirming a synergistic interaction with a combination index of 0.64 for the combination of ellagic acid and resveratrol and 0.68 for quercetin and resveratrol. Results indicate that the anticarcinogenic potential of foods containing polyphenols may not be based on the effects of individual compounds, but may involve a synergistic enhancement of the anticancer effects. PMID:15670891

Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Percival, Susan S



In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,

Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Yanjun Zhang; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber



[Studies on the structure of a new ellagic acid glycoside from the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb].  


Four compounds were isolated from the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. On the basis of physico-chemical properties, spectroscopy (UV, IR, NMR, MS) and chemical degradation, a new compound was elucidated as ellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (XV), and three known compounds were identified as agrimonolide (XIII), tormentic acid (XIV), and ellagic acid (XVI). PMID:2099598

Pei, Y H; Li, X; Zhu, T R



Efficacy of ellagic acid and sildenafil in diabetes-induced sexual dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes induced sexual dysfunction is a leading cause of male sexual disorder and an early indicator of cardiovascular complication. Reactive oxygen species generated in body during diabetes is a main causative factor for erectile dysfunction, a sexual dysfunction. Adjuvant antioxidant therapy along with phosphodiesterases type 5 enzyme inhibitor (PDE5i) is more effective than PDE5i alone. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate efficacy of ellagic acid a known antioxidant and sildenafil in diabetes induced erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced in male rats and rats were treated with ellagic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of ellagic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and sildenafil (5 mg/kg, p.o.), a PDE5i for 28 days. Sexual function was observed in diabetic rat and compared with those of treatment group and normal rats. Effect of ellagic acid was studied on advanced glycation end products (AGE) and isolated rat corpus cavernosum in vitro. Results: Sexual function of diabetic rats was found to be reduced and ellegic acid treatment could preserve sexual function of diabetic rats to some extent. Ellagic acid + sildenafil treatment was more efficient in management of diabetes induced sexual dysfunction. Ellagic acid inhibited (AGE) in vitro implying its role in reducing oxidative stress in diabetes. The polyphenol could not increase sexual function in normal rats and relax isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle significantly. Conclusion: The study proves usefulness of adjuvant antioxidant therapy in the management of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:25298678

Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Vishwanath, Manikanta; Gangadarappa, Suma Kallahalli; Razdan, Rema; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin



Determination of flavonoids, tannins and ellagic acid in leaves from Rubus L. species.  


This paper describes the quantitative determination of flavonoids, tannins and ellagic acid in the leaves from wild and cultivated variations of Rubus L. species (Rosaceae): raspberry (2 wild and 13 cultivars) and blackberry (3 wild and 3 cultivars). The content of flavonoids was analyzed using spectrophotometric (the Christ-Mullers method) and HPLC analysis after acid hydrolysis. The content of tannins was determined by the weight method, with hide powder, described by German Pharmacopoeia 10 (DAB 10). Ellagic acid content was examined using the HPLC method after acid hydrolysis. Flavonoid content, determined using the Christ-Muller's method was higher for the blackberry leaves than for the raspberry leaves and varied between 0.46% and 1.05%. Quercetin and kaempferol were predominant in all samples analyzed using the HPLC method. The highest flavonoid content was found in the leaves of R. nessensis (1.06%); with results in all of the examined samples varying between 0.27% and 1.06%. The concentration of ellagic acid in all species was determined after acid hydrolysis and ranged from 2.06% to 6.89%. The leaves of raspberries are characterized by greater amounts of tannins (varying between 2.62% and 6.87%) than the leaves of other species. The results from this study indicate that the analyzed species are a rich source of flavonoids, ellagic acid and tannins, which may be used for the quality assessment of Rubus L. species leaves. PMID:15595412

Gudej, Jan; Tomczyk, Michal



Biological Significance of Urolithins, the Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derived Metabolites: The Evidence So Far  

PubMed Central

The health benefits attributed to pomegranate have been associated with its high content in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins. This is also the case for other ellagitannin-containing fruits and nuts including strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, walnuts, and muscadine grapes. The bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid is however very low. These molecules suffer extensive metabolism by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that are much better absorbed. Urolithins circulate in plasma as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates at concentrations in the range of 0.2–20??M. It is therefore conceivable that the health effects of ellagitannin-containing products can be associated with these gut-produced urolithins, and thus the evaluation of the biological effects of these metabolites is essential. Recent research, mostly based on in vitro testing, has shown preliminary evidence of the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiglycative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of urolithins, supporting their potential contribution to the health effects attributed to pomegranate and ellagitannin-rich foods. The number of in vivo studies is still limited, but they show preventive effects of urolithins on gut and systemic inflammation that encourage further research. Both in vivo and mechanistic studies are necessary to clarify the health effects of these metabolites. Attention should be paid when designing these mechanistic studies in order to use the physiologically relevant metabolites (urolithins in gut models and their conjugated derivatives in systemic models) at concentrations that can be reached in vivo. PMID:23781257

Espín, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco



Antiviral activity and possible mode of action of ellagic acid identified in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves toward human rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cause billions of USD annually in medical visits and school and work absenteeism. An assessment was made of the cytotoxic and antiviral activities and possible mode of action of the tannin ellagic acid from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa toward HeLa cells and three rhinoviruses, HRV-2, -3, and -4. Methods The antiviral property and mechanism of action of ellagic acid were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with SYBR Green dye. Results were compared with those of the currently used broad-spectrum antiviral agent, ribavirin. Results As judged by 50% inhibitory concentration values, natural ellagic acid was 1.8, 2.3, and 2.2 times more toxic toward HRV-2 (38 ?g/mL), HRV-3 (31 ?g/mL), and HRV-4 (29 ?g/mL) than ribavirin, respectively. The inhibition rate of preincubation with 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid was 17%, whereas continuous presence of ellagic acid during infection led to a significant increase in the inhibition (70%). Treatment with 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid considerably suppressed HRV-4 infection only when added just after the virus inoculation (0 h) (87% inhibition), but not before -1 h or after 1 h or later (<20% inhibition). These findings suggest that ellagic acid does not interact with the HRV-4 particles and may directly interact with the human cells in the early stage of HRV infections to protect the cells from the virus destruction. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that 50 ?g/mL ellagic acid strongly inhibited the RNA replication of HRV-4 in HeLa cells, suggesting that ellagic acid inhibits virus replication by targeting on cellular molecules, rather than virus molecules. Conclusions Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on L. speciosa leaf-derived materials containing ellagic acid as potential anti-HRV products or a lead molecule for the prevention or treatment of HRV infection. PMID:24885569



Luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid are natural products that inhibit prostate cancer metastasis.  


Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second cause of cancer deaths in men in the USA. When the cancer recurs, early stages can be controlled with hormone ablation therapy to delay the rate of cancer progression but, over time, the cancer overcomes its hormone dependence, becomes highly aggressive and metastasizes. Clinical trials have shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) inhibits PCa progression. We have previously shown that the PJ components luteolin (L), ellagic acid (E) and punicic acid (P) together inhibit growth of hormone-dependent and -independent PCa cells and inhibit their migration and chemotaxis towards CXCL12, a chemokine that is important in PCa metastasis. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that L+E+P inhibit PCa metastasis in vivo. To test this possibility, we used a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model in which luciferase-expressing human PCa cells were injected subcutaneously near the prostate. Tumor progression was monitored with bioluminescence imaging weekly. We found that L+E+P inhibits PC-3M-luc primary tumor growth, inhibits the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis for metastasis and none of the tumors metastasized. In addition, L+E+P significantly inhibits growth and metastasis of highly invasive Pten (-/-) ;K-ras (G12D) prostate tumors. Furthermore, L+E+P inhibits angiogenesis in vivo, prevents human endothelial cell (EC) tube formation in culture and disrupts preformed EC tubes, indicating inhibition of EC adhesion to each other. L+E+P also inhibits the angiogenic factors interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor as well as their induced signaling pathways in ECs. In conclusion, these results show that L+E+P inhibits PCa progression and metastasis. PMID:25023990

Wang, Lei; Li, Wenfang; Lin, Muqing; Garcia, Monika; Mulholland, David; Lilly, Michael; Martins-Green, Manuela



Punicalagin and ellagic acid demonstrate antimutagenic activity and inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene induced DNA adducts.  


Punicalagin (PC) is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA) are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97%) at 40 ? M by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50-500 ? M) exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer. PMID:24949451

Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Gupta, Ramesh C; Aqil, Farrukh



Punicalagin and Ellagic Acid Demonstrate Antimutagenic Activity and Inhibition of Benzo[a]pyrene Induced DNA Adducts  

PubMed Central

Punicalagin (PC) is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA) are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97%) at 40??M by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50–500??M) exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer. PMID:24949451

Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Aqil, Farrukh



Research progress on the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of ellagic acid  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer treatments by chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation have not been highly effective in reducing the incidence of cancers and increasing the survival rate of cancer patients. In recent years, plant-derived compounds have attracted considerable attention as alternative cancer remedies for enhancing cancer prevention and treatment because of their low toxicities, low costs, and low side effects. Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenolic constituent. Recent in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that EA elicits anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, breaking DNA binding to carcinogens, blocking virus infection, and disturbing inflammation, angiogenesis, and drug-resistance processes required for tumor growth and metastasis. This review enumerates the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of EA. It also discusses future directions on the applications of EA. PMID:25009751

Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hao; Xu, Hao; Chen, Wen-Wen; Tao, Lin



Ellagic acid induces apoptosis in TSGH8301 human bladder cancer cells through the endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways.  


To investigate the effects of ellagic acid on the growth inhibition of TSGH8301 human bladder cancer cells in vitro, cells were incubated with various doses of ellagic acid for different time periods. The phase-contrast microscope was used for examining and photographing the morphological changes in TSGH8301 cells. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the percentage of viable cells, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic cells, ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), Ca(2+) , caspase-9 and -3 activities in TSGH8301 cells after exposure to ellagic acid. Western blotting was used to examine the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis associated proteins levels. Results indicated that ellagic acid induced morphological changes, decreased the percentage of viable cells through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis, and also showed that ellagic acid promoted ROS and Ca(2+) productions and decreased the level of ??m and promoted activities of caspase-9 and -3. The induction of apoptosis also confirmed by annexin V staining, comet assay, DAPI staining and DNA gel electrophoresis showed that ellagic acid induced apoptosis and DNA damage in TSGH8301 cells. Western blotting assay showed that ellagic acid promoted p21, p53 and decreased CDC2 and WEE1 for leading to G0/G1 phase arrest and promoting BAD expression, AIF and Endo G, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and -3 for leading to apoptosis in TSGH8301 cells. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that ellagic acid induced cytotoxic effects for causing a decrease in the percentage of viable cells via G0/G1 phase arrest and induction of apoptosis in TSGH8301 cells. PMID:23554011

Ho, Chin-Chih; Huang, An-Cheng; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Huang, Yi-Ping; Huang, Hui-Ying; Kuo, Jehn-Hwa; Liao, Wen-Yen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung



Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.  


The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, astragalin 6?-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 ?M), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6?-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 ?M) and isoquercitrin 6?-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 ?M), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, and astragalin 6?-gallate as active principles. PMID:24293032

Nugroho, Agung; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Choi, Moo-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee-Juhn



A validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of tannin-related marker constituents gallic Acid, corilagin, chebulagic Acid, ellagic Acid and chebulinic Acid in four terminalia species from India.  


A validated rapid HPLC-PDA method was developed for identification and quantification of five tannin-related constituents gallic acid (GA), corilagin (CL), chebulagic acid (CB), ellagic acid (EA) and chebulinic acid (CN) in the extracts prepared from the bark and fruits of four Terminalia species available in India. The separation of the five analytes was achieved on an RP-18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) at 25°C using a solvent mixture comprising of acetonitrile and (0.05%) trifluoroacetic acid-water in a gradient elution mode. Limit of detection was 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0 ?g/mL for GA, CL, CB, EA and CN, respectively. Similarly, limit of quantification was 2.5, 1.0, 2.5, 1.0 and 2.5 ?g/mL for GA, CL, CB, EA and CN, respectively. Good linearity (r(2) > 0.992) was observed for all the five compounds in wide concentration range. Using the developed HPLC method, the five analytes were identified and quantified in bark and fruit extracts of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia catappa. This is the first report of identification and quantification of the five tannin-related marker constituents in the bark and fruit extracts of T. chebula, T. bellirica, T. arjuna and T. catappa. PMID:25190275

Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal; Kumar, Satyanshu



A new ferulic acid ester, a new ellagic acid derivative, and other constituents from pachycentria formosana: effects on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.  


A new ferulic acid ester derivative, tetracosane-1,24-diyl di[(Z)-ferulate] (1), and a new ellagic acid derivative, 3,4?:?3',4'-bis(O,O-methylene)ellagic acid (2), have been isolated from leaves and twigs of Pachycentria formosana, together with eight known compounds. Their structures were determined by in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. Among the isolated compounds, oleanolic acid (6), ursolic acid acetate (7), and 3-epibetulinic acid (9) exhibited potent inhibition (IC(50) values ? 21.8 ?M) of O?(-) generation by human neutrophils in response to N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). In addition, oleanolic acid (6), 3-O-[(E)-feruloyl]ursolic acid (8), 3-epibetulinic acid (9), and lawsonic acid (10) also inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC(50) values ? 18.6 ?M. PMID:21922659

Cho, Jui-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chou, Tsung-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Jih-Jung



The Modulatory Effect of Ellagic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid on Ultraviolet-B-Induced Cytokine/Chemokine Gene Expression in Skin Keratinocyte (HaCaT) Cells  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet radiation (UV) induces an increase in multiple cutaneous inflammatory mediators. Ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) are natural anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds found in many plants, fruits, and nuts. We assessed the ability of EA and RA to modulate IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, and TNF-? gene expression in HaCaT cells after UVB irradiation. Cells were treated with UVB (100?mJ/cm2) and simultaneously with EA (5??M in 0.1% DMSO) or RA (2.7??M in 0.5% DMSO). Moreover, these substances were added to the UVB-irradiated cells 1?h or 6?h before harvesting, depending on the established UVB-induced cytokine expression peak. Cytokine gene expression was examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. RA produced a significant reduction in UVB-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-? when applied at the same time as irradiation. EA showed milder effects compared with RA, except for TNF-?. Both substances decreased IL-6 expression, also when applied 5?h after irradiation, and always produced a significant increase in UVB-induced IL-10 expression. Our findings suggest that EA and RA are able to prevent and/or limit the UVB-induced inflammatory cascade, through a reduction in proinflammatory mediators and the enhancement of IL-10, with its protective function. PMID:25162011

Lembo, Serena; Balato, Anna; Di Caprio, Roberta; Cirillo, Teresa; Giannini, Valentina; Gasparri, Franco; Monfrecola, Giuseppe



Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300?g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45?mg/kg (b.w.) of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ), to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV). The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50?mg/kg) orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E) was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction. PMID:25485304

Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Hussaini, Jamal; Khor, Goot Heah



Development of antiproliferative nanohybrid compound with controlled release property using ellagic acid as the active agent  

PubMed Central

An ellagic acid (EA)–zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) nanohybrid (EAN) was synthesized under a nonaqueous environment using EA and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the precursors. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the basal spacing of the nanohybrid was 10.4 Å, resulting in the spatial orientation of EA molecules between the interlayers of 22.5° from z-axis with two negative charges at 8,8? position of the molecules pointed toward the ZLH interlayers. FTIR study showed that the intercalated EA spectral feature is generally similar to that of EA, but with bands slightly shifted. This indicates that some chemical bonding of EA presence between the nanohybrid interlayers was slightly changed, due to the formation of host–guest interaction. The nanohybrid is of mesopores type with 58.8% drug loading and enhanced thermal stability. The release of the drug active, EA from the nanohybrid was found to be sustained and therefore has good potential to be used as a drug controlled-release formulation. In vitro bioassay study showed that the EAN has a mild effect on the hepatocytes cells, similar to its counterpart, free EA. PMID:21796241

Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Al Ali, Samer Hasan; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul



Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway  

SciTech Connect

Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

Ou, Hsiu-Chung [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Jane [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shin-Da [Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Yang [Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Tsan-Hung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Kun-Ling [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Cheng [Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Technology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)



The effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on lipid oxidation and oxymyoglobin oxidation in bovine and porcine muscle model systems.  


The effect of lutein (100, 200, 300?g/ml), sesamol (500, 1000, 2000?g/ml), ellagic acid (300, 600, 900?g/ml) and olive leaf extract (100, 200, 300?g/ml) on oxymyoglobin oxidation and lipid oxidation in bovine and porcine muscle model systems (25% M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum homogenates) was examined. Radical scavenging activity, using the DPPH assay, and iron-chelating activities of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract were assessed at concentrations ranging from 200 to 1000ppm. The radical scavenging activity was of the order: ellagic acid>sesamol>olive leaf extract>lutein. None of the natural antioxidants examined exhibited iron chelating activity. Following induced lipid oxidation (FeCl(3)/sodium ascorbate addition), lipid oxidation and oxymyoglobin oxidation were measured after 24h at 4°C. In bovine and porcine muscle model systems, lipid oxidation decreased (P<0.001) following addition of each of the natural antioxidants relative to the control and antioxidant potency followed the order: sesamol>ellagic acid>olive leaf extract>lutein. Ellagic acid and olive leaf extract decreased oxymyoglobin oxidation (P<0.001) while sesamol increased oxymyoglobin oxidation in both systems. The natural antioxidants examined may have applications in the development of nutritional enhanced meat products with enhanced shelf-life characteristics. PMID:20416759

Hayes, J E; Stepanyan, V; Allen, P; O'Grady, M N; O'Brien, N M; Kerry, J P



Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Improve Response to Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Background Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. Methodology/Principal Findings This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50–200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530–1040 µg/mL). This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:22242149

Quave, Cassandra L.; Estévez-Carmona, Miriam; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hobby, Gerren; Hendrickson, Howard; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.



High-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for simultaneous quantitation of phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid in Phyllanthus amarus.  


Whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus Linn. is a reputed drug of the Indian systems of medicine that is used as hepatoprotective agent. A simple high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) densitometric method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitation of phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid in the whole plant of P. amarus. They were found at levels of 0.37, 1.16, 0.36, and 0.17% (w/w), respectively. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy. Instrumental precision was found to be 0.54, 0.93, 0.08, and 0.78% (coefficient of variation, CV); repeatability of the method was 1.01, 0.79, 0.98, and 1.06% (CV) for phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid, respectively. Accuracy of the method was determined by a recovery study conducted at 3 different levels, and the average recovery was found to be 99.09% for phyllanthin, 99.27% for hypophyllanthin, 98.69% for gallic acid, and 100.49% for ellagic acid. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine quality control of raw material of P. amarus and formulations containing P. amarus. It also has the applicability in quantitating any of these marker compounds in other drugs. PMID:16792060

Dhalwal, Kamlesh; Biradar, Yogesh S; Rajani, Mandapati



Identification of Ellagic acid analogues as potent inhibitor of protein Kinase CK2:A chemopreventive role in oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Over expression of Protein kinase (CK2) suppresses apoptosis induced by a variety of agents, whereas down-regulation of CK2 sensitizes cells to induction of apoptosis. In this study, we have built quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models, which were trained and tested on experimentally verified 38 enzyme?s inhibitors having inhibitory value IC50 in µM. These inhibitors were docked at the active site of CK2 (PDB id: 2ZJW) using AutoDock software, which resulted in energy-based descriptors such as binding energy, intermol energy, torsional energy, internal energy and docking energy. For QSAR modeling, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model was engendered using energy-based descriptors yielding correlation coefficient r2 of 0.4645. To assess the predictive performance of QSAR models, different cross-validation procedures were adopted. Our results suggests that ligand-receptor binding interactions for CK2 employing QSAR modeling seems to be a promising approach for prediction of IC50 value of a new ligand molecule against CK2.Further, twenty analogues of ellagic acid were docked with CK2 structure. After docking, two compounds CID 46229200 and CID 10003463 had lower docking energy even lower than standard control Ellagic acid with CK2 was selected as potent candidate drugs for Oral cancer. The biological activity of two compounds in terms of IC50 was predicted based on QSAR model, which could be used as a guideline for anticancerous activity of compounds before their synthesis. PMID:25780276

Srivastava, Rashi; Akthar, Salman; Sharma, Rolee; Mishra, Sanjay



Antitumor effect and mechanism of an ellagic acid derivative on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line  

PubMed Central

In the present study, to identify the effective components of Chinese traditional herbs, Euphorbia hylonoma Hand.-Mazz. (Euphorbiaceae), a folk herb that has been used among the Qinling mountain area for hundreds of years, was investigated. 3,3?-Di-O-methyl ellagic acid-4?-O-?-d-xylopyranoside (JNE2), an ellagic acid derivative, was isolated from the acetone extract of the herb and its antitumor activity against human hepatoma HepG2 cells was detected in vitro. The results showed that JNE2 inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and blocked the cell cycle at the G1/S phase. A high dosage of JNE2 induced apoptosis of the tumor cells, but no significant differences were identified between the treatment groups. The invasiveness of HepG2 cells was also inhibited by JNE2. The mechanism of the antitumor effect of JNE2 at the molecular level was presumed to be due to the upregulation of the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and the downregulation of the protein expression of Bcl-2 and CCND1. The results suggested that JNE2 is a potential antitumor agent that merits further investigation. PMID:24396481




Effect of lutein, sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract on the quality and shelf-life stability of packaged raw minced beef patties.  


The effects of lutein (100 and 200 microg/g muscle), sesamol (250 and 500 microg/g muscle), ellagic acid (300 and 600 microg/g muscle) and olive leaf extract (100 and 200 microg/g muscle) on total viable counts (TVCs), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), colour, oxymyoglobin oxidation, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), sensorial properties of raw beef patties (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) stored in modified atmosphere packs (80% O(2):20% CO(2)) (MAP) aerobically at 4 degrees C for up to 8 and 12 days, respectively, were examined. All the nutraceuticals reduced (P<0.001) TVCs. The addition of sesamol, ellagic acid and olive leaf extract reduced (P<0.001) TBARS in raw beef patties in both packaging systems. Sesamol addition to beef resulted in lower (P<0.01) a* redness values and increased oxymyoglobin oxidation. Conversely, lutein and olive leaf extract reduced (P<0.001) oxymyoglobin oxidation relative to the control. The graded addition of ellagic acid and olive leaf extract improved (P<0.001) WHC. PMID:20374832

Hayes, J E; Stepanyan, V; Allen, P; O'Grady, M N; Kerry, J P



Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC–DAD, LC–NMR, NMR, and LC–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because\\u000a of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC–DAD method\\u000a has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and

Martin Zehl; Christina Braunberger; Jürgen Conrad; Marija Crnogorac; Stanimira Krasteva; Bernhard Vogler; Uwe Beifuss; Liselotte Krenn



The dietary hydrolysable tannin punicalagin releases ellagic acid that induces apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells by using the mitochondrial pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol-rich dietary foodstuffs have attracted attention due to their cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. Ellagitannins (ETs) belong to the so-called hydrolysable tannins found in strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, pomegranate, oak-aged red wine, etc. Both ETs and their hydrolysis product, ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to induce apoptosis in tumour cells. Ellagitannins are not absorbed in vivo but reach the colon

Mar Larrosa; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán; Juan Carlos Espín



The co-encapsulated antioxidant nanoparticles of ellagic acid and coenzyme Q10 ameliorates hyperlipidemia in high fat diet fed rats.  


Obesity is the major cause of type 2 diabetes with hyperlipidemia as one of its complications and antioxidants were found to be beneficial in such disease conditions. The present investigation is geared towards reduction of the dose required/improve the bioavailability of the combination of antioxidants, ellagic acid and coenzyme Q10 by co-encapsulating them into nanoparticles and study the possible synergism in ameliorating hyperlipidemia in high fat diet fed rats. The co-encapsulated particles at 10% (w/w of polymer) loading of ellagic acid and coenzyme Q10 have particle size of 260 nm. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats on feeding high fat diet for over 4 weeks developed hyperlipidemia. The hyperlipidemic rats on 2 weeks post treatment with antioxidant combination administered as oral suspension or nanoparticles found to ameliorate the hyperlipidemic conditions and nanoparticles were found to be equally/more effective at 3 times lower dose in sustaining cholesterol lowering effect for extended periods, lowering glucose and triglycerides and in improving endothelial functioning, indicating the ability of the nanoparticles in improving efficacy of the duo. The results promise the potential of nanoparticles in improving the efficacy of ellagic acid and coenzyme Q10 in treating high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. PMID:19908593

Ratnam, D Venkat; Chandraiah, G; Meena, A K; Ramarao, P; Kumar, M N V Ravi



Exploring the potential of gastro retentive dosage form in delivery of ellagic acid and aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.  


Approach of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) overcomes the limitations of conventional dosage forms. However, this concept is still not practiced to a large extent in delivery of herbal drugs in Ayurveda. Thus, the potential of herbal drugs has not been explored to its fullest. Hence, there is a growing need to amalgamate the concept of NDDS in delivery of herbal constituents. The present investigation is designed to deliver and retain two herbal constituents in stomach for better action against Helicobacter pylori induced gastric ulcers. The objective was to develop a bilayer floating tablet of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gel powder through rational combination of excipients to give the lowest possible lag time with maximum drug release in the period of 4 h. Formulation F9 containing 100 mg of HPMC K15M, 27 mg of crospovidone, 80 mg of mannitol and effervescent agents in the ratio 1:2 gave 92% drug release and desired floating properties. In vivo studies showed that combination of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gave 75 % ulcer inhibition in comparison to 57% ulcer inhibition in the group which was administered with ellagic acid alone. This suggests the use of bilayer floating tablet in gastric ulcer treatment. PMID:24261674

Ranade, Arati N; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Ramesh, C



Occurrence of urolithins, gut microbiota ellagic acid metabolites and proliferation markers expression response in the human prostate gland upon consumption of walnuts and pomegranate juice.  


Epidemiology supports the important role of nutrition in prostate cancer (PCa) prevention. Pomegranate juice (PJ) exerts protective effects against PCa, mainly attributed to PJ ellagitannins (ETs). Our aim was to assess whether ETs or their metabolites ellagic acid and urolithins reach the human prostate upon consumption of ET-rich foods and to evaluate the effect on the expression of three proliferation biomarkers. Sixty-three patients with BPH or PCa were divided into controls and consumers of walnuts (35 g walnuts/day) or pomegranate (200 mL PJ/day) for 3 days before surgery. Independently of the ETs source, the main metabolite detected was urolithin A glucuronide, (3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one glucuronide) (up to 2 ng/g) together with the traces of urolithin B glucuronide, (3-hydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one glucuronide) and dimethyl ellagic acid. The small number of prostates containing metabolites was likely caused by clearance of the compounds during the fasting. This was corroborated in a parallel rat study and thus the presence of higher quantities of metabolites at earlier time points cannot be discarded. No apparent changes in the expression of CDKN1A, MKi-67 or c-Myc were found after consumption of the walnuts or PJ. Our results suggest that urolithin glucuronides and dimethyl ellagic acid may be the molecules responsible for the beneficial effects of PJ against PCa. PMID:19885850

González-Sarrías, Antonio; Giménez-Bastida, Juan A; García-Conesa, María T; Gómez-Sánchez, María B; García-Talavera, Noelia V; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Sánchez-Alvarez, Carmen; Fontana-Compiano, Luis O; Morga-Egea, Juan P; Pastor-Quirante, Francisco A; Martínez-Díaz, Francisco; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos



Protective effect of ellagic acid and pumpkin seed oil against methotrexate-induced small intestine damage in rats.  


Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most serious side effects in the methotrexate (MTX) treatment. This study was designed to investigate whether ellagic acid (EA) and/or pumpkin seed oil (PSO) had a protective effect on MTX-induced small intestine damage. Forty albino rats were randomized into five groups of 8 rats each. Group I served as a normal control group. In Group II, MTX was administered as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Groups III, IV and V were pre-treated respectively with either PSO (40 mg/kg), EA (10 mg/kg) or 0.2% DMSO (vehicle control) orally every day by gavage for 5 days and then they received MTX. All animals were sacrificed 5 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathological examination, estimation of serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level, assay of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and myloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (AD) activities. Administration of EA and/or PSO decreased the intestinal damage, PGE2, MDA and NO levels and MPO, XO and AD activities and increased GSH level. These results suggest that EA and PSO protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and thus have potential as a promising drug in the prevention of undesired side effects of MTX. PMID:22329239

El-Boghdady, Noha A



Ellagic acid & gallic acid from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. inhibit HIV-1 infection through inhibition of HIV-1 protease & reverse transcriptase activity  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used as traditional medicines and are effective in controlling diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV property of the extracts prepared from the leaves and stems of banaba, and further purification and characterization of the active components. Methods: Aqueous and 50 per cent ethanolic extracts were prepared from leaves and stems of banaba and were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV activity using in vitro reporter gene based assays. Further, three compounds were isolated from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract of banaba leaves using silica gel column chromatography and characterization done by HPLC, NMR and MS analysis. To delineate the mode of action of the active compounds, reverse transcriptase assay and protease assay were performed using commercially available kits. Results: All the extracts showed a dose dependent inhibition of HIV-1-infection in TZM-bl and CEM-GFP cell lines with a maximum from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract from leaves (IC50= 1 to 25 ?g/ml). This observation was confirmed by the virus load (p24) estimation in infected CEM-GFP cells when treated with the extracts. Gallic acid showed an inhibition in reverse transcriptase whereas ellagic acid inhibited the HIV-1 protease activity. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a novel anti-HIV activity of banaba. The active components responsible for anti-HIV activity were gallic acid and ellagic acid, through inhibition of reverse transcriptase and HIV protease, respectively and hence could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:23640562

Nutan; Modi, Manoj; Goel, Tanvi; Das, Tiyasa; Malik, Shweta; Suri, Samiksha; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Sharad Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh; Malhotra, Swadesh; Gupta, Satish Kumar



Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence  

PubMed Central

Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin. PMID:23320085

Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena



Ellagic acid improves hyperalgesia and cognitive deficiency in 6-hydroxidopamine induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known for motor impairments. But often, there are non-motor symptoms such as cognitive deficiency and pain misperception, owing to possible role of nigrostriatal pathway. Antioxidants have protective effect on free radical-induced neuronal damage in PD. To further address, we examined the effects of ellagic acid (EA) in a rat model of PD induced by 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA). Materials and Methods: Right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) was lesioned by injecting 6-OHDA (16 µg/2 µl), in PD–animals. Sham operated animals received vehicle instead of 6-OHDA. PD was approved by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotation. EA (50 mg/kg/2 ml, PO, for 10 days) was administered to PD-EA group. Some PD-animals received pramipexole (PPX; 2 mg/kg/2 ml, PO) as a positive control group. Analgesia was measured by tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Passive avoidance task was measured by shuttle box apparatus to record the initial and step-through latency. Spatial cognition task was evaluated by Morris water maze test, measuring the escape latency time, path length, swimming speed and time spent in target quadrant. Results: MFB-lesioned rats showed hyperalgesic responses to the stimulus in tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Also they showed memory and learning deficit in cognitive tests. These effects reversed by EA treatment. Conclusion: 6-OHDA can induce oxidative stress and can disrupt the neural mechanisms underlying proper integration of painful stimuli and cognitive processes in MFB-lesioned rats. Consequently, nigrostriatal pathway can play possible role in nociception and cognition. EA, a natural antioxidant, has neuroprotective effect on this pathway and can ameliorate this defect and be considered in PD management. PMID:25810874

Dolatshahi, Mojtaba; Farbood, Yaghoob; Sarkaki, Alireza; Mansouri, Seyed Mohammad Taqhi; Khodadadi, Ali



Ellagic acid inhibits proliferation and induced apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway in HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cells.  


Chemoprevention is regarded as one of the most promising and realistic approaches in the prevention of human cancer. Ellagic acid (EA) has been known for its chemopreventive activity against various cancers and numerous investigations have shown its apoptotic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was focused to elucidate the anticancerous effect and the mode of action of EA against HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue assay at different concentrations. EA also promoted cell cycle arrest substantially at G2/M phase in HCT-15 cells. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were decreased upon EA treatment, which shows the antiproliferative and the cytotoxic effects, respectively. The production of reactive oxygen intermediates, which were examined by 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA), increased with time, after treatment with EA. In further studies, EA inhibited proliferation-associated markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by a strong inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway by EA. The expression of PI3K and pAkt was down-regulated in EA-treated cells, compared to normal cells. Further, EA promoted the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and cytochrome c, and suppression of Bcl-2 activity in HCT-15 cells that was determined by western blot analysis. Increased annexin V apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation also accompanied EA-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, EA increased the production of ROS, decreased cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in HCT-15 cells, and thus can be used as an agent against colon cancer. PMID:25355159

Umesalma, Syed; Nagendraprabhu, Ponnuraj; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam



The Ellagic Acid Derivative 4,4'-Di-O-Methylellagic Acid Efficiently Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth through a Mechanism Involving WNT16.  


Ellagic acid (EA) and some derivatives have been reported to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, induce cell cycle arrest, and modulate some important cellular processes related to cancer. This study aimed to identify possible structure-activity relationships of EA and some in vivo derivatives in their antiproliferative effect on both human colon cancer and normal cells, and to compare this activity with that of other polyphenols. Our results showed that 4,4'-di-O-methylellagic acid (4,4'-DiOMEA) was the most effective compound in the inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation. 4,4'-DiOMEA was 13-fold more effective than other compounds of the same family. In addition, 4,4'-DiOMEA was very active against colon cancer cells resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluoracil, whereas no effect was observed in nonmalignant colon cells. Moreover, no correlation between antiproliferative and antioxidant activities was found, further supporting that structure differences might result in dissimilar molecular targets involved in their differential effects. Finally, microarray analysis revealed that 4,4'-DiOMEA modulated Wnt signaling, which might be involved in the potential antitumor action of this compound. Our results suggest that structural-activity differences between EA and 4,4'-DiOMEA might constitute the basis for a new strategy in anticancer drug discovery based on these chemical modifications. PMID:25758919

Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Vargas, Teodoro; Molina, Susana; Sánchez, Jenifer; Martínez-Romero, Jorge; González-Vallinas, Margarita; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Gómez de Cedrón, Marta; Dávalos, Alberto; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Reglero, Guillermo



Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L.  


Phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, ellagic, and syringic acid) as well as syringaldehyde and juglone were identified in ripe fruits of 10 walnut cultivars: Adams, Cisco, Chandler, Franquette, Lara, Fernor, Fernette, Alsoszentivani 117 (A-117), Rasna, and Elit. Analyses were done using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector. Significant differences in the contents of identified phenolics were observed among cultivars. Phenolics were determined separately in the kernel and in the thin skin of the walnut, termed the pellicle. Not only in the kernel but also in the pellicle did syringic acid, juglone, and ellagic acid predominate (average values of 33.83, 11.75, and 5.90 mg/100 g of kernel; and 1003.24, 317.90, and 128.98 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively), and the contents of ferulic and sinapic acid (average values of 0.06 and 0.05 mg/100 g of kernel and 2.93 and 2.17 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively) were the lowest in all cultivars. The highest differences in the sum of all identified phenolics were observed between Rasna and Fernette fruits; in Rasna there were >2-fold higher contents of identified phenolics in both kernel and pellicle. It was found that the walnut pellicle is the most important source of walnut phenolics. The ratio between the contents in pellicle and kernel varied by at least 14.8-fold for caffeic acid (cv. Adams) and by up to 752.0-fold for p-coumaric acid (cv. Elit). PMID:16076123

Colaric, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Solar, Anita; Hudina, Metka; Stampar, Franci



Evolution of ellagitannin content and profile during fruit ripening in Fragaria spp.  


Ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates are polyphenols present in the human diet, in particular strawberries (Fragaria spp.). The first aim of this study was isolation and structural characterization of casuarictin and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3'-O-?-rhamnopyranoside, which were found to be abundant in Fragaria spp., along with agrimoniin. The second aim was accurate profiling and quantification of 26 ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates in six Fragaria x ananassa cultivars and two Fragaria vesca species. The third aim was to describe the ellagitannins behavior during fruit ripening from the green stage to over-ripeness. It was shown that there are major qualitative and quantitative differences in the amount and profile of ellagitannins and ellagic acid conjugates between Fragaria spp. Genotype is a major factor in defining ellagitannin concentration and patterns between strawberries, and variable behavior of the genotypes was observed, in the context of a significant drop in ellagitannins during ripening. PMID:23992396

Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Guella, Graziano; Palmieri, Luisa; Martinatti, Paolo; Pojer, Elisa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska



Effects of ellagic acid-rich extract of pomegranates peel on regulation of cholesterol metabolism and its molecular mechanism in hamsters.  


The study investigated the effect of pomegranates ellagic acid (PEA) on blood cholesterol and investigated its effects on LXR/RXR/PPAR-ABCA1 nuclear receptors-signaling pathways of cholesterol metabolism on molecular level in hamsters. In this experiment, hamsters were randomly divided into two groups: the first group (NG, n = 9) was always fed the normal diet, whereas the other group (HFG, n = 45) was fed a high fat diet during the first 4 weeks and then fed the normal diet for the last 4 weeks. In HFG, which was divided into five groups (n = 9) during the last 4 weeks, three groups were treated with PEA at 44 mg per kg bw, 88 mg per kg bw and 177 mg per kg bw, one group was treated with simvastatin at 1.77 mg per kg bw, and one was given sterile double-distilled water. The data validated that PEA dose-dependently decreased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride level accompanied by a greater excretion of fecal bile acid. The result of RT-PCR revealed that PEA up-regulated liver X receptor (LXR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and their downstream gene ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), with no effect on retinoid X receptor (RXR?). PEA promoted cholesterol removal by enhancing fecal bile acid and up-regulation of the two pathways, LXR/PPAR-ABCA1. Moreover, PEA was stronger than simvastatin in some aspects. PMID:25579987

Liu, Run; Li, Jianke; Cheng, Yujiang; Huo, Tianbo; Xue, Jiayi; Liu, Yingli; Liu, Jianshu; Chen, Xiping



Tolerance and efficacy of a product containing ellagic and salicylic acids in reducing hyperpigmentation and dark spots in comparison with 4% hydroquinone.  


Hydroquinone (HQ) is the benchmark prescription agent for skin lightening. However, HQ use is recently banned in Europe and in parts of Asia because of potential long-term consequences, including carcinogenesis when orally consumed. This has resulted in development of alternative skin-lightening agents with comparable efficacy to HQ, but better safety profiles. This study examined the skin-lightening ability of a topical product containing 0.5% ellagic acid and 0.1% salicylic acid and compared its efficacy with that of a prescription generic 4% HQ product. Fifty-four multiethnic subjects were randomly assigned to use the topical test formulation or generic 4% HQ twice daily for 12 weeks to evaluate product tolerability and efficacy. Under the conditions of this double-blinded clinical study, the test product demonstrated comparable tolerance and efficacy to that of a benchmark product 4% HQ, as assessed by clinical grading, physical measurement of spot size using image analysis, and questionnaire response analysis. This study suggests that this new product provided comparable skin depigmentation benefit to the benchmark product. In addition, the product appears to have better esthetics (texture, pleasantness to use, skin feel) than the 4% HQ product. PMID:23377328

Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Oresajo, Christian



Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS.  


Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC-DAD method has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and D. rotundifolia). During elaboration of the method 13 compounds, including three substances not previously described for Drosera species, were detected and unambiguously identified by means of extensive LC-MS and LC-NMR experiments and by off-line heteronuclear 2D NMR after targeted isolation. The most prominent component of D. rotundifolia and D. anglica, 2?-O-galloylhyperoside, with myricetin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(2?-O-galloyl)-?-galactopyranoside, were identified for the very first time in this genus. The LC-DAD method for quantification was thoroughly validated, and enables, for the first time, separation and precise analysis of these analytes in Droserae herba. Simple sample preparation and use of a narrow-bore column guarantee low cost and simplicity of the suggested system, which is excellently suited to quality control of the drug or herbal medicinal products containing this drug. PMID:21298259

Zehl, Martin; Braunberger, Christina; Conrad, Jürgen; Crnogorac, Marija; Krasteva, Stanimira; Vogler, Bernhard; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte



Ellagic acid-induced endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation in rat thoracic aortic rings and the underlying mechanism.  


The present study first investigated the mechanisms of vasorelaxation induced by ellagic acid (EA), which is one of the major compounds extracted from the pomegranate in the rat thoracic aorta. Male Wistar rats aged 10 to12?weeks weighing 250-350?g were used for the present study. The animals were killed by decapitation, and thoracic aortas were immediately excised and placed in Krebs solutions, cleaned, and freed from surrounding connective tissue. The isolated arteries were cut into rings (4- to 5-mm long) and placed in 20-mL tissue chambers filled with Krebs solution. Initially, the aortic rings were equilibrated for 60?min until a resting tension of 1.0?gr. After the equilibration period, aortic rings were firstly contracted with phenylephrine to increase tone. Once a stable contraction was achieved, EA (10(-8) to 10(-4) ?M) was added cumulatively on aortic rings with or without endothelium into organ bath. To characterize the mechanisms involved in EA-induced vasorelaxant effect, the aortic rings were incubated with each inhibitor added to the bath for 30?min before phenylephrine was added to increase tone. The results of the present study have demonstrated in the rat thoracic aorta that EA causes vasorelaxations, which are partly modulated via endothelium-dependent mechanisms and through inhibition of calcium influx. PMID:22566129

Y?lmaz, Bedriniam; Usta, Coskun



Evaluation of free radical scavenging and antityrosinase activities of standardized longan fruit extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of fruits and vegetables against chronic diseases have been attributed to the antioxidant properties of some secondary metabolites present in these foods. Plant polyphenols have been reported to exhibit bioactive properties, and in particular antioxidant activities. Longan seeds are found to contain high levels of some beneficial polyphenolic compounds such as corilagin, gallic acid and ellagic acid.

Nuchanart Rangkadilok; Somkid Sitthimonchai; Luksamee Worasuttayangkurn; Chulabhorn Mahidol; Mathuros Ruchirawat; Jutamaad Satayavivad



Ellagic acid induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through TGF-?/Smad3 signaling pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.  


Breast cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide and preventive therapy could reverse or delay the devastating impact of this disease. Ellagic acid (EA), a dietary flavonoid polyphenol which is present in abundance in pomegranate, muscadine grapes, walnuts and strawberries, has been shown to inhibit cancer cells proliferation and induce apoptosis. Here, we investigated the growth inhibitory effects of EA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the present study, we first found that EA inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells mainly mediated by arresting cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, gene expression profiling of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line treated with EA for 6, 12 and 24 h was performed using cDNA microarray. A total of 4,738 genes were found with a >2.0-fold change after 24 h of EA treatment. Among these genes, 2,547 were downregulated and 2,191 were upregulated. Furthermore, the changes of 16 genes, which belong to TGF-?/Smads signaling pathway, were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and/or western blot analysis. TGF-?/Smads signaling pathway was found as the potential molecular mechanism of EA to regulate breast cancer cell cycle arrest in vitro. Therefore, the regulation of TGF-?/Smads pathway in breast cancer cells could be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Further studies with in vitro models, as well as an analysis of additional human samples, are still needed to confirm the molecular mechanisms of EA in inhibition or prevention of breast cancer growth. PMID:25647396

Chen, Hong-Sheng; Bai, Ming-Han; Zhang, Tao; Li, Guo-Dong; Liu, Ming



Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, carnitinepalmitoyl transferase-1, and acyl-CoA oxidase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Reversed-phase liquid chromatography in combination with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis revealed four potential compounds (punicalagin B, ellagic acid, and two unidentified compounds) responsible for altered gene expression in HepG2 cells treated with PV as compared with the others. Further investigations are warranted to determine if drinking PV beverages may help to maintain a healthy body weight in overweight subjects. PMID:23766874

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook



Epigallocatechin gallate, ellagic acid, and rosmarinic acid perturb dNTP pools and inhibit de novo DNA synthesis and proliferation of human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells: Synergism with arabinofuranosylcytosine.  


Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) are natural polyphenols exerting cancer chemopreventive effects. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR; EC converts ribonucleoside diphosphates into deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates being essential for DNA replication, which is why the enzyme is considered an excellent target for anticancer therapy. EGCG, EA, and RA dose-dependently inhibited the growth of human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, exerted strong free radical scavenging potential, and significantly imbalanced nuclear deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations without distinctly affecting the protein levels of RR subunits (R1, R2, p53R2). Incorporation of (14)C-cytidine into nascent DNA of tumor cells was also significantly lowered, being equivalent to an inhibition of DNA synthesis. Consequently, treatment with EGCG and RA attenuated cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, finally resulting in a pronounced induction of apoptosis. Sequential combination of EA and RA with the first-line antileukemic agent arabinofuranosylcytosine (AraC) synergistically potentiated the antiproliferative effect of AraC, whereas EGCG plus AraC yielded additive effects. Taken together, we show for the first time that EGCG, EA, and RA perturbed dNTP levels and inhibited cell proliferation in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, with EGCG and RA causing a pronounced induction of apoptosis. Due to these effects and synergism with AraC, these food ingredients deserve further preclinical and in vivo testing as inhibitors of leukemic cell proliferation. PMID:25636891

Saiko, Philipp; Steinmann, Marie-Thérèse; Schuster, Heike; Graser, Geraldine; Bressler, Sabine; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Lackner, Andreas; Grusch, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Jaeger, Walter; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas




EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...


Diffusion Properties of Garcinia Fruit Acids (Garcinia atroviridis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion properties of garcinia fruit acids (Garcinia atroviridis) were investigated in a batch reactor. The influences of two variables were studied: material thickness and extraction temperature. Stirring was continuous to assure turbulent flow inside the vessel. Garcinia fruits were sliced into infinite slabs of two different thicknesses, 2.5 and 4.0 mm. Each group of a given thickness was then




Detection of Non-volatile Acids in Sweet Cherry Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten sweet cherry cultivars were analysed for their content of acids. The acids were precipitated as lead salts, and measured as trimethylsilylderivatives (TMS), applying gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The results confirmed that malic acid is dominating in sweet cherry fruits, comprising 70–85% of total acidity, and also the presence of quinic, citric, chlorogenic and phosphoric acids.

Håkon Oen; Sigbjørn Vestrheim



Exploitation of vegetables and fruits through lactic acid fermentation.  


Lactic acid fermentation represents the easiest and the most suitable way for increasing the daily consumption of fresh-like vegetables and fruits. Literature data are accumulating, and this review aims at describing the main features of the lactic acid bacteria to be used for fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are a small part of the autochthonous microbiota of vegetables and fruits. The diversity of the microbiota markedly depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the plant matrix. Notwithstanding the reliable value of the spontaneous fermentation to stabilize and preserve raw vegetables and fruits, a number of factors are in favour of using selected starters. Two main options may be pursued for the controlled lactic acid fermentation of vegetables and fruits: the use of commercial/allochthonous and the use of autochthonous starters. Several evidences were described in favour of the use of selected autochthonous starters, which are tailored for the specific plant matrix. Pro-technological, sensory and nutritional criteria for selecting starters were reported as well as several functional properties, which were recently ascribed to autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. The main features of the protocols used for the manufacture of traditional, emerging and innovative fermented vegetables and fruits were reviewed. Tailored lactic acid bacteria starters completely exploit the potential of vegetables and fruits, which enhances the hygiene, sensory, nutritional and shelf life properties. PMID:23122495

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco



Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano



Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  


Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H



The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.  


Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A



A novel phenolic acid from the fruits of Rosa soulieana.  


From the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the fruits of Rosa soulieana, one new phenolic glucoside (1) was isolated along with five known compounds, comprising two lignin glycosides, two flavonoid glycosides and a phenolic glycoside. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including ESI-MS, UV, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR (HSQC and HMBC). All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by using ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assay. Among these compounds, 1, 3 and 6 exhibited strong scavenging activity in ABTS(·+)(SC50 = 102.10, 193.85, 65.38 ?mol/L, respectively) compared with the positive control l-ascorbic acid (Vc) (SC50 = 117.16 ?mol/L). PMID:24831176

He, Wenjun; Yang, Chunyan; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Fu



Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.  


Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. PMID:25466077

Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes



Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) fruit during fruit maturation.  


Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways. PMID:25455100

Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong




Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical reactions that determine pH and titration curve of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit flesh tissue have been modeled. Fruit pulp pH is computed as the result of acid\\/base reactions between organic acids, amino acids, and phosphate derivatives, and their respective salts. Amino acids and phosphate derivatives are taken into account as if they comprised asparagine and phosphoric

Philippe Lobit; Patrick Soing; Michel Génard; Robert Habib



Ribonucleic acid synthesis during fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed Central

A method has been devised that allowed us, for the first time, to pulse-label M. xanthus cells with precursors for ribonucleic acid biosynthesis while they were undergoing fruiting body formation. Using this method, we examined patterns of ribonucleic acid (RNA) accumulation throughout the process of fruiting body formation. As development proceeded, the rate of RNA accumulation increased at two periods of the developmental cycle: once just before aggregation and once late in the cycle, when sporulation was essentially completed. In contrast to vegetatively growing cells, in which only stable RNA species are labeled during a 30-min pulse, the majority of radioactivity found in RNA from 30-min pulse-labeled developing cells was found in an unstable heterodisperse fraction that migrated to the 5S to 16S region of sucrose density gradients and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. This pattern of incorporation could not be induced (i) by a shift down of vegetatively growing cells to a nutritionally poor medium, in which the generation time was increased to that of developing cells during the growth phase, or (ii) by plating of vegetative cells onto the same solid-surface environment as that of developing cells, but which surface supported vegetative growth rather than fruiting body formation. Thus, the RNA synthesis pattern observed appeared to be related to development per se rather than to nutritional depletion or growth on a solid surface alone. The radioactivity incorporated into the unstable 5S to 16S RNA fraction accumulated as the pulse length was increased from 10 to 30 min; in contrast, an analogous unstable fraction from vegetative cells decreased as pulse length was increased. This suggested that developmental 5S to 16S RNA was more stable than vegetative cell 5S to 16S RNA (presumptive messenger RNA). However, during a 45-min chase period, radioactivity in 30-min-pulse-labeled developmental 5S to 16S RNA decayed to an extent twice that of developmental RNA located in 16S and 23S regions of sucrose density gradients and was considerably less stable than the 5S, 16S, and 23S RNA species labeled during a 30-min pulse of vegetative cells. PMID:6163763

Smith, B A; Dworkin, M



Evolution of the aroma volatiles of pear fruits supplemented with fatty acid metabolic precursors.  


To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored "Nanguoli" fruits than in green-flavored "Dangshansuli" fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in "Dangshansuli" fruits were higher than in "Nanguoli" fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in "Dangshansuli" was approximately three times that in "Nanguoli". The higher contents of hexyl esters in "Dangshansuli" may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented. PMID:25474290

Qin, Gaihua; Tao, Shutian; Zhang, Huping; Huang, Wenjiang; Wu, Juyou; Xu, Yiliu; Zhang, Shaoling




EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...


Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.  


In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. PMID:25577050

Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo



Characterization of Terebinth Fruit Oil and Optimization of Acidolysis Reaction with Caprylic and Stearic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of terebinth fruit oil and the synthesis of structured\\u000a lipids (SL) were performed in this study. Interesterification reaction of terebinth fruits oil (Pistacia terebinthus L.) with caprylic acid (CA) and stearic acid (SA) to produce a SL was performed in n-hexane using immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase from Mucor miehei. The effect of

Derya KocakHasene; Hasene Keskin; Sibel Fad?lo?lu; Boleslaw Kowalski; Fahrettin Gö?ü?


Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...


Ascorbic Acid Content in Relation to Ascorbic Acid Oxidase Activity and Polyamine Content in Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruits During Development, Maturation and Senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv. XPH-1251) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, cv. New ace) plants were grown in a greenhouse in controlled hydroponic conditions, and fruits were harvested at different intervals from 18 to 94 days from fruit set. Total ascorbic acid was higher in bell pepper than in tomato fruit. In pepper fruit, the level increased rapidly during its

Elhadi M. Yahia; Margarita Contreras-Padilla; Gustavo Gonzalez-Aguilar



Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...


Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

PubMed Central

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim



Low temperature storage affects the ascorbic acid metabolism of cherry tomato fruits.  


Tomato fruits are an important source of l-Ascorbic acid, which is an essential compound of human diet. The effect of the widespread practice of cold storing (5-10 °C) tomato fruits was monitored to determine its impact on the concentration and redox status of l-Ascorbic acid. Total l-Ascorbic acid levels were well maintained in both attached fruits and cold treated fruits, while in other treatments its levels were considerably reduced. However, low temperature storage conditions enhanced the expression of most genes coding for enzymes involved in l-Ascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox reactions. The findings suggest that the transcriptional up-regulation under chilling stress conditions of most genes coding for l-Ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, GDP-d-mannose 3,5-epimerase but also for the isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase enzyme, glutathione reductase that are strongly correlated to the l-Ascorbic redox status. Moreover, fruits stored at 10 °C exhibited higher levels of transcript accumulation of MDHAR2, DHAR1, DHAR2, GR1 and GR2 genes, pointing to a better ability to manage chilling stress in comparison to fruits stored at 5 °C. PMID:25282013

Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Delis, Costas; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Aivalakis, Georgios



??????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??? ?????????????? Determination of Benzoic Acid and Sorbic Acid in Bael Fruit, Rossella Drink and Flavor Concentrate Syrups by Steam Distillation. ????? ????????????* ?????? ??????????? 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

????????: ??????????????????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? Platinum EPS C18 ??????????????? 0.01 ?????? pH 4.5 ??? ????????????????????????? ??????????? 1.0 ???????????????? ??????????????????????????????? 240???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???? ??????????????????? 50-1000 ???????????????? ????????????? ??? 90-107% ??? 87-118% ????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? Abstract: Benzoic acid and sorbic acid in bael fruit, rossella drink and flavor concentrate syrups were extracted by steam distillation

Ladda Wattanasiritham; Kulvadee Trongpanich


Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY); Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.



Separation of Hydroxycitric Acid Lactone from Fruit Pectins and Polyhydroxyphenols on Poly(4-Vinylpyridine) Weak-Base Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) has been used for the separation of hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL) from polyhydroxyphenols and fruit pectins, as the study has relevance to the problem of extraction of the antiobesity substance hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia fruits, a rich source of the acid. PVP has been used both in free-base form and in protonated or salt form as a




Linking ascorbic acid production in Ribes nigrum with fruit development and changes in sources and sinks  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Understanding the synthesis of ascorbic acid (l-AsA) in green tissues in model species has advanced considerably; here we focus on its production and accumulation in fruit. In particular, our aim is to understand the links between organs which may be sources of l-AsA (leaves) and those which accumulate it (fruits). The work presented here tests the idea that changes in leaf and fruit number influence the accumulation of l-AsA. The aim was to understand the importance of leaf tissue in the production of l-AsA and to determine how this might provide routes for the manipulation of fruit tissue l-AsA. Methods The experiments used Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant), predominantly in field experiments, where the source–sink relationship was manipulated to alter potential leaf l-AsA production and fruit growth and accumulation of l-AsA. These manipulations included reductions in reproductive capacity, by raceme removal, and the availability of assimilates by leaf removal and branch phloem girdling. Natural variation in fruit growth and fruit abscission is also described as this influences subsequent experimental design and the interpretation of l-AsA data. Key Results Results show that fruit l-AsA concentration is conserved but total yield of l-AsA per plant is dependent on a number of innate factors many of which relate to raceme attributes. Leaf removal and phloem girdling reduced fruit weight, and a combination of both reduced fruit yields further. It appears that around 50 % of assimilates utilized for fruit growth came from apical leaves, while between 20 and 30 % came from raceme leaves, with the remainder from ‘storage’. Conclusions Despite being able to manipulate leaf area and therefore assimilate availability and stored carbohydrates, along with fruit yields, rarely were effects on fruit l-AsA concentration seen, indicating fruit l-AsA production in Ribes was not directly coupled to assimilate supply. There was no supporting evidence that l-AsA production occurred predominantly in green leaf tissue followed by its transfer to developing fruits. It is concluded that l-AsA production occurs predominantly in the fruit of Ribes nigrum. PMID:23419248

Atkinson, Christopher J.; Davies, Michael J.; Taylor, June M.; Longbottom, Helen



Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis.  


Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that the block in mitochondrial aconitase activity, inducing acid accumulation, is caused by citramalate. Here, we investigated the effect of citramalate and of another aconitase inhibitor, oxalomalate, on aconitase activity and regulation in callus originated from juice sacs. These compounds significantly increased citrate content and reduced the enzyme's activity, while slightly inducing its protein level. Citramalate inhibited the mitochondrial, but not cytosolic form of the enzyme. Its external application to mandarin fruits resulted in inhibition of aconitase activity, with a transient increase in fruit acidity detected a few weeks later. The endogenous level of citramalate was analyzed in five citrus varieties: its pattern of accumulation challenged the notion of its action as an endogenous inhibitor of mitochondrial aconitase. Metabolite profiling of oxalomalate-treated cells showed significant increases in a few amino acids and organic acids. The activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and aspartate kinase, as well as these of two ?-aminobutyrate (GABA)-shunt enzymes, succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSAD) were significantly induced in oxalomalate-treated cells. It is suggested that the increase in citrate, caused by aconitase inhibition, induces amino acid synthesis and the GABA shunt, in accordance with the suggested fate of citrate during the acid decline stage in citrus fruit. PMID:21528417

Degu, Asfaw; Hatew, Bayissa; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Shlizerman, Ludmila; Zur, Naftali; Katz, Ehud; Fernie, Alisdair R; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi



Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C?C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene

Kenji Matsui; Mizuyoshi Shibutani; Toshiharu Hase; Tadahiko Kajiwara



Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.  


Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan



[Contents of tannins and oxalic acid in the selected forest fruits depending on the harvest site].  


Contents of anti-nutritional components (tannins and oxalic acid) were determined in samples of forest fruits: blueberry, raspberry and wild strawberry harvested in Lublin region from areas considered as potentially not exposed to pollution (Skierbieszów Landscape Park) and potentially polluted areas (Cement Factory Rejowiec S.A.). Study revealed that blueberry and raspberry fruits collected on potentially polluted area were characterized by higher tannins contents than those harvested on potentially not polluted area. Oxalic acid level in studied material indicated its significantly higher concentration in wild strawberry fruits collected both from not exposed and polluted areas as compared to raspberry and blueberry. Tannins and oxalic acid contents in analyzed berries may be accepted as low and safe for human's health. PMID:18666621

Sembratowicz, Iwona; Ognik, Katarzyna; Rusinek, Elzbieta; Truchli?ski, Jerzy



Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob



Phenolics of Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) fruits: identification of anthocyanins and gallic acid derivatives.  


Arbutus unedo L., the strawberry tree (Ericaceae family), is an evergreen shrub or small tree, typical of the Mediterranean fringe and climate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of A. unedo fruits. Seven compounds were purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the MeOH extract followed by HPLC and were characterized as arbutin, beta-D-glucogalline, gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylshikimic acid, and 5-O-galloylshikimic acid, by means of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. Moreover, LC-PDA-MS analysis of the red pigment of A. unedo fruits revealed the presence of three anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside. These pigments were also quantified. PMID:17177565

Pawlowska, Agata Maria; De Leo, Marinella; Braca, Alessandra



Chili pepper fruits: presumed precursors of fatty acids characteristic for capsaicinoids.  


Capsaicin is a molecule unique to fruits from the genus Capsicum. It is responsible for the pungent sensation and displays valuable pharmacological properties. Despite the fruits' economic importance and decades of research, the regulation of the content of capsaicinoids in individual fruits is not completely elucidated, and no agricultural cultivation of chili of defined pungency is assured. Precursor candidates of the fatty acid moiety of the capsaicinoids, especially for the unique 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid, were examined. Thioesters, acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA, were isolated from the placenta of Capsicum fruits by means of DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, selectively converted to the corresponding N-butylamides, and analyzed by GC-MS. Fatty acid moieties characteristic for capsaicinoids were identified. In two different varieties ( Capsicum chinense var. Habanero orange and Capsicum annuum var. Jalapeno) it was shown that the fatty acid pattern corresponds to the distribution pattern of the capsaicinoids formed up to this time. The acyl-thioester fractions contained already the 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid. PMID:18489121

Thiele, Roland; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael



Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.



HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 ?m) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang



Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.  


Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil(®)-L-Val and Lipodex(®) E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), ?-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (<70 mg/kg DM) of L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, ?-alanine, and in some samples (<20 mg/kg DM) of (S)-?-aminoisobutyric acid and (<10 mg/kg DM) L-allo-isoleucine. In one date fruit, traces of ?-aminoadipic acid could be determined. Enantiomeric analysis of 6 M DCl/D2O hydrolysates of AAs using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of very low amounts of D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Glu, D-Ser and D-Phe (1.2-0.4%, relative to the corresponding L-enantiomers), besides traces (0.2-1%) of other D-AAs. The possible relevance of non-proteinogenic amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed. PMID:24938763

Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans



Fatty Acid, Tocopherol and Sterol Compositions of Canadian Prairie Fruit Seed Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of four prairie fruits—chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), thorny buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Woods’ rose (Rosa woodsii) and hawthorn (Crataegus × mordenensis)—from Southern Alberta were investigated. The lipid contents of the seeds were found to be 10.4, 11.5, 3.7 and 3.4%, respectively.\\u000a The tested seed lipids contained mainly linoleic acid in the range from 27.9 to 65.6% and oleic acid from 19.7 to

Farooq Anwar; Roman Przybylski; Magdalena Rudzinska; Eliza Gruczynska; John Bain



Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  


Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818 ?g/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2,070 ?g/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1,603 ?g/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10 ?g/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9 ?g/g extracts) and all-trans-?-carotene (4-6 ?g/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry. PMID:25038660

Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda



Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.  


Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation. PMID:25466081

Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue



Dynamics of fatty-acid composition of neutral acylglycerols in maturing euonymus fruits.  


The dynamics of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of neutral acylglycerols (NAGs) composed of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAGs) and 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acDAGs) was determined in the fruit seeds and arils of three Euonymus L. species at three stages of their maturity. The NAG composition comprised 29 FAs, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and ?-linolenic acids being predominant. Noticeable amounts of other FAs, such as lauric, myristic, hexadec-9-enoic, stearic, (Z)-vaccenic, and arachidic acid, etc., could also be present. In the course of maturation, the qualitative composition of major FAs remained nearly unchanged, while the unsaturation index of FAs in seeds and in TAGs, as well as, but to a lesser extent, in arils and in acDAGs, respectively, always decreased. This decline was brought about by a sharp fall of the ?-linolenate level, a decrease of the linoleate content, and a corresponding rise in the oleate content. It is suggested that, in both seeds and arils, both classes of NAGs were formed at the expense of the same FA pool; the quantitative composition of this pool was characteristic of a given fruit part and strongly changed during maturation. The accumulation of TAGs in E. europaeus fruits was accompanied by a conversion of hexadec-9-enoic acid into (Z)-vaccenic acid via the C2 -elongation reaction. PMID:24706628

Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D



Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.  


In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease. PMID:24562629

Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing



Morus Alba Fruit Herbal alternative to synthetic Acid Base indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Morus alba linn belonging to the family: Moraceae (Urticaceae); it is commonly called as white Mullberry; toola; tuk; shetu. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution,

K. S. Pathade; S. B. Patil; M. S. Kondawar; N. S. Naikwade; C. S. Magdum


Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.  


The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power. PMID:18785051

de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria



Chlorogenic acid content swap during fruit maturation in Coffea pseudozanguebariae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are products of phenylpropanoid metabolism, i.e. one branch of the phenolic pathway. A wild species, Coffea pseudozanguebariae, native of East Africa, is a caffeine-free species with low CGA content (1.2% dmb in green beans). It is also used as a gene donor to improve C. canephora cup taste quality. In the current study, contents of the different

Claire Bertrand; Michel Noirot; Sylvie Doulbeau; Alexandre de Kochko; Serge Hamon; Claudine Campa



Differential expression of fatty acid synthase genes, Acl, Fat and Kas, in Capsicum fruit.  


The biosynthesis of capsaicinoids in the placenta of chilli fruit is modelled to require components of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex. Three candidate genes for subunits in this complex, Kas, Acl, and Fat, isolated based on differential expression, were characterized. Transcription of these three genes was placental-specific and RNA abundance was positively correlated with degree of pungency. Kas and Acl were mapped to linkage group 1 and Fat to linkage group 6. None of the genes is linked to the pungency locus, C, on linkage group 2. KAS accumulation was positively correlated with pungency. Western blots of placental extracts and histological sections both demonstrated that the accumulation of this enzyme was correlated with fruit pungency and KAS was immunolocalized to the expected cell layer, the placental epidermis. Enzyme activity of the recombinant form of the placental-specific KAS was confirmed using crude cell extracts. These FAS components are fruit-specific members of their respective gene families. These genes are predicted to be associated with Capsicum fruit traits, for example, capsaicinoid biosynthesis or fatty acid biosynthesis necessary for placental development. PMID:12810854

Aluru, Maneesha R; Mazourek, Michael; Landry, Laurie G; Curry, Jeanne; Jahn, Molly; O'Connell, Mary A



Evidence for 1-(Malonylamino)cyclopropane-1Carboxylic Acid Being the Major Conjugate of Aminocyclopropane-1- Carboxylic Acid in Tomato Fruit1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) fruit discs fed with (2,3-14C)1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) formed 1-malonyl-ACC (MACC) as the major conjugate of ACC in fruit throughout all ripening stages, from immature-green through the red-ripe stage. Another conjugate of ACC, g-glutamyl-ACC (GACC), was formed only in mature-green fruit in an amount about 10% of that of MACC; conjugation of ACC into GACC was not

Galen Peiser; Shang Fa Yang


Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars  

PubMed Central

Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA) pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate) and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’) or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’), depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1), and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3) correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’), alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may supplement biosynthesis via L-galactose, while in the high-AsA cultivar (‘Santorini’), enhanced AsA recycling activities appear to be responsible for AsA accumulation in the later stages of ripening. Gene expression studies indicate that expression of SlGGP1 and two orthologues of SlMDHAR are closely correlated with totAsA-AsA concentrations during ripening and are potentially good candidates for marker development for breeding and selection. PMID:23245200



Momordica charantia fruit juice stimulates glucose and amino acid uptakes in L6 myotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitacea) is used widely as a hypoglycaemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). The mechanism of the hypoglycaemic action of M. charantia in vitro is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of M. charantia juice on either 3H-2-deoxyglucose or N-methyl-amino-a-isobutyric acid (14C-Me-AIB) uptake in L6 rat muscle cells cultured to the myotube

E. Cummings; H. S. Hundal; H. Wackerhage; M. Hope; M. Belle; E. Adeghate; J. Singh



Identification of bioaccessible and uptaken phenolic compounds from strawberry fruits in in vitro digestion/Caco-2 absorption model.  


Strawberry fruits are highly valued for their taste and nutritional value. However, results describing the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds from strawberries are still scarce. In our study, a combined in vitro digestion/Caco-2 absorption model was used to mimic physiological conditions in the gastrointestinal track and identify compounds transported across intestinal epithelium. In the course of digestion, the loss of anthocyanins was noted whilst pelargonidin-3-glucoside remained the most abundant compound, amounting to nearly 12 mg per 100 g of digested strawberries. Digestion increased the amount of ellagic acid available by nearly 50%, probably due to decomposition of ellagitannins. Only trace amounts of pelargonidin-3-glucoside were found to be absorbed in the intestine model. Dihydrocoumaric acid sulphate and p-coumaric acid were identified as metabolites formed in enterocytes and released at the serosal side of the model. PMID:25306347

Kosi?ska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Diering, Sascha; Prim, Denis; Andlauer, Wilfried



High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of amino acids in ackee fruit with emphasis on the toxic amino acid hypoglycin A.  


High-performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the amino acid content of ripe and unripe ackee fruit. Specific emphasis is placed on the level of the toxic amino acid hypoglycin A (hyp-A) in the unripe and ripe ackee fruit and seed. Unripe samples are found to contain significantly higher quantities (P < 0.05) of hyp-A when compared with ripe samples. Uncooked unripe fruit is found to contain 124.4 +/- 6.7 mg/100 g fresh weight and uncooked ripe fruit 6.4 +/- 1.1 mg/100 g fresh weight. The seed of the uncooked unripe fruit is found to contain 142.8 +/- 8.8 mg/100 g fresh weight, and the seed of uncooked ripe fruit has 106.0 +/- 5.4 mg/100 g fresh weight. Boiling fruit in water for approximately 30 min is efficient in removing hyp-A from the edible arilli; however, low levels of 0.54 +/- 0.15 mg/200 mL are detected in the water that was used to cook the ripe fruit. The average %recovery of the amino acids was 80.34%. PMID:12387335

Golden, K D; Williams, O J; Bailey-Shaw, Y



Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in Citrus fruits.  


4'-Geranyloxyferulic (GOFA) and boropinic acid have been discovered during the last decade as interesting phytochemicals having valuable pharmacological effects as cancer chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-Helicobacter pylori agents. A reverse-phase HPLC-UV/Vis method for the separation and quantification of the title oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in extracts obtained from peels of nine edible Citrus and Fortunella fruits was successfully applied. Concentration values showed a great variation between the different species, being orange (C. sinensis) the fruit richest in GOFA (0.141?±?0.011 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight) and kumquat (Fortunella japonica) the one in which boropinic acid was recorded as the most abundant phytochemical (0.206?±?0.002 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight). Both secondary metabolites were not detected only in three species. The set-up methodology showed limits of quantification (LOQ) values, that were able to selectively quantify both GOFA and boropinic acid. Results described herein depict a potential chemopreventive dietary feeding role for the Rutaceae spp. under investigation. PMID:24928688

Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Epifano, Francesco



Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).  


Sweet melon cultivars contain a low level of organic acids and, therefore, the quality and flavor of sweet melon fruit is determined almost exclusively by fruit sugar content. However, genetic variability for fruit acid levels in the Cucumis melo species exists and sour fruit accessions are characterized by acidic fruit pH of <5, compared to the sweet cultivars that are generally characterized by mature fruit pH values of >6. In this paper, we report results from a mapping population based on recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the non-sour 'Dulce' variety and the sour PI 414323 accession. Results show that a single major QTL for pH co-localizes with major QTLs for the two predominant organic acids in melon fruit, citric and malic, together with an additional metabolite which we identified as uridine. While the acidic recombinants were characterized by higher citric and malic acid levels, the non-acidic recombinants had a higher uridine content than did the acidic recombinants. Additional minor QTLs for pH, citric acid and malic acid were also identified and for these the increased acidity was unexpectedly contributed by the non-sour parent. To test for co-localization of these QTLs with genes encoding organic acid metabolism and transport, we mapped the genes encoding structural enzymes and proteins involved in organic acid metabolism, transport and vacuolar H+ pumps. None of these genes co-localized with the major pH QTL, indicating that the gene determining melon fruit pH is not one of the candidate genes encoding this primary metabolic pathway. Linked markers were tested in two additional inter-varietal populations and shown to be linked to the pH trait. The presence of the same QTL in such diverse segregating populations suggests that the trait is determined throughout the species by variability in the same gene and is indicative of a major role of the evolution of this gene in determining the important domestication trait of fruit acidity within the species. PMID:22406955

Cohen, S; Tzuri, G; Harel-Beja, R; Itkin, M; Portnoy, V; Sa'ar, U; Lev, S; Yeselson, L; Petrikov, M; Rogachev, I; Aharoni, A; Ophir, R; Tadmor, Y; Lewinsohn, E; Burger, Y; Katzir, N; Schaffer, A A



Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds  

PubMed Central

Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi



Effective trapping of fruit flies with cultures of metabolically modified acetic Acid bacteria.  


Acetoin in vinegar is an attractant to fruit flies when combined with acetic acid. To make vinegar more effective in attracting fruit flies with increased acetoin production, Komagataeibacter europaeus KGMA0119 was modified by specific gene disruption of the acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase gene (ilvC). A previously constructed mutant lacking the putative ligand-sensing region in the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (KeLrp, encoded by Kelrp) was also used. The ilvC and Kelrp disruptants (KGMA5511 and KGMA7203, respectively) produced greater amounts of acetoin (KGMA5511, 0.11%; KGMA7203, 0.13%) than the wild-type strain KGMA0119 (0.069%). KGMA7203 produced a trace amount of isobutyric acid (0.007%), but the other strains did not. These strains produced approximately equal amounts of acetic acid (0.7%). The efficiency of fruit fly attraction was investigated with cultured Drosophila melanogaster. D. melanogaster flies (approximately 1,500) were released inside a cage (2.5 m by 2.5 m by 1.5 m) and were trapped with a device containing vinegar and a sticky sheet. The flies trapped on the sticky sheet were counted. The cell-free supernatant from KGMA7203 culture captured significantly more flies (19.36 to 36.96% of released flies) than did KGMA0119 (3.25 to 11.40%) and KGMA5511 (6.87 to 21.50%) cultures. Contrastingly, a 0.7% acetic acid solution containing acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%), which mimicked the KGMA7203 supernatant, captured significantly fewer flies (0.88 to 4.57%). Furthermore, the KGMA0119 supernatant with additional acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%) captured slightly more flies than the original KGMA0119 supernatant but fewer than the KGMA7203 supernatant, suggesting that the synergistic effects of acetic acid, acetoin, isobutyric acid, and unidentified metabolites achieved the efficient fly trapping of the KGMA7203 supernatant. PMID:25595769

Ishii, Yuri; Akasaka, Naoki; Goda, Itsuko; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke



Effect of acid fruit juices combined with electric or sonic toothbrushing on root dentin permeability--an in vitro study.  


The purpose of this in vitro study was to quantify the alterations on human root dentin permeability after exposure to different acid fruit juices and to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing with electric or sonic toothbrush after acid exposure. The root dentin of 50 extracted third molars was exposed with a high speed bur. Crowns were sectioned above the cementoenamel junction and root fragments were used to prepare dentin specimens. Specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the fruit juice (kiwifruit, starfruit, green apple, pineapple and acerolla). Each specimen was connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure root dentin permeability using fluid filtration method after the following sequential steps: I) conditioning with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, II) root scaling, III) exposure to acid fruit juices for 5 min and IV) electric or sonic toothbrushing without dentifrice for 3 min. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance level. All fruit juices promoted a significant increase of dentin permeability while toothbrushing decreased it significantly (p<0.05). It may be concluded that all acid fruit juices increased root dentin permeability, while toothbrushing without dentifrice after acid exposure decreased the permeability. The toothbrush mechanism (electric or sonic) had no influence on the decrease of root dentin permeability. PMID:23338258

Batitucci, Roberta Grasselli; Zandim, Daniela Leal; Rocha, Fernanda Regina Godoy; Pinheiro, Michele Carolina; Fontanari, Lucas Amaral; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar



Microbial production of ellagic acid and biodegradation of ellagitannins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years, tannin biodegradation has been the subject of a lot of studies due to its commercial importance and scientific\\u000a relevance. Tannins are molecules of low biodegradation and represent the main chemical group of natural anti-microbials occurring\\u000a in the plants. Among the different kinds of tannins, ellagitannins represent the group less studied manly due to their diversity\\u000a and

Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Ernesto Favela-Torres; Cristóbal N. Aguilar



Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit  

PubMed Central

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.



Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.  


Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M



Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof



Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  


Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques



Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cul- tivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, includ- ing effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net

Erick De la Barrera; Park S. Nobel



Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.  


The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3?M while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried



Optimization of the determination of organic acids and sugars in fruit juices by ion-exclusion liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC method for the determination of the main organic acids and sugars in fruit juices is proposed. Nine acids (including oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, galacturonic, ascorbic, succinic, and fumaric acid) and three sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) were separated by ion-exclusion chromatography using a resin-based Aminex HPX 87H column after a sample clean-up with Sax cartridges. In spite of

Fabio Chinnici; Umberto Spinabelli; Claudio Riponi; Aureliano Amati



A natural mutation led truncation in Ma1, one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter like genes at the Ma locus, is associated with low fruit acidity in apple  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidity levels greatly affect fruit taste and flavor, thereby the consumer’s acceptance and market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the nearly exclusive organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity ...


Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Bridelia retusa Methanolic Fruit Extract in Experimental Animals  

PubMed Central

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials of methanolic extract of Bridelia retusa fruit (BRME) were evaluated against different animal models in rodents. Antinociceptive effects of BRME were assessed in mice using the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test. Anti-inflammatory effects of BRME in three different doses, namely, 100, 200, and 400?mg/kg, were evaluated by utilizing different animal models representing various changes associated with inflammation, namely, carrageenan-induced paw oedema, histamine and serotonin-induced paw oedema, arachidonic acid-induced paw oedema, formalin-induced paw oedema, TPA-induced ear oedema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, total WBC count in paw fluid, and myeloperoxidase assay. Also BRME was phytochemically evaluated using chromatographic method. The BRME did not exhibit any signs of toxicity up to a dose of 2000?mg/kg. The extract showed statistical significant inhibition of induced nociception and inflammation in dose dependent manner. The higher dose of extract significantly inhibited pain and inflammation against control (P < 0.001). HPLC results revealed the presence of gallic acid and ellagic acid as phytoconstituents in BRME and it was proven as anti-inflammatory agents. The present study scientifically demonstrated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of fruit of B. retusa methanolic extract. These effects may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic phytoconstituents in the extract. PMID:25506619

Kumar, Tekeshwar; Jain, Vishal



Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits.  


Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH? IC(50), ranged from very active (19.4 ?g/ml) to inactive (389 ?g/ml). PMID:21340048

Reynertson, Kurt A; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J



Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits  

PubMed Central

Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH? IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 ?g/ml) to inactive (389 ?g/ml). PMID:21340048

Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.



Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  


Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai



Anthocyanins, phenolic acids and antioxidant properties of Juçara fruits (Euterpe edulis M.) along the on-tree ripening process.  


Juçara (Euterpe edulis M.) fruits are an interesting source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, making them valuable to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Juçara fruits were harvested along the on-tree ripening process between March and June as practiced in Paraná state, Brazil and examined for their total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), total phenolic acid (TPA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAA). Overall, TAC increased (91.52-236.19 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/100 g dm) whereas TPC (81.69-49.09 mg GAE/g dm) and TPA (44.27-30.95 mg/100 g dm) decreased during ripening of juçara fruits. Use of tandem mass spectrometry allowed the identification of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside for the first time in juçara fruits. The analysis of the phenolic acids by HPLC-MS/MS indicated the presence of gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, sinapinic and ferulic acids. The high antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging capacity (655.89-745.32 ?mol TE/g dm) and ORAC assays (1088.10-2071.55 ?mol TE/g dm) showed that juçara fruits have potential as a source of novel natural antioxidants for disease prevention and health promotion, and also as natural food additives for developing new functional food products. PMID:24570272

Bicudo, Milene Oliveira Pereira; Ribani, Rosemary Hoffmann; Beta, Trust



Evidence for 1-(Malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Being the Major Conjugate of Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid in Tomato Fruit1  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) fruit discs fed with [2,3-14C]1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) formed 1-malonyl-ACC (MACC) as the major conjugate of ACC in fruit throughout all ripening stages, from immature-green through the red-ripe stage. Another conjugate of ACC, ?-glutamyl-ACC (GACC), was formed only in mature-green fruit in an amount about 10% of that of MACC; conjugation of ACC into GACC was not detected in fruits at other ripening stages. No GACC formation was observed from etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) hypocotyls, etiolated common vetch (Vicia sativum L.) epicotyls, or pea (Pisum sativum L.) root tips, etiolated epicotyls, and green stem tissue, where active conversion of ACC into MACC was observed. GACC was, however, formed in vitro in extracts from fruit of all ripening stages. GACC formation in an extract from red fruit at pH 7.15 was only about 3% of that at pH 8.0, the pH at which most assays were run. Our present in vivo data support the previous contention that MACC is the major conjugate of ACC in plant tissues, whereas GACC is a minor, if any, conjugate of ACC. Thus, our data do not support the proposal that GACC formation could be more important than MACC formation in tomato fruit. PMID:9536071

Peiser, Galen; Fa Yang, Shang



Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat



Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.  


Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4. PMID:23709290

Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong



Optimization of a method for determination of phenolic acids in exotic fruits by capillary electrophoresis.  


In this work, the separation of nine phenolic acids (benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, syringic, and vanillic acid) was approached by a 3(2) factorial design in electrolytes consisting of sodium tetraborate buffer (STB) in the concentration range of 10-50 mmol L(-1) and methanol in the volume percentage of 5-20%. Derringer's desirability functions combined globally were tested as response functions. An optimal electrolyte composed by 50 mmol L(-1) tetraborate buffer at pH 9.2, and 7.5% (v/v) methanol allowed baseline resolution of all phenolic acids under investigation in less than 15 min. In order to promote sample clean up, to preconcentrate the phenolic fraction and to release esterified phenolic acids from the fruit matrix, elaborate liquid-liquid extraction procedures followed by alkaline hydrolysis were performed. The proposed methodology was fully validated (linearity from 10.0 to 100 microg mL(-1), R(2)>0.999; LOD and LOQ from 1.32 to 3.80 microg mL(-1) and from 4.01 to 11.5 microg mL(-1), respectively; intra-day precision better than 2.8% CV for migration time and 5.4% CV for peak area; inter-day precision better than 4.8% CV for migration time and 4.8-11% CV for peak area; recoveries from 81% to 115%) and applied successfully to the evaluation of phenolic contents of abiu-roxo (Chrysophyllum caimito), wild mulberry growing in Brazil (Morus nigra L.) and tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea). Values in the range of 1.50-47.3 microg g(-1) were found, with smaller amounts occurring as free phenolic acids. PMID:19545963

Fukuji, Tatiana S; Tonin, Fernando G; Tavares, Marina F M



Roles of jasmonic acid in the development of sweet cherries as measured from fruit or disc samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on callus formation was investigated ondiscs taken from the pulp of sweet cherry fruit (Prunusavium L.). The discs were sampled at 16 days after full bloom(DAFB),22 DAFB, and 29 DAFB and cultured on B5 medium involving different combinationsof 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), N6-benzyl adenine (BA), and JA.Only at 16 DAFB, 1.0 µM JA concentration increased

Satoru Kondo; Miwa Motoyama; Hiroyasu Michiyama; Min Kim



Biocontrol of blue and gray mold diseases of pear fruit by integration of antagonistic yeast with salicylic acid.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the biocontrol yeast Cryptococcus laurentii and salicylic acid (SA) in suppressing the blue and gray mould rots in pear fruit and to explore possible mode of action involved. Our results showed that the combined treatment of pear fruit with C. laurentii with SA at 100 microg ml(-1) resulted in a remarkably improved control of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea infections, including the pre-inoculated P. expansum, in comparison with the application of C. laurentii or SA alone. The biocontrol yeast C. laurentii proliferated rapidly within the first 24 h of incubation in pear fruit wounds. Although SA at 100 microg ml(-1) neither affected the population growth of C. laurentii nor directly inhibited the blue mold when the inoculation concentrations of P. expansum were above 5 x 10(2) spore per ml in vivo, it induced the fruit resistance to the blue and gray mold rots when the time interval between SA treatment and pathogens inoculation was more than 48 h, being associated with a rapid and strong activation of the peroxidase activity in pear fruit. Thus we assume that SA may be regarded as a secondary defense line in a combination of C. laurentii and SA, which could reinforce the biocontrol efficacy of C. laurentii by induction of the fruit natural resistance. PMID:17428566

Yu, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Chen, Rongle; Huang, Bin; Liu, Donghong; Zheng, Xiaodong



Compositional Variation in Sugars and Organic Acids at Different Maturity Stages in Selected Small Fruits from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Selected soluble sugars and organic acids were analyzed in strawberry, sweet cherry, and mulberry fruits at different ripening stages by HPLC. The amounts of fructose, glucose and sucrose were found to be: strawberry (1.79–2.86, 1.79–2.25 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g FW), sweet cherry (0.76–2.35, 0.22–3.39 and 0.03–0.13 g/100 g) and mulberry (3.07–9.41, 1.53–4.95 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g) at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. The strawberry, sweet cherry and mulberry mainly contained tartaric, citric and ascorbic acids in the range of 16–55, 70–1934 and 11–132 mg/100 g; 2–8, 2–10 and 10–17 mg/100 g; 2–118, 139–987 and 2–305 mg/100 g at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. Fructose and glucose were established to be the major sugars in all the tested fruit while citric and ascorbic acid were the predominant organic acids in strawberry and mulberry while tartaric acid was mainly present in sweet cherry. The tested fruits mostly showed an increase in the concentration of sugars and organic acids with ripening. PMID:22408396

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Boyce, Mary C.; Saari, Nazamid



Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.  


Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, <0.1 to 16.7 micromol Trolox equiv/g puree, and 2.1 to 620.2 microg gallic acid equiv/g puree, respectively. The TAA, TDF, and pectin ranged from 7.5 to 188.8 mg/100 g, 0.9 to 7.2 g/100 g, and 0.20 to 1.04 g/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities, TSP, TAA, TDF, and pectin were influenced by cultivar (papaya, guava, and dragon fruit) and ripening stage (papaya and/or mango). Antioxidant activity showed high correlations with levels of TSP compounds (r = 0.96) but low correlations with levels of ascorbic acid (r = 0.35 and 0.23 for ORAC and DPPH data, respectively). The antioxidant activities evaluated by both ORAC and DPPH showed similar trends where red guava and carambola exhibited the highest and sapodilla and green papaya exhibited the lowest levels. Guava and mamey sapote exhibited the highest TDF and pectin levels. Many of the tropical fruits were shown to contain an abundance of hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid conjugates, and flavone glycosides. Preliminary descriptions are given of the phenols in red/white pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature. PMID:16968105

Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A



Dietary wheat germ oil and age influences fatty acid compositions in adult oriental fruit flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sterile Insect Technique programs have been developed for management of several tephritid fruit fly pests. These programs are based on continous production of adult fruit flies. The high expense of mass-rearing oriental fruit flies drive research to improve the cost effectiveness of rearing programs...


High-Speed Separation of Oleanolic acid and Ursolic acid from the Fruit of Ligustrum Lucidum ait and Crataegus by Cyclodextrin-Modified Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) technique for determining oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait and Crataegus was developed. The two bio-active components were successfully separated within 4 minutes using a pH 8.5 sodium borate buffer containing 60mM SDS and 2mM ?-CD. The correlation coefficients of the linear calibration graphs for the analyses exceeded

Yanan Hu; Yiming Wang; Guoan Luo; Wei Wei



Discrimination of fresh fruit juices by a fluorescent sensor array for carboxylic acids based on molecularly imprinted titania.  


Design of chemical sensor arrays that can discriminate real-world samples has been highly attractive in recent years. Herein a fluorescent indicator-displacement sensor array for discrimination of fresh fruit juices was developed. By coupling the unique high affinity of titania to electron-donating anions and the cross-reactivity of molecularly imprinted materials to structurally similar species, a small array was fabricated using only one rhodamine-based fluorescent dye and three synthesized materials. Citric, malic, succinic and tartaric acids were chosen as indices. The recognition mechanism was investigated by spectrofluorimetric titration using a non-linear Langmuir-type adsorption model. The proposed method was applied to discriminate thirteen fruit juices through their carboxylic acid contents. Principal component analysis of the data clearly grouped the thirteen juices with the first principal component owning 98.2% of the total variation. The comparison of the sensor array with HPLC determination of the carboxylic acids was finally made. PMID:25038646

Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao



Separation of Bioactive Quadri-Terpenic Acids from the Fruit of Ligustrum Lucidum Ait by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the separation of quadri-terpenic acids from the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait using a two-phase solvent system composed of hexane\\/ethyl acetate\\/methanol\\/water (3:6:2:1, v\\/v). From 250mg of the crude extract, the method yielded 87 mg of oleanolic acid at 91.5% purity and 58 mg of ursolic acid at 93.2% purity in about 2.5 h.

Qizhen Du; Xinping Xiong; Yolchiro Ito



Formation of flavonoids, especially anthocyanin and chlorogenic acid in ‘Jonagold’ apple skin: influences of growth regulators and fruit maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of ethephon, (S)-trans-2-amino-4-(2-aminoethoxy)-3-butenoic acid hydrochloride (ABG-3168), gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), alar, cycocel (CCC), prohexadione-Ca, seniphos, shikimic acid, plantacur-E and galactose on the accumulation of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in ‘Jonagold’ apple skin were investigated, with emphasis on anthocyanin, in order to separate maturity-related from other development-related influences. Fruit maturation\\/ripening as determined by both Streif and Starch indices was

Mohamed A Awad; Anton de Jager



Determination of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts obtained from fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album.  


In this study, determination of phenolic acids as well as investigation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album is described. Extracts were subjected to acidic hydrolysis in order to obtain total free phenolic acids. However, some of phenolic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The results were confirmed by LC-MS equipped with MS-ESI. In addition, Folin-Ciocalteu method was applied to determine the total phenolic contents. The antioxidant activity of C. album extracts was examined by using DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity assays. Results revealed that the leaves extract exhibits better performance in antioxidant assays and in the higher total phenolic contents (3066mg of GAE/100g) when compared to fruits extract (1385mg of GAE/100g). From these results it has been revealed that the methanolic extracts of C. album from fruits and leaves have great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:25213967

Laghari, Abdul Hafeez; Memon, Shahabuddin; Nelofar, Aisha; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Yasmin, Arfa



Expression of genes associated with aroma formation derived from the fatty acid pathway during peach fruit ripening.  


Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening at 20 degrees C. Concentrations of n-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenol decreased, whereas the production of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, gamma-hexalactone, gamma-octalactone, gamma-decalactone, and delta-decalactone increased with fruit ripening. Lactones showed a clear pattern concomitant with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, with gamma-decalactone being the principal volatile compound at the late ripening stage. Of the LOX family genes, PpLOX2 and PpLOX3 had relatively high transcript levels initially followed by a decline with fruit ripening, while levels of PpLOX1 and PpLOX4 transcripts were upregulated by accumulated ethylene production. Expression of PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpADH2, and PpADH3 showed similar decreasing patterns during ripening. Expression levels of PpAAT1 showed a rapid increase during the first 2 days of postharvest ripening followed by a gradual decrease. Contents of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids increased, and saturated palmitic acid levels tended to decline as the fruit ripened. The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed. PMID:20415420

Zhang, Bo; Shen, Ji-Yuan; Wei, Wen-Wen; Xi, Wan-Peng; Xu, Chang-Jie; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong



Quantification and histochemical localization of ascorbic acid in 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji' apple fruit during on-tree development and cold storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple fruit are subject to multiple stressors during pre- and post-harvest development. Stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be detrimental to the fruit, and ascorbic acid (AsA) is involved in many of the antioxidant pathways that detoxify ROS. An inclusive study to characterize AsA dy...


Regulation of the Lemon-Fruit V-ATPase by Variable Stoichiometry and Organic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lemon-fruit V-ATPase can exist in two forms: nitrate-sensitive and nitrate-insensitive. Here we report the results of measurements of H+ \\/ATP stoichiometries using two kinetic methods: one based on steady-state DpH and one based on initial rates of H+-pumping. Our findings indicate that the nitrate-insensitive fruit V-ATPase has an H+ \\/ATP stoichiometry of ~1, while both the nitrate-sensitive fruit V-ATPase

M. L. M ller; L. Taiz



Antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed of malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid from Cornus officinalis fruit.  


The present study investigated the antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed by malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid with a ratio of 3:2:2. The IC50 and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by various agonists as well as platelet adhesion were evaluated in vitro. Of note, the IC50 for the formula inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was 0.185?mg/mL. Meanwhile, the formula showed more potent inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin than the single component at same concentration (0.37?mg/mL). Moreover, the formula could prevent platelet adhesion significantly without influence on platelet viability. PMID:23447108

Zhang, Qi-Chun; Zhao, Yue; Bian, Hui-Min



Caffeic acid as active principle from the fruit of Xanthium strumarium to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats.  


The antihyperglycemic effect of caffeic acid, one of the phenolic compounds contained in the fruit of Xanthium strumarium, was investigated. After an intravenous injection of caffeic acid into diabetic rats of both streptozotocin-induced and insulin-resistant models, a dose-dependent decrease of plasma glucose was observed. However, a similar effect was not produced in normal rats. An insulin-independent action of caffeic acid can thus be considered. Otherwise, this compound reduced the elevation of plasma glucose level in insulin-resistant rats receiving a glucose challenge test. Also, glucose uptake into the isolated adipocytes was raised by caffeic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. Increase of glucose utilization by caffeic acid seems to be responsible for the lowering of plasma glucose. PMID:10821047

Hsu, F L; Chen, Y C; Cheng, J T



Effect of water stress on abscisic acid levels in white lupin ( Lupinus albus L.) fruit, leaves and phloem exudate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abscisic acid (ABA) was identified by combined gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in sieve-tube exudate collected from the cut stylar ends of white lupin fruit. Water stress caused an increase in ABA levels in leaf, seed and pod tissues and phloem exudate. When compared with levels in extracts of these tissues, the concentration of ABA in sieve-tube sap was very high.

G. V. Hoad



Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).  


Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (?45% more anthocyanins and ?20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María



Calcium partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to abscisic acid application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although Ca2+ is believed to move in the plant exclusively through the xylem, the mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in ...



Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The studied material were the fruits of 7 wild species: dog rose (Rosa canina L.), blackberry (Rubus caesius L.), elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) and wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.). The fruits were subjected to an antioxidant activity assay (AA). Two

Marta Zalewska-Korona; Janusz Kalbarczyk



Regulation of the lemon-fruit V-ATPase by variable stoichiometry and organic acids.  


The lemon-fruit V-ATPase can exist in two forms: nitrate-sensitive and nitrate-insensitive. Here we report the results of measurements of H+ /ATP stoichiometries using two kinetic methods: one based on steady-state DpH and one based on initial rates of H+-pumping. Our findings indicate that the nitrate-insensitive fruit V-ATPase has an H+ /ATP stoichiometry of ~1, while both the nitrate-sensitive fruit V-ATPase and the epicotyl V-ATPase have stoichiometries of 2, under zero-load conditions. As DpH increases, the stoichiometry of the nitrate-sensitive fruit V-ATPase decreases to 1. Under similar conditions, the stoichiometry of the epicotyl enzyme remains 2. Thus, the pH-dependent variable stoichiometry of the lemon-fruit V-ATPase may represent a key factor in juice sac vacuolar hyperacidification. On the other hand, the H+ /ATP stoichiometry of the epicotyl V-ATPase can decrease from 2 to 1 in the presence of a membrane potential. The low pH of the fruit vacuole is not due solely to the lower H+/ATP stoichiometry of its pump. We show that lumenal citrate and malate improve the coupling of both the epicotyl and fruit V-ATPases and enhance their ability to generate a pH gradient. Since citrate accumulation is restricted to fruit vacuoles, it may be another important determinant of vacuolar pH. PMID:11891579

Müller, M L; Taiz, L



Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.  


This article aims to determine the phenolic, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant capacities from fruits (juices, peels, and seed oils) of 6 Tunisian pomegranate ecotypes. Total anthocyanins were determined by a differential pH method. Hydrolyzable tannins were determined with potassium iodate. The tocopherol (?-tocopherol, ?-tocopherol, and ?-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 165.77, 107.38, and 27.29 mg/100 g from dry seed. Four phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in pomegranate peel and pulp using the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method: 2 hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic and ellagic acids) and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and p-coumaric acids). Juice, peel, and seed oil antioxidants were confirmed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The highest values were recorded in peels with 25.63 mmol trolox equivalent/100 g and 22.08 mmol TE/100 g for FRAP and ORAC assay, respectively. Results showed that the antioxidant potency of pomegranate extracts was correlated with their phenolic compound content. In particular, the highest correlation was reported in peels. High correlations were also found between peel hydroxybenzoic acids and FRAP ORAC antioxidant capacities. Identified tocopherols seem to contribute in major part to the antioxidant activity of seed oil. The results implied that bioactive compounds from the peel might be potential resources for the development of antioxidant function dietary food. PMID:22417416

Elfalleh, Walid; Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Yahia, Yassine; Hannachi, Hédia; Chaira, Nizar; Ying, Ma; Ferchichi, Ali



Melanogenesis-inhibitory saccharide fatty acid esters and other constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni).  


Five new saccharide fatty acid esters, named nonioside P (3), nonioside Q (4), nonioside R (8), nonioside S (10), and nonioside T (14), and one new succinic acid ester, butyl 2-hydroxysuccinate (=4-butoxy-3-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid) (31), were isolated, along with 26?known compounds, including eight saccharide fatty acid esters, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 13, three hemiterpene glycosides, 15, 17, and 18, six iridoid glycosides, 21-25, and 27, and nine other compounds, 20, 28, 29, and 32-37, from a MeOH extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni). Upon evaluation of these and five other glycosidic compounds, 11, 16, 19, 26, and 30, from M. citrifolia fruit extract for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), most of the saccharide fatty acid esters, hemiterpene glycosides, and iridoid glycosides showed inhibitory effects with no or almost no toxicity to the cells. These compounds were further evaluated with respect to their cytotoxic activities against two human cancer cell lines (HL-60 and AZ521) and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. PMID:22700235

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tochizawa, Shun; Takahashi, Nami; Yamamoto, Ayako; Zhang, Jie; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka



Effect of blanching, dehydration method and temperature on the ascorbic acid, colour, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit.  


Freshly harvested okra fruits were blanched in boiling water (with or without 0.2% sodium metablsulphite salt) and the effect of this treatment, dehydration methods and temperature on certain characteristics of okra investigated. Blanching resulted in the slight decrease in carbohydrate, fat, ash, colour components, ascorbic acid and viscosity. Besides this initial loss, blanching in sulphite solution led to the retention of more of the colour components and ascorbic acid during dehydration. All dehydrated okra samples had higher contents of carbohydrate, fat and ash but lesser contents of protein and ascorbic acid than fresh okra. Fresh okra fruits, on the other hand, had higher content of the colour pigments and were more viscous than all dehydrated products. Samples blanched prior to dehydration retained more of the colour components but were less viscous than unblanched samples. Vacuum dehydrated samples retained more ascorbic acid, colour pigment and mucilage at each of the dehydration temperatures than those from a hot air oven. High dehydration temperatures had negative effect on the colour, ascorbic acid and viscosity of okra. PMID:9713583

Inyang, U E; Ike, C I



No difference in fecal levels of bacteria or short chain fatty acids in humans, when consuming fruit juice beverages containing fruit fiber, fruit polyphenols, and their combination.  


This study examined the effect of a Boysenberry beverage (750 mg polyphenols), an apple fiber beverage (7.5 g dietary fiber), and a Boysenberry plus apple fiber beverage (750 mg polyphenols plus 7.5 g dietary fiber) on gut health. Twenty-five individuals completed the study. The study was a placebo-controlled crossover study, where every individual consumed 1 of the 4 treatments in turn. Each treatment phase was 4-week long and was followed by a 2-week washout period. The trial beverages were 350 g taken in 2 doses every day (ie, 175 mL taken twice daily). The hypothesis for the study was that the combination of polyphenols and fiber would have a greater benefit on gut health than the placebo product or the fiber or polyphenols on their own. There were no differences in fecal levels of total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Bifidobacteriumspecies, Clostridium perfringens, or Lactobacillus species among any of the treatment groups. Fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations did not vary among treatment groups, although prostaglandin E2 concentrations were higher after consumption of the Boysenberry juice beverage. No significant differences were found in quantitative measures of gut health between the Boysenberry juice beverage, the apple fiber beverage, the Boysenberry juice plus apple fiber beverage, and the placebo beverage. PMID:25530011

Wallace, Alison J; Eady, Sarah L; Hunter, Denise C; Skinner, Margot A; Huffman, Lee; Ansell, Juliet; Blatchford, Paul; Wohlers, Mark; Herath, Thanuja D; Hedderley, Duncan; Rosendale, Douglas; Stoklosinski, Halina; McGhie, Tony; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Redman, Claire



Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates for the microextraction of bisphenol A from canned vegetables and fruits.  


Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates were proposed for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from canned vegetables and fruits prior to its determination by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection at lambda(exc) = 276 nm and lambda(em) = 306 nm. The procedure involved the extraction of minute quantities (300-700 mg) of homogenized food sample with an aqueous solution containing 10% of THF and 0.5% of decanoic acid, conditions under which the coacervate (around 340 microL) formed in situ and instantaneously. The overall sample treatment, which included extraction and centrifugation, took about 25-30 min, and several samples could be simultaneously treated using conventional lab equipment. No clean-up or solvent evaporation were required. Extraction efficiencies mainly depended on the decanoic acid and THF concentration in the aqueous solution and were not affected by the pH or the temperature in the ranges studied (1-4 and 20-60 degrees C, respectively). Recoveries in samples ranged between about 81 and 96%. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, was about 3% and the quantitation limit was around 9 ng g(-1), which was far below the current specific migration limit (SML) set for BPA by the EU Commission (600 ng g(-1)). The method was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in the solid content of canned fruit salad, peaches in syrup, mango slices, red peppers, sweetcorn, green beans and peas. BPA was present at concentrations in the range from 7.8 to 24.4 ng g(-1) in canned fruits and from 55 to 103 ng g(-1) in canned vegetables. PMID:18486640

García-Prieto, Amalia; Lunar, Loreto; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores



Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.  


Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan



Selective suppression of cervical cancer Hela cells by 2- O -?- d -glucopyranosyl- l -ascorbic acid isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine and dietary supplement for centuries. 2-O-?-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2?G), a novel stable vitamin C analog, is one of the main biologically active components of the fruit.\\u000a In this report, we investigated the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of AA-2?G against cancer cells in vitro and identified\\u000a the proteins with significantly differential

Zhiping Zhang; Xiaoming Liu; Tao Wu; Junhong Liu; Xu Zhang; Xueyun Yang; Michael J. Goodheart; John F. Engelhardt; Yujiong Wang



Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.  


Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs. PMID:16332121

Pätzold, Ralf; Brückner, Hans



Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.  


Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo



Effect of tannic acid on iron absorption in straw-colored fruit bats(Eidolon helvum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. It is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; however, manufacturing a diet with commonly available foodst...


Changes in ascorbic acid, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. ‘Gialla’) were manually peeled, then placed in plastic boxes sealed with a film with high permeability to gases, and kept at 4°C for 9 days. After 3, 6 and 9 days, chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters, total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were determined. In-package gas concentrations were measured almost

A Piga; A. Del Caro; I Pinna; M Agabbio



Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on low temperature acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch.  


Various pre-treatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre prior to acid hydrolysis has been evaluated. The main objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonic pre-treatment could function as a pre-treatment method for the acid hydrolysis of OPEFB fibre at a low temperature and pressure. Hydrolysis at a low temperature was studied using 2% sulphuric acid; 1:25 solid liquid ratio and 100 degrees C operating temperature. A maximum xylose yield of 58% was achieved when the OPEFB fibre was ultrasonicated at 90% amplitude for 45min. In the absence of ultrasonic pre-treatment only 22% of xylose was obtained. However, no substantial increase of xylose formation was observed for acid hydrolysis at higher temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C on ultrasonicated OPEFB fibre. The samples were then analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to describe the morphological changes of the OPEFB fibre. The SEM observations show interesting morphological changes within the OPEFB fibre for different acid hydrolysis conditions. PMID:20719502

Yunus, Robiah; Salleh, Shanti Faridah; Abdullah, Nurhafizah; Biak, Dyg Radiah Awg



Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).  


Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%). PMID:24630370

Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J



Acid adaptation and temperature effect on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in acidic fruit juice and lactic fermented milk product.  


In this study, two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, (ATCC 43889 and ATCC 43895) were acid adapted at pH 5.0 in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 4 h. Commercial products of mango juice (pH 3.2), asparagus juice (pH 3.6), Yakult--a diluted milk fermented drink (pH 3.6), and low-fat yoghurt (pH 3.9) were inoculated with acid-adapted or nonadapted cells of E. coli O157:H7. Survival of the inoculated E. coli O157:H7 in these commercial food products during storage at 25 or 7 degrees C was examined. It was found that although survival of the acid-adapted and nonadapted E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in asparagus juice during storage at 7 degrees C did not show marked difference, in general, acid adaptation and low temperature enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in both the commercial fruit juices tested. On the contrary, acid adaptation reduced the survival of both the strains of the test organism in Yakult and low-fat yoghurt stored at 7 degrees C. Besides, E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 survived longer than ATCC 43889 in all the products examined, regardless of the storage temperature and acid adaptation. PMID:11759757

Hsin-Yi, C; Chou, C C



Suppression of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase, Which Encodes a Key Enzyme in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis, Alters Fruit Texture in Transgenic Tomato1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), ?-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-?-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp). PMID:22108525

Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping



HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Profile, Nutritive Content, and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Punica granatum Fruit Peel  

PubMed Central

This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE) and the water extract (AQPE) were ranged from 185?±?12.45 to 298.00?±?24.86?mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/gm and 23.05?±?1.54 to 49.8?±?2.14 quercetin (QE) mg/g, respectively. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 100 µg/ml (0.38 quercetin equivalents), for AQPE, 168 µg/ml (0.80 quercetin equivalents), for MPE. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated by chromatographic (HPLC) method. About 5 different flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives including quercetin (1), rutin (2), gallic acid (3), ellagic acid (4), and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (5) have been identified. Among both extracts, methanolic extract was the most effective. This report may be the first to show nutritive content and correlation analysis to suggest that phenols and flavonoids might contribute the high antioxidant activity of this fruit peel and establish it as a valuable natural antioxidant source applicable in the health food industry. PMID:23983682

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena



Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

PubMed Central

1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild. 2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments. 3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost. PMID:19081752

Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carey, James R.; Zwaan, Bas J.



Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.  


Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information. PMID:20013479

Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat



Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits.  


Studies were conducted to assess glacial acetic acid (GAA) with various host plant volatiles (HPVs) and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8, 10-dodecadien-1-ol, of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), as lures in traps for tortricid pests that often co-occur in tree fruits in the western United States. In addition to codling moth, field trapping studies were conducted with oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the eyespotted budmoth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller). HPVs included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, (E)-?-ocimene, (E)-?-farnesene, and farnesol. Three types of GAA co-lures differing in a 10-fold range in weekly evaporation rates were tested. The evaporation rate of GAA co-lures was an important factor affecting moth catches. The highest rate tested captured fewer codling moth but more leafrollers and eyespotted budmoth. GAA co-lures caught both sexes of each species. The field life of butyl hexanoate and (E)-?-ocimene lures were much shorter than pear ester or sex pheromone lures. Adding GAA to pear ester or to (E)-?-ocimene significantly increased the catches of only codling moth or oriental fruit moth, respectively. Combining pear ester or (E)-?-ocimene with GAA did not affect the catch of either species compared with the single more attractive HPV. Adding HPVs to GAA did not increase the catches of either leafroller species or eyespotted budmoth. Traps baited with pear ester, sex pheromone, and GAA for monitoring codling moth were also effective in classifying pest pressure of both leafroller species within orchards. PMID:25268327

Knight, A L; Hilton, R; Basoalto, E; Stelinski, L L



Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.  


Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally or rectally prior to ulcer induction. BEC (10 mg/Kg), prednisolone (5 mg/Kg), hydrocortisone acetate enema (20 mg/Kg) and normal saline (5 mL/Kg) were considered as respective controls. The tissue was assessed macroscopically for damage scores, area, index and weight/length ratio. They were also examined histopathologically for inflammation extent and severity, crypt damage, invasion involvement and total colitis index. Results indicated that greater doses of oral BFE (750, 1500 mg/Kg) as well as BEC (10 mg/Kg) were effective to protect against colonic damage. By rectal pretreatment, the extract was only effective to diminish the ulcer index and the efficacy was not significant for mucosal inflammation parameters. In conclusion BFE, which is nearly devoid of berberine, was effective to protect against colitis and this might be attributed to its anthocyanin constituents. PMID:24363687

Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham



Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally or rectally prior to ulcer induction. BEC (10 mg/Kg), prednisolone (5 mg/Kg), hydrocortisone acetate enema (20 mg/Kg) and normal saline (5 mL/Kg) were considered as respective controls. The tissue was assessed macroscopically for damage scores, area, index and weight/length ratio. They were also examined histopathologically for inflammation extent and severity, crypt damage, invasion involvement and total colitis index. Results indicated that greater doses of oral BFE (750, 1500 mg/Kg) as well as BEC (10 mg/Kg) were effective to protect against colonic damage. By rectal pretreatment, the extract was only effective to diminish the ulcer index and the efficacy was not significant for mucosal inflammation parameters. In conclusion BFE, which is nearly devoid of berberine, was effective to protect against colitis and this might be attributed to its anthocyanin constituents. PMID:24363687

Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham



Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 ?g/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 ?g/ml and 15.88 ?g/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:23110485



Effects of ingested fruiting bodies, submerged culture biomass, and acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan of Tremella mesenterica Retz.:Fr. on glycemic responses in normal and diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom polysaccharides have been shown to regulate glucose metabolism. Using male Wistar rats injected with saline (normal rats), streptozotocin (STZ?NT rats), or streptozotocin plus nicotinamide (STZ+NT rats), we investigated the hypoglycemic activity of orally ingested fruiting bodies (FB), submerged culture biomass (CM), or the acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible jelly mushroom. Our results demonstrated that FB

Hui-Chen Lo; Fu-Ann Tsai; Solomon P. Wasser; Jyuer-Ger Yang; Bu-Miin Huang



Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...


Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) Fruits: Comparision of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoids profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and to compare various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, querceti...


Determination of Shikimic Acid in Fruits of Illicium Species and Various Other Plant Samples by LC-UV and LC-ESI-MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple and specific analytical method for the quantitative determination of shikimic acid from the methanol extract of the fruits of Illicium species and from various plant samples was developed. The LC–UV separation was achieved by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column with potassium dihy...


The occurrence of abscisic acid in inhibitors B 1 and C from immature fruit of Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) and in commercial carob syrup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of abscisic acid in the inhibitors B1 and C from immature carob fruit, whole and minus seed, has been established by thin-layer and gas chromatography and by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Abscisic acid has been identified in commercial carob syrup by the same means. Most, if not all, of the growth inhibitory activity in these fractions is accounted

B. H. Most; P. Gaskin; J. MacMillan



Procerenone: a Fatty Acid Triterpenoid from the Fruit Pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum (Sapotaceae).  


Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the fruit pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum which exhibited antiplasmodial activity during preliminary screening led to the isolation of the new fatty ester triterpenoid 3?-hexadecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1), together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of the new compound as well as those of the known compounds was established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 1- 4 were evaluated in-vitro for their cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines and antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi (species responsible for human malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively). The tested compounds showed weak to moderate antiprotozoal activity and, no significant effect was detected regarding their cytotoxic potency. PMID:25587333

Ngamgwe, Rosine Fotsing; Yankam, Raoul; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Lanz, Christian; Furrer, Julien; Schürch, Stefan; Kaiser, Marcel; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Brenneisen, Rudolf



An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.  


The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. PMID:25382689

Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H



Procerenone: a Fatty Acid Triterpenoid from the Fruit Pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum (Sapotaceae)  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the fruit pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum which exhibited antiplasmodial activity during preliminary screening led to the isolation of the new fatty ester triterpenoid 3?-hexadecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1), together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of the new compound as well as those of the known compounds was established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 1- 4 were evaluated in-vitro for their cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines and antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi (species responsible for human malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively). The tested compounds showed weak to moderate antiprotozoal activity and, no significant effect was detected regarding their cytotoxic potency. PMID:25587333

Ngamgwe, Rosine Fotsing; Yankam, Raoul; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Lanz, Christian; Furrer, Julien; Schürch, Stefan; Kaiser, Marcel; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Brenneisen, Rudolf



An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4–8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1?S-1?-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n?=?34; placebo: n?=?32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets containing preparations of pomegranate fruit extract and rhizome of greater galangal. Trial Registration NCT01357044 PMID:25275520

Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T.; Fedder, Jens



Nephroprotective effect of date fruit extract against dichloroacetic acid exposure in adult rats.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous date extract (ADE) on dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced nephrotoxicity. In vitro, total phenolic content estimated in the ADE were 417.71mg gallic acid equivalents/100g fresh weights (FW), while total flavonoid and tannins contents were 285.23 and 73.65mg catechin equivalents/100g FW, respectively. The ADE has strong scavenging activity. Ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids are the major's compounds. Nephrotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of 0.5 and 2g/L DCA as drinking water. Some of these rats received also by gavage ADE (4mL/kg) before the administration of DCA. After two months of experiment, DCA administration caused elevated levels of renal MDA, significant depletion of GSH levels, altered the antioxidant enzyme activities and deteriorated the renal functions as assessed by the increased plasma urea, uric acid and creatinine levels compared to control rats. The treatment with the ADE significantly normalized the increased plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid, reduced the elevated MDA levels, significantly normalized the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level and restored the altered kidney histology in rats treated with DCA. Therefore, it was speculated that ADE protects rats from kidney damage through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:24394489

El Arem, Amira; Thouri, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi



Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage. PMID:24914296

Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.



[Phenolic acid intake of adults in a Bavarian subgroup of the national food consumption survey].  


Phenolic acids, essentially hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids, are secondary plant products and commonly found in plant derived foodstuff. The antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties of phenolic acids could be one of the facts to explain the inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and the incidence of coronary heart disease and cancer, respectively, as found in epidemiologic studies. Phenolic acids are rarely listed in food composition tables and there are no dietary intake data available. Consequently, a data base containing the phenolic acid content of foods (literatur data) was built and 7-d dietary protocols of 63 women and 56 men of a Bavarian subpopulation (age 19-49 years) of the German National Food Consumption Survey (NVS) were evaluated. The average phenolic acid intake of men and women is 222 mg/d within a large range. The dominating one within all the phenolic acids is clearly caffeic acid (206 mg/d); the intake of the other phenolic acids amounts to 0.2 (gentisic acid) up to 5.2 mg/d (ellagic acid). The sum of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids amounts to 11 mg/d and 211 mg/d, respectively. Significant sex differences are found for some of the phenolic acids. Especially, the average intake of caffeic acid of women (229 mg/d) is higher than that of men (179 mg/d) caused by the high amount of coffee consumption. The age group "25-49 years" is consuming more coffee than the age group "19-24 years" and, therefore, reveals a significantly higher intake of caffeic acid. The major sources of phenolic acids are coffee with 92% of the caffeic acid intake and fruits (including fruit products and juices) with 75% of the salycilic acid and 59% of the p-coumaric acid intake. Consequently, phenolic acids are consumed in considerable amounts with food. Since antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties of phenolic acids are already proven in in vitro as well as in animal experiments, epidemiologic studies will show whether a high phenolic acid intake goes ahead with a reduced risk for coronary heart disease or cancer in humans. PMID:9698647

Radtke, J; Linseisen, J; Wolfram, G




EPA Science Inventory

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed o...


Free amino acid profiles in reproductive and rind portions of cotton fruiting bodies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, nutrition, particularly in terms of amino acids found in its principle reproductive plant host (plants that enable boll weevil reproduction by supplying the nutrients and sites for development to adulthood) is not well understood. However, it is know...


Sensory interpretation of instrumental measurements 2: sweet and acid taste of apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between objective and sensory measurements of apple taste and flavour was investigated. The aim was to determine the objective parameters that were best correlated with sensory evaluation, and then to identify the minimum objective difference that was required before a trained sensory panellist could detect a difference in apple taste and\\/or flavour. Objective measures included titratable acidity, °Brix

F. R. Harker; K. B. Marsh; H. Young; S. H. Murray; F. A. Gunson; S. B. Walker



The Effect of Ethylene and Propylene Pulses on Respiration, Ripening Advancement, Ethylene-Forming Enzyme, and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Avocado Fruit 12  

PubMed Central

When early-season avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) were treated with ethylene or propylene for 24 hours immediately on picking, the time to the onset of the respiratory climacteric, i.e. the lag period, remained unchanged compared with that in untreated fruit. When fruit were pulsed 24 hours after picking, on the other hand, the lag period was shortened. In both cases, however, a 24 hour ethylene or propylene pulse induced a transient increase in respiration, called the pulse-peak, unaccompanied by ethylene production (IL Eaks [1980] Am Soc Hortic Sci 105: 744-747). The pulse also caused a sharp rise in ethylene-forming enzyme activity in both cases, without any increase in the low level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity. Thus, the shortening of the lag period by an ethylene pulse is not due to an effect of ethylene on either of the two key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. A comparison of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide profiles of in vitro translation products of poly(A+) mRNA from control and ethylene-pulsed fruit showed both up- and down-regulation in response to ethylene pulsing of a number of genes expressed during the ripening syndrome. It is proposed that the pulse-peak or its underlying events reflect an intrinsic element in the ripening process that in late-season or continuously ethylene-treated fruit may be subsumed in the overall climacteric response. A computerized system that allows continuous readout of multiple samples has established that the continued presentation of exogeneous ethylene or propylene to preclimacteric fruit elicits a dual respiration response comprising the merged pulse-peak and climacteric peak in series. The sequential removal of cores from a single fruit has proven an unsatisfactory sampling procedure inasmuch as coring induces wound ethylene, evokes a positive respiration response, and advances ripening. PMID:16668073

Starrett, David A.; Laties, George G.



Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.  


Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. PMID:23299756

Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A



Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.  


A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500?gL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100?gL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100?gL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3?gL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad



Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee



Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee




Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid content of dried pulp and kernels of Acrocomia intumescens palm fruits grown in the Northeast region of Brazil was determined to be about 34.6 and 49.2.6%, respectively. The hexane extracted oils from these parts showed refractive indices - 1.4427 and 1.4310, specific gravity - 0.9012 and 0.9213, peroxide - 2.96 and 1.37, acid - 1.5 and 2.1, iodine

P. S. Bora; R. V. M. Rocha



Two Pear Glutathione S-Transferases Genes Are Regulated during Fruit Development and Involved in Response to Salicylic Acid, Auxin, and Glucose Signaling  

PubMed Central

Two genes encoding putative glutathione S-transferase proteins were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated PpGST1 and PpGST2. The deduced PpGST1 and PpGST2 proteins contain conserved Glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain (GST_N) and Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain (GST_C). Using PCR amplification technique, the genomic clones corresponding to PpGST1 and PpGST2 were isolated and shown to contain two introns and a singal intron respectively with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that PpGST1 belonged to Phi class of GST superfamilies and had high homology with apple MdGST, while PpGST2 was classified into the Tau class of GST superfamilies. The expression of PpGST1 and PpGST2 genes was developmentally regulated in fruit. Further study demonstrated that PpGST1 and PpGST2 expression was remarkably induced by glucose, salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) treatments in pear fruit, and in diseased fruit. These data suggested that PpGST1 and PpGST2 might be involved in response to sugar, SA, and IAA signaling during fruit development of pear. PMID:24587129

Shi, Hai-Yan; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Xing; Chen, Liang; Xiang, Di-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Feng



Comprehensive insights on how 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid retards senescence in post-harvest citrus fruits using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches  

PubMed Central

Auxin-like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a high-efficiency anti-stalling agent for the post-harvest fresh fruit industry, has had its use restricted due to environmental concerns. However, no other substitutes for 2,4-D are available to the post-harvest industry. Insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of 2,4-D on fruit quality preservation will provide a theoretical basis for exploring new safe and effective anti-stalling agents. This study comprehensively analysed changes in the peel of Olinda Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] induced by 500 ppm 2,4-D using ‘omic’-driven approaches. Transcriptional profiling revealed that transcriptional factor (mainly AP2/ERF, WRKY, and NAC family members), transport, and hormone metabolism genes were over-represented and up-regulated within 24h post-treatment (HPT). Stress defence genes were up-regulated, while cell wall metabolism genes were down-regulated after 48 HPT. However, secondary metabolism genes, especially phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis-related genes, were over-represented at all the time points. Comparative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of proteins implicated in stress responses (25%), hormone metabolism, and signal transduction (12%) significantly accumulated at the post-transcriptional level. Hormone levels detected by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 2,4-D significantly increased, while ethylene production (detected by gas chromatography) decreased after 2,4-D treatment. In addition, lignin and water content in the fruit peel also increased and the epicuticle wax ultrastructure was modified. In conclusion, 2,4-D retarded fruit senescence by altering the levels of many endogenous hormones and by improving stress defence capabilities by up-regulating defence-related genes and proteins. PMID:24215076

Cheng, Yunjiang



Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models  

PubMed Central

Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid. PMID:23248562

Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.



Sulfur-containing constituents and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative from pineapple [ Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sulfur-containing compounds, (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-carboxy-2-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)allylthio)ethyl-amino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (1) and (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-(carboxymethylamino)-3-((E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)allylthio)-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (2), and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative, 6-(3-(1H-pyrrole-2-carbonyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid (3), together with eighteen known phenolic compounds, were isolated from the fruits of pineapple. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. Some of these compounds showed inhibitory activities against tyrosinase. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values of compounds 1, 4,

Zong-Ping Zheng; Jinyu Ma; Ka-Wing Cheng; Jianfei Chao; Qin Zhu; Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang; Ming Zhao; Zhi-Xiu Lin; Mingfu Wang



RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini



Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.  


In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment. PMID:24662312

Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E



New polyglucopyranosyl and polyarabinopyranosyl of fatty acid derivatives from the fruits of Lycium chinense and its antioxidant activity.  


Four new compounds 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid 3-octadecanoyl-4-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl (2a?1b)-2a-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside (1), 2,6,10-trimethyl-n-dodec-2-en-1-oyl-1-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2d?1e)-2d-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2e?1f)-2e-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2f?1g)-2f-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside (2), n-docos-9,12-dienoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2d?1e)-2d-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2e?1f)-2e-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), ?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2d?1e)-2d-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(2e?1f)-2e-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside (4) along with some know compounds, were isolated and identified from a methanol extract Lycium chinense fruits. Their structures were determined of the new compounds using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies in combination by IR, FAB/MS and HR-FAB/MS. The compounds 1-4 were investigated for the antioxidant potential using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the phosphomolybdenum activity and the results demonstrate that the compounds (2 and 3) has potential as a natural antioxidant whereas the compound (4) exhibited moderate activity and the compound (1) exhibited weak antioxidant activity. PMID:24423554

Chung, Ill-Min; Ali, Mohd; Praveen, Nagella; Yu, Bo-Ra; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Ahmad, Ateeque



The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites  

PubMed Central

In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant. PMID:25153628

Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei



Protective effects of an acidic polysaccharide isolated from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum against murine hepatic injury induced by Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum were extracted with chloroform followed by hot water, from which an acidic polysaccharide named GLAa was separated and purified\\u000a using 10% CCl3COOH followed by column chromatography on DE-52 cellulose and Toyopearl HW-65. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed\\u000a that GLAa was composed of Glc, Gal, Man and Fuc (1:0.013:0.009:0.024), in which ?-d-(1?6)-Glc, ?-d-(1?3)-Glc and ?-d-(1?4)-Glc linkages

Hao-Feng Han; Norio Nakamura; Masao Hattori



Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of 6?,7?–dihydroxy-vouacapan-17?-oic acid isolated from Pterodon emarginatus Vog. fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

6?,7?-dihydroxy-vouacapan-17?-oic (tricyclic furanoid diterpene; DHVO) acid was isolated from the hexane extract of Pterodon emarginatus fruits and evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects using an assay that induces paw oedema with carrageenan,\\u000a dextran and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in rats and the writhing and formalin tests in mice. Oral administration of 50 mg\\/kg DHVO significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced\\u000a oedema formation by 24% (p < 0.05).

Camila Benatti Galceran; Jayme Antonio Aboin Sertie; Clarissa Silva Lima; José Carlos Tavares Carvalho



Terpenes and sterols from the fruits of Prunus mume and their inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation by suppressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity.  


The fruits of Prunus mume are a common commercial product and a valuable source of food and medicinal material in Eastern Asian countries. Our phytochemical investigation of the P. mume fruit led to the isolation of nine terpenes, including three ursane-type triterpenes (1-3), two cycloartane-type triterpenes (4 and 5), and four tocopherols (10-13), as well as four sterols (6-9). Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and ESI-MS, and the majority of these compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The anti-osteoporosis activities of 1-13 were evaluated by measuring their inhibitory effects on tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 2-7 and 9-12 significantly suppressed TRAP activity down to 47.96 ± 2.45-86.45 ± 3.07 % relative to the control at a concentration of 1 ?M. These results suggest that the fruits of P. mume could be an excellent source of anti-osteoporosis phytochemicals that may be developed as natural nutraceuticals and functional foods. PMID:24771352

Yan, Xi-Tao; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Li, Wei; Jang, Hae-Dong; Kim, Young-Ho



The antioxidant potency of Punica granatum L. Fruit peel reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on breast cancer.  


Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to possess pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant and anticancer. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potency of a methanolic pomegranate fruit peel extract (PPE) and the relation with its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of PPE were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau and the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl free radical methods, respectively. Phenolic acids present in the extract were characterized by a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Cell proliferation was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. The apoptotic effects were determined by in situ Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The extraction yield as a percentage of plant material was 37.97% (wt/wt), and total phenolic content was 331.28 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract. According to HPLC analysis, the most abundant phenolic acid detected in the extract was ellagic acid. MCF-7 cell proliferation decreased depending on PPE concentration (25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 ?g/mL) and incubation times (24, 48, and 72 hours). After 48 and 72 hours, the apoptotic cell numbers were significantly increased at 100, 200, and 300 ?g/mL PPE concentrations. In addition, expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was increased, and that of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 was decreased after 200 and 300 ?g/mL PPE treatment for 48 and 72 hours. Because PPE reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cancer cells, we believe that PPE has important antioxidant and apoptotic effects. PMID:21861726

Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgün; Ozturk, Yusuf



The concentration of some metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) and delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) living near lead and zinc smelter ``Trepça'' in Kosova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu, ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALA-D: EC. hemoglobin and protein amount have been determined in three different populations of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) caught at two urban sites (Mitrovica town, which is situated close to smelter of “Trepça” don close and Prishtina the capital of Kosova) and in Luki village as uncontaminated area. The results show that in the fruit fly of Mitrovica the concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn was significantly higher (P<0.00l) in comparison with that on the f-Liit fly of Prishtina and Luki. The concentration of Pb of fruit fly from Mitrovica was 3.1 times higher in comparison with that on fruit fly of Prishtina and 4.9 times higher in comparison with uncontaminated group of fruit fly. The ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited in the homogenate of fruit fly from Mitrovica in comparison with Prishtina and Luki localities (P<0.00l). ALA-D activity was also inhibited in the homogenate of Prishtina fruit fly in comparison with Luki group (P<0.00l). The amount of proteins was significantly lower in Mitrovica fruit fly in comparison with that in control and Prishtina group. The hemoglobin value was relatively unchanged.

Elezaj, I. R.; Letaj, K. Rr.; Selimi, Q. I.; Zhushi-Etemi, F.



Gene Expression and Metabolite Profiling of Developing Highbush Blueberry Fruit Indicates Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Metabolism and Activation of Abscisic Acid Metabolism1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3?-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3?5?-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of blueberry flavonoid biosynthesis. PMID:22086422

Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Zaharia, L. Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P.; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Kennedy, James A.; Constabel, C. Peter



Fruit Flavor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...


Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...


Effects of irrigation regimes on fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antifungal properties of volatiles from fruits of Koroneiki cultivar grown under Tunisian conditions.  


The olive tree is generally grown under rain-fed conditions. However, since the yield response to irrigation is great, even with low amounts of water, there is increasing interest in irrigated agriculture. The main goal of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes on olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Koroneiki) obtained from an intensively-managed orchard in a semi-arid area with a Mediterranean climate in Tunisia. Different irrigation treatments 50% ETc, 75% ETc and 100% ETc were applied to the olive orchard. Accordingly, the effects of three irrigation regimes on volatile compounds, fatty acid composition and biological activities of Koroneiki cultivar were studied. The total profile of the volatile constituents of all samples revealed the predominance of 3-ethenylpyridine (from 14.9-19.6%), phenylethyl alcool (from 7.8-19.2%) and benzaldehyde (from 9.0 to 13.8%). During watering level treatments studied, the major fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic. Antioxidant activity of the fresh fruit volatiles cultivated at a watering level of 100% ETc was higher than that obtained under 50 and 75% Etc. The results of antifungal activity showed that the fruits volatiles of the three irrigation treatments had varying degrees of growth inhibition against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24511688

Brahmi, Faten; Chehab, Hechmi; Flamini, Guido; Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Mastouri, Maha; Hammami, Mohamed



Iron-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and reduction of cytosolic aconitase activity in Citrus fruit vesicles and calli.  


Aconitase, which catalyses the conversion of citrate into isocitrate, requires Fe for its activity. The yeast and animal enzyme loses its enzymatic activity under Fe shortage and binds to RNA of genes involved in Fe homeostasis, altering their expression. Thus, the enzyme provides a regulatory link between organic acid metabolism and Fe cellular status. Roots and leaves of Fe-deficient plants show induction in organic acids, especially citrate. Although no RNA-binding activity has been so far demonstrated for the plant aconitase, whether alternations in enzyme activity by Fe could play a role in this induction remain unanswered. This question was investigated in lemon fruit [Citrus limon (L.) Burm var Eureka], characterized by the accumulation of citrate to about 0.3 M in the juice vesicles cells (pulp). Calli and isolated juice vesicles showed two- to three-fold induction in citrate level when subjected to Fe shortage. The mRNA level of aconitase exhibited no changes under reduced Fe concentrations. Analysis of aconitase isozymes demonstrated that out of two aconitase isozymes, typically detected in citrus fruit, only the cytosolic form displayed a reduced activity under low Fe concentrations. Our data support the notion of a limited Fe-availability-induced reduction in cytosolic aconitase, resulting in a slower rate of citrate breakdown and a concomitant increase in citrate levels. PMID:18251926

Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Marsh, Ken; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi



The antimicrobial activity of fruits from some cultivar varieties of Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis.  


Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid. PMID:25131001

Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Ha?asa, R; G?ód, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orze?, A



Sensitive Determination of Taurine, ?-Aminobutyric Acid and Ornithine in Wolfberry Fruit and Cortex Lycii by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection and Online Mass Spectrometry Identification.  


A new, simple and highly sensitive method for the determination of taurine, ?-aminobutyric acid and ornithine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection is described. Three non-protein amino acids were derivatized by a novel precolumn derivatization reagent 2-[2-(dibenzocarbazol)-ethoxy]ethyl chloroformate before injected. Optimum derivatization was obtained at 40°C for 5 min in the presence of sodium borate buffer (pH 9.0). Derivatives were sufficiently stable to be efficiently analyzed by HPLC without pretreatment. On a reversed-phase Hypersil BDS C8 column, the amino acids were separated in conjunction with a gradient elution with a good baseline resolution. The identification of derivatives was carried out by online postcolumn mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode. Excellent linear responses were observed with the correlation coefficients of >0.9996, and instrument detection limits (at a signal to noise of 3 : 1) were in the range of 0.30-0.33 nmol/L. The proposed method is sensitive and reproducible for the precise determination of the amino acids from wolfberry fruit and cortex lycii samples. PMID:24996656

Chen, Xiangming; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui; Fan, Baolei




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) vs. matted row (MR)] and genotypes interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid and citric acid content were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also ...


Pear 14-3-3a gene (Pp14-3-3a) is regulated during fruit ripening and senescense, and involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling.  


14-3-3 proteins play important roles in regulating plant development and phytohormone (abscisic acid, gibberellin and brassinosteroids) signalling. However, their regulation in fruit ripening and senescense, and response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling are yet to be illustrated. One cDNA encoding putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated Pp14-3-3a. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a belonged to ?-like group of 14-3-3 superfamilies. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Pp14-3-3a gene was developmentally regulated in the fruit. Further study demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a expression was inhibited by salicylic acid and induced by ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in pear fruit. These data suggested that Pp14-3-3a might be involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling during fruit ripening and senescence of pear. PMID:25572233

Shi, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuxing



Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.  


Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan



Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

The Jim Henson Company



Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.



Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amounts of flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (ellagic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids) were analysed in six strawberry cultivars and in the berries of genus Vaccinium (four blueberry cultivars, wild bilberry, wild bog whortleberry). Differences between strawberries from organic vs. conventional cultivation were investigated and the influence of geographical origin on phenolic compounds of strawberries and

Sari H Häkkinen; A. Riitta Törrönen



Efficient determination of protocatechuic acid in fruit juices by selective and rapid magnetic molecular imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC.  


Magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have been prepared as solid phase material to selectively extract protocatechuic acid (PCA) from fruit juices with high capacity and fast binding kinetics. The resulting MMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and VSM. The adsorption process between PCA and MMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 7.5 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding kinetics (equilibrium time at 40 min). In addition, the prepared MMIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and reusability (retained 94.9% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMIPs were successfully applied for selective enrichment and determination of PCA from fruit juices (0.45 ?g/mL in grape juice but not detected in apple juice, pineapple juice, orange juice, and peach juice) with satisfactory recoveries (92-107%). The results indicated that synthesized MMIPs can be used for efficient and selective extraction of PCA from complex matrices. PMID:25075753

Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun



Anti-allodynic and Anti-hyperalgesic effects of an ethanolic extract and xylopic acid from the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica in murine models of neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including headache and neuralgia. An animal model of vincristine-induced sensory neuropathy was developed after repeated intraperitoneal injection in rats and used in the present work to study the effects of the ethanolic extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and its diterpene xylopic acid (XA) in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Vincristine (0.1 mg kg-1 day-1) was administered during two cycles of five consecutive days to induce chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Static tactile anti-allodynic, anti-hyperalgesic, and cold anti-allodynic effects of XAE (30-300 mg kg-1) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1) were assessed using Von Frey filaments of bending forces of 4, 8, and 15 g, the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and cold water (4.5°C), respectively. Results: Administration of vincristine caused the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia with no significant motor deficit, spontaneous pain, and foot deformity. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1) exhibited anti-hyperalgesic, tactile, and cold anti-allodynic properties with XA exhibiting greater potency than XAE. Pregabalin (10-100 mg kg-1) used as control produced similar effect. Conclusion: These findings establish the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of the ethanolic fruit XAE and its major diterpene XA in vincristine-induced neuropathtic pain. PMID:24761123

Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Woode, Eric; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K.M.; Kyekyeku, James Oppong; Adosraku, Reimmel K.



Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mesoporous activated carbon prepared from H3PO4-activated langsat empty fruit bunch.  


The removal of toxic herbicide from wastewater is challenging due to the availability of suitable adsorbents. The Langsat empty fruit bunch is an agricultural waste and was used in this study as a cheap precursor to produce activated carbon for the adsorption of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at different initial concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mg/L. The produced Langsat empty fruit bunch activated carbon (LEFBAC) was mesoporous and had high surface area of 1065.65 m(2)/g with different active functional groups. The effect of shaking time, temperature and pH on 2,4-D removal were investigated using the batch technique. The adsorption capacity of 2,4-D by LEFBAC was decreased with increase in pH of solution whereas adsorption capacity increased with temperature. The adsorption data was well described by Langmuir isotherm followed by removal capacity of 261.2 mg/g at 30 °C. The results from this work showed that LEFBAC can be used as outstanding material for anionic herbicide uptake from wastewater. PMID:25721981

Njoku, V O; Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H



Salicylic acid, ethephon, and methyl jasmonate enhance ester regeneration in 1-MCP-treated apple fruit after long-term cold storage.  


Volatile esters, primarily synthesized in peel tissues, are major aromatic components of apple fruits [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The use of cold storage combined with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment prolongs the life of apples but represses the regeneration of esters during poststorage ripening. In this study, the regeneration of total esters was significantly increased in apple fruits treated with salicylic acid (SA) and Ethephon (ETH) that had been treated once or twice with 1-MCP. However, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment resulted in regeneration of total esters after a single 1-MCP treatment. To determine the mechanism by which SA, ETH, and MeJA regulate ester regeneration, the apple alcohol acyltransferase gene (MdAAT2) was investigated at the mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels. Genes associated with ethylene perception were also investigated by RT-PCR. The results suggest that MdAAT2 controls ester regeneration and that MdETR1 plays a key role in ethylene perception and regulation of downstream MdAAT2 gene expression during poststorage. Ester compounds and concentrations differed in peels treated with different signal molecules, indicating that regulation of the pathway upstream of straight-chain ester biosynthesis depended on the regulation of lipoxygenase (LOX) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity by SA, ETH, and MeJA during poststorage ripening. PMID:16719511

Li, Da-Peng; Xu, Yun-Feng; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Li-Xia; Hu, Xiao-Li; Li, De-Quan; Shu, Huai-Rui



A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.  


Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma for low pH or high acidity in apple. PMID:22806345

Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Li, Mingjun; Fazio, Gennaro; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong



Merging a sensitive capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection method with chemometric exploratory data analysis for the determination of phenolic acids and subsequent characterization of avocado fruit.  


Herein we present the development of a powerful CE-UV method able to detect and quantify an important number of phenolic acids in 13 varieties of avocado fruits at 2 ripening stages. All the variables involved in CE separation were exhaustively optimized and the best results were obtained with a capillary of 50 ?m i.d. × 50 cm effective length, sodium tetraborate 40 mM at a pH of 9.4, 30 kV, 25 °C, 10s of hydrodynamic injection (0.5 psi) and UV detection at 254 nm. This optimal methodology was fully validated and then applied to different avocado samples. The number of phenolic acids determined varied from 8 to 14 compounds; in general, they were in concentrations ranging from 0.13 ppm to 3.82 ppm, except p-coumaric, benzoic and protocatechuic acids, which were found at higher concentrations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to highlight the differences between varieties and ripening degrees, looking for the most influential analytes. PMID:23993512

Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto



Studies on the diagnosis of hop stunt viroid in fruit trees: Identification of new hosts and application of a nucleic acid extraction procedure based on non-organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-radioactive digoxigenin-labelled RNA probe specific for hop stunt viroid (HSVd) diagnosis has been developed. The high sensitivity and specificity of this RNA probe in dot blot hybridizations to nucleic acids from field samples, allowed the confirmation of the presence of HSVd in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and its detection in two fruit tree species not previously described as hosts

Nathalie Astruc; Jose F. Marcos; Guy Macquaire; Thierry Candresse; Vicente Pallfis



Oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys of rat exposed to trichloroacetic acid: protective role of date palm fruit.  


In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and protective properties of date fruit aqueous extract (DFAE) on trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Oral administration of TCA as drinking water (0.5 and 2 g/L) daily for 2 months caused nephrotoxicity as evident by elevated levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were increased along with histopathological injuries. The oral administration of DFAE (4 mL/kg/day) to TCA-treated groups proved some significant correction by increasing the antioxidant activity of the CAT and GPx enzymes and normalizing the SOD activity and the MDA level (p?

El Arem, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Thouri, Amira; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Ayed, Amel; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi



An Allele of the Ripening-Specific 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Gene (ACS1) in Apple Fruit with a Long Storage Life1  

PubMed Central

An allele of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene (Md-ACS1), the transcript and translated product of which have been identified in ripening apples (Malus domestica), was isolated from a genomic library of the apple cultivar, Golden Delicious. The predicted coding region of this allele (ACS1-2) showed that seven nucleotide substitutions in the corresponding region of ACS1-1 resulted in just one amino acid transition. A 162-bp sequence characterized as a short interspersed repetitive element retrotransposon was inserted in the 5?-flanking region of ACS1-2 corresponding to position ?781 in ACS1-1. The XhoI site located near the 3? end of the predicted coding region of ACS1-2 was absent from the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction product, revealing that exclusive transcription from ACS1-1 occurs during ripening of cv Golden Delicious fruit. DNA gel-blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses of genomic DNAs showed clearly that apple cultivars were either heterozygous for ACS1-1 and ACS1-2 or homozygous for each type. RNA gel-blot analysis of the ACS1-2 homozygous Fuji apple, which produces little ethylene and has a long storage life, demonstrated that the level of transcription from ACS1-2 during the ripening stage was very low. PMID:10198088

Sunako, Tomomi; Sakuraba, Wakako; Senda, Mineo; Akada, Shinji; Ishikawa, Ryuji; Niizeki, Minoru; Harada, Takeo



Structural characterization and bioactivity evaluation of an acidic proteoglycan extract from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies for PTP1B inhibition and anti-diabetes.  


A water-soluble PTP1B inhibitor, named FYGL-a, was fractionated for structure investigation and bioactivity evaluation. FYGL-a is an ingredient of a reported antihyperglycemia extract from Ganoderma Lucidum fruiting bodies. Composition analysis indicated that FYGL-a was a 100.2 kDa acidic proteoglycan, consisting of 85?±?2% heteropolysaccharide chain with rhamnose, galactose, glucose, and glucuronic acid residues in a mole ratio of 1.0:3.7:3.9:2.0, and the 15?±?2% protein moiety of FYGL-a was covalently bonded to the polysaccharide chain in O-linkage type via threonine residues. The complete sequence of FYGL-a was characterized systematically by periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, (1) H & (13) C 1D NMR, and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, COSY, & TOCSY). The chemical structure of FYGL-a was determined as following, which may play special role in the competitive inhibition of PTP1B and antihyperglycemia potency. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 613-623, 2014. PMID:24127303

Pan, Deng; Wang, Linqiang; Hu, Bingwen; Zhou, Ping



Antioxidant and Antiatherogenic Properties of Phenolic Acid and Flavonol Fractions of Fruits of 'Amari' and 'Hallawi' Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Varieties.  


Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. Two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'Amari' and 'Hallawi', by solid phase extraction on C18. The fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation, and enhancement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. All four fractions exhibited variable capacities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge radicals, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Flavonol fractions were considerably better inhibitors of LDL oxidation compared to phenolic acid fractions, with IC50's of 9-31 nmol GAE mL(-1) compared to 85-116 nmol GAE mL(-1), respectively. Only the flavonol fractions stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Within each subgroup, the levels of all the activities varied with fraction composition. The results demonstrated strong structure-activity relationships for date phenolics and identified date flavonols as potential antiatherogenic bioactives. PMID:25765921

Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael



Development and validation of a predictive model for the influences of selected product and process variables on ascorbic acid degradation in simulated fruit juice.  


A predictive response surface model for the influences of product (soluble solids and titratable acidity) and process (temperature and heating time) parameters on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AA) in heated simulated fruit juices (SFJs) was established. Physicochemical property ranges of freshly squeezed and processed juices, and a previously established decimal reduction times of Escherichiacoli O157:H7 at different heating temperatures were used in establishing a Central Composite Design of Experiment that determined the combinations of product and process variable used in the model building. Only the individual linear effects of temperature and heating time significantly (P<0.05) affected AA reduction (%AAr). Validating systems either over- or underestimated actual %AAr with bias factors 0.80-1.20. However, all validating systems still resulted in acceptable predictive efficacy, with accuracy factor 1.00-1.26. The model may be useful in establishing unique process schedules for specific products, for the simultaneous control and improvement of food safety and quality. PMID:25660889

Gabriel, Alonzo A; Cayabyab, Jochelle Elysse C; Tan, Athalie Kaye L; Corook, Mark Lester F; Ables, Errol John O; Tiangson-Bayaga, Cecile Leah P



The caffeoylquinic acid-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract increases insulin sensitivity and regulates hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic db/db mice.  


Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are widely distributed in various foods. While some CQAs have been shown to possess antihyperglycemic activities, whether it is beneficial for diabetes patients to ingest CQA-rich foods has still to be known. In this work, the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of CQA-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract (PTF) was investigated in diabetic db/db mice. Treatment with PTF (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased body weight and fasting glucose level, alleviated hyperinsulinism and hyperlipidemia and declined glucose area under the curve in oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test. The elevated levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines and islet hypertrophy in db/db mice were remarkably attenuated by PTF treatment. Biochemical analysis showed that administration of PTF significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt substract of 160 kDa (AS160), and enhanced the expression and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscles. It also increased the activity of hexokinase, decreased the expression of glucose 6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and switched the transcription of several key lipid metabolic genes in the liver, which, in turn, improved hepatic glucose and lipid profiles as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. Overall, the CQA-rich PTF is beneficial for the treatment of diabetes. It may alleviate hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia via activation of AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway in skeletal muscles and inhibition of gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in the liver. PMID:24629909

Wu, Chongming; Zhang, Xiaopo; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Wang, Xiaoliang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong



The Abundant Class III Chitinase Homolog in Young Developing Banana Fruits Behaves as a Transient Vegetative Storage Protein and Most Probably Serves as an Important Supply of Amino Acids for the Synthesis of Ripening-Associated Proteins1  

PubMed Central

Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a ?-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

Peumans, Willy J.; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L.; Van Damme, Els J.M.



The abundant class III chitinase homolog in young developing banana fruits behaves as a transient vegetative storage protein and most probably serves as an important supply of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins.  


Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a beta-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

Peumans, Willy J; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L; Van Damme, Els J M



Hydrophilic gallic acid-imprinted polymers over magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres with excellent molecular recognition ability in aqueous fruit juices.  


Hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for gallic acid (GA) were prepared with excellent recognition ability in an aqueous solution. The proposed MIPs were designed by self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on magnetic mesoporous silica (Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2, MMS) using GA as template. Resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2@MIPs (MMS-MIPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and evaluated by adsorption isotherms/kinetics and competitive adsorption. The adsorption behavior between GA and MMS-MIPs followed Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherms with a maximum adsorption capacity at 88.7mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding (equilibrium time at 100min). In addition, MMS-MIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10s) and stability (retained 95.2% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMS-MIPs were applied for the selective extraction and determination of GA from grape, apple, peach and orange juices (4.02, 3.91, 5.97, and 0.67?g/g, respectively). Generally, the described method may pave the way towards rationally designing more advanced hydrophilic MIPs. PMID:25722156

Hu, Xin; Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Li, Hui; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun



Aqueous thermal degradation of gallic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous thermal degradation experiments show gallic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic carboxylic compound, decomposes rapidly at temperatures between 105° and 150°C, with an activation energy of 22.9 or 27.8 kcal/ mole, depending on pH of the starting solution. Pyrogallol is the primary product identified, indicating degradation via decarboxylation and a carbanion transition state. Relatively rapid degradation of vanillic, phthalic, ellagic and tannic acids has also been observed, suggesting that these and perhaps other aromatic acids could be short-lived in deep formation waters.

Snow Boles, Jennifer; Crerar, David A.; Grissom, Grady; Key, Tonalee C.



Metabolism in orange fruits is driven by photooxidative stress in the leaves Florine Poiroux-Gonorda  

E-print Network

/glutathione cycle, as well as the contents in sugars, organic acids and carotenoids. Ascorbate peroxidase criteria in fruits accumulating carotenoids. Abbreviations ­ AA, ascorbate; ABA, abscisic acid; APXMetabolism in orange fruits is driven by photooxidative stress in the leaves Florine Poiroux

Boyer, Edmond


Aqueous date fruit extract protects against lipid peroxidation and improves antioxidant status in the liver of rats subchronically exposed to trichloroacetic acid.  


Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a prominent by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. It induces cell damage by producing free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective role of the aqueous date extract (ADE) against TCA-induced liver injury. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight: group I served as the control; group II was given ADE by gavage; groups III and IV received TCA as drinking water at 0.5 and 2 g/L, respectively; and groups V and VI were treated with ADE by gavage and then received TCA at 0.5 and 2 g/L, respectively, as drinking water. The experiment was performed for 2 months. The hepatotoxicity of TCA administration was revealed by an increase in the levels of hepatic marker enzymes (transaminases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and conjugated bilirubin and a decrease in albumin level. The TCA administration induced also significant elevation of the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) paralleled with a significant decline in catalase (CAT) activity. These biochemical alterations were accompanied by histological changes marked by the appearance of vacuolization, necrosis, congestion, inflammation, and enlargement of sinusoids in the liver section. Treatment with date palm fruit extract restored the liver damage induced by TCA, as demonstrated by inhibition of hepatic lipid peroxidation; amelioration of SOD, GPx, and CAT activities; and improvement of histopathology changes. These results suggest that ADE has a protective effect over TCA-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. PMID:24573459

El Arem, Amira; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Thouri, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Ayed, Amel; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi



Attenuating effect of standardized fruit extract of punica granatum L in rat model of tibial and sural nerve transection induced neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background Injury to a nerve is the most common reason of acquired peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, searching for effective substance to recover of nerve after injury is need of present era. The current study investigates the protective potential of Standardized Fruit Extract of Punica granatum L (PFE) [Ellagic acid (41.6%), Punicalagins (10%), Granatin (5.1%)] in Tibial & Sural Nerve Transection (TST) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods TST was performed by sectioning tibial and sural nerve portions of the sciatic nerve and leaving the common peroneal nerve intact. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate, paint brush & Walking Track tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical heat, hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia & tibial functional index respectively. The levels of TNF-?, TBARS, GSH and Nitrite were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation & oxidative stress. Results TST led to significant development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS, TNF-?, GSH and Nitrite. Administrations of PFE (100 & 300 mg/kg oral), significantly attenuate TST induced behavioral & biochemical changes. Pretreatments of BADGE (120 mg/kg IP) a PPAR-? antagonist and nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg IP) abolished the protective effect of PFE. Whereas, pretreatment of L-NAME (5 mg/kg IP) a NOS inhibitor significantly potentiated PFE’s protective effect of PFE. Conclusion PFE shown to have attenuating effect in TST induced neuropathic pain which may be attributed to potential PPAR-gamma agonistic activity, nitric oxide inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and anti oxidative actions. PMID:24499201



Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), glucose, fructose and

S. Fanasca; A. Martino; E. Heuvelink; C. Stanghellini



Antioxidant activity and profiles of common fruits in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight types of fruits commonly consumed in Singapore were systematically analysed for their hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) and various lipophilic antioxidants. Antioxidant composition and concentration varied widely across different fruits. Many of the tropical fruits tested were high in antioxidants. Amongst all fruits tested, sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) had the highest H-ORAC

Mia Isabelle; Bee Lan Lee; Meng Thiam Lim; Woon-Puay Koh; Dejian Huang; Choon Nam Ong



[Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].  


The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23808277

Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Ba?kov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Ba?garin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar



Effective purification of ellagic acid by successive automatic recrystallization and absolute determination of purity by absorptivity ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to the determination of absolute purity by repeated purifications with an automatic recrystallization method is proposed. A unique method for purity determination requiring no reference standards is developed and theoretical considerations are presented. This involves the measurement of spectrophotometric molar absorptivities of consecutively recrystallized samples and extrapolating the absorptivity to obtain ??, corresponding to the 100% pure

Osamu Nara



Pentacyclic triterpenoids from olive fruit and leaf.  


This work establishes a new procedure for the extraction and analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes, with which fruits and leaves from three Spanish olive cultivars ("Picual", "Hojiblanca", and "Arbequina") has been studied. The leaf contains important amounts of oleanolic acid (3.0-3.5% DW), followed by significant concentrations of maslinic acid and minor levels of ursolic acid, erythrodiol, and uvaol. The abundance and profile of triterpenoids change during the leaf ontogeny. In the fruit, triterpenes are exclusively located in the epicarp at concentrations 30-fold lower than that in the leaf. Maslinic acid is the main triterpenoid, only accompanied of oleanolic acid. Along the ripening the levels of these triterpenes decreased. All the analyzed leaves and fruits come from the same agricultural estate, with identical climate and culturing conditions. For this reason, the found differences could majorly be attributable to the genetic factors of the olive cultivars. PMID:20712364

Guinda, Angeles; Rada, Mirela; Delgado, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Adánez, Pilar; Castellano, José María



Studying Current-Potential Curves Using a Bipotentiometric Lodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voltammetry principles are introduced to students by means of a bipotentiometric method to determine vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. The aim is to draw attention to voltammetric methods, particular to the study of current-potential curves, stressing the potential applicability in areas of food quality control.

Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M.



Spectrophotometric determination of carminic acid in human plasma and fruit juices by second order calibration of the absorbance spectra-pH data matrices coupled with standard addition method.  


A simple analytical method based on the second-order calibration of the pH gradient spectrophotometric data was developed for assay of carminic acid (CA) in human plasma and orange juice over the concentration range of 1.5-14.0microM. The multi-way data analysis method was coupled with standard addition to encounter the significant effects of plasma and juices matrices on the acid-base behavior and UV-vis. absorbance spectra of CA. Thus, the standard addition three-way calibration data of plasma or fruit juices samples were analyzed by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and the concentration related scores were used to derive a standard addition plot such as one obtained in univariate standard addition method. The number of PARAFAC components was obtained utilizing different criteria such as core consistency and residual errors through pf-test implementation. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by analysis of human plasma and fruit juices spiked with different levels of standard CA solutions. The results confirmed the success of the proposed method in the analysis of pH gradient spectrophotometric data for determination of CA. The recoveries were between 86.7 and 106.7. PMID:20441865

Samari, Fayezeh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Shamsipur, Mojtaba



Mechanisms for the influence of citrus rootstocks on fruit size.  


To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on fruit size, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto two rootstocks. The results demonstrated that trees grafted onto Canton lemon produced larger fruits through an enhancement of cell expansion in the ripening period. The difference in fruit size may be due to greater auxin levels in fruits from trees on Canton lemon, and different auxin levels may be produced by parent trees as the result of AUX1 upregulation. Rootstocks also modulate auxin signaling by affecting the transcription of several auxin response factor genes. There were higher abscisic acid concentrations in fruits of 'Shatangju'/Trifoliate orange, resulting in an inhibition of fruit growth and cell expansion through suppression of the synthesis of growth promoting hormones. Furthermore, expansins may be involved in the regulation of final fruit size by influencing cell expansion. Multiple pathways likely exist in citrus rootstocks that regulate fruit size. PMID:25693745

Liu, Xiangyu; Li, Juan; Huang, Min; Chen, Jiezhong



Volatile components of ripe fruits of Morinda citrifolia and their effects on Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only larval resource of the specialist species, Drosophila sechellia, is ripe fruits of Morinda citrifolia. The chemical composition of this fruit, which is very toxic to most Drosophila species, was investigated and 51 compounds were abundant enough to be identified by GC-MS. The ripe fruit is characterized by a large amount of carboxylic acids, especially octanoic and hexanoic acids.

Jean-Pierre Farine; Luc Legal; Brigitte Moreteau; Jean-Luc Le Quere



Deacidification of the clarified passion fruit juice ( P. edulis f. flavicarpa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high acidity of passion fruit limits its addition in food preparation and gives poor aroma and flavour products. The reduction of the acidity of the fruit juice can avoid this problem. Various methods such as calcium precipitation, ion-exchange resins and electrodialysis (ED) with homopolar and bipolar membranes (BMs) were investigated to deacidify yellow passion fruit juice. The pH of

Edwin Vera Calle; Jenny Ruales; Manuel Dornier; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Roger Sandeaux; Gérald Pourcelly



(2R)-2AMINO6HYDROXY4-HEXYNOIC acid, and related amino acids in the fruiting bodies of amanita MICULIFERA fn1 fn1 Dedicated to Prof. G. H. N. Towers on the occasion of his 75th birthday. Part 25 in the series ‘‘Biochemical studies on nitrogen compounds of fungi’’. For Part 24, see ref. [5]. in honour of professor G.H. Neil Towers 75th birthday  

Microsoft Academic Search

(2R)-2-amino-6-hydroxy-4-hexynoic acid, (2RS)-2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid, (2S)-2-amino-4-hexynoic acid, and 2-amino-5-chloro-5-hexenoic acid were isolated and characterised from the fruit bodies of Amanita miculifera, with the first and the last mentioned amino acids being new natural products. Their structures were based on analysis of the results from elementary analysis, oxidation with KMnO4, determination of optical rotations, 1H NMR-spectra, and hydrogenation over Adams or Lindlar

Shin-Ichi Hatanaka; Yukio Niimura; Kunio Takishima; Junta Sugiyama




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of cultivar, fruit size, soil type and year on total ascorbic acid (TAA), free ascorbic acid (AA), dehydroascorbic acid (DAA) folic acid (FA) and potassium (K) in [Cucumis melo L. (Inodorous Group)] was determined. Fully mature (abscised) commercial size fruit: 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 (fru...


Fruit organ cultures.  


The culture of fruit tissues as whole organs or isolated tissue sections has been conducted with various species (1). Whole, isolated ovaries have been successfully cultured to give rise to mature fruits (e.g., strawberry). Typically, however, when an isolated portion of the fruit tissue is introduced into a sterile environment, it immediately loses structural integrity and degenerates into a rapidly dividing callus mass (2). Loss of structural integrity is correspondingly associated with an alteration of physiology that is subsequently reflected in the production of an altered metabolism. Therefore, a meaningful study of fruit development using callus derived from fruit tissues is often not possible. Recently, we studied the parameters involved in the maintenance of citrus fruit tissue integrity (2). In this paper, the culture of isolated fruit tissues, as well as half and whole fruit culture, is demonstrated using the lemon fruit (Fig. 1-3). PMID:21390600

Tisserat, B; Galletta, P D; Jones, D



Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.  


Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. PMID:23553505

Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M



Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.  


More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary



Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.  


The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 ?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 ?M Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique



Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

Füzfai, Zsófia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovács, Etelka; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya



Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Children's Museum of Houston




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...


How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fruits of the earth have nurtured and intrigued humanity throughout history. Genome complexities of cultivated fruit species combined with people’s increased nutritional needs insure that the future will be no different. Prospecting for wild fruit will continue. The global nature of science and ...


Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Quality of Fruits Pretreated with Ascorbic Acid or SnCl2  

PubMed Central

In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix) solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture) during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g) and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products. PMID:25295275

Argyri, Anthoula A.; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Samaras, Fotios; Mallidis, Constantinos



The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  


Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad



Anthelmintic activity of phenolic acids from the axlewood tree Anogeissus leiocarpus on the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi and drug-resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  


The effect of three phenols (ellagic, gentisic and gallic acids) from the axlewood tree Anogeissus leiocarpus on Onchocerca ochengi and drug-resistant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism for research on nematode parasites, is investigated. Worms were incubated in different concentrations of phenols and their survival was monitored after 48 h. Among the three acids, ellagic acid strongly affected the survival of O. ochengi microfilariae, O. ochengi adults, a wild-type C. elegans and anthelmintic-resistant strains of C. elegans, namely albendazole (CB3474), levamisole (CB211, ZZ16) and ivermectin (VC722, DA1316), with LC50 values ranging from 0.03 mm to 0.96 mm. These results indicate that the binding of ellagic acid in the worm differs from that of resistant strains of C. elegans. The efficacy of both gallic and gentisic acids was not significantly changed in resistant strains of C. elegans treated with levamisole (ZZ16, LC50= 9.98 mm, with gallic acid), albendazole (CB3474, LC50= 7.81 mm, with gentisic acid) and ivermectin (DA1316, LC50= 10.62 mm, with gentisic acid). The efficacy of these three pure compounds is in accordance with the use of A. leiocarpus from its locality of origin. The in vivo toxicity data reveal that the thresholds are up to 200 times higher than the determined LC50 values. Thus, ellagic acid could be a potential option for the treatment of nematode infections, even in cases of drug resistance towards established anthelmintic drugs. PMID:23768773

Ndjonka, D; Abladam, E D; Djafsia, B; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Achukwi, M D; Liebau, E



Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin



The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.  


The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less than 0.0001). There was also a weaker but significant correlation with the citric acid content (rs 0.55, P less than 0.03). Although this may have reflected a direct effect of citric acid on Fe absorption, it should be noted that fruits containing citric acid also contained ascorbic acid (rs 0.70, P less than 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3593665

Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D



Gac fruit: nutrient and phytochemical composition, and options for processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng or Gac fruits are rich in nutrients including carotenoids, fatty acids, vitamin E, polyphenol compounds and flavonoids. Medicinal compounds are also found in the seeds, but the benefits of traditional preparations from these need to be clarified. The plant has the potential to be a high value crop particularly as parts of the fruit can be processed

Tuyen C. Kha; Minh H. Nguyen; Paul D. Roach; Sophie E. Parks; Constantinos Stathopoulos



Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  


We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D



Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel ( Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite design was employed to optimize the extraction of pectin with citric acid. The independent variables were citric acid concentration (0.086–2.91% w\\/v) and extraction time (17–102min). The combined effect of these variables on the degree of esterification was investigated. Results have shown that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship

Elo?´sa Rovaris Pinheiro; Iolanda M. D. A. Silva; Luciano V. Gonzaga; Edna R. Amante; Reinaldo F. Teófilo; Márcia M. C. Ferreira; Renata D. M. C. Amboni



Maturation and Ripening of Fruit of Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. are Accompanied by Increasing Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of oxidative stress during ripening of saskatoon(Amelanchier alnifoliaNutt.) fruit was examined. Lipid peroxidation during fruit development from the mature green to the fully ripe (purple) stage was evidenced by the accumulation of ethane and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Fruit polar lipid and free fatty acid concentrations also declined during ripening. Moreover, the double bond index of fatty acids




Influence of Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the Fruit Composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir: Free Amino Acids, Sugars, and Organic Acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Individual free amino acids, yeast assimilable amino acid (YAN) content, ammonium, organic acids, and simple sugars of berries from GLRaV-2 or GLRaV-3 infected vines were compared with paired vines free of these viruses. Samples were taken from two commercial vineyards during two growing seasons (20...


Functions of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family in Ganoderma lucidum: an essential role in ganoderic acid biosynthesis regulation, hyphal branching, fruiting body development, and oxidative-stress resistance.  


Ganoderma lucidum has drawn worldwide interest with regard to its secondary metabolism and pharmaceutical activity. However, the development of such research has been limited because of a lack of basic biological knowledge. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Nox) have recently been highlighted because of the many important biological roles in plants and animals; however, the exact functions of Nox are still not fully understood in fungi. In this study, we identified two Nox isoforms (NoxA and NoxB) and a regulator, NoxR. RNA interference was used, and silencing of the Nox isoforms and NoxR expression indicated a central role for these genes in hyphal branching, fruiting body development, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ROS resistance and ganoderic acid biosynthesis regulation. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that Nox-generated ROS elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels by activating a plasma membrane Ca(2+) influx pathway, thereby inducing the Ca(2+) signal pathway to regulate ganoderic acid biosynthesis and hyphal branching. Importantly, our results highlight the Nox functions in signal crosstalk between ROS and Ca(2+), and these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify the potential pathway linking ROS networks to calcium signalling in fungi and suggest that plants, animals and fungi share a conserved signal-crosstalk mechanism. PMID:24238263

Mu, Dashuai; Li, Chenyang; Zhang, Xuchen; Li, Xiongbiao; Shi, Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Mingwen




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bright red pericarp of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit quickly turns brown after harvest due to peel dehydration, anthocyanin degradation, and fungal growth on the fruit surface. Lychee fruit, cv. ‘Brewster’ and ‘Mauritius’ in Florida, and ‘Juckapat’ in Thailand, were dipped in acidic tre...



Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and physiological significance of micronutrients in coffee plants, especially with regard to nickel (Ni) is still unknown. The dynamics of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and Ni accumulation in coffee fruits, as well as their relationships with total soluble protein, amino acids, reducing sugars, and starch content during coffee fruit development (green, ripe, and dry fruits), were investigated.

Andre Rodrigues dos Reis; Jose Laercio Favarin; Luiz Antonio Gallo; Milton Ferreira Moraes; Tiago Tezotto; Jose Lavres Junior



New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.




Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and aqueous-methanolic extracts from six Bulgarian wild edible fruits have been studied for their antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS cation radical decolorization assay and presented as Uric Acid Equivalents (UAE) per gram dry weight. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and calculated as Quercetin

Y. Kiselova; S. Marinova; D. Ivanov; D. Gerov; B. Galunska; T. Chervenkov; T Yankova


Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strawberry is one of the major fresh market commodities in Florida. Strawberry must be harvested at the proper time, to keep its fruit quality and shelf life. Generally, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity and/or color are the major indices for fruity quality control. However, the...


Glycerogalactolipids from the fruit of Lycium barbarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four glycerogalactolipids (1–4), together with 11 other previously known homologues were isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum. Their structures were elucidated by chemical analyses including regio-selective enzymatic, alkaline and acidic hydrolyses and spectroscopic methods involving GCMS, HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR, respectively.

Zengping Gao; Zulfiqar Ali; Ikhlas A. Khan



Preserving Fresh Fruit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.



Lesson 21: Fruits [Matunda  

E-print Network

/ fruits] [orange / oranges] embe / maembe [mango / mangoes] limao / malimao; limau / malimau [lemon / lemons] nanasi / mananasi [pineapple / pineapples] ndimu / ndimu [lime / limes] ndizi / ndizi [banana


Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Maria Habib



Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne



Influence of grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the fruit composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir: Free amino acids, sugars, and organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual free amino acids, yeast assimilable amino acid (YAN) content, ammonia, organic acids, and simple sugars of berries from vines infected with GLRaV-2 or -3 were compared with paired vines free of these viruses. Samples were taken from two commercial vineyards during two growing seasons (2005 and 2006), with three different rootstock\\/scion combinations. Vines infected with GLRaV-2 did not differ

Jungmin Lee; Karen E. Keller; Christopher Rennaker; Robert R. Martin



Yields and nutrient content of selected fresh fruits.  


Proximate composition, edible yields, and selected nutrients were measured in cantaloupe, cherries, grapes, nectarines, plums, and watermelon sampled in six major U.S. markets. Yields were lowest (about 55%) for the melons, but were much higher (about 90% or above) for other fruits. Fruits were high in moisture, low in protein, fat, and energy. The estimated carbohydrate content ranged from about 8% for the melons to 17% for cherries. Vitamins A and C were present in moderate concentrations, but fruits were found to be low in vitamin B-6, folic acid, and pantothenic acid, as well as in the mineral elements. PMID:3998345

Taper, L J; McNeill, D A; Ritchey, S J



Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development  

PubMed Central

Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano



Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness  

PubMed Central

The olive tree lacks dormancy and is low temperature sensitive, with differences in cold tolerance and oil quality among genotypes. The oil is produced in the drupe, and the unsaturated fatty acids contribute to its quality. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship among development, cold response, expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes, and unsaturated fatty acid composition in drupes belonging to genotypes differing in leaf cold tolerance, but producing good oil (i.e. the non-hardy Moraiolo, the semi-hardy Frantoio, and the hardy Canino). In all genotypes, cold sensitivity, evaluated by cold-induced transient increases in cytosolic calcium, was high in the epi-mesocarp cells before oil body formation, and decreased during oil biogenesis. However, genotype-dependent differences in cold sensitivity appeared at the end of oil production. Genotype-dependent differences in FAD2.1, FAD2.2, FAD6, and FAD7 expression levels occurred in the epi-mesocarp cells during the oleogenic period. However, FAD2.1 and FAD7 were always the highest in the first part of this period. FAD2.2 and FAD7 increased after cold applications during oleogenesis, independently of the genotype. Unsaturated fatty acids increased in the drupes of the non-hardy genotype, but not in those of the hardy one, after cold exposure at the time of the highest FAD transcription. The results show a direct relationship between FAD expression and lipid desaturation in the drupes of the cold-sensitive genotype, and an inverse relationship in those of the cold-resistant genotype, suggesting that drupe cold acclimation requires a fine FAD post-transcriptional regulation. Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed. PMID:21357772

Matteucci, M.; D'Angeli, S.; Errico, S.; Lamanna, R.; Perrotta, G.; Altamura, M. M.



FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

Rabbiteyes' are spring blooming, with flower appearance affected by chilling hours (# hours below 45 oF). The lowest chilling varieties typically bloom and set fruit early, and thus are at the greatest risk for crop are somewhat self-fruitful. When se- #12;2 lecting pollenizers, identify those that bloom in the same part

Mukhtar, Saqib


Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients  

E-print Network

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients: 8 ounces crushed pineapple in juice 6 ounces nonfat yogurt, with fruit 6 ounces orange juice, frozen concentrate, thawed Directions 1. Mix the ingredients in a medium opener Popsicle sticks Number of Servings: 4 Preparation Time: 5 minutes Total time: 4 hours For more

Liskiewicz, Maciej



E-print Network

with this product to prevent potential damage to pecan trees. All foreign timber should be removed prior to beTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION NATIVE PECANS Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit trees in Texas, approximately 40,000 acres are managed consistently as the native crop production

Mukhtar, Saqib


Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.  


The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip



The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.  


The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P; Lo, Hui-Chen



The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P.; Lo, Hui-Chen



FaPYR1 is involved in strawberry fruit ripening.  


Although the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in the ripening of non-climatic fruit, direct genetic/molecular evidence is lacking. In the present study, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis ABA receptor gene PYR1, named FaPYR1, was isolated and characterized. The 627 bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 208 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were detected by homology analysis. Using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), the FaPYR1 gene was silenced in strawberry fruit. Down-regulation of the FaPYR1 gene not only significantly delayed fruit ripening, but also markedly altered ABA content, ABA sensitivity, and a set of ABA-responsive gene transcripts, including ABI1 and SnRK2. Furthermore, the loss of red colouring in FaPYR1 RNAi (RNA interference) fruits could not be rescued by exogenously applied ABA, which could promote the ripening of wild-type fruits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the putative ABA receptor FaPYR1 acts as a positive regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. It was also revealed that the application of the VIGS technique in strawberry fruit could be used as a novel tool for studying strawberry fruit development. PMID:21778181

Chai, Ye-Mao; Jia, Hai-Feng; Li, Chun-Li; Dong, Qing-Hua; Shen, Yuan-Yue



Effects of Fe deficiency chlorosis on yield and fruit quality in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).  


The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on fruit yield and quality were measured in two peach cultivars, Carson (yellow-skin fruit) and Babygold (red-skin fruit). In both cultivars, Fe deficiency caused major decreases in fruit fresh weight per tree and number of fruits per tree. Fruits from Fe-deficient peach trees had a smaller size, resulting in a large decrease in the percentage of commercially acceptable fruits, whereas fruit firmness was unaffected. In cv. Babygold, Fe deficiency greatly decreased the red color of the fruit skin. Part of these results was likely associated with a delay in fruit ripening. When fruits with similar appearance were compared, taking into account fruit size, color, and firmness, Fe deficiency generally led to higher concentrations of organic anions (especially succinate and quinate), vitamin C, and phenolic compounds and to lower total sugar/total organic acid ratios. This could lead to decreased fruit eating quality and to a slight improvement in fruit nutritional value. PMID:12952427

Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Paniagua, Pilar; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación



Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.  


The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Société d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicité (SECODIP) and Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet. PMID:16920856

Brat, Pierre; Georgé, Stéphane; Bellamy, Annick; Du Chaffaut, Laure; Scalbert, Augustin; Mennen, Louise; Arnault, Nathalie; Amiot, Marie Josèphe



Modeling C and N Transport to Developing Soybean Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

Xylem sap and phloem exudates from detached leaves and fruit tips were collected and analyzed during early pod-fill in nodulated soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Wilkin) grown without (?N) and with (+N) NH4NO3. Ureides were the predominant from (91%) of N transported in the xylem of ?N plants, while amides (45%) and nitrate (23%) accounted for most of the N in the xylem of +N plants. Amino acids (44%) and ureides (36%) were the major N forms exported in phloem from leaves in ?N plants, but amides (63%) were most important in +N plants. Based on the composition of fruit tip phloem, ureides (55% and 33%) and amides (26% and 47%) accounted for the majority of N imported by fruits of ?N and +N plants, respectively. C:N weight ratios were lowest in xylem exudate (1.37 and 1.32), highest in petiole phloem (24.5 and 26.0), and intermediate in fruit tip exudate (12.6 and 12.1) for the ?N and +N treatments, respectively. The ratios were combined with data on fruit growth and respiration to construct a model of C and N transport to developing fruits. The model indicates xylem to phloem transfer provides 35% to 52% of fruit N. Results suggest the phloem entering fruits oversupplies their N requirement so that 13% of the N imported is exported from fruit in the xylem. PMID:16662669

Layzell, David B.; LaRue, Thomas A.



Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

of thick resin that inhibits the entry of the dried fruit beetle, thus reducing on-the-tree fruit souring. Alma is very frost sensitive, especially as a young tree and should be grown no more than 200 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. Brown Turkey... freeze, produce fair-to-good crops on sucker wood the next season. This is an advantage in areas troubled by late spring frosts. The fruit is medium to large, with a reddish-brown skin tinged with purple. The pulp is reddish-pink and of good quality...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...


Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

O'Toole, Alice J.


Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

O'Toole, Alice J.


Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior



A novel bud mutation that confers abnormal patterns of lycopene accumulation in sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, pleiotropic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) mutant, 'Hong Anliu', is described. This mutation causes carotenoid accumulation, high sugar, and low acid in the fruits. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that high sugar and low acid in the fruit were caused by the accumulation of sucrose and the deficiency of citric acid. The dominant carotenoid accumulated in albedo, segment

Qing Liu; Juan Xu; Yongzhong Liu; Xiaolong Zhao; Xiuxin Deng; Linlin Guo; Jianqin Gu



Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1  

PubMed Central

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu



Fruits and vegetables (image)  


A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...


Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...


Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...


Effects of bagging on volatiles and polyphenols in "Wanmi" peaches during endocarp hardening and final fruit rapid growth stages.  


Fruits of the late-ripening peach cultivar "Wanmi" were bagged at the early period of fruit endocarp hardening, and the bags were removed 1 wk before maturity harvest. The effects of bagging on volatile compounds and polyphenols were studied. Total volatiles and the sum of C(6) compounds, esters from bagged fruits were significantly lower than from nonbagged fruits from the beginning of the final rapid fruit growth stage to maturity. As the most dominant compounds of C(6) compounds and esters, the lower contents of hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, hexyl acetate, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, and trans-2-hexenyl acetate attributed to the lower content of C(6) compounds and esters in bagged fruit. ?-Hexalactone and ?-decalactone were produced earlier in bagged fruits than in nonbagged ones, suggesting that bagging accelerates fruit maturity. Level of ?-decalactone in bagged fruits was significantly lower than in nonbagged fruits at 159 days after full blossom (DAFB), so did ?-decalactone at 166 DAFB. Bagging did not affect chlorogenic acid and catechol contents of either fruit peel or flesh, nor did it affect contents of keracyanin or quercetin-3-rutinoside in fruit flesh during fruit development. However, keracyanin and quercetin-3-rutinoside levels were significantly reduced in bagged fruit peels before ripening compared to nonbagged fruit peels. Considering the large changes in volatiles and polyphenols, the key stage for "Wanmi" fruit maturity was between 126 DAFB and 147 DAFB, about 1 mo ahead of maturity. PMID:21535618

Wang, Yiju; Yang, Chunxiang; Liu, Chunyan; Xu, Man; Li, Shaohua; Yang, Liu; Wang, Younian



The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.  


Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron



Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.  


The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

Raduni?, Mira; Juki? Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan



Name That Fruit!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

Lauri Christopher



A dynamic interplay between phytohormones is required for fruit development, maturation, and ripening  

PubMed Central

Plant species that bear fruit often utilize expansion of an ovary (carpel) or accessory tissue as a vehicle for seed dispersal. While the seed(s) develop, the tissue(s) of the fruit follow a common progression of cell division and cell expansion, promoting growth of the fruit. Once the seed is fully developed, the fruit matures and the surrounding tissue either dries or ripens promoting the dissemination of the seed. As with many developmental processes in plants, plant hormones play an important role in the synchronization of signals between the developing seed and its surrounding fruit tissue(s), regulating each phase of fruit development. Following pollination, fruit set is achieved through a de-repression of growth and an activation of cell division via the action of auxin and/or cytokinin and/or gibberellin. Following fruit set, growth of the fruit is facilitated through a relatively poorly studied period of cell expansion and endoreduplication that is likely regulated by similar hormones as in fruit set. Once the seeds reach maturity, fruit become ready to undergo ripening and during this period there is a major switch in relative hormone levels of the fruit, involving an overall decrease in auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin and a simultaneous increase in abscisic acid and ethylene. While the role of hormones in fruit set and ripening is well documented, the knowledge of the roles of other hormones during growth, maturation, and some individual ripening components is sketchy. PMID:23616786

McAtee, Peter; Karim, Siti; Schaffer, Robert; David, Karine



Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal.  


This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. P spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)-Catechin was the most abundant compound in A. unedo (13.51 mg/100 g) and R. canina (3.59 mg/100 g) fruits. A. unedo fruits presented the highest concentration in flavan-3-ols (36.30 mg/100 g). Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was found in all the studied fruits, being the major anthocyanin in most of them, with the exception of P. spinosa samples, in which cyaniding 3-O-rutinoside and peonidin 3-O-rutinoside predominated; P. spinosa fruit presented the more complex anthocyanin profile among the analysed fruits and also the highest anthocyanin concentrations, which was coherent with its greater pigmentation. All in all, P. spinosa presented the highest levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavonols and flavones, although no flavan-3-ols could be identified in its fruits. The present study represents a contribution to the chemical characterisation of phenolic compounds from wild fruits with acknowledged antioxidant activity and traditionally used for several folk medicinal applications. PMID:23993541

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R



Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.  


Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. PMID:24360417

Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia



Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard



Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.  


An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content. PMID:22518928

Abu-Zahra, T R



Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits  

PubMed Central

Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening and non-climacteric fruit ripening in general. PMID:23245313



Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneficial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents. PMID:25317174

Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Memon, Mushtaq A.; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Akbar, Mohammed



Native Australian fruits — a novel source of antioxidants for food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve native Australian fruits, finger lime (red and yellow), riberry, brush cherry, Cedar Bay cherry, muntries, Illawarra plum, Burdekin plum, Davidson's plum, Kakadu plum, Molucca raspberry and Tasmanian Pepper, were investigated for their antioxidant capacity and presence of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. The radical scavenging activities of five of the evaluated fruits were significantly higher (3.1 to 5.2-fold

Michael Netzel; Gabriele Netzel; Qingguo Tian; Steven Schwartz; Izabela Konczak



Can fruit-form be a marker for argan oil production?  


Deforestation is an important matter for the argan forest whose preservation necessitates planting trees. Macroscopic parameters are urgently needed to identify trees presenting good potential as oil producers. This study demonstrates that argan oil produced from kernels of apiculate fruit is richer in d-tocopherol, whereas oil produced from spherical fruit is richer in linoleic acid, and that produced from fusiform fruit is richer in oleic acid. Therefore, the use of fruit-form as a marker could permit an easy organic production of "naturally enriched" oils. PMID:23472452

Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Denhez, Clément; Hilali, Miloudi; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida



Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.



From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops. PMID:24655934



Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.  


An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778

Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario



Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of (3H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids—mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant—that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. Objective: The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of (3H)-oleic acid 0.16 ?Ci/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 ?Ci) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 ?L), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100?L) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in ?gEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces, and urine samples of rats that did not receive (3H)-oleic acid were used as controls. Excretion was expressed as the percentage of the radioactivity excreted via each route with respect to the total radioactive dose administered to each rat. Results: A total of 50 rats were included in the experiment (mean age, 4 weeks; mean weight, 310 g). Absorption was rapid; mean Cmax was 195.56 (31.12) ?gEq/mL, and mean Tmax was 2 hours. Thereafter, a biphasic decay of TR was found: a rapid first phase (t1/2?, 1.33 hours), followed by a slower second elimination phase (t1/2?, 36.07 hours). Radioactivity was rapidly and broadly distributed throughout the tissues, with more accumulating in the prostate than elsewhere. In the first 8 hours, accumulation of TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by the liver, small intestine, and plasma. Subsequently, TR increased in the small intestine, while it decreased in the liver and plasma. In contrast, over the periods of 24 and 144 hours after administration, TR increased in the adipose tissue, while it decreased in the other tissues and plasma. During those intervals, TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by adipose tissue. Mean peak radioactivity in the prostate (562.41 ?gEq/g) was reached at 4 hours and decreased slowly thereafter. The prostate had the highest values of t1/2? and cumulative AUC compared with the other tissues and plasma. Mean (SD) TR was similar in feces (33.48% [4.90%]) and urine (28.96% [5.32%]), with total excretion being 62.40% (5.90%) of the administered dose. Conclusions: In this experimental study, after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid in rats, TR was rapidly and widely distributed across the tissues, with the prostate having the highest accumulation of radioactivity. Excretion of TR was limited, with similar amounts being excreted in feces and urine. The broad distribution of radiolabeled oleic acid and/or its metabolites suggests (SD) pharmacokinetic rationale for the effectiveness of D-004 in

Pérez, L. Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; González, Rosa M.



The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.  


Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato



Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits  


... lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from a salad ... coleslaw, or include orange sections, dried cranberries, or grapes in a tossed salad. snack on fruits Dried ...


Hydroxybenzoic acids from Boreava orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new guaiacylglycerol ether, threo-guaiacylglycerol-8?-vanillic acid ether, pyrocatechuic acid, pyrocatechuic acid 3-O-?-d-glucoside, gentisic acid, gentisic acid 5-O-?-d-glucoside, vanillic acid and vanillic acid 4-O-?-d-glucoside were identified from fruits of Boreava orientalis. Structural elucidation was carried out on the basis of UV, mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data, including 2D shift-correlation and selective INEPT experiments.

Akiyo Sakushima; Maksut Co?kun; Takashi Maoka



Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito L.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics.  


Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainitoL.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics: The process of domestication is understudied and poorly known for many tropical fruit tree crops. The star apple or caimito tree (Chrysophyllum cainito L., Sapotaceae) is cultivated throughout the New World tropics for its edible fruits. We studied this species in central Panama, where it grows wild in tropical moist forests and is also commonly cultivated in backyard gardens. Using fruits collected over two harvest seasons, we tested the hypothesis that cultivated individuals of C. cainito show distinctive fruit and seed characteristics associated with domestication relative to wild types. We found that cultivated fruits were significantly and substantially larger and allocated more to pulp and less to exocarp than wild fruits. The pulp of cultivated fruits was less acidic; also, the pulp had lower concentrations of phenolics and higher concentrations of sugar. The seeds were larger and more numerous and were less defended with phenolics in cultivated than in wild fruits. Discriminant Analysis showed that, among the many significant differences, fruit size and sugar concentration drove the great majority of the variance distinguishing wild from cultivated classes. Variance of pulp phenolics among individuals was significantly higher among wild trees than among cultivated trees, while variance of fruit mass and seed number was significantly higher among cultivated trees. Most traits showed strong correlations between years. Overall, we found a clear signature of a domestication syndrome in the fruits of cultivated caimito in Panama. PMID:20543881

Parker, Ingrid M; López, Isis; Petersen, Jennifer J; Anaya, Natalia; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Potter, Daniel



Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito L.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Domestication Syndrome in Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainitoL.): Fruit and Seed Characteristics: The process of domestication is understudied and poorly known for many tropical fruit tree crops. The star apple or caimito tree (Chrysophyllum cainito L., Sapotaceae) is cultivated throughout the New World tropics for its edible fruits. We studied this species in central Panama, where it grows wild in tropical moist forests and is also commonly cultivated in backyard gardens. Using fruits collected over two harvest seasons, we tested the hypothesis that cultivated individuals of C. cainito show distinctive fruit and seed characteristics associated with domestication relative to wild types. We found that cultivated fruits were significantly and substantially larger and allocated more to pulp and less to exocarp than wild fruits. The pulp of cultivated fruits was less acidic; also, the pulp had lower concentrations of phenolics and higher concentrations of sugar. The seeds were larger and more numerous and were less defended with phenolics in cultivated than in wild fruits. Discriminant Analysis showed that, among the many significant differences, fruit size and sugar concentration drove the great majority of the variance distinguishing wild from cultivated classes. Variance of pulp phenolics among individuals was significantly higher among wild trees than among cultivated trees, while variance of fruit mass and seed number was significantly higher among cultivated trees. Most traits showed strong correlations between years. Overall, we found a clear signature of a domestication syndrome in the fruits of cultivated caimito in Panama. PMID:20543881

López, Isis; Petersen, Jennifer J.; Anaya, Natalia; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Potter, Daniel



Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits  

PubMed Central

Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon



Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS; )



A Bowl of Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem requires a sound understanding of the fraction relationship between part and whole and can be used for finding fractions of numbers and quantities. Students are given the fractional amount of apples in a fruit bowl and the specific number of other fruit in the bowl in order to figure out how many apples are in the bowl. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension, a link to a worksheet which provides student support, and a downloadable pdf of the puzzle.


Recommended Amounts of Total fruits

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above


Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.  


The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits. PMID:25477663

Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Pawe?; Sroka, Pawe?; Pogo?, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna



Involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K(ATP) channel pathway in the peripheral antinociceptive actions of ellagic acid in the rat formalin test.  


The present study was conducted to evaluate the local antinociceptive actions of EA and the possible involvement of l-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channel pathway in this effect using formalin test in rats. To evaluate the involvement of l-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channel pathway in the antinociceptive action of EA, rats were pre-treated intraplantarlly with l-NAME (NOS inhibitor, 25-100?g/paw), methylene blue (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 100-400?g/paw), glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 25-100?g/paw), l-arginine (a nitric oxide precursor, 25-100?g/paw) and sodium nitroprusside (125-500?g/paw). The local peripheral ipsilateral, but not contralateral, administration of EA into the right paw (30-300?g/paw) produced a dose-related antinociception during both early and late phases of formalin test which is comparable with morphine (25?g/paw). Moreover, local pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue and glibenclamide dose-dependently prevented EA (100?g/paw)-induced antinociception in late phase. Additionally, administration of l-arginine and sodium nitroprusside significantly potentiated the antinociception induced by EA in the late phase. However, these treatments had no significant effect on antinociceptive response of EA in the early phase of the formalin test. The results of the present study showed that EA-induced local peripheral antinociception during the both phases of formalin test. Also, our data suggested the activation of the l-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channels pathway in EA-induced antinociception in late phase of formalin test. Topical application of EA by ointment or jelly might be a useful method to relieving the inflammatory pain states. PMID:25278343

Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Rezaie, Anahita



Quantification of gallic acidin fruits of three medicinal plants.  


Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala's pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex's absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These differences can possibly be due to the source of plant preparation, storage condition and period of Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid. PMID:24250348

Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa



Fat Fruit Flies  

E-print Network

have hundreds of them, that each control a wide range of functions. When they removed a strand of this material from the fat cells of both male and female fruit flies, the flies became smaller. When the RNA was injected back into the flies...

Hacker, Randi



Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 Golden Delicious apples 2 Red Delicious apples 2 banana 1 1/2 cups Directions 1. Leave the skin on the apple and cut in half through the core. Then cut each piece in half again

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Emerging fruit crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...


Fruits and vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

N/A N/A (None; )



Dried Fruits and Nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...


Physicochemical, Nutritional and Antibacterial Characteristics of the Fruit of Bromelia pinguin L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromelia pinguin L. is a plant native to Sinaloa, Mexico, where its fruit is used as food or as a phytotherapeutic agent. The fruits of B. pinguin were characterized and they could be considered as a functional food. These fruits show an average weight of 13.7 g and a\\u000a yellow color of high luminosity (b*?=?43.2, L*?=?74.5). The values for acidity (4.6%,

Juan Fernando Pío-León; Gabriela López-Angulo; Octavio Paredes-López; Magdalena de Jesús Uribe-Beltrán; Sylvia Páz Díaz-Camacho; Francisco Delgado-Vargas



Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.  


Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. PMID:25442527

Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong



Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activity of frozen fruits.  


Many studies have focused on the effect of fresh fruits on the risk of developing cancer and other diseases involved with reactive species and free radicals. The intake of frozen fruits has spread widely in the last years, but, until now, their biological activity is not completely known. In this study, 23 samples of frozen fruits were analyzed for their nutritional composition, total polyphenols, total carotenoids, and vitamin C content. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic effects were also evaluated. Antioxidant assays included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(.)) scavenging activity and determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD)- and catalase (CAT)-like activities. Mutagenic and antimutagenic evaluations were performed in eukaryotic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Most samples (74%) showed antioxidant activity similar to vitamin C in the DPPH(.) assay, and this activity was positively correlated (r = 0.366; P fruits (acai, cashew apple, kiwi fruit, and strawberry) showed mutagenic activity when tested in high (5%, 10%, and 15% [wt/vol]) concentrations. Twelve samples presented antimutagenic effects against hydrogen peroxide, and this effect was positively correlated with CAT-like activity (r = 0.400; P acid showed considerable levels of these compounds in frozen fruits, even after freezing. These data suggest that frozen fruits contribute to the prevention of biological damages. PMID:18361750

Spada, Patrícia D S; de Souza, Gabrielle Gianna Nunes; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian



Polyphenolic and hydroxycinnamate contents of whole coffee fruits from China, India, and Mexico.  


Air-dried whole coffee fruits, beans, and husks from China, India, and Mexico were analyzed for their chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine, and polyphenolic content. Analysis was by HPLC and Orbitrap exact mass spectrometry. Total phenol, total flavonol, and antioxidant capacity were measured. The hydroxycinnamate profile consisted of caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids. A range of flavan-3-ols as well as flavonol conjugates were detected. The CGA content was similar for both Mexican and Indian coffee fruits but was much lower in the samples from China. Highest levels of flavan-3-ols were found in the Indian samples, whereas the Mexican samples contained the highest flavonols. Amounts of CGAs in the beans were similar to those in the whole fruits, but flavan-3-ols and flavonols were not detected. The husks contained the same range of polyphenols as those in the whole fruits. The highest levels of caffeine were found in the Robusta samples. PMID:23650984

Mullen, W; Nemzer, B; Stalmach, A; Ali, S; Combet, E



Long argan fruit drying time is detrimental for argan oil quality.  


Argan oil is extracted from the kernels of argan fruits that have been sun-dried for either a few days or up to several weeks. The influence of the fruit drying time on the quantity, quality, and preservation of solvent-extracted argan oil was compared with press-extracted argan oil. Quantitatively, the time necessary for efficient fruit peeling and the amount of extracted oil were determined with regard to the fruit drying time (0 to 28 days). Argan oil quality was studied using, as markers, moisture content, specific extinction, acid index, peroxide index, fatty acid composition, and Rancimat oxidative stability. Oil from fresh fruit presents a high moisture content, high acidity and peroxide values, and short shelf life. Ten to fourteen days of sun-drying is optimum to obtain high quality argan oil. PMID:21213985

Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Kartah, Badr Eddine; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom



Phenolics profile of mume, Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit.  


The fruit of mume, Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.), was evaluated for its phenolics content, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile and antioxidative activities. The phenolics content of mume fruit was relatively high, the flesh of fully matured fruit containing up to 1% of phenolics on a dry weight basis. Reflecting such a high content of phenolics, the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value for mume fruit flesh showed high values, ranging from 150 to 320 µmol/g Trolox equivalent, depending upon the stage of maturation. 5-O-Caffeoylqunic acid (chlorogenic acid), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and tetra-O-acylated sucrose-related compounds were isolated from the flesh of mume fruit, although many unknown peaks were also apparent in the HPLC chromatogram. An alkali hydrolysate comprised four main phenolic acids, caffeic acid, cis/trans-p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. No flavonoids were observed in the analysis. These results suggest that the majority of phenolics in mume fruit were hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. PMID:23924723

Mitani, Takahiko; Horinishi, Asako; Kishida, Kunihiro; Kawabata, Tomoaki; Yano, Fumiko; Mimura, Hisa; Inaba, Nobuya; Yamanishi, Hisako; Oe, Takaaki; Negoro, Keiichi; Mori, Hajime; Miyake, Yasuhito; Hosoda, Asao; Tanaka, Yoshie; Mori, Megumi; Ozaki, Yoshihiko



Variation of bioactive compounds content of 14 oriental strawberry cultivars.  


Variation in bioactive compounds content was assessed in antioxidant rich June-bearing strawberry cultivars. Ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, and ellagic acid content were analyzed in ripe fruits of 14 cultivars. The bioactive content in strawberry fruit was found to vary significantly among cultivars and from year to year. The highest ascorbic acid content was found in 'Sugyeong'. The 'Red Pearl' and 'Sachinoka' had three to fourfold higher amounts of pelargonidin 3-glucoside than other cultivars. For cyanidin 3-glucoide and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, two other characterized anthocyanins, 'Dahong' and 'Keumhyang' had the highest contents among all the tested cultivars. The ellagic acid content of 'Dahong' was generally all within the upper ranges. These results can be used for the validation of fruit antioxidant capacity and in addition, provide useful information for breeding programs looking to enhance the antioxidant capacity in strawberry fruit. PMID:25872444

Kim, Sung Kyeom; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Dae Young; Chun, Changhoo




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits and vegetables play a significant role in the human diet providing protection against cellular damage caused by exposure to high levels of free radicals. Tropical fruits from south Florida were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), tota...


Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids;

S. Ranganna; V. S. Govindarajan; K. V. R. Ramana; J. F. Kefford



Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. C. quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruits reviewed and discussed in Section A includes the following: sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents, and lipids; carotenoids which contribute

V. S. Govindarajan; S. Ranganna; K. V. R. Ramana; J. F. Kefford



The noni fruit ( Morinda citrifolia L.): A review of agricultural research, nutritional and therapeutic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morinda citrifolia L., the “noni”, has been used in traditional Polynesian medicine for over 2000 years. Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) is an evergreen shrub whose ripe fruit has a strong butyric acid smell and flavor. The leaves and especially the fruit are consumed in different forms by various communities (e.g., the Polynesians) throughout the world; the root is used as a

Yanine Chan-Blanco; Fabrice Vaillant; Ana Mercedes Perez; Max Reynes; Jean-Marc Brillouet; Pierre Brat



Estimated length: 17.4 pages Running title (32 characters): Sugar metabolism in tomato fruit  

E-print Network

1 Estimated length: 17.4 pages Running title (32 characters): Sugar metabolism in tomato fruit Full Title (150 characters): Model-assisted analysis of sugar metabolism throughout tomato fruit development localization of soluble sugars within the vacuole, together with organic acids, thus enabling the osmotic


Strawberry-tree, blackthorn and rose fruits: Detailed characterisation in nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and biological properties of three wild fruits (strawberry-tree berries, sloes and dog rose hips) were evaluated, in order to valorise these products as sources of nutrients and nutraceuticals. The analysed fruits contain very useful bioactive phytochemicals such as phenolics, vitamins (ascorbic acid and tocopherols) and carotenoids. All the samples proved to have antioxidant activity (measured by four

Lillian Barros; Ana Maria Carvalho; Jorge Sá Morais; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira



Comparison between different ion exchange resins for the deacidification of passion fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passion fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, but its strong acidity limits its use in formulated food products. In this study, deacidification of clarified passion fruit juice using ion exchange resins has been evaluated. Ten commercial weakly basic anion exchange resins were compared using a 50 ml column. The deacidification was carried out in order to increase juice pH

Edwin Vera; Manuel Dornier; Jenny Ruales; Fabrice Vaillant; Max Reynes



Deacidification of clarified tropical fruit juices by electrodialysis. Part II. Characteristics of the deacidified juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodialysis (ED) process was investigated to reduce the acidity of four tropical fruit juices, passion fruit, castilla mulberry, najanrilla and araza. In this part of the study, the results of physico-chemical and sensory analyses of juices treated were collected and compared to fresh juices. Low differences (

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Georges Piombo; Jenny Ruales



Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Broussonetia papyrifera fruits.  


Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs) was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products. PMID:22389678

Sun, Jie; Liu, Shao-fang; Zhang, Chu-shu; Yu, Li-na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Qing-li



Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Broussonetia papyrifera Fruits  

PubMed Central

Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs) was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC–MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products. PMID:22389678

Sun, Jie; Liu, Shao-fang; Zhang, Chu-shu; Yu, Li-na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Qing-li



Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit  

PubMed Central

Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5?mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1?RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin



Alginate Coatings Preserve Fruit Quality and Bioactive Compounds during Storage of Sweet Cherry Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet cherry fruits harvested at commercial maturity stage were treated with an edible coating based on sodium alginate at\\u000a several concentrations (1%, 3% or 5% w\\/v). The coatings were effective on delaying the evolution of the parameters related to postharvest ripening, such as colour,\\u000a softening and loss of acidity, and reducing respiration rate. In addition, the edible coatings showed a

Huertas M. Díaz-Mula; María Serrano; Daniel Valero


Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.  


Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. PMID:20036442

Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel



78 FR 30213 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9386-1] 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...tolerances for residues of 1- naphthaleneacetic acid in or on avocado; fruit, pome, group...growth regulator 1- naphthaleneacetic acid and its conjugates in or on...



Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Karen Kalamuck



Metabolomics in Fruit Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metabolomics aims at the efficient determination of multiple chemical constituents present in a tissue, a cell layer or ideally\\u000a a single cell. Metabolomics is currently applied in a large number of life science disciplines. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance\\u000a (NMR) or Gas- and Liquid-Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS) are the most widespread technologies\\u000a employed in metabolomics assays. Soft fruit,

Kati Hanhineva; Asaph Aharoni


The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits  

PubMed Central

Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato. PMID:24659489

Bastías, Adriana; Osorio, Sonia; Casaretto, José A.



The apple skin : colourful healthiness. Developmental and environmental regulation of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate objective of the production, handling and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables is to satisfy consumers requirements. In general the attractiveness of fruits and vegetables to consumers is determined both by visible (e.g. colour) and invisible (e.g. healthiness) quality attributes. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, secondary metabolites, contribute largely to both fruit colour and, through fruit consumption, to

M. A. G. Awad



Antimicrobial activity of an Amazon medicinal plant (Chancapiedra) (Phyllanthus niruri L.) against Helicobacter pylori and lactic acid bacteria.  


The potential of water extracts of the Amazon medicinal plant Chancapiedra (Phyllanthus niruri L.) from Ecuador and Peru for antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori and different strains of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. H. pylori was inhibited by both water extracts in a dose dependent manner, whereas lactic acid bacterial growth was not affected. Both extracts contained ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and exhibited high free radical scavenging linked-antioxidant activities (89%). However, gallic acid was detected only in the Ecuadorian extract. Preliminary studies on the mode of action of Chancapiedra against H. pylori revealed that inhibition may not involve proline dehydrogenase-based oxidative phosphorylation inhibition associated with simple mono-phenolics and could involve ellagitannins or other non-phenolic compounds through a yet unknown mechanism. This study provides evidence about the potential of Chancapiedra for H. pylori inhibition without affecting beneficial lactic acid bacteria. PMID:22034238

Ranilla, Lena Gálvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas



The structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins: a general review.  


The present paper deals with the structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins. Ellagitannins belong to the class of hydrolysable tannins, they are esters of hexahydroxydiphenoic acid and monosaccharide (most commonly glucose). Ellagitannins are slowly hydrolysed in the digestive tract, releasing the ellagic acid molecule. Their chemical structure determines physical and chemical properties and biological activity. Ellagitannins occur naturally in some fruits (pomegranate, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry), nuts (walnuts, almonds), and seeds. They form a diverse group of bioactive polyphenols with anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral) activity. Furthermore, they improve the health of blood vessels. The paper discusses the metabolism and bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid. Ellagitannins are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal microbiota. They are stable in the stomach and undergo neither hydrolysis to free ellagic acid nor degradation. In turn, ellagic acid can be absorbed in the stomach. This paper shows the role of cancer cell lines in the studies of ellagitannins and ellagic acid metabolism. The biological activity of these compounds is broad and thus the focus is on their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. Ellagitannins exhibit antimicrobial activity against fungi, viruses, and importantly, bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24887944

Lipi?ska, Lidia; Klewicka, El?bieta; Sójka, Micha?



Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.  


Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth



Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...


Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...


Ammonia as a component of fruit fly attractants.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abstract Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principal components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important Ana...


RNAi strategies to suppress insects of fruit and tree crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, to reduce plant feeding Hemiptera in fruit tree and grapevines. The successful use of RNAi strategies to reduce insect pests, psyllids and leafhoppers was demonstrated. An RNAi bioassay which absorbs dsRNA into plant tissues provided up to 40 days of act...


Comparison of some biochemical characteristics of different citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some citrus fruits. The contents of dietary fibre, total polyphenols, essential phenolics, ascorbic acid and some trace elements of lemons, oranges and grapefruits were determined and compared with their total radical-trapping antioxidative potential (TRAP). There were no significant differences in the contents of total, soluble and insoluble dietary

Shela Gorinstein; Olga Mart??n-Belloso; Yong-Seo Park; Ratiporn Haruenkit; Antonin Lojek; Milan ???ž; Abraham Caspi; Imanuel Libman; Simon Trakhtenberg



New traps, baits, and lures for tree fruit IPM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies conducted at the USDA, ARS Laboratory in Wapato, WA to develop new monitoring tools for key pests of tree fruits in the western United States are reviewed. The combination of pear ester, sex pheromone, and acetic acid was shown to be highly effective in orchards treated with sex pheromones f...


Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  


This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede



Science 101: How do fruits ripen?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people love to eat fresh fruits, and today there are dozens to choose from--from "standard" fruits like apple, orange, and banana to more exotic fruits like mango, star fruit, and lychee. But how exactly do fruits ripen to taste so good?

Steven A. Sargent



Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.


New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits.  


?-amyrin-3-(3'-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities. PMID:23798877

Fayek, Nesrin M; Monem, Azza R Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y; Meselhy, Meselhy R



New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits  

PubMed Central

?-amyrin-3-(3’-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities. PMID:23798877

Fayek, Nesrin M.; Monem, Azza R. Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y.; Meselhy, Meselhy R.



Characterization of phenolic compounds of thorny and thornless blackberries.  


The aim of this study was to identify and compare the contents of phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, and flavonoid glycosides in thorny and thornless blackberries. Five thorny and nine thornless cultivars were used for this study. Thirty-five phenolic compounds were determined in the examined fruits, and one phenolic acid, three ellagic acid derivatives, one anthocyanin, and six flavonols were characterized for the first time in blackberries. The thornless fruits were characterized by a higher content of anthocyanins (mean = 171.23 mg/100 g FW), ellagitannins (mean = 3.65 mg/100 g FW), and ellagic acid derivatives (mean = 2.49 mg/100 g FW), in comparison to thorny ones. At the same time, in thorny fruits, the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids (mean = 1.42 mg/100 g FW) and flavonols (mean = 5.70 mg/100 g FW) were higher. PMID:25764069

Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Fecka, Izabela



Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.  


Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples. PMID:25393892

Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina



Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon  

E-print Network

Bacterial fruit blotch is a disease occurring sporadically in almost all areas of Texas where watermelons are grown. This publication discusses symptoms, diagnosis and disease development and management....

Isakeit, Thomas



Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in the fruit processing environment--a review.  


Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for reconstituted fruit beverages to compete with beverages that are made from fresh fruits. In recent years, Alicyclobacillus spp. have become a major concern to the beverage industry worldwide as many high-acid, concentrated fruit products have been found to be contaminated with these spoilage microbes. The thermo-acidophilic nature of alicyclobacilli and highly resistant endospores allows for their survival during the production of concentrated fruit products. Under favourable conditions, endospores can germinate and multiply to numbers high enough to cause spoilage and product deterioration through the production of chemical taint compounds. It is imperative to understand the nature of Alicyclobacillus within the fruit concentrate processing environment so as to develop effective control strategies and to prevent spoilage in juice and beverage products that are reconstituted from fruit concentrates. This paper reviews the occurrence of alicyclobacilli in the fruit processing environment, control measures, as well as detection, identification and standardised test methods that are currently used for Alicyclobacillus in concentrated fruit products. PMID:21463910

Steyn, Catharina E; Cameron, Michelle; Witthuhn, R Corli



Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Hymenaea courbaril fruit peel.  


The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the peel of ripe and unripe fruits of Hymenaea courbaril L., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil from the peel of the ripe fruits were the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (11.1%), spathulenol (10.1%) and beta-selinene (8.2%), while germacrene-D (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (27.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%) were the major compounds in the oil from unripe fruits. The essential oils were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and showed LC50 values of 14.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 28.4 +/- 0.3 microg/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit peel oils, respectively. From the peel of the ripe fruits, the diterpenes zanzibaric acid and isoozic acid were isolated, along with the sesquiterpene caryolane-1,9beta-diol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this sesquiterpene in the genus. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. PMID:21299135

Aguiar, José Cláudio D; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Lavor, Patrícia L; Veras, Helenicy N H; Ferreira, Yana S; Lima, Michele A A; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Lima, Jefferson Q; de Jesus, Hugo C R; Alves, Péricles B; Braz-Filho, Raimundo



Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua


Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.  


Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality. PMID:23972229

Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime



Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food irradiation is a physical treatment in which food is exposed to ionizing radiation, i.e., radiation of high enough energy to expel electrons from atoms and to ionize molecules. Irradiation may be used to control the physiology of fruits, or to eliminate harmful bacteria from fruit products. Thi...


Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage. PMID:25585519

Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong



Fruit Xylophone: Fruit Salad Instrument of the Future!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a perfect summertime lunch activity! Pico Cricket is required (micro controller). First, get a bunch of cut up fruit, line them up, then plug a piece of fruit with a Pico Cricket sensor clip. Next, hold the other Pico Cricket sensor clip in your hand and touch each of the fruits with it to see what kind of music it makes! This activity contains the programming instructions you need to read the resistance in the fruit, which assigns that resistance number a sound. This activity is a great way to explore the conductivity of fruit and vegetables and their resistance. This activity is an easy programming activity for beginners. Note: an older version of the Pico Cricket is shown in this activity, please revise where necessary.



Ascorbate metabolism and the developmental demand for tartaric and oxalic acids in ripening grape berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fresh fruits are well accepted as a good source of the dietary antioxidant ascorbic acid (Asc, Vitamin C). However, fruits such as grapes do not accumulate exceptionally high quantities of Asc. Grapes, unlike most other cultivated fruits do however use Asc as a precursor for the synthesis of both oxalic (OA) and tartaric acids (TA). TA is a commercially

Vanessa J Melino; Kathleen L Soole; Christopher M Ford



Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.


The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

Nyhuis, Jane


FRUIT & NUT Plums, Nectarines, Apricots,  

E-print Network

on buds from previous season's growth. Usually the fruit has a dusty white coating or wax bloom varie- ties with similar blooming periods (chilling re- quirements) are needed for pollination and fruit set to take place. Bacterial and fungal pathogens along with the Plum orchard in full bloom #12

Mukhtar, Saqib


Usual Intake of Other fruits

Usual Intake of Other fruits Table A4. Other fruits: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.04) 0.2


Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  


It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin



Usual Intake of Fruit juice

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1


Usual Intake of Total fruit

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6


Fruit IPM Program Program Leader  

E-print Network

industries - grapes, tree fruit and berries. Contributions to key publications New York and Pennsylvania Pest cherry, strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry. The Crop Update. Lake Erie Regional Grape Program York and the Lake Erie grape belt. Responsiveness to fruit industry needs ­ crop certification

Lazzaro, Brian


Anatomy of the Avocado Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a brief summary of an anatomical study of the avocado fruit begun by the senior author in 1940 as part of a general study of the structure, chemical composition and physiological behavior of this fruit undertaken at the request of the California avocado industry. In 1941 the problem was taken over by the junior author. More complete

Katharine Cummings; C. A. Schroeder


Aucsia gene silencing causes parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.  


In angiosperms, auxin phytohormones play a crucial regulatory role in fruit initiation. The expression of auxin biosynthesis genes in ovules and placenta results in uncoupling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development from fertilization with production of parthenocarpic fruits. We have identified two newly described genes, named Aucsia genes, which are differentially expressed in auxin-synthesis (DefH9-iaaM) parthenocarpic tomato flower buds. The two tomato Aucsia genes encode 53-amino-acid-long peptides. We show, by RNA interference-mediated gene suppression, that Aucsia genes are involved in both reproductive and vegetative plant development. Aucsia-silenced tomato plants exhibited auxin-related phenotypes such as parthenocarpic fruit development, leaf fusions, and reflexed leaves. Auxin-induced rhizogenesis in cotyledon explants and polar auxin transport in roots were reduced in Aucsia-silenced plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, Aucsia-silenced plants showed an increased sensitivity to 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. We further prove that total indole-3-acetic acid content was increased in preanthesis Aucsia-silenced flower buds. Thus, the data presented demonstrate that Aucsia genes encode a novel family of plant peptides that control fruit initiation and affect other auxin-related biological processes in tomato. Aucsia homologous genes are present in both chlorophytes and streptophytes, and the encoded peptides are distinguished by a 16-amino-acid-long (PYSGXSTLALVARXSA) AUCSIA motif, a lysine-rich carboxyl-terminal region, and a conserved tyrosine-based endocytic sorting motif. PMID:18987210

Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Dani, Valeria; Spena, Angelo



Component tissues of different morphological types of tomato fruit and their qualitative and quantitative effects on quality of processed product  

E-print Network

Solids Acidity. Morphological Fruit Types. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 10 Raw Material 10 Processing Methods Evaluation of Fruit Areas. 10 13 Color. 13 Whole fruit color evaluations. 13 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT' D) Page Peel color evaluation. 13... of the tomatoes were dissected into four tissue parts: peel, outer~all, cross~all and core, and locular contents. The nitrogen peeling process described by Brown et al. (1970) was used to remove the tomato skin. The various components were placed...

Wagner, Alfred Bernhart



The effect of reduced activity of phytoene synthase on isoprenoid levels in tomato pericarp during fruit development and ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids, gibberellins (GAs), sterols, abscisic acid and ß-amyrins were analysed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pericarp during fruit development and ripening. The contents of these isoprenoids in wild-type (cv. Ailsa Craig) fruit were compared with those in fruit of the carotenoid-deficient R-mutant and a transgenic plant containing antisense RNA to a phytoene synthase gene. In both carotenoid-deficient genotypes, a 14-fold

Paul D. Fraser; Peter Hedden; David T. Cooke; Colin R. Bird; Wolfgang Schuch; Peter M. Bramley



Effect of Lipase Activity and Specificity on the DAG Content of Olive Oil from the Shodoshima-Produced Olive Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oils have a higher relative diacylglycerol (DAG) content than other plant oils. The lipase in olive fruits is involved\\u000a in DAG production and is directly related to the acidity of the olive oil. However, the lipase activity and positional selectivity\\u000a have not been clarified. To investigate the properties of olive fruit lipase, olive fruits of the Mission variety harvested

Masao Shimizu; Naoto Kudo; Yoshinobu Nakajima; Noboru Matsuo; Yoshihisa Katsuragi; Ichiro Tokimitsu; Francisca Barceló



Polyribosomes from Pear Fruit  

PubMed Central

Polysome profiles were examined from lyophilized peel tissue of ripening pear (Pyrus communis, L. var. Passe-Crassane). Messenger RNA chains bearing up to eight ribosomes (octamers) were resolved and exhibited the highest absorption peak when ribonuclease activity was eliminated during extraction. Neither normal ripening nor the increase of large polyribosomes that normally accompanies ripening and senescence of the fruit occurred when pretreatment at 0 C was omitted. Normal ripening and increase of large polyribosomes would, however, be initiated by an ethylene treatment. The size distribution of the polyribosomes remained essentially constant throughout a 4-month cold storage; there was, however, a large increase in ribosomes by the 12th week of storage. PMID:16661101

Drouet, Alain; Hartmann, Claude



Fruits and vegetables dehydration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.



Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in the Diet12  

PubMed Central

Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements. PMID:23674808

Liu, Rui Hai



Over-expression of mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter enhances fruit quality in tomato.  


Diamine putrescine (Put) and polyamines; spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are essential component of every cell because of their involvement in the regulation of cell division, growth and development. The aim of this study is to enhance the levels of Put during fruit development and see its implications in ripening and quality of tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter (2A11) were developed. Transgenic fruits exhibited enhanced levels of Put, Spd and Spm, with a concomitant reduction in ethylene levels, rate of respiration and physiological loss of water. Consequently such fruits displayed significant delay of on-vine ripening and prolonged shelf life over untransformed fruits. The activation of Put biosynthetic pathway at the onset of ripening in transgenic fruits is also consistent with the improvement of qualitative traits such as total soluble solids, titratable acids and total sugars. Such changes were associated with alteration in expression pattern of ripening specific genes. Transgenic fruits were also fortified with important nutraceuticals like lycopene, ascorbate and antioxidants. Therefore, these transgenic tomatoes would be useful for the improvement of tomato cultivars through breeding approaches. PMID:25537646

Pandey, Roopali; Gupta, Aarti; Chowdhary, Anuj; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat



Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of citrus fruit, to improve understanding of the effect of low temperature on maintaining fruit quality during lengthy post-harvest storage  

PubMed Central

Fruit quality is a very complex trait that is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Generally, low temperature (LT) is used to delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit quality during post-harvest storage but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis × C. paradis) fruit were chosen to explore the mechanisms that maintain citrus fruit quality during lengthy LT storage using transcriptome and proteome studies based on digital gene expression (DGE) profiling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), respectively. Results showed that LT up-regulated stress-responsive genes, arrested signal transduction, and inhibited primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and the transportation of metabolites. Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)–CBL-interacting protein kinase complexes might be involved in the signal transduction of LT stress, and fruit quality is likely to be regulated by sugar-mediated auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling. Furthermore, ABA was specific to the regulation of citrus fruit senescence and was not involved in the LT stress response. In addition, the accumulation of limonin, nomilin, methanol, and aldehyde, together with the up-regulated heat shock proteins, COR15, and cold response-related genes, provided a comprehensive proteomics and transcriptomics view on the coordination of fruit LT stress responses. PMID:22323274

Yun, Ze; Jin, Shuai; Ding, Yuduan; Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Huijun; Pan, Zhiyong; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin



Fruit Development in Trillium1  

PubMed Central

Leaves are the main source of carbon for fruit maturation in most species. However, in plants seeing contrasting light conditions such as some spring plants, carbon fixed during the spring could be used to support fruit development in the summer, when photosynthetic rates are low. We monitored carbohydrate content in the rhizome (a perennating organ) and the aboveground stem of trillium (Trillium erectum) over the entire growing season (May–November). At the beginning of the fruiting stage, stems carrying a developing fruit were harvested, their leaves were removed, and the leafless stems were maintained in aqueous solution under controlled conditions up to full fruit maturation. These experiments showed that stem carbohydrate content was sufficient to support fruit development in the absence of leaves and rhizome. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of complete fruit development sustained only by a temporary carbohydrate reservoir. This carbohydrate accumulation in the stem during the spring enables the plant to make better use of the high irradiances occurring at that time. Many other species might establish short-term carbohydrate reservoirs in response to seasonal changes in growing conditions. PMID:9576787

Lapointe, Line



Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish



Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics.  


As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics. PMID:25343046

Swain, Manas Ranjan; Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Ray, Ramesh Chandra; Parveen Rani, Rizwana



Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics  

PubMed Central

As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics. PMID:25343046

Ray, Ramesh Chandra



Folate biofortification of tomato fruit.  


Folate deficiency leads to neural tube defects and other human diseases, and is a global health problem. Because plants are major folate sources for humans, we have sought to enhance plant folate levels (biofortification). Folates are synthesized from pteridine, p-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate precursors. Previously, we increased pteridine production in tomato fruit up to 140-fold by overexpressing GTP cyclohydrolase I, the first enzyme of pteridine synthesis. This strategy increased folate levels 2-fold, but engineered fruit were PABA-depleted. We report here the engineering of fruit-specific overexpression of aminodeoxychorismate synthase, which catalyzes the first step of PABA synthesis. The resulting fruit contained an average of 19-fold more PABA than controls. When transgenic PABA- and pteridine-overproduction traits were combined by crossing, vine-ripened fruit accumulated up to 25-fold more folate than controls. Folate accumulation was almost as high (up to 15-fold) in fruit harvested green and ripened by ethylene-gassing, as occurs in commerce. The accumulated folates showed normal proportions of one-carbon forms, with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate the most abundant, but were less extensively polyglutamylated than controls. Folate concentrations in developing fruit did not change in controls, but increased continuously throughout ripening in transgenic fruit. Pteridine and PABA levels in transgenic fruit were >20-fold higher than in controls, but the pathway intermediates dihydropteroate and dihydrofolate did not accumulate, pointing to a flux constraint at the dihydropteroate synthesis step. The folate levels we achieved provide the complete adult daily requirement in less than one standard serving. PMID:17360503

Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I; Gregory, Jesse F; Hanson, Andrew D



Physical and chemical characteristics of goldenberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.).  


Some physical and chemical characteristics of goldenberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) were investigated. These characteristics are necessary for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separating and packing. The fruit length, diameter, geometric and arithmetic mean diameters, sphericity, surface area, projected areas (vertical-horizontal) and aspect ratio of goldenberries were determined as 17.52 mm, 17.31 mm, 17.33 mm, 17.38 mm, 98.9 %, 0.949 cm(2), 388.67-387.85 mm(2) and 0.988, respectively. The mass of fruit, bulk density, fruit density, porosity and fruit hardness were 3.091 g, 997.3 kg/m(3), 462.3 kg/m(3), 53.61 % and 8.01 N, respectively. The highest static coefficient of friction was observed on rubber surface, followed by stainless steel sheet, aluminum sheet, and plywood materials. The dry matter, water soluble dry matter, ash, protein, oil, carbohydrate, titratable acidity, pH, total sugar, reducing sugar, antioxidant capacity were 18.67 %, 14.17 %, 2.98 %, 1.66 %, 0.18 %, 13.86 %, 1.26 %, 6.07, 63.90 g/kg, 31.99 g/kg and 57.67 %, respectively. The fresh fruits have 145.22 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g total phenol content and skin colour data represented as L*, a*, b*, Chroma (C) and Hue angle (?) were 49.92, 25.11, 50.23, 56.12 and 63.48, respectively. PMID:25829615

Y?ld?z, Gökçen; ?zli, Nazmi; Ünal, Halil; Uyla?er, Vildan



Physical properties of kumquat fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some physical properties of kumquat were investigated. Physical properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, volume, projected area, density, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and also packaging coefficient were calculated. Mechanical properties such as the elasticity modulus, rupture force and energy required for initial rupture have been determined. The experiments were carried out at moisture content of 82.6% (w.b.). The results show that the kumquat fruit is one of the smallest fruit in the citrus family.

Jaliliantabar, F.; Lorestani, A. N.; Gholami, R.



Hurdle technology in fruit processing.  


Conventional preservation technologies such as thermal processing ensure the safety and shelf life of fruit-derived products but can result in the loss of physicochemical and nutritional quality attributes. This review examines innovative hurdle techniques to obtain novel fruit products with fresh-like characteristics. The multifactorial processes were based on emerging preservation factors in combination or combining emerging factors with traditional ones. Selected practical examples of fruit processing using UV light, pulsed light (PL), ultrasound (US), and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are presented. Some issues of key importance for the design of combination processes are also addressed. PMID:22129391

Gómez, Paula Luisina; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Alzamora, Stella Maris



Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...


7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...