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Sample records for fruit flies modulate

  1. Fruit Flies Modulate Passive Wing Pitching to Generate In-Flight Turns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergou, Attila J.; Ristroph, Leif; Guckenheimer, John; Cohen, Itai; Wang, Z. Jane

    2010-04-01

    Flying insects execute aerial maneuvers through subtle manipulations of their wing motions. Here, we measure the free-flight kinematics of fruit flies and determine how they modulate their wing pitching to induce sharp turns. By analyzing the torques these insects exert to pitch their wings, we infer that the wing hinge acts as a torsional spring that passively resists the wing’s tendency to flip in response to aerodynamic and inertial forces. To turn, the insects asymmetrically change the spring rest angles to generate asymmetric rowing motions of their wings. Thus, insects can generate these maneuvers using only a slight active actuation that biases their wing motion.

  2. Auditory system of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an invaluable model for auditory research. Advantages of using the fruit fly include its stereotyped behavior in response to a particular sound, and the availability of molecular-genetic tools to manipulate gene expression and cellular activity. Although the receiver type in fruit flies differs from that in mammals, the auditory systems of mammals and fruit flies are strikingly similar with regard to the level of development, transduction mechanism, mechanical amplification, and central projections. These similarities strongly support the use of the fruit fly to study the general principles of acoustic information processing. In this review, we introduce acoustic communication and discuss recent advances in our understanding on hearing in fruit flies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26560238

  3. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-08-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying sensory, neural, and physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two main difficulties in understanding the physiological mechanisms arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics of the insect wing hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here this strategy is used to model the torques exerted by the wing hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasistatic aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring parameters. The damped torsional-spring model explains the changes measured in wing-pitch kinematics during roll correction maneuvers through modulation of the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate that flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time scales.

  4. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring.

    PubMed

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-08-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying sensory, neural, and physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two main difficulties in understanding the physiological mechanisms arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics of the insect wing hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here this strategy is used to model the torques exerted by the wing hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasistatic aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring parameters. The damped torsional-spring model explains the changes measured in wing-pitch kinematics during roll correction maneuvers through modulation of the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate that flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time scales. PMID:26382437

  5. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two of the main difficulties arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics the insect wing-hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here, we model the torques exerted by the wing-hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasi-static aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time-scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time-scales.

  6. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  7. dTRPA1 Modulates Afternoon Peak of Activity of Fruit Flies Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Das, Antara; Holmes, Todd C.; Sheeba, Vasu

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in Drosophila under semi-natural conditions (or SN) have received much recent attention. One of the striking differences in the behaviour of wild type flies under SN is the presence of an additional peak of activity in the middle of the day. This is referred to as the afternoon peak (A-peak) and is absent under standard laboratory regimes using gated light and temperature cues. Although previous reports identified the physical factors that contribute towards the A-peak there is no evidence for underlying molecular mechanisms or pathways that control A-peak. We report that the A-peak is mediated by thermosensitive dTRPA1 (drosophila Transient Receptor Potential- A1) ion channels as this peak is absent in dTRPA1 null mutants. Further, when natural cycles of light and temperature are simulated in the lab, we find that the amplitude of the A-peak is dTRPA1-dependent. Although a few circadian neurons express dTRPA1, we show that modulation of A-peak is primarily influenced by non-CRY dTRPA1 expressing neurons. Hence, we propose that A-peak of activity observed under SN is a temperature sensitive response in flies that is elicited through dTRPA1 receptor signalling. PMID:26226013

  8. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  9. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be ...

  10. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

  11. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  12. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  13. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  14. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought. PMID:19536597

  15. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit...

  16. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2014-08-01

    Without sensory feedback, flies cannot fly. Exactly how various feedback controls work in insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure to stabilize their flight? How often and how fast must insects adjust their wings to remain stable? To gain insights into algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we develop a simulation tool to study free flight. To stabilize flight, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds on both the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat to stabilize their flight. We further propose a candidate for such a control involving the fly's haltere and first basalar motor neuron. Although we focus on fruit flies as a case study, the framework for our simulation and discrete control algorithms is applicable to studies of both natural and man-made fliers. PMID:25049376

  17. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  18. Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

  19. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  20. Improve California trap programs for detection of fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are >160,000 federal and state fruit fly detection traps deployed in southern and western U.S. States and Puerto Rico. In California alone, >100,000 traps are deployed and maintained just for exotic fruit flies detection. Fruit fly detection and eradication requires deployment of large numbers...

  1. AREA-WIDE CONTROL OF FRUIT FLIES IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies in Hawaii The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program was initiated in 1999 by USDA-ARS to suppress fruit flies below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insecticides. The program has involved developing and integrating bi...

  2. Fruit flies in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-03-01

    Many scientists complain that the current funding situation is dire. Indeed, there has been an overall decline in support in funding for research from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Within the Drosophila field, some of us question how long this funding crunch will last as it demotivates principal investigators and perhaps more importantly affects the long-term career choice of many young scientists. Yet numerous very interesting biological processes and avenues remain to be investigated in Drosophila, and probing questions can be answered fast and efficiently in flies to reveal new biological phenomena. Moreover, Drosophila is an excellent model organism for studies that have translational impact for genetic disease and for other medical implications such as vector-borne illnesses. We would like to promote a better collaboration between Drosophila geneticists/biologists and human geneticists/bioinformaticians/clinicians, as it would benefit both fields and significantly impact the research on human diseases. PMID:25624315

  3. Fruit Flies in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Wangler, Michael F.; Yamamoto, Shinya; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Many scientists complain that the current funding situation is dire. Indeed, there has been an overall decline in support in funding for research from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Within the Drosophila field, some of us question how long this funding crunch will last as it demotivates principal investigators and perhaps more importantly affects the long-term career choice of many young scientists. Yet numerous very interesting biological processes and avenues remain to be investigated in Drosophila, and probing questions can be answered fast and efficiently in flies to reveal new biological phenomena. Moreover, Drosophila is an excellent model organism for studies that have translational impact for genetic disease and for other medical implications such as vector-borne illnesses. We would like to promote a better collaboration between Drosophila geneticists/biologists and human geneticists/bioinformaticians/clinicians, as it would benefit both fields and significantly impact the research on human diseases. PMID:25624315

  4. Successful Utilization of the Area-Wide Approach for Management of Fruit Flies in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the so-called Malaysian (solenaceous) fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), have accidentally become established in Hawaii, and attack mor...

  5. Predicting Fruit Fly's Sensing Rate From Insect Flight Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, Song

    2013-11-01

    Without sensory feedbacks, flies cannot fly. Exactly how sensory feedback controls work in flying insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure in order to stabilize their flight? What kinds of neural computations and muscle activities are involved in order to correct their flight course or to turn? How often and how fast do animals adjust their wings to remain stable? To understand the algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we have developed a simulation tool to study flapping flight, where motions of the insect body and wings are coupled instantaneously. To stabilize the flight in the simulation, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds both on the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting these findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we give a sharper bound on the sensing rate and further reason that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing-beat in order to stabilize their flight.

  6. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory. PMID:19182539

  7. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  8. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... (74 FR 651-664, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0126), that led to establishment of the Peruvian Hass avocado... effective on January 4, 2010 (75 FR 1-13), we stated that more research would need to be done in accordance... Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist...

  9. A fruitful endeavor: modeling ALS in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2015-05-14

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis. PMID:25289585

  10. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  11. Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immersion of litchi fruit in 49ºC water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 ± 4ºC) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (...

  12. Cranberry anthocyanin extract prolongs lifespan of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Yuk Man; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2015-09-01

    Cranberry is an excellent source of dietary antioxidants. The present study investigated the effect of cranberry anthocyanin (CrA) extract on the lifespan of fruit flies with focus on its interaction with aging-related genes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (MTH), insulin receptor (InR), target of rapamycin (TOR), hemipterus (Hep), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Results showed that diet containing 20mg/mL CrA could significantly prolong the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 10% compared with the control diet. This was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1 and down-regulation of MTH, InR, TOR and PEPCK. The stress resistance test demonstrated that CrA could reduce the mortality rate induced by H2O2 but not by paraquat. It was therefore concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of CrA was most likely mediated by modulating the genes of SOD1, MTH, InR, TOR and PEPCK. PMID:26159161

  13. Regulatory peptides in fruit fly midgut.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jan A; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen; Sellami, Azza

    2008-12-01

    Regulatory peptides were immunolocalized in the midgut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Endocrine cells were found to produce six different peptides: allatostatins A, B and C, neuropeptide F, diuretic hormone 31, and the tachykinins. Small neuropeptide-F (sNPF) was found in neurons in the hypocerebral ganglion innervating the anterior midgut, whereas pigment-dispersing factor was found in nerves on the most posterior part of the posterior midgut. Neuropeptide-F (NPF)-producing endocrine cells were located in the anterior and middle midgut and in the very first part of the posterior midgut. All NPF endocrine cells also produced tachykinins. Endocrine cells containing diuretic hormone 31 were found in the caudal half of the posterior midgut; these cells also produced tachykinins. Other endocrine cells produced exclusively tachykinins in the anterior and posterior extemities of the midgut. Allatostatin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were present throughout the midgut. Those in the caudal half of the posterior midgut produced allatostatins A, whereas those in the anterior, middle, and first half of the posterior midgut produced allatostatin C. In the middle of the posterior midgut, some endocrine cells produced both allatostatins A and C. Allatostatin-C-immunoreactive endocrine cells were particularly prominent in the first half of the posterior midgut. Allatostatin B/MIP-immunoreactive cells were not consistently found and, when present, were only weakly immunoreactive, forming a subgroup of the allatostatin-C-immunoreactive cells in the posterior midgut. Previous work on Drosophila and other insect species suggested that (FM)RFamide-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the insect midgut could produce NPF, sNPF, myosuppressin, and/or sulfakinins. Using a combination of specific antisera to these peptides and transgenic fly models, we showed that the endocrine cells in the adult Drosophila midgut produced exclusively NPF. Although the Drosophila insulin gene Ilp3

  14. What can fruit flies teach us about karate?

    PubMed

    Yang, Helen H; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the logic behind how a fruit fly's brain tells it to groom its body parts in a stereotyped order might help us understand other behaviours that also involve a series of actions. PMID:25139958

  15. Chromosomal duplications in bacteria, fruit flies, and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lupski, J.R.; Weinstock, G.M.; Roth, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Tandem duplication of chromosomal segments has been recognized as a frequent mutational mechanism in several genetic model systems. In bacteria, fruit flies, and humans, duplications form by similar molecular mechanisms and appear to be important in genome evolution. 80 refs.

  16. Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel, visually attractive bait station was developed in Hawaii for application of insecticidal baits against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The bai...

  17. Global Establishment Risk of Economically Important Fruit Fly Species (Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R.; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region. PMID:25588025

  18. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  19. Biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly (OFF), is a key pest of olives in most olive-growing countries in the Mediterranean basin and elsewhere. It significantly reduces yields and degrades the quality of the oil extracted from infested fruit. Olive growers have traditionally used systemic organopho...

  20. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26083385

  1. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  2. Classical Olfactory Conditioning in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning. PMID:25837420

  3. Genetic dissection of sleep-metabolism interactions in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Yurgel, Maria E; Masek, Pavel; DiAngelo, Justin; Keene, Alex C

    2015-09-01

    Dysregulation of sleep and metabolism has enormous health consequences. Sleep loss is linked to increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, and epidemiological studies link chronic sleep deprivation to obesity-related disorders including type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interactions between sleep and metabolism involve the integration of signaling from brain regions regulating sleep, feeding, and metabolic function. Investigating the relationship between these processes provides a model to address more general questions of how the brain prioritizes homeostatically regulated behaviors. The availability of powerful genetic tools in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, allows for precise manipulation of neural function in freely behaving animals. There is a strong conservation of genes and neural circuit principles regulating sleep and metabolic function, and genetic screens in fruit flies have been effective in identifying novel regulators of these processes. Here, we review recent findings in the fruit fly that further our understanding of how the brain modulates sleep in accordance with metabolic state. PMID:25236355

  4. Genetic dissection of sleep-metabolism interactions in the fruit fly

    PubMed Central

    Yurgel, Maria E.; Masek, Pavel; DiAngelo, Justin; Keene, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of sleep and metabolism has enormous health consequences. Sleep loss is linked to increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, and epidemiological studies link chronic sleep deprivation to obesity-related disorders including type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interactions between sleep and metabolism involve the integration of signaling from brain regions regulating sleep, feeding, and metabolic function. Investigating the relationship between these processes provides a model to address more general questions of how the brain prioritizes homeostatically regulated behaviors. The availability of powerful genetic tools in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, allows for precise manipulation of neural function in freely behaving animals. There is a strong conservation of genes and neural circuit principles regulating sleep and metabolic function, and genetic screens in fruit flies have been effective in identifying novel regulators of these processes. Here, we review recent findings in the fruit fly that further our understanding of how the brain modulates sleep in accordance with metabolic state. PMID:25236355

  5. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...We are amending the regulations to relieve certain restrictions regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. Specifically, we are amending our domestic regulations to provide for the interstate movement of Hass avocados from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded after harvest in accordance with specific measures.......

  6. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  7. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  8. Flying fruit flies correct for visual sideslip depending on relative speed of forward optic flow

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Stephanie; Theobald, Jamie C.

    2013-01-01

    As a fly flies through its environment, static objects produce moving images on its retina, and this optic flow is essential for steering and course corrections. Different types of rotation and translation produce unique flow fields, which fly brains are wired to identify. However, a feature of optic flow unique to translational motion is that adjacent images may move across the retina at different speeds, depending on their distance from the observer. Many insects take advantage of this depth cue, called motion parallax, to determine the distance to objects. We wanted to know if differential object speeds affect the corrective responses of fruit flies when they experience unplanned course deviations. We presented tethered flying flies with optic flow and measured their corrective responses to sideways perturbations of images with different relative forward speeds. We found that flying flies attend to the relative speed of dots during forward motion, and adjust their corrective responses to sideslip deviations depending on this cue. With no other distinguishing features (such as brightness or size), flies mounted a greater response to sideways deviations that were signaled by faster moving dots in the forward flow field, those that appeared radially closer by their speeds. This is consistent with the interpretation that fruit flies attend to seemingly nearer objects, and correct more strongly when they indicate a perturbation. PMID:23847482

  9. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M; Cohen, Itai

    2015-04-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional-integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. PMID:25762650

  10. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional–integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. PMID:25762650

  11. Feeding and attraction of non-target flies to spinosad-based fruit fly bait.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Messing, Russell H

    2006-10-01

    A spinosad-based fruit fly bait, GF-120, has recently become a primary tool for area-wide suppression or eradication of pest tephritid fruit flies. The present study assessed the attraction and feeding of five non-target fly species to GF-120 in Hawaii. These non-target flies include three beneficial tephritid species [Eutreta xanthochaeta (Aldrich), Tetreuaresta obscuriventris (Loew), Ensina sonchi (L.)] introduced for weed biological control, an endemic Hawaiian tephritid [Trupanea dubautiae (Bryan)] (all Diptera: Tephritidae) and the cosmopolitan Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). All five non-target fly species were susceptible to GF-120, as was the target pest Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Feeding on, or even brief tasting of, GF-120 killed all fly species within 2 h. When individual flies were provided with a choice of GF-120 or honey solution, there was no difference in the frequency of first food encounter by E. xanthochaeta, D. melanogaster or C. capitata. The other three non-target species approached honey more often than GF-120 in their first food encounter. Feeding times on GF-120 and honey were not significantly different for D. melanogaster and C. capitata, while the other four non-target species fed longer on honey than on GF-120. There was no significant difference in feeding time on honey versus GF-120 between males and females of each species. These results suggest that area-wide treatment using GF-120 for the purpose of eradication of pest fruit flies has potential negative impacts on these and other non-target fly species in Hawaii. PMID:16835891

  12. Neurokernel: An Open Source Platform for Emulating the Fruit Fly Brain.

    PubMed

    Givon, Lev E; Lazar, Aurel A

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an open software platform called Neurokernel for collaborative development of comprehensive models of the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and their execution and testing on multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Neurokernel provides a programming model that capitalizes upon the structural organization of the fly brain into a fixed number of functional modules to distinguish between these modules' local information processing capabilities and the connectivity patterns that link them. By defining mandatory communication interfaces that specify how data is transmitted between models of each of these modules regardless of their internal design, Neurokernel explicitly enables multiple researchers to collaboratively model the fruit fly's entire brain by integration of their independently developed models of its constituent processing units. We demonstrate the power of Neurokernel's model integration by combining independently developed models of the retina and lamina neuropils in the fly's visual system and by demonstrating their neuroinformation processing capability. We also illustrate Neurokernel's ability to take advantage of direct GPU-to-GPU data transfers with benchmarks that demonstrate scaling of Neurokernel's communication performance both over the number of interface ports exposed by an emulation's constituent modules and the total number of modules comprised by an emulation. PMID:26751378

  13. Witnessing Phenotypic and Molecular Evolution in the Fruit Fly.

    PubMed

    Heil, Caiti S S; Hunter, Mika J; Noor, Juliet Kf; Miglia, Kathleen; Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed Af

    2012-12-01

    This multi-day exercise is designed for a college Genetics and Evolution laboratory to demonstrate concepts of inheritance and phenotypic and molecular evolution using a live model organism, Drosophila simulans. Students set up an experimental fruit fly population consisting of ten white eyed flies and one red eyed fly. Having red eyes is advantageous compared to having white eyes, allowing students to track the spread of this advantageous trait over several generations. Ultimately, the students perform PCR and gel electrophoresis at two neutral markers, one located in close proximity to the eye-color locus, and one located at the other end of the chromosome. Students observe that most flies have red eyes, and these red-eyed flies have lost variation at the near marker, but maintained variation at the far marker, hence observing a "selective sweep" and the "hitchhiking" of a nearby neutral variant. Students literally observe phenotypic and molecular evolution in their classroom! PMID:23459154

  14. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  15. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  16. Ammonia as a component of fruit fly attractants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principal components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important Ana...

  17. Ammonia Formulations and Capture of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted in numbers to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principle components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important ...

  18. Embryonic transcriptome analysis of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The embryonic transcriptome of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, was sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing in an effort to isolate embryonic promoters and genes involved in programmed cell death. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA pooled from various time points in embryogenesis usi...

  19. INTRODUCTION OF THE PARASITOID, FOPIUS ARISANUS (SONAN), INTO FRENCH POLYNESIA FOR SUPPRESSION OF ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of the Parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan), into French Polynesia for Suppression of Oriental Fruit Fly History of Bactrocera dorsalis in French Polynesia Largest program in classical biological control of fruit flies was undertaken to control oriental fruit fly. Thirty-two natural ene...

  20. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  1. Transcriptome of the egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol tool for Tephritid fruit fly suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The Braconoid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) has been utilized for biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), both phytophagous fruit flies pest of economic importance in Hawaii. We have sequenced and assembled t...

  2. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  3. Dietary wheat germ oil and age influences fatty acid compositions in adult oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterile Insect Technique programs have been developed for management of several tephritid fruit fly pests. These programs are based on continous production of adult fruit flies. The high expense of mass-rearing oriental fruit flies drive research to improve the cost effectiveness of rearing programs...

  4. Fruit Flies Medicate Offspring After Seeing Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kacsoh, Balint Z.; Lynch, Zachary R.; Mortimer, Nathan T.; Schlenke, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Hosts have numerous defenses against parasites, of which behavioral immune responses are an important but under-appreciated component. Here we describe a behavioral immune response Drosophila melanogaster utilizes against endoparasitoid wasps. We found that when flies see wasps they switch to laying eggs in alcohol-laden food sources that protect hatched larvae from infection. This oviposition behavior change, mediated by neuropeptide F, is retained long after wasps are removed. Flies respond to diverse female larval endoparasitoids but not to pupal endoparasitoids or males, showing they maintain specific wasp search images. Furthermore, the response evolved multiple times across the genus Drosophila. Our data reveal a behavioral immune response based on anticipatory medication of offspring, and outline a non-associative memory paradigm based on innate parasite recognition by the host. PMID:23430653

  5. Attraction of nontarget species to fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) male lures and decaying fruit flies in traps in Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic male lures are commonly used to monitor and mass-trap pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). However, there has been much dispute as to the non-target impacts of such lures on beneficial and native insects. To evaluate nontarget attraction effects, traps baited with cue...

  6. BACKYARD COMPOSTING OF INFESTED FRUIT: A POTENTIAL PATHWAY FOR INTRODUCTION OF ANASTREPHA FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) INTO FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of infested fruit directly into the environment is a potential pathway for pest introduction. This study estimated the likelihood of exotic fruit flies entering south Florida through backyard composting. Grapefruits infested with Caribbean fruit fly larvae, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), wer...

  7. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha oblique (Macquart), are fruits of the family Anacardiaceae (mangos and mombin species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, inclu...

  8. Passive cellular microrheology in developing fruit fly embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Sarah; Ma, Xiaoyan; Lawrence, Stacey; Hutson, M. Shane

    2012-02-01

    The development of fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos involves spatial and temporal regulation of cellular mechanical properties. These properties can be probed in vivo using laser hole drilling experiments; however, this technique only infers relative forces. Conversion to absolute forces requires measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties. Here, we use passive microrheology of fluorescently labeled cell membranes to measure the viscoelastic properties of amnioserosa cells. These dynamic epithelial cells play an important mechanical role during two developmental stages: germ band retraction and dorsal closure. Passive microrheology in this system is confounded by active contractions in the cytoskeleton. Thus, the fruit fly embryos are transiently anesthetized with CO2, halting active cellular movements, leaving only passive Brownian motion. The power spectra of these fluctuations are well fit by a Lorentzian -- as expected for Brownian motion -- and allow us to extract cellular viscoelastic parameters at different developmental stages. These measured parameters inform previous hole-drilling experiments and provide inputs for quantitative computational models of fruit fly embryonic development.

  9. The Value of Patch-Choice Copying in Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shane; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Many animals copy the choices of others but the functional and mechanistic explanations for copying are still not fully resolved. We relied on novel behavioral protocols to quantify the value of patch-choice copying in fruit flies. In a titration experiment, we quantified how much nutritional value females were willing to trade for laying eggs on patches already occupied by larvae (social patches). Females were highly sensitive to nutritional quality, which was positively associated with their offspring success. Females, however, perceived social, low-nutrition patches (33% of the nutrients) as equally valuable as non-social, high-nutrition ones (100% of the nutrients). In follow-up experiments, we could not, however, either find informational benefits from copying others or detect what females' offspring may gain from developing with older larvae. Because patch-choice copying in fruit flies is a robust phenomenon in spite of potential costs due to competition, we suggest that it is beneficial in natural settings, where fruit flies encounter complex dynamics of microbial communities, which include, in addition to the preferred yeast species they feed on, numerous harmful fungi and bacteria. We suggest that microbial ecology underlies many cases of copying in nature. PMID:25375776

  10. Evaluation of yeast products in fruit fly adult diet and liquid larval diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several yeasts and yeast products were tested as components of adult diet for Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae and larval liquid diet for Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis in mass rearing process. Three hydrolyzed yeasts ...

  11. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes. PMID:25471105

  12. Pest, Parasitoid, and Fruit Interactions in Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the imported parasitoid, P. humilis, required cool temperatures, high humidities, and food and water for prolonged survival (about 6 months for host) in laboratory and greenhouse tests. Life span was greatly shortened by high temperatures, low humiditi...

  13. Feasibility study of utilizing simplified near infrared imaging for detecting fruit fly larvae in intact fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the previous research to classify intact mangoes infested with oriental fruit fly from the control ones using near infrared (NIR) spectra acquired by a spot-type handheld NIR instrument, an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the system by employing NIR imaging technology was conducted. ...

  14. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a sin...

  15. Limit-cycle-based control of the myogenic wingbeat rhythm in the fruit fly Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bartussek, Jan; Mutlu, A. Kadir; Zapotocky, Martin; Fry, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    In many animals, rhythmic motor activity is governed by neural limit cycle oscillations under the control of sensory feedback. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the wingbeat rhythm is generated myogenically by stretch-activated muscles and hence independently from direct neural input. In this study, we explored if generation and cycle-by-cycle control of Drosophila's wingbeat are functionally separated, or if the steering muscles instead couple into the myogenic rhythm as a weak forcing of a limit cycle oscillator. We behaviourally tested tethered flying flies for characteristic properties of limit cycle oscillators. To this end, we mechanically stimulated the fly's ‘gyroscopic’ organs, the halteres, and determined the phase relationship between the wing motion and stimulus. The flies synchronized with the stimulus for specific ranges of stimulus amplitude and frequency, revealing the characteristic Arnol'd tongues of a forced limit cycle oscillator. Rapid periodic modulation of the wingbeat frequency prior to locking demonstrates the involvement of the fast steering muscles in the observed control of the wingbeat frequency. We propose that the mechanical forcing of a myogenic limit cycle oscillator permits flies to avoid the comparatively slow control based on a neural central pattern generator. PMID:23282849

  16. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Cancino, Jorge; Ruiz, Lía

    2012-01-01

    The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies. PMID:26466634

  17. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) locomotion during a sounding rocket flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Keller, Tony S.

    2008-05-01

    The locomotor activity of young Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) was studied during a Nike-Orion sounding rocket flight, which included a short-duration microgravity exposure. An infrared monitoring system was used to determine the activity level, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity of 240 (120 male, 120 female) fruit flies. Individual flies were placed in chambers that limit their motion to walking. Chambers were oriented both vertically and horizontally with respect to the rocket's longitudinal axis. Significant changes in Drosophila locomotion patterns were observed throughout the sounding rocket flight, including launch, microgravity exposure, payload re-entry, and after ocean impact. During the microgravity portion of the flight (3.8 min), large increases in all locomotion measurements for both sexes were observed, with some measurements doubling compared to pad (1 G) data. Initial effects of microgravity were probably delayed due to large accelerations from the payload despining immediately before entering microgravity. The results indicate that short-duration microgravity exposure has a large effect on locomotor activity for both males and females, at least for a short period of time. The locomotion increases may explain the increased male aging observed during long-duration exposure to microgravity. Studies focusing on long-duration microgravity exposure are needed to confirm these findings, and the relationship of increased aging and locomotion.

  18. Evolution of olfactory receptor in oriental fruit fly Dacus dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.; Lee, Lena W. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Male oriental fruit flies (Dacus dorsalis) from colonies in Taiwan and Hawaii were evaluated for limit of response to various analogues of methyl eugenol. The results are interpreted in terms of the geometry and allosteric requirements of the antennal receptor that triggers the characteristic methyl eugenol reflex. This receptor has evolved for complementarity to all portions of the methyl eugenol molecule and responds only to ortho-substituted benzenes with adjacent oxygen atoms or isoelectronic equivalents. Substantial differences in responses of Taiwan and Hawaiian D. dorsalis suggest that perceptible evolution of the receptor protein has occurred during the past 50 years. A plausible scheme for the coevolution of dacini flies with plants containing phenylpropionoid essential oils is outlined. Images PMID:16592640

  19. Mapping the stereotyped behaviour of freely moving fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Gordon J.; Choi, Daniel M.; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2014-01-01

    A frequent assumption in behavioural science is that most of an animal's activities can be described in terms of a small set of stereotyped motifs. Here, we introduce a method for mapping an animal's actions, relying only upon the underlying structure of postural movement data to organize and classify behaviours. Applying this method to the ground-based behaviour of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we find that flies perform stereotyped actions roughly 50% of the time, discovering over 100 distinguishable, stereotyped behavioural states. These include multiple modes of locomotion and grooming. We use the resulting measurements as the basis for identifying subtle sex-specific behavioural differences and revealing the low-dimensional nature of animal motions. PMID:25142523

  20. Mapping the stereotyped behaviour of freely moving fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Berman, Gordon J; Choi, Daniel M; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2014-10-01

    A frequent assumption in behavioural science is that most of an animal's activities can be described in terms of a small set of stereotyped motifs. Here, we introduce a method for mapping an animal's actions, relying only upon the underlying structure of postural movement data to organize and classify behaviours. Applying this method to the ground-based behaviour of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we find that flies perform stereotyped actions roughly 50% of the time, discovering over 100 distinguishable, stereotyped behavioural states. These include multiple modes of locomotion and grooming. We use the resulting measurements as the basis for identifying subtle sex-specific behavioural differences and revealing the low-dimensional nature of animal motions. PMID:25142523

  1. Light, heat, action: neural control of fruit fly behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Owald, David; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a popular model to investigate fundamental principles of neural circuit operation. The sophisticated genetics and small brain permit a cellular resolution understanding of innate and learned behavioural processes. Relatively recent genetic and technical advances provide the means to specifically and reproducibly manipulate the function of many fly neurons with temporal resolution. The same cellular precision can also be exploited to express genetically encoded reporters of neural activity and cell-signalling pathways. Combining these approaches in living behaving animals has great potential to generate a holistic view of behavioural control that transcends the usual molecular, cellular and systems boundaries. In this review, we discuss these approaches with particular emphasis on the pioneering studies and those involving learning and memory. PMID:26240426

  2. Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

  3. Neurokernel: An Open Source Platform for Emulating the Fruit Fly Brain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an open software platform called Neurokernel for collaborative development of comprehensive models of the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and their execution and testing on multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Neurokernel provides a programming model that capitalizes upon the structural organization of the fly brain into a fixed number of functional modules to distinguish between these modules’ local information processing capabilities and the connectivity patterns that link them. By defining mandatory communication interfaces that specify how data is transmitted between models of each of these modules regardless of their internal design, Neurokernel explicitly enables multiple researchers to collaboratively model the fruit fly’s entire brain by integration of their independently developed models of its constituent processing units. We demonstrate the power of Neurokernel’s model integration by combining independently developed models of the retina and lamina neuropils in the fly’s visual system and by demonstrating their neuroinformation processing capability. We also illustrate Neurokernel’s ability to take advantage of direct GPU-to-GPU data transfers with benchmarks that demonstrate scaling of Neurokernel’s communication performance both over the number of interface ports exposed by an emulation’s constituent modules and the total number of modules comprised by an emulation. PMID:26751378

  4. Epithelial self-organization in fruit fly embryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, M. Shane

    2010-03-01

    During fruit fly embryogenesis, there are several morphogenetic events in which sheets of epithelial cells expand, contract and bend due to coordinated intra- and intercellular forces. This tissue-level reshaping is accompanied by changes in the shape and arrangement of individual cells -- changes that can be measured quantitatively and dynamically using modern live-cell imaging techniques. Such data sets represent rich targets for computational modeling of self-organization; however, reproducing the observed cell- and tissue-level reshaping is not enough. The inverse problem of using cell shape changes to determine cell-level forces is ill-posed -- yielding non-unique solutions that cannot discriminate between active changes in cell shape and passive deformation. These non-unique solutions can be tested experimentally using in vivo laser-microsurgery -- i.e., cutting a targeted region of an epithelium and carefully tracking the temporal and spatial dependence of the subsequent strain relaxation. This technique uses a variety of incisions (hole, line or closed curve) to probe different aspects of epithelial mechanics: the local mesoscopic strain; the distribution of intracellular forces; changes in the cell-level power-law rheology; and the question of active versus passive deformation. I will discuss my group's work using laser-microsurgery to investigate two morphogenetic events in fruit fly embryogenesis: germband retraction and dorsal closure. In both cases, we find a substantial active mechanical role for the amnioserosa -- an epithelium that undergoes apoptosis near the end of embryogenesis and makes no part of the fly larva -- in reshaping an adjacent epithelium that becomes the larval epidermis. In these examples, self-organization of the fly embryo relies not only on self-organization of individual tissues, but also on the mechanical interactions between tissues.

  5. Pitch perfect: how fruit flies control their body pitch angle.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Beatus, Tsevi; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely flying Drosophila melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturbed them using impulsive mechanical torques and filmed their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we found that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 deg in 29±8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process only 10±2 ms after the perturbation onset, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 deg--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw and roll control, our results on pitch show that flies' stabilization of each of these body angles is consistent with PI control. PMID:26385332

  6. Field testing of a prototype acoustic device for detection of Mediterranean fruit flies flying into a trap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, hundreds of thousands of traps are used seasonally in surveillance and mass trapping programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). An automated system for remotely detecting and identifying trapped insects would have considerable potential for reducing the ...

  7. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  8. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae

  9. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

    2009-12-01

    The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

  10. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly,...

  11. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for melon fly, bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations, and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations. Establishment of preferred roostin...

  12. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  13. A comparative analysis of Mediterranean and Queensland fruit fly wing-buzzing sounds associated with mating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Mediterranean and Queensland fruit flies both produce wing-buzzing sounds during courtship but the functional role of the sounds is not clear for either species. In further consideration of the roles of these sounds, we report on a video and acoustic analysis of Queensland fruit fly courtship ...

  14. Rearing, Importation, and Release of Psyttalia humilis for Biocontrol of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control using imported parasitoids can be used to reduce olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations in olives. In 2008-2010, we mass produced the olive fruit fly larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Silvestri), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, laboratory in...

  15. Attractant-based systems as pesticide alternatives for control of tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass trapping and attract-and-kill bait stations are two attractant based systems that are being used or are under development as pesticide alternatives for control of a number of pest tephritid fruit flies. Results of field trials for suppression of Caribbean fruit flies in guava orchards in Florid...

  16. Host habitat preference of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The braconid parasitoid Fopius arisanus is a candidate for augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies. In the Puna district of Hawaii Island, F. arisanus parasitized 41-72% of oriental fruit flies in wild common guava, strawberry guava and tropical almond. In commercial papaya in the s...

  17. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  18. An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. ari...

  19. Honeybee Foraging Preferences, Effects of Sugars and Fruit Fly Toxic Bait Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were carried out to evaluate the repellence of the fruit fly toxic bait, GF-120, for domestic honeybees. This bait is an organically registered attractive bait for tephritid fruit flies and is composed of hydrolyzed protein (Solulys), invertose sugar, vegetable oils, adjuvants, and oth...

  20. OVARIAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLY, ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable methods are needed for assessing sexual maturity in field-caught tephritid fruit flies. To provide such a tool for female Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), we documented changes in ovarian development over a four-week period following adult eclosion. The ovarian maturatio...

  1. An Inquiry-Based Investigation of Modes of Inheritance Using "Flightless" Fruit Flies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Farland, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    The various strains of flightless fruit flies that were developed at the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) and an exercise that helps students in determining the inheritance pattern in the fruit fly mutant trait are described. The study and the resulting exercise helped the students in scientifically determining the two important aspects of…

  2. 2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...

  3. Genetic markers to distinguish between the Psyttalia lounsburyi populations which parasitize olive fruit flies in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyttalia lounsburyi Loan (Hym.: Braconidae) is an African larval-pupal parasitoid of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). The olive fruit fly is a key pest of cultivated olives throughout the Mediterranean region, and in California since its introduction into North America. Ol...

  4. AREAWIDE SUPPRESSION AS PART OF A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO MANAGING FRUIT FLY RISK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areawide fruit fly programs have been shown to be successful in many demonstration programs worldwide. However their utility in actual practice ranges from successful to unsuccessful depending on the focus of the program and the desired milestones of the program. For fruit fly eradication, the appli...

  5. TRAPPING FOR MEXICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) WITH TORULA YEAST AND PROPYLENE GLYCOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In south Texas, propylene glycol is added to the liquid bait (an aqueous slurry of torula yeast) in surveillance traps for exotic fruit flies to better preserve captured specimens. In a series of tests in Texas and Mexico, overall captures of Mexican fruit flies were roughly the same in traps with ...

  6. Host Status of Blueberry to Invasive Tephritid Fruit Flies in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if Northern or Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are hosts for four species of invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fifty fruit were exposed to an equal number of gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (o...

  7. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  8. Honeydew and insecticide-bait as competing food resources for a fruit fly and common parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew from phloem-feeding insects and fruit fly insecticidal baits may both serve as adult food resources for some insect species. In California olive orchards the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), is a common honeydew-producer, while spinosad-based fruit fly bait (GF-120) is used to contro...

  9. Quality Testing of Three Species of Tephritid Fruit Flies After Embryo Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates characteristics commonly used to define insect quality or fitness by using a complement of three species of tephritid fruit flies obtained from cryopreserved embryos. The Mexican, Anastrepah ludens, Caribbean, A. suspense, and Mediterranean, Certatitis capitata, fruit flies were...

  10. Ovarian development in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable methods are needed for assessing sexual maturity in field-caught tephritid fruit flies. To provide such a tool for female Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), we documented changes in ovarian development over a four-week period following adult eclosion. The ovarian maturatio...

  11. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Biological Control of Olive Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The maximu...

  12. Simulated field applications of insecticide soil drenches for control of Tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key component in tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) area-wide IPM programs has been application of insecticidal soil drenches under the drip line of host trees where fruit flies have been detected and as a regulatory treatment in the certification process for movement of nursery stock outs...

  13. Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

    1997-01-01

    Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

  14. Temporal and spatial variation in infestation of fruit by Anastrepha spp. in Puerto Rico: Support for a fruit fly-free zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If Puerto Rico could establish and maintain a fruit fly-free zone in a portion of the island, growers could then export that fruit without expensive post-harvest measures, as well as dramatically increase the locations where they could export this fruit. Key in establishing a fruit fly-free zone is ...

  15. A Normative Theory of Forgetting: Lessons from the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

  16. Area-Wide Suppression of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, Lester M.; McInnis, Donald O.; Harris, Ernest B.; McQuate, Grant T.; Bautista, Renato C.; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure® traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed. PMID:20883128

  17. Host status of litchi and rambutan to the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of litchi, (Litchi chinensis) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) were collected from the field in 2006 and 2007 and monitored for the emergence of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua. Fruit clusters of rambutan and litchi, with a piece of the peel removed to allow access to ovipositing f...

  18. Gas chromatography for detection of fruit fly infestation(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT. Tephritid fruit flies are one of the most serious economic pests of fruit crops worldwide. Detection of infestation is difficult since the larval stages are concealed within host fruits. At U.S. ports of entry, quarantine inspectors currently check only ~2% of incoming shipments by man...

  19. Independently Controlled Wing Stroke Patterns in the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Soma; Bartussek, Jan; Fry, Steven N.; Zapotocky, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Flies achieve supreme flight maneuverability through a small set of miniscule steering muscles attached to the wing base. The fast flight maneuvers arise from precisely timed activation of the steering muscles and the resulting subtle modulation of the wing stroke. In addition, slower modulation of wing kinematics arises from changes in the activity of indirect flight muscles in the thorax. We investigated if these modulations can be described as a superposition of a limited number of elementary deformations of the wing stroke that are under independent physiological control. Using a high-speed computer vision system, we recorded the wing motion of tethered flying fruit flies for up to 12 000 consecutive wing strokes at a sampling rate of 6250 Hz. We then decomposed the joint motion pattern of both wings into components that had the minimal mutual information (a measure of statistical dependence). In 100 flight segments measured from 10 individual flies, we identified 7 distinct types of frequently occurring least-dependent components, each defining a kinematic pattern (a specific deformation of the wing stroke and the sequence of its activation from cycle to cycle). Two of these stroke deformations can be associated with the control of yaw torque and total flight force, respectively. A third deformation involves a change in the downstroke-to-upstroke duration ratio, which is expected to alter the pitch torque. A fourth kinematic pattern consists in the alteration of stroke amplitude with a period of 2 wingbeat cycles, extending for dozens of cycles. Our analysis indicates that these four elementary kinematic patterns can be activated mutually independently, and occur both in isolation and in linear superposition. The results strengthen the available evidence for independent control of yaw torque, pitch torque, and total flight force. Our computational method facilitates systematic identification of novel patterns in large kinematic datasets. PMID:25710715

  20. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system. PMID:23906383

  1. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  2. Prefractionation methods for individual adult fruit fly hemolymph proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qi; Avilov, Vitaly; Shippy, Scott A

    2016-03-15

    The analysis of blood provides in depth chemical information of physiological states of organisms. Hemolymph (blood) is the fluid in the open circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster that is the medium for molecules regulating a wide variety of physiological activities and signaling between tissues. Adult Drosophila is typically less than 3mm in length and, as a consequence, the available volume of hemolymph is usually less than 50nL from individual flies. Proteomic analysis of volume-limited hemolymph is a great challenge for both sample handling and subsequent mass spectrometry characterization of this chemically diverse biological fluid with a wide dynamic range of proteins in concentrations. Less abundant proteins, in particular, could be easily lost during sample preparation or missed by current mass spectrometry methods. This article describes simple and customized RPLC column and IEX columns to prefractionate volume-limited hemolymph without excessive dilution. Step-gradient elution methods were developed and optimized to enhance the identification of novel proteins from an individual fruit fly hemolymph sample. Fractions from each step gradient was analyzed by an Agilent nano-RPLC chip column and then characterized by high mass resolution and high mass accuracy orbitrap mass spectrometry. As a result, both RPLC (11 proteins) and IEX fractionation approaches (9 proteins) identified more proteins than an unfractionated control approach with higher protein scores, emPAI values and coverage. Furthermore, a significant number of novel proteins were revealed by both RPLC and IEX fractionation methods, which were missed by unfractionated controls. The demonstration of this method establishes a means to deepen proteomic analysis to this commonly used, important biological model system. PMID:26901848

  3. A Plain English Map of the Chromosomes of the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the chromosomes of the fruit fly that contains genes from very different kinds of studies. Represents the work of nearly a century by thousands of researchers using a tremendous variety of techniques. (JRH)

  4. Wrinkled Peas and White-Eyed Fruit Flies: The Molecular Basis of Two Classical Genetic Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoile, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on bridging the gap between classical and molecular genetics for two traits: wrinkled seeds in garden peas and white eye color in fruit flies. Discusses the molecular details of the underlying basis of these traits. Contains 15 references. (JRH)

  5. 70 years of radiation genetics: Fruit flies, mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.

    1997-03-01

    Radiation protection`s function is to protect society from the potential hazards that might occur through the human use of radiation, whether it be from energy production, medical uses or other sources of exposure. To do so, various scientific bodies are called upon to develop risk estimates which will provide society with adequate protection to the adverse effects of radiation, as best we can understand those adverse affects. Geneticists have the added burden, in that they must attempt to provide protection not only to the offspring of the present generation but also for all subsequent generations. While most of us have difficulty in thinking of effects that might be manifest only one or two generations into the future, some have projected potential risks for 50 to 100 generations. Here the author reviews work on fruit flies and mice, and studies of human exposures, which has provided much of the foundational information upon which geneticists can derive conclusions with regard to radiation protection questions.

  6. Dynamics of Social Behavior in Fruit Fly Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Durisko, Zachary; Kemp, Rebecca; Mubasher, Rameeshay; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the extent and dynamics of social interactions among fruit fly larvae over time. Both a wild-type laboratory population and a recently-caught strain of larvae spontaneously formed social foraging groups. Levels of aggregation initially increased during larval development and then declined with the wandering stage before pupation. We show that larvae aggregated more on hard than soft food, and more at sites where we had previously broken the surface of the food. Groups of larvae initiated burrowing sooner than solitary individuals, indicating that one potential benefit of larval aggregations is an improved ability to dig and burrow into the food substrate. We also show that two closely related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, differ in their tendency to aggregate, which may reflect different evolutionary histories. Our protocol for quantifying social behavior in larvae uncovered robust social aggregations in this simple model, which is highly amenable to neurogenetic analyses, and can serve for future research into the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior. PMID:24740198

  7. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  8. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  9. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  10. DYNAMICS ON PH OF PROTEINACEOUS BAIT SYSTEMS FOR USE IN ATTRACTING FRUIT FLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  11. Methyl Farnesoate a naturally occurring juvenoid that accelerates reproductive development in Caribbean Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl farnesoate, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and the bisepoxide homolog of JH III was identified from hemolymph of adult males and females of the Caribbean fruit fly. Application of methyl farnesoate to newly eclosed flies resulted in precocious sexual dev...

  12. Application of nuclear techniques to improve the mass production and management of fruit fly parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of irradiated hosts in the mass rearing of tephritid fruit fly parasitoids represents an important technical advance regarding application of augmentative biological control. Irradiation of hosts during the mass rearing process assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, ...

  13. A Systems Approach to Mitigate Oriental Fruit Fly Risk in ‘Sharwil’ Avocados Exported From Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocados, Persea americana Miller, grown in Hawaii cannot be exported to the United States mainland without quarantine treatment for melon fly, oriental fruit fly, and Mediterranean fruit fly. The most widely grown cultivar of avocado in Hawaii is ‘Sharwil’. ‘Sharwil’, like other avocado varieties, ...

  14. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities. PMID:26466721

  15. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early research during the 1930’s focused on attractants for the Mexican fruit fly indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were ca...

  16. Compendium of fruit fly host information (CoFFHI), version 1.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI), developed through collaborative efforts of scientists in USDA-APHIS, USDA-ARS and the Center for Integrated Pest Management (CIPM) provides centralized, comprehensive documentation of what is known worldwide about the status of fruits and vegeta...

  17. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  18. Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Host Status Determination: Critical Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the fact that fruit fly host status determination/designation lies at the heart of strategic decisions on national and international trade of fruit and vegetables, all attempts so far to clearly define host plant status have been contentious and as a result, long standing disputes between co...

  19. Bait formulations of attractants and phagostimulants for targeted, area-wide fruit fly control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies attack hundreds of species of fruits and vegetables and are responsible for trade restrictions wherever they occur. Traps and “bait and kill stations” are important means of monitoring and control and Bob Heath made important contributions to these technologies....

  20. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  1. Signature chemicals for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. Ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small sa...

  2. Variation in Sharwil avocado maturity during the harvest season and resistance to fruit fly infestation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Avocados cannot be exported from Hawaii without a quarantine treatment to prevent the spread of fruit flies. Research on the maturity and infestability of ‘Sharwil’ avocados was conducted to support development of a systems approach for quarantine security of exported fruit. Th...

  3. Host status of Vaccinium reticulatum to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ohelo (Vaccicinium reticulatum Small) has commercial potential in Hawaii as a nursery crop to be transplanted for berry production or for sale as a potted ornamental. Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if ohelo fruit are hosts for four invasive tephritid fruit fly species. Ohelo ...

  4. Evidence for potential of managing some african fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) using the mango fruit fly host-marking pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated conspecific and heterospecific oviposition host discrimination among four economically important fruit fly pests of mango in Africa (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann; C. fasciventris, Bezzi; C. rosa, Karsch, and C. cosyra, Walker) with regard to host-marking behavior and fecal matter aq...

  5. How fruit flies came to launch the chromosome theory of heredity.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Elof Axel

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies were used by several laboratories between 1901 and 1910 for studies of experimental evolution at Harvard, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor before Thomas Hunt Morgan found his white-eyed mutation that we associate with the beginnings of the fly lab at Columbia University. The major players prior to Morgan were William Castle and his students at Harvard University, Frank Lutz at Cold Spring Harbor, and Fernandus Payne whose ideas for working with fruit flies were shaped by his studies of blind cave fauna at Indiana University. Payne's interests were stimulated by the work of Carl Eigenmann, an authority on blind cave fauna, and William Moenkhaus, who introduced Payne to fruit flies at Indiana University before Payne moved to Columbia to pursue graduate work with Morgan and Edmund Wilson. The motivations of the laboratories differed in the theories used for their work. Castle spread the word about the utility of fruit flies for research, but Payne gave Morgan his first fruit flies for research leading to the discovery of the white-eye mutation. PMID:23583801

  6. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly. PMID:26922349

  7. An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

  8. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-01-01

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets. PMID:26466795

  9. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Flávio R. M.; Ricalde, Marcelo P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets. PMID:26466795

  10. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  11. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, M.K.; Singh, Ram; Naresh, J.S.; Sharma, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is distributed widely in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. momordica), and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The extent of losses vary between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season. Its abundance increases when the temperatures fall below 32° C, and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70%. It prefers to infest young, green, soft-skinned fruits. It inserts the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit tissues, and the maggots feed inside the fruit. Pupation occurs in the soil at 0.5 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Keeping in view the importance of the pest and crop, melon fruit fly management could be done using local area management and wide area management. The melon fruit fly can successfully be managed over a local area by bagging fruits, field sanitation, protein baits, cue-lure traps, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentation of biocontrol agents, and soft insecticides. The wide area management program involves the coordination of different characteristics of an insect eradication program (including local area options) over an entire area within a defensible perimeter, and subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls. Although, the sterile insect technique has been successfully used in wide area approaches, this approach needs to use more sophisticated and powerful technologies in eradication programs such as insect transgenesis and geographical information systems, which could be deployed over a wide area. Various other options for the management of fruit fly are also discussed in relation to their bio-efficacy and economics for effective management of this pest. PMID:17119622

  12. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), causes direct damage to fruits and vegetables through oviposition and larval feeding. Rigorous quarantine procedures are currently enforced to prevent domestic and transnational spread of Medfly. Accessible and reliable informatio...

  13. Neuronal encoding of sound, gravity, and wind in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Eriko; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2013-04-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster responds behaviorally to sound, gravity, and wind. Exposure to male courtship songs results in reduced locomotion in females, whereas males begin to chase each other. When agitated, fruit flies tend to move against gravity. When faced with air currents, they 'freeze' in place. Based on recent studies, Johnston's hearing organ, the antennal ear of the fruit fly, serves as a sensor for all of these mechanosensory stimuli. Compartmentalization of sense cells in Johnston's organ into vibration-sensitive and deflection-sensitive neural groups allows this single organ to mediate such varied functions. Sound and gravity/wind signals sensed by these two neuronal groups travel in parallel from the fly ear to the brain, feeding into neural pathways reminiscent of the auditory and vestibular pathways in the human brain. Studies of the similarities between mammals and flies will lead to a better understanding of the principles of how sound and gravity information is encoded in the brain. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these principles and discuss the advantages of the fruit fly as a model system to explore the fundamental principles of how neural circuits and their ensembles process and integrate sensory information in the brain. PMID:23494584

  14. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities. PMID:25195442

  15. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  16. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  17. Indigenous and Invasive Fruit Fly Diversity along an Altitudinal Transect in Eastern Central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Katrien; Mwatawala, Maulid; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The relative abundance of indigenous and invasive frugivorous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated spatially and temporally along an altitudinal transect between 581–1650 m in the Uluguru Mountains near Morogoro, Tanzania. The polyphagous invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and the indigenous fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch show a similar temporal pattern, but are largely separated spatially, with B. invadens being abundant at lower elevation and C. rosa predominant at higher elevation. The polyphagous indigenous C. cosyra (Walker) coincides with B. invadens but shows an inverse temporal pattern. The cucurbit feeders B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus bivittatus (Bigot) show a similar temporal pattern, but the former is restricted to lower elevations. Host availability and climatic differences seem to be the determining factors to explain the differences in occurrence and abundance in time and space. PMID:22935017

  18. From trickle to flood: the large-scale, cryptic invasion of California by tropical fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Plant, Richard E; Carey, James R

    2013-10-01

    Since 1954, when the first tropical tephritid fruit fly was detected in California, a total of 17 species in four genera and 11 386 individuals (adults/larvae) have been detected in the state at more than 3348 locations in 330 cities. We conclude from spatial mapping analyses of historical capture patterns and modelling that, despite the 250+ emergency eradication projects that have been directed against these pests by state and federal agencies, a minimum of five and as many as nine or more tephritid species are established and widespread, including the Mediterranean, Mexican and oriental fruit flies, and possibly the peach, guava and melon fruit flies. We outline and discuss the evidence for our conclusions, with particular attention to the incremental, chronic and insidious nature of the invasion, which involves ultra-small, barely detectable populations. We finish by considering the implications of our results for invasion biology and for science-based invasion policy. PMID:23926154

  19. From trickle to flood: the large-scale, cryptic invasion of California by tropical fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Plant, Richard E.; Carey, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1954, when the first tropical tephritid fruit fly was detected in California, a total of 17 species in four genera and 11 386 individuals (adults/larvae) have been detected in the state at more than 3348 locations in 330 cities. We conclude from spatial mapping analyses of historical capture patterns and modelling that, despite the 250+ emergency eradication projects that have been directed against these pests by state and federal agencies, a minimum of five and as many as nine or more tephritid species are established and widespread, including the Mediterranean, Mexican and oriental fruit flies, and possibly the peach, guava and melon fruit flies. We outline and discuss the evidence for our conclusions, with particular attention to the incremental, chronic and insidious nature of the invasion, which involves ultra-small, barely detectable populations. We finish by considering the implications of our results for invasion biology and for science-based invasion policy. PMID:23926154

  20. Noninvasive Analysis of Microbiome Dynamics in the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Christine; Staubach, Fabian; Kuenzel, Sven; Baines, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity and structure of the intestinal microbial community has a strong influence on life history. To understand how hosts and microbes interact, model organisms with comparatively simple microbial communities, such as the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), offer key advantages. However, studies of the Drosophila microbiome are limited to a single point in time, because flies are typically sacrificed for DNA extraction. In order to test whether noninvasive approaches, such as sampling of fly feces, could be a means to assess fly-associated communities over time on the same cohort of flies, we compared the microbial communities of fly feces, dissected fly intestines, and whole flies across three different Drosophila strains. Bacterial species identified in either whole flies or isolated intestines were reproducibly found in feces samples. Although the bacterial communities of feces and intestinal samples were not identical, they shared similarities and obviously the same origin. In contrast to material from whole flies and intestines, feces samples were not compromised by Wolbachia spp. infections, which are widespread in laboratory and wild strains. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we showed that simple nutritional interventions, such as a high-fat diet or short-term starvation, had drastic and long-lasting effects on the micobiome. Thus, the analysis of feces can supplement the toolbox for microbiome studies in Drosophila, unleashing the full potential of such studies in time course experiments where multiple samples from single populations are obtained during aging, development, or experimental manipulations. PMID:24014528

  1. Impact of Introduction of Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Classical Biological Control Releases of the Natural Enemy, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), on Economically Important Fruit Flies in F

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine attraction and feeding propensity of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) to different protein bait mixtures with and without the insecticides spinosad and malathion. The type of protein (GF-120 Fruit ...

  2. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression. PMID:20961468

  3. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  4. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  5. Quarantine strategies for olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): low-temperature storage, brine, and host relations.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T

    2004-08-01

    A dose-response relationship was not observed in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), larvae exposed to acetic acid concentrations (0-2.5%) used in commercial brine solutions to cure olives. Immersion in a 1% acetic acid brine solution impeded emergence of the immature stages. A 1-wk exposure of olives infested with olive fruit fly larvae to low-temperature storage as a postharvest treatment at 0-1 degree C resulted in 8% survival of the population, and exposures of 2 through 5 wk further reduced pupal and adult emergence to <1.0%. One- to 2-wk exposures at 2-3 degrees C resulted in a significant decrease in survival from 20 to 3%, respectively, and longer durations of 3-5 wk reduced survival to <1.0%. Mean daily fruit pulp temperatures in olives in the top, middle, and bottom of plastic bins stored at 2-3 degrees C decreased by 5-8 degrees C from the first to the second day. Lowest temperatures were observed in the top, and highest temperatures were observed in the middle layer of fruit, which attained a mean temperature of 3.8 degrees C on day 5. Laboratory choice tests showed that olive fruit fly oviposited at a higher rate in late season Mission olives that were green than in fruit that were in the red blush maturity stage in tests with 1- and 3-4-d exposure periods, and an increase in duration of exposure was related to an increase in the total number of ovipositional sites. Higher percentages of olive fruit fly third instars, pupae, and adults were reared from green fruit than from fruit in the red blush stage after a 1-d exposure to oviposition. Manzanillo olives were more attractive for oviposition by olive fruit fly than Mission olives, and significantly more third instars, pupae, and adults developed in Manzanillo fruit than in Mission fruit in the red blush stage. These differences were related to the better quality and higher flesh content of the Manzanillo versus Mission olives used in the tests. PMID:15384334

  6. Biological control of olive fruit fly by 2006 parasitoid releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Releases of parasitoid adults in 2006 were ...

  7. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  8. Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

  9. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  10. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  11. HOST PLANT USE BY APPLE MAGGOT, WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY, AND OTHER RHAGOLETIS SPECIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant use by apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in western Washington state and northwestern Oregon were determined by rearing larvae in fruit to adults in 2004 to 2006. Rh...

  12. Neural mechanisms of context-dependent processing of CO2 avoidance behavior in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Siju, K P; Bräcker, Lasse B; Grunwald Kadow, I C

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, innately avoids even low levels of CO2. CO2 is part of the so-called Drosophila stress odor produced by stressed flies, but also a byproduct of fermenting fruit, a main food source, making the strong avoidance behavior somewhat surprising. Therefore, we addressed whether feeding states might influence the fly's behavior and processing of CO2. In a recent report, we showed that this innate behavior is differentially processed and modified according to the feeding state of the fly. Interestingly, we found that hungry flies require the function of the mushroom body, a higher brain center required for olfactory learning and memory, but thought to be dispensable for innate olfactory behaviors. In addition, we anatomically and functionally characterized a novel bilateral projection neuron connecting the CO2 sensory input to the mushroom body. This neuron was essential for processing of CO2 in the starved fly but not in the fed fly. In this Extra View article, we provide evidence for the potential involvement of the neuromodulator dopamine in state-dependent CO2 avoidance behavior. Taken together, our work demonstrates that CO2 avoidance behavior is mediated by alternative neural pathways in a context-dependent manner. Furthermore, it shows that the mushroom body is not only involved in processing of learned olfactory behavior, as previously suggested, but also in context-dependent innate olfaction. PMID:25483251

  13. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  14. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific variation within Anastre...

  15. Exposure to tea tree oil enhances the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma of various plant essential oils has been shown to enhance the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Laboratory observations revealed that male medflies show strong short-range attraction to tea tree oil (TTO hereafter) deri...

  16. Virulence of selected entomopathogenic fungi against the olive fruit fly and their potential for biocontrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most serious pest of cultivated olives worldwide. Its recent invasion into North America, specifically California, has initiated renewed interest in management strategies for this pest. Research into classical biological control ha...

  17. Comparative evaluation of two olive fruit fly parasitoids under varying abiotic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) invaded California around 1998 and has become a major olive pest. Two larval parasitoids, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and P. humilis (Szépligeti) (both Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were introduced from Africa into California and p...

  18. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  19. Inquiry-Based Environmental Science Investigations with the Fantastic Fruit Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Ashlie M.; Krall, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of inquiry in life science can be particularly daunting because of the additional management and care living systems require. However, there are some low-maintenance organisms that work well in the classroom. One of these is the common fruit fly, "Drosophila melanogaster." Its small size, low cost, easy availability and maintenance, and…

  20. Small-scale field tests of attract-and-kill stations for pest Tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted at UF-TREC, Homestead to test efficacy of wax-matrix bait stations and mass trapping for control of the Caribbean fruit fly in a 5 by 30 tree guava planting. Results of the study and the ability to document control using small-scale field tests will be discussed....

  1. Development of transgenic strains for the biological control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, is a highly significant agricultural pest species that has been genetically transformed with a piggyBac¬-based transposon vector system using independent vector and transposase helper plasmids. Estimated germ-line transformation frequencies were approximate...

  2. Recent Developments in Semiochemical-based Control of Fruit Flies in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are one of the most feared invasive species due to its ability to invade undetected (internal feeder), its high reproductive capacity, the large number of hosts that they infest and the multitude of economically important species worldwide which impact regional and internationa...

  3. RELATIVE ATTRACTIVENESS OF ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUITS TO MEXICAN FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN A WIND TUNNEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapefruits and sweet oranges were equally attractive and elicited similar oviposition behavior from native, oviposition-ready, laboratory-strain female Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). Naïve wild females were attracted equally to grapefruits, oranges, and yellow plastic balls. For la...

  4. Resveratrol modifies tephritid fruit fly response to nutritional and radiation stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a recently discovered compound. Three concentrations (50, 100, 200 µM) of resveratrol were evaluated against Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae by incorporating resveratrol into fruit fly liquid larval diet under the following conditions: 1) with or without wheat germ oil (WGO) in ...

  5. Development of Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in the Central Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eastern side of the Central Valley of California where olives are grown for canning was surveyed for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations. The pest was found for the first time in unusually high numbers in Merced. The a parasitic wasp, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was import...

  6. Phylogeography of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, inferred with mtDNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, with occasional infestations...

  7. Molecular genetics of the Wolbachia endosymbionts that infect the parasitoids of tephritid fruit flies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the molecular genetics of the Wolbachia endosymbionts that infect the parasitoids of tephritid fruit flies. A better understanding of the bacteria could allow sex ratio manipulations that would improve the mass-rearing of natural enemies. Scientists at the Center for Me...

  8. Feeding substrates and behaviors of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential foods and the feeding substrates of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in 2005 and 2006 in central Washington. Aphid colonies with honeydew were not seen on randomly selected branches of s...

  9. Reduction of optimal thermal range in aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies(Rhagoletis indifferens Curan)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance a...

  10. Proteomics/qPCR approach on estimating physical ages of wild male oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male fruit flies reared in the laboratory in DKI-PBARC rearing facility in Hilo, Hawaii, were collected and whole insects were run through standard proteomic analysis. An odorant binding protein 99b (OBP) (Bdor0907381) located at molecular weight between 9226 dalton and PI 4.56 was identified throug...

  11. CRYOPRESERVATION OF MEXICAN FRUIT FLY BY VITRIFICATION: STAGE SELECTION AND AVOIDANCE OF THERMAL STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report presents details of a vitrification methodology for the cryopreservation of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. The overall summary of the data indicates that selecting the correct stage for cryopreservation is the most important criterion. The most crucial aspect in the selection of t...

  12. Ammonium Acetate and Ammonium Bicarbonate in Traps for Anastrepha Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principal components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important Anastrepha s...

  13. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  14. Biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Israel: biological parameters of imported parasitoid wasps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three braconid species that parasitize the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wiedemann) were recently imported into Israel. Several of their key biological parameters were studied. The longevities of the egg-attacking parasitoids FOPIUS ARISANUS and FOPIUS CERATITIVORUS, and t...

  15. Field tests of environmentally friendly malathion replacements to suppress wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Peck, S L; McQuate, G T

    2000-04-01

    This article reports a large-scale field test of two environmentally friendly malathion replacements on wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratatis capitata (Wiedemann): spinosad, a bacteria-derived toxin, and phloxine B, a red dye with phototoxic properties. The comparison test was conducted on 11 coffee fields infested with wild populations of Mediterranean fruit fly on the Hawaiian island of Kauai with 8-wk protein bait sprays with and without toxicants. To assess effectiveness, adults were trapped and larval infestation levels were evaluated with fruit collections. Malathion was found to be the most effective treatment. However, the two replacements gave significant levels of control, and because they are environmentally safer, should be considered for eradicating incipient populations of this invasive species of fruit fly. Cage tests were also conducted to ensure that the wild flies consumed the bait and to assess how long the bait-toxicant combination remained effective in the field. Although spinosad and phloxine B were found to be effective up to 1 wk, malathion remained effective at least 2 wk. PMID:10826173

  16. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  17. Improving sterile male performance in support of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique against fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied against fruit fly pests in many areas of the world. Currently, factories have the capacity to produce several billion sterile male insects per week and to make them available for, irradiatiation and shipment to their destinations, where the emergin...

  18. Biological controls investigated to aid management of olive fruit fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent widespread and rapid establishment of the olive fruit fly in California made necessary immediate changes in existing olive IPM programs. After determining that resident natural enemies (various generalist predators and a previously unknown parasitoid) that have been found attacking olive...

  19. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  20. Identification and analysis of the major yolk polypeptide from the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single major yolk polypeptide (YP) having a molecular mass of approximately 48,000 daltons (Da), was identified in the ovaries and oviposited eggs of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. The polypeptide was partially purified from oviposited eggs using gel permeation and ion-exchange chro...

  1. Low-Dose Irradiation Phytosanitary Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most quarantined pest in the world. Host commodities shipped from infested parts of the world to non-infested parts that might be susceptible to infestation should undergo a phytosanitary measure to render negligible the ris...

  2. The Angular Interval between the Direction of Progression and Body Orientation in Normal, Alcohol- and Cocaine Treated Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Gakamsky, Anna; Oron, Efrat; Valente, Dan; Mitra, Partha P.; Segal, Daniel; Benjamini, Yoav; Golani, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we characterize the coordination between the direction a fruit-fly walks and the direction it faces, as well as offer a methodology for isolating and validating key variables with which we phenotype fly locomotor behavior. Our fundamental finding is that the angular interval between the direction a fly walks and the direction it faces is actively managed in intact animals and modulated in a patterned way with drugs. This interval is small in intact flies, larger with alcohol and much larger with cocaine. The dynamics of this interval generates six coordinative modes that flow smoothly into each other. Under alcohol and much more so under cocaine, straight path modes dwindle and modes involving rotation proliferate. To obtain these results we perform high content analysis of video-tracked open field locomotor behavior. Presently there is a gap between the quality of descriptions of insect behaviors that unfold in circumscribed situations, and descriptions that unfold in extended time and space. While the first describe the coordination between low-level kinematic variables, the second quantify cumulative measures and subjectively defined behavior patterns. Here we reduce this gap by phenotyping extended locomotor behavior in terms of the coordination between low-level kinematic variables, which we quantify, combining into a single field two disparate fields, that of high content phenotyping and that of locomotor coordination. This will allow the study of the genes/brain/locomotor coordination interface in genetically engineered and pharmacologically manipulated animal models of human diseases. PMID:24146845

  3. More than apples and oranges - Detecting cancer with a fruit fly's antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Martin; Lüdke, Alja; Münch, Daniel; Laudes, Thomas; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Martinelli, Eugenio; Lavra, Luca; Paolesse, Roberto; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Catini, Alexandro; Capuano, Rosamaria; di Natale, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells and non-cancer cells differ in their metabolism and they emit distinct volatile compound profiles, allowing to recognise cancer cells by their scent. Insect odorant receptors are excellent chemosensors with high sensitivity and a broad receptive range unmatched by current gas sensors. We thus investigated the potential of utilising the fruit fly's olfactory system to detect cancer cells. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we recorded an array of olfactory receptor neurons on the fruit fly's antenna. We performed multidimensional analysis of antenna responses, finding that cell volatiles from different cell types lead to characteristic response vectors. The distances between these response vectors are conserved across flies and can be used to discriminate healthy mammary epithelial cells from different types of breast cancer cells. This may expand the repertoire of clinical diagnostics, and it is the first step towards electronic noses equipped with biological sensors, integrating artificial and biological olfaction.

  4. More than apples and oranges - Detecting cancer with a fruit fly's antenna

    PubMed Central

    Strauch, Martin; Lüdke, Alja; Münch, Daniel; Laudes, Thomas; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Martinelli, Eugenio; Lavra, Luca; Paolesse, Roberto; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Catini, Alexandro; Capuano, Rosamaria; Di Natale, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells and non-cancer cells differ in their metabolism and they emit distinct volatile compound profiles, allowing to recognise cancer cells by their scent. Insect odorant receptors are excellent chemosensors with high sensitivity and a broad receptive range unmatched by current gas sensors. We thus investigated the potential of utilising the fruit fly's olfactory system to detect cancer cells. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we recorded an array of olfactory receptor neurons on the fruit fly's antenna. We performed multidimensional analysis of antenna responses, finding that cell volatiles from different cell types lead to characteristic response vectors. The distances between these response vectors are conserved across flies and can be used to discriminate healthy mammary epithelial cells from different types of breast cancer cells. This may expand the repertoire of clinical diagnostics, and it is the first step towards electronic noses equipped with biological sensors, integrating artificial and biological olfaction. PMID:24389870

  5. Discovering the flight autostabilizer of fruit flies by inducing aerial stumbles.

    PubMed

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila J; Ristroph, Gunnar; Coumes, Katherine; Berman, Gordon J; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2010-03-16

    Just as the Wright brothers implemented controls to achieve stable airplane flight, flying insects have evolved behavioral strategies that ensure recovery from flight disturbances. Pioneering studies performed on tethered and dissected insects demonstrate that the sensory, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems play important roles in flight control. Such studies, however, cannot produce an integrative model of insect flight stability because they do not incorporate the interaction of these systems with free-flight aerodynamics. We directly investigate control and stability through the application of torque impulses to freely flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and measurement of their behavioral response. High-speed video and a new motion tracking method capture the aerial "stumble," and we discover that flies respond to gentle disturbances by accurately returning to their original orientation. These insects take advantage of a stabilizing aerodynamic influence and active torque generation to recover their heading to within 2 degrees in < 60 ms. To explain this recovery behavior, we form a feedback control model that includes the fly's ability to sense body rotations, process this information, and actuate the wing motions that generate corrective aerodynamic torque. Thus, like early man-made aircraft and modern fighter jets, the fruit fly employs an automatic stabilization scheme that reacts to short time-scale disturbances. PMID:20194789

  6. Wing attachment position of fruit fly minimizes flight cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    Flight is energetically costly which means insects need to find ways to reduce their energy expenditure during sustained flight. Previous work has shown that insect muscles can recover some of the energy used for producing flapping motion. Moreover the form of flapping motions are efficient for generating the required force to balance the weight. In this talk, we show that one of the morphological parameters, the wing attachment point on a fly, is suitably located to further reduce the cost for flight, while allowing the fly to be close to stable. We investigate why this is the case and attempt to find a general rule for the optimal location of the wing hinge. Our analysis is based on computations of flapping free flight together with the Floquet stability analysis of periodic flight for descending, hovering and ascending cases.

  7. Pheromones, male lures and trapping of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dipteran family of Tephritidae consists of many genera, of which several namely, Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus, Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana possess species of high economic importance as major pests of fruits and vegetables. Hitherto, pheromones isolated and identified for possible use...

  8. Object preference by walking fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, is mediated by vision and graviperception

    PubMed Central

    Robie, Alice A.; Straw, Andrew D.; Dickinson, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Walking fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, use visual information to orient towards salient objects in their environment, presumably as a search strategy for finding food, shelter or other resources. Less is known, however, about the role of vision or other sensory modalities such as mechanoreception in the evaluation of objects once they have been reached. To study the role of vision and mechanoreception in exploration behavior, we developed a large arena in which we could track individual fruit flies as they walked through either simple or more topologically complex landscapes. When exploring a simple, flat environment lacking three-dimensional objects, flies used visual cues from the distant background to stabilize their walking trajectories. When exploring an arena containing an array of cones, differing in geometry, flies actively oriented towards, climbed onto, and explored the objects, spending most of their time on the tallest, steepest object. A fly's behavioral response to the geometry of an object depended upon the intrinsic properties of each object and not a relative assessment to other nearby objects. Furthermore, the preference was not due to a greater attraction towards tall, steep objects, but rather a change in locomotor behavior once a fly reached and explored the surface. Specifically, flies are much more likely to stop walking for long periods when they are perched on tall, steep objects. Both the vision system and the antennal chordotonal organs (Johnston's organs) provide sufficient information about the geometry of an object to elicit the observed change in locomotor behavior. Only when both these sensory systems were impaired did flies not show the behavioral preference for the tall, steep objects. PMID:20581279

  9. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  10. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  11. Two Modules Of A Fly-By-Light System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed fly-by-light/power-by-wire control system for commercial aircraft designed on basis of fault-tolerant transmission of digital control data along fiber-optic paths. Important novel features of system embodied in two modules. Redundancy-management unit (RMU) performs fault-tolerance functions. Fiber-optic serial backplane (FOSB) is high-speed fault-tolerant time-division-multiplex data bus with fiber-optic transmission.

  12. Effective Trapping of Fruit Flies with Cultures of Metabolically Modified Acetic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yuri; Akasaka, Naoki; Goda, Itsuko; Sakoda, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Acetoin in vinegar is an attractant to fruit flies when combined with acetic acid. To make vinegar more effective in attracting fruit flies with increased acetoin production, Komagataeibacter europaeus KGMA0119 was modified by specific gene disruption of the acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase gene (ilvC). A previously constructed mutant lacking the putative ligand-sensing region in the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (KeLrp, encoded by Kelrp) was also used. The ilvC and Kelrp disruptants (KGMA5511 and KGMA7203, respectively) produced greater amounts of acetoin (KGMA5511, 0.11%; KGMA7203, 0.13%) than the wild-type strain KGMA0119 (0.069%). KGMA7203 produced a trace amount of isobutyric acid (0.007%), but the other strains did not. These strains produced approximately equal amounts of acetic acid (0.7%). The efficiency of fruit fly attraction was investigated with cultured Drosophila melanogaster. D. melanogaster flies (approximately 1,500) were released inside a cage (2.5 m by 2.5 m by 1.5 m) and were trapped with a device containing vinegar and a sticky sheet. The flies trapped on the sticky sheet were counted. The cell-free supernatant from KGMA7203 culture captured significantly more flies (19.36 to 36.96% of released flies) than did KGMA0119 (3.25 to 11.40%) and KGMA5511 (6.87 to 21.50%) cultures. Contrastingly, a 0.7% acetic acid solution containing acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%), which mimicked the KGMA7203 supernatant, captured significantly fewer flies (0.88 to 4.57%). Furthermore, the KGMA0119 supernatant with additional acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%) captured slightly more flies than the original KGMA0119 supernatant but fewer than the KGMA7203 supernatant, suggesting that the synergistic effects of acetic acid, acetoin, isobutyric acid, and unidentified metabolites achieved the efficient fly trapping of the KGMA7203 supernatant. PMID:25595769

  13. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  14. Application of Nuclear Techniques to Improve the Mass Production and Management of Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Cancino, Jorge; Ruíz, Lía; Viscarret, Mariana; Sivinski, John; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures. PMID:26466729

  15. Discovering the flight autostabilizer of fruit flies by inducing aerial stumbles

    PubMed Central

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila J.; Ristroph, Gunnar; Coumes, Katherine; Berman, Gordon J.; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z. Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2010-01-01

    Just as the Wright brothers implemented controls to achieve stable airplane flight, flying insects have evolved behavioral strategies that ensure recovery from flight disturbances. Pioneering studies performed on tethered and dissected insects demonstrate that the sensory, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems play important roles in flight control. Such studies, however, cannot produce an integrative model of insect flight stability because they do not incorporate the interaction of these systems with free-flight aerodynamics. We directly investigate control and stability through the application of torque impulses to freely flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and measurement of their behavioral response. High-speed video and a new motion tracking method capture the aerial “stumble,” and we discover that flies respond to gentle disturbances by accurately returning to their original orientation. These insects take advantage of a stabilizing aerodynamic influence and active torque generation to recover their heading to within 2° in < 60 ms. To explain this recovery behavior, we form a feedback control model that includes the fly’s ability to sense body rotations, process this information, and actuate the wing motions that generate corrective aerodynamic torque. Thus, like early man-made aircraft and modern fighter jets, the fruit fly employs an automatic stabilization scheme that reacts to short time-scale disturbances. PMID:20194789

  16. Target of rapamycin activation predicts lifespan in fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Naudí, Alba; Ayala, Victoria; Jové, Mariona; Pamplona, Reinald; Sanz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Aging and age-related diseases are one of the most important health issues that the world will confront during the 21st century. Only by understanding the proximal causes will we be able to find treatments to reduce or delay the onset of degenerative diseases associated with aging. Currently, the prevalent paradigm in the field is the accumulation of damage. However, a new theory that proposes an alternative explanation is gaining momentum. The hyperfunction theory proposes that aging is not a consequence of a wear and tear process, but a result of the continuation of developmental programs during adulthood. Here we use Drosophila melanogaster, where evidence supporting both paradigms has been reported, to identify which parameters that have been previously related with lifespan best predict the rate of aging in wild type flies cultured at different temperatures. We find that mitochondrial function and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation correlates with metabolic rate, but not with the rate of aging. Importantly, we find that activation of nutrient sensing pathways (i.e. insulin-PI3K/Target of rapamycin (Tor) pathway) correlates with lifespan, but not with metabolic rate. Our results, dissociate metabolic rate and lifespan in wild type flies and instead link nutrient sensing signaling with longevity as predicted by the hyperfunction theory. PMID:26259964

  17. Horizontal Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae in Fruit Flies and Effect of Fungal Infection on Egg Laying and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Dimbi, Susan; Maniania, Nguya K.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Fly-to-fly transmission of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the effect of fungal infection on the reproductive potential of females surviving infection were investigated in three fruit fly species, Ceratitis cosyra, C. fasciventris, and C. capitata. The number of conidia picked up by a single fruit fly was determined in C. cosyra. The initial uptake (Day 0) of conidia by a single fly was approx. 1.1 × 106 conidia after exposure to the treated substrate. However, the number of conidia dropped from 7.2 × 105 to 4.1 × 105 conidia after 2 and 8 h post-exposure, respectively. The number of conidia picked up by a single fungus-treated fly (“donor”) varied between 3.8 × 105 and 1.0 × 106 in the three fruit fly species, resulting in 100% mortality 5–6 days post-exposure. When fungus-free flies of both sexes (“recipient” flies) were allowed to mate with “donor” flies, the number of conidia picked up by a single fly varied between 1.0 × 105 and 2.5 × 105, resulting in a mortality of 83–100% in C. capitata, 72–85% in C. cosyra and 71–93% in C. fasciventris 10–15 days post-inoculation. There was an effect of fungal infection on female egg laying in the three species of fruit flies as control flies laid more eggs than fungus-treated females. The percentage reduction in fecundity in flies infected with M. anisopliae was 82, 73 and 37% in C. capitata, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, respectively. The results are discussed with regard to application in autodissemination techniques. PMID:26464386

  18. Evaluation of the Host Status of Mature Green Papayas 'Maradol' for the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    The suitability of mature green 'Maradol' papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in "commercial ripeness", while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in "spot ripeness." The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial- or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called "spot ripeness." These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory. PMID:26309263

  19. The whole genome sequence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann): a highly invasive and destructive pest of fruits and vegetables throughout the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the most destructive agricultural pests throughout the world due to its broad host plant range that includes more than 260 different fruits, flowers, vegetables, and nuts. Host preferences vary in different regions of the world, which can be associated with its ...

  20. Evaluation of yeasts and yeast products in larval and adult diets for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and adult diets for the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, and the melon fly, Bactrocera curcurbitae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several yeasts and yeast products were tested as components of adult diet for Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae and larval liquid diet for Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis in mass rearing process. Three hydrolyzed yeasts...

  1. Molecular Techniques for the Detection and Differentiation of Host and Parasitoid Species and the Implications for Fruit Fly Management

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Cheryl; Chapman, Toni A.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitoid detection and identification is a necessary step in the development and implementation of fruit fly biological control strategies employing parasitoid augmentive release. In recent years, DNA-based methods have been used to identify natural enemies of pest species where morphological differentiation is problematic. Molecular techniques also offer a considerable advantage over traditional morphological methods of fruit fly and parasitoid discrimination as well as within-host parasitoid identification, which currently relies on dissection of immature parasitoids from the host, or lengthy and labour-intensive rearing methods. Here we review recent research focusing on the use of molecular strategies for fruit fly and parasitoid detection and differentiation and discuss the implications of these studies on fruit fly management. PMID:26466628

  2. Replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hefu; Gong, Xianwei; Ni, Qiliang; Zhao, Jingli; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Taisheng; Yu, Weixing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we report the replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose. In the replication, soft lithography method was employed to replicate the compound eye of a fruit fly into a UV-curable polymer. The method was demonstrated to be effective and the compound eye is replicated into the polymer (NOA78) where each ommatidium has a diameter of about 30 μm and a sag height of about 7 μm. To characterize its optical property, the point spread function of the compound eye was tested and a NA of 0.386 has been obtained for the replicated polymeric ommatidium. Comparing with the NA of a real fruit fly ommatidium which was measured to be about 0.212, the replicated polymeric ommatidium has a much larger NA due to the refractive index of NOA78 is much higher than that of the material used to form the real fruit fly ommatidium. Furthermore, the replicated compound eye was used to image a photomask patterned with grating structures to test its imaging property. It is shown that the grating with a line width of 20 μm can be clearly imaged. The image of the grating formed by the replicated compound eye was shrunk by about 10 times and therefore a line width of about 2.2 μm in the image plane has been obtained, which is close to the diffraction limited resolution calculated through the measured NA. In summary, the replication method demonstrated is effective and the replicated compound eye has the great potential in optical imaging.

  3. Replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hefu; Gong, Xianwei; Ni, Qiliang; Zhao, Jingli; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Taisheng; Yu, Weixing

    2014-10-06

    In this work, we report the replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose. In the replication, soft lithography method was employed to replicate the compound eye of a fruit fly into a UV-curable polymer. The method was demonstrated to be effective and the compound eye is replicated into the polymer (NOA78) where each ommatidium has a diameter of about 30 μm and a sag height of about 7 μm. To characterize its optical property, the point spread function of the compound eye was tested and a NA of 0.386 has been obtained for the replicated polymeric ommatidium. Comparing with the NA of a real fruit fly ommatidium which was measured to be about 0.212, the replicated polymeric ommatidium has a much larger NA due to the refractive index of NOA78 is much higher than that of the material used to form the real fruit fly ommatidium. Furthermore, the replicated compound eye was used to image a photomask patterned with grating structures to test its imaging property. It is shown that the grating with a line width of 20 μm can be clearly imaged. The image of the grating formed by the replicated compound eye was shrunk by about 10 times and therefore a line width of about 2.2 μm in the image plane has been obtained, which is close to the diffraction limited resolution calculated through the measured NA. In summary, the replication method demonstrated is effective and the replicated compound eye has the great potential in optical imaging.

  4. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses. PMID:21392558

  5. Overexpression of methionine-R-sulfoxide reductases has no influence on fruit fly aging

    PubMed Central

    Shchedrina, Valentina A.; Vorbrüggen, Gerd; Cheon Lee, Byung; Kim, Hwa-Young; Kabil, Hadise; Harshman, Lawrence G.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are enzymes that repair oxidized methionine residues in proteins. This function implicated Msrs in antioxidant defense and the regulation of aging. There are two known Msr types in animals: MsrA specific for the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide, and MsrB that catalyzes the reduction of methionine-R-sulfoxide. In a previous study, overexpression of MsrA in the nervous system of Drosophila was found to extend lifespan by 70%. Overexpression of MsrA in yeast also extended lifespan, whereas MsrB overexpression did so only under calorie restriction conditions. The effect of MsrB overexpression on lifespan has not yet been characterized in any animal model systems. Here, the GAL4-UAS binary system was used to drive overexpression of cytosolic Drosophila MsrB and mitochondrial mouse MsrB2 in whole body, fatbody, and the nervous system of flies. In contrast to MsrA, MsrB overexpression had no consistent effect on the lifespan of fruit flies on both corn meal and sugar yeast diets. Physical activity, fecundity, and stress resistance were also similar in MsrB-overexpressing and control flies. Thus, MsrA and MsrB, the two proteins with identical function in antioxidant protein repair, have different effects on aging in fruit flies. PMID:19409408

  6. Fruit flies use flight auto-stabilization to recover from aerial ``stumbles''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila; Ristroph, Gunnar; Coumes, Katherine; Berman, Gordon; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z. Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2009-11-01

    Just as manned flight was made possible by control mechanisms, the flapping-wing flight of animals also relies on strategies that ensure recovery from disturbances. Previous studies performed on tethered and dissected insects indicate that the sensory, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems play important roles in flight control. Such studies, however, have yet to produce an integrative model of flight stability since they do not incorporate the interaction of these systems with free-flight aerodynamics. Here, we directly investigate control and stability through the application of brief torques to free-flying fruit flies and measurement of their behavioral response. High-speed video and a new motion tracking method capture the aerial ``stumble'', and we discover that flies respond to gentle disturbances by accurately returning to their original orientation. This accurate and fast recovery motivates a feedback control model that includes the insect's ability to sense body rotations, process this information, and actuate the wing motions that generate corrective aerodynamic torque. Thus, as with modern fighter jets, the common fruit fly employs an auto-stabilization scheme that maintains its flight course and allows for navigation through complex aerial environments.

  7. Phylogenetic, Metabolic, and Taxonomic Diversities Shape Mediterranean Fruit Fly Microbiotas during Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Aharon, Yael; Pasternak, Zohar; Ben Yosef, Michael; Behar, Adi; Lauzon, Carol; Yuval, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) (Ceratitis capitata) lays eggs in fruits, where larvae subsequently develop, causing large-scale agricultural damage. Within its digestive tract, the fly supports an extended bacterial community that is composed of multiple strains of a variety of enterobacterial species. Most of these bacteria appear to be functionally redundant, with most strains sustaining diazotrophy and/or pectinolysis. At least some of these bacteria were shown to be vertically inherited, but colonization, structural, and metabolic aspects of the community's dynamics have not been investigated. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization, metabolic profiling, plate cultures, and pyrosequencing to show that an initial, egg-borne, diverse community expands throughout the fly's life cycle. While keeping “core” diazotrophic and pectinolytic functions, it also harbors diverse and fluctuating populations that express varied metabolic capabilities. We suggest that the metabolic and compositional plasticity of the fly's microbiota provides potential adaptive advantages to the medfly host and that its acquisition and dynamics are affected by mixed processes that include stochastic effects, host behavior, and molecular barriers. PMID:23104413

  8. The temporal pattern of mating behavior of the fruit fly, Anastrepha zenildae in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Lucia M de; Araújo, Arrilton; Mendes, Norma H D; Souza, João M G A de; Menezes, Alexandre A L

    2011-01-01

    The state of Rio Grande do Norte is an important fruit-producing and exporting area in northeastern Brazil. The success of this industry depends on fruit fly population control, especially in fly-free exporting zones. However, many fruits are not exported because of quarantine restrictions imposed by importing countries. A survey in the state has detected a considerable increase of the fruit fly, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (Diptera: Tephritidae), probably a result of the introduction of irrigated guava orchards that make fruit available all year. Knowledge of the sexual behavior of Tephritidae has great importance to pest control programs, particularly those that employ the Sterile Insect Technique. In order to characterize the reproductive behavior of A. zenildae, 32 individuals (16 males; 16 females) in each of six generations were submitted to an artificial 12:12 L:D cycle (750: < 1 lux, lights on 07:00-19:00) and observed over their lifetimes. The courtship and copulation occurred in leks and the episodes varied with the time of day, courtship being most frequent between Zeitgeber time (ZT) 3 and ZT 7, peaking at ZT 5-6. Copulations occurred between ZT 2 and ZT 8, with a higher frequency between ZT 5-7 and a peak at ZT 6. Mean duration was 0.28 ± 0.03 min/male (range: 5-163 min). Males in the leks attempted to copulate mainly between ZT 3 and ZT 7 with a peak at ZT 6, and males outside leks peaked at ZT 7. The different timing of sexual behaviors among related sympatric species, including A. zenildae, may contribute to species isolation. PMID:22236152

  9. The Temporal Pattern of Mating Behavior of the Fruit Fly, Anastrepha zenildae in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Lucia M.; Araújo, Arrilton; Mendes, Norma H.D.; de Souza, João M.G.A.; Menezes, Alexandre A.L.

    2011-01-01

    The state of Rio Grande do Norte is an important fruit-producing and exporting area in northeastern Brazil. The success of this industry depends on fruit fly population control, especially in fly-free exporting zones. However, many fruits are not exported because of quarantine restrictions imposed by importing countries. A survey in the state has detected a considerable increase of the fruit fly, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (Diptera: Tephritidae), probably a result of the introduction of irrigated guava orchards that make fruit available all year. Knowledge of the sexual behavior of Tephritidae has great importance to pest control programs, particularly those that employ the Sterile Insect Technique. In order to characterize the reproductive behavior of A. zenildae, 32 individuals (16 males; 16 females) in each of six generations were submitted to an artificial 12:12 L:D cycle (750: < 1 lux, lights on 07:00–19:00) and observed over their lifetimes. The courtship and copulation occurred in leks and the episodes varied with the time of day, courtship being most frequent between Zeitgeber time (ZT) 3 and ZT 7, peaking at ZT 5–6. Copulations occurred between ZT 2 and ZT 8, with a higher frequency between ZT 5–7 and a peak at ZT 6. Mean duration was 0.28 ± 0.03 min/male (range: 5–163 min). Males in the leks attempted to copulate mainly between ZT 3 and ZT 7 with a peak at ZT 6, and males outside leks peaked at ZT 7. The different timing of sexual behaviors among related sympatric species, including A. zenildae, may contribute to species isolation. PMID:22236152

  10. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  11. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  12. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  13. Transcriptional regionalization of the fruit fly's airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Muhammad N; Hoffmann, Julia; El-Kholy, Samar; Kallsen, Kimberley; Wagner, Christina; Bruchhaus, Iris; Fink, Christine; Roeder, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Although airway epithelia are primarily devoted to gas exchange, they have to fulfil a number of different tasks including organ maintenance and the epithelial immune response to fight airborne pathogens. These different tasks are at least partially accomplished by specialized cell types in the epithelium. In addition, a proximal to distal gradient mirroring the transition from airflow conduction to real gas exchange, is also operative. We analysed the airway system of larval Drosophila melanogaster with respect to region-specific expression in the proximal to distal axis. The larval airway system is made of epithelial cells only. We found differential expression between major trunks of the airways and more distal ones comprising primary, secondary and terminal ones. A more detailed analysis was performed using DNA-microarray analysis to identify cohorts of genes that are either predominantly expressed in the dorsal trunks or in the primary/secondary/terminal branches of the airways. Among these differentially expressed genes are especially those involved in signal transduction. Wnt-signalling associated genes for example are predominantly found in secondary/terminal airways. In addition, some G-protein coupled receptors are differentially expressed between both regions of the airways, exemplified by those activated by octopamine or tyramine, the invertebrate counterparts of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Whereas the OAMB is predominantly found in terminal airway regions, the oct3βR has higher expression levels in dorsal trunks. In addition, we observed a significant association of both, genes predominantly expressed in dorsal trunks or in primary to terminal branches branches with those regulated by hypoxia. Taken together, this observed differential expression is indicative for a proximal to distal transcriptional regionalization presumably reflecting functional differences in these parts of the fly's airway system. PMID:25020150

  14. Differences in Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Flies in Relation to Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Mohamed, Hend O.; Ali, Nashat A.

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086

  15. Differences in antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies in relation to hosts.

    PubMed

    Awad, Azza A; Mohamed, Hend O; Ali, Nashat A

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086

  16. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides

  17. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Quilici, Serge; Rousse, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol. PMID:26466736

  18. A complex biological system: the fly's visual module.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Murilo S; de Almeida, Lirio O B; Slaets, Jan F W; Köberle, Roland; Grebogi, Celso

    2008-02-13

    Is the characterization of biological systems as complex systems in the mathematical sense a fruitful assertion? In this paper we argue in the affirmative, although obviously we do not attempt to confront all the issues raised by this question. We use the fly's visual system as an example and analyse our experimental results of one particular neuron in the fly's visual system from this point of view. We find that the motion-sensitive 'H1' neuron, which converts incoming signals into a sequence of identical pulses or 'spikes', encodes the information contained in the stimulus into an alphabet composed of a few letters. This encoding occurs on multilayered sets, one of the features attributed to complex systems. The conversion of intervals between consecutive occurrences of spikes into an alphabet requires us to construct a generating partition. This entails a one-to-one correspondence between sequences of spike intervals and words written in the alphabet. The alphabet dynamics is multifractal both with and without stimulus, though the multifractality increases with the stimulus entropy. This is in sharp contrast to models generating independent spike intervals, such as models using Poisson statistics, whose dynamics is monofractal. We embed the support of the probability measure, which describes the distribution of words written in this alphabet, in a two-dimensional space, whose topology can be reproduced by an M-shaped map. This map has positive Lyapunov exponents, indicating a chaotic-like encoding. PMID:17673416

  19. Diet Shapes Mortality Response to Trauma in Old Tephritid Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Carey, James R; Liedo, Pablo; Xu, Cong; Wang, Jane-Ling; Müller, Hans-Georg; Su, Yu-Ru; Vaupel, James W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of trauma in healthspan and lifespan in humans as well as in non-human species, with one important exception the literature in both gerontology and ecology contains virtually no experimental demographic studies concerned with trauma in any species. We used dietary manipulation [full diet (F) versus sugar-only (S)] to produce four levels of frailty in 55-day old tephritid fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens) that were then subject to the trauma of cage transfer stress (n = 900/sex in each of the 4 treatments). The key results included the following: (1) there is a trauma effect caused by the transfer that depends on previous diet before transfer, new diet after transfer and gender of the fly; (2) males are more vulnerable than females; (3) if initial diet was F, flies are relatively immune against the trauma, and the subsequent diet (F or S) does not matter; (4) however if initial diet was S, then the effect of the trauma depends largely on the diet after the transfer; (5) flies transferred from S to F diets do very well in terms of remaining longevity (i.e. greatest remaining longevity), while flies transferred from S to S diet do poorly (i.e. shortest remaining longevity). We discuss both the strengths and weaknesses of this study and implications of the results. PMID:27383645

  20. Diet Shapes Mortality Response to Trauma in Old Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Carey, James R; Liedo, Pablo; Xu, Cong; Wang, Jane-Ling; Müller, Hans-Georg; Su, Yu-Ru; Vaupel, James W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of trauma in healthspan and lifespan in humans as well as in non-human species, with one important exception the literature in both gerontology and ecology contains virtually no experimental demographic studies concerned with trauma in any species. We used dietary manipulation [full diet (F) versus sugar-only (S)] to produce four levels of frailty in 55-day old tephritid fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens) that were then subject to the trauma of cage transfer stress (n = 900/sex in each of the 4 treatments). The key results included the following: (1) there is a trauma effect caused by the transfer that depends on previous diet before transfer, new diet after transfer and gender of the fly; (2) males are more vulnerable than females; (3) if initial diet was F, flies are relatively immune against the trauma, and the subsequent diet (F or S) does not matter; (4) however if initial diet was S, then the effect of the trauma depends largely on the diet after the transfer; (5) flies transferred from S to F diets do very well in terms of remaining longevity (i.e. greatest remaining longevity), while flies transferred from S to S diet do poorly (i.e. shortest remaining longevity). We discuss both the strengths and weaknesses of this study and implications of the results. PMID:27383645

  1. A visual horizon affects steering responses during flight in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Jorge; Mazo, Chantell; Rodriguez-Pinto, Ivan; Theobald, Jamie C

    2015-09-01

    To navigate well through three-dimensional environments, animals must in some way gauge the distances to objects and features around them. Humans use a variety of visual cues to do this, but insects, with their small size and rigid eyes, are constrained to a more limited range of possible depth cues. For example, insects attend to relative image motion when they move, but cannot change the optical power of their eyes to estimate distance. On clear days, the horizon is one of the most salient visual features in nature, offering clues about orientation, altitude and, for humans, distance to objects. We set out to determine whether flying fruit flies treat moving features as farther off when they are near the horizon. Tethered flies respond strongly to moving images they perceive as close. We measured the strength of steering responses while independently varying the elevation of moving stimuli and the elevation of a virtual horizon. We found responses to vertical bars are increased by negative elevations of their bases relative to the horizon, closely correlated with the inverse of apparent distance. In other words, a bar that dips far below the horizon elicits a strong response, consistent with using the horizon as a depth cue. Wide-field motion also had an enhanced effect below the horizon, but this was only prevalent when flies were additionally motivated with hunger. These responses may help flies tune behaviors to nearby objects and features when they are too far off for motion parallax. PMID:26232414

  2. Seasonal Amounts of Nutrients in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Relation to Nutrient Availability on Cherry Plant Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and the availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral necta...

  3. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  4. Effectiveness of GF-120 NF Fruit Fly Bait as a Suppression Tool for Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly of primarily Asian distribution that has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). It primarily infests solanaceous fruits, so has the potential to impact production of crops such as peppers (Capsicum annuu...

  5. A survey of natural and introduced parasitoids of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive cultivation occupies eight million hectares worldwide, with over ten million tons of olives annually (90% in the Mediterranean Basin). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of olive fruit, causing up to 50% in crop loss. Increasing biological control by n...

  6. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  7. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

    2014-04-01

    Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards. PMID:24772538

  8. Exporting fruit from low fruit fly prevalence zones with a multiple mitigation systems approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increase emphasis on trade of fresh fruits and vegetables worldwide, systems approaches have become part of an international effort to reduce risk of establishing new pests while providing a biological basis to risk assessment. Areawide pest management programs have been shown to be success...

  9. Discovery of Chemosensory Genes in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhengbing; Bin, Shuying; He, Hualiang; Lin, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests. PMID:26070069

  10. Discovery of Chemosensory Genes in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhengbing; Bin, Shuying; He, Hualiang; Lin, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests. PMID:26070069

  11. Mercury in fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Pers. collected from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falandysz, J.; Lipka, K.

    2003-05-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in the fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: FL) Pers. and underlying soil substrate collected from several sites in Poland in 1993-2000 to evaluate mercury status as contaminant and bioindicating features of this species. The samples were collected from the spatially distant sites such as: Zaborski Landscape Park, Mierzeja Wiślana Landscape Park, Wdzydzki Landscape Park, Borecka Forest, Tucholskie Forest, Wieluńska Upland, the communities of Gubin, Manowo, Lubiana and Morag. Total mercury content of caps and stalks of Fly agaric varied widely depending on the sites examined. The range of the mean mercury concentrations for all 17 sites was between 96±10 and 1900±1400 ng/g dry wt for the caps and between 6l±32 and 920±760 ng/g dry wt for the stalks, while between 4.4±3.1 and 150±20 ng/g were noted for soil substrate samples from 9 sites examined. Fly agaric independently of the site examined showed relatively good capacity to accumulate total mercury and BCF values varied between 16±10 and 74±15 for the caps and between 11±8 and 42±10 for the stalks. Nevertheless, relatively high bioconcentration potential of mercury by Fly agaric seems to be specific for that species and under soil mercury concentrations noted no bioindication properties of this mushroom could be observed.

  12. Apis mellifera octopamine receptor 1 (AmOA1) expression in antennal lobe networks of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina T.; Smith, Adrian N.; Locatelli, Fernando; Huerta, Ramon; Bazhenov, Maxim; Smith, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Octopamine (OA) underlies reinforcement during appetitive conditioning in the honey bee and fruit fly, acting via different subtypes of receptors. Recently, antibodies raised against a peptide sequence of one honey bee OA receptor, AmOA1, were used to study the distribution of these receptors in the honey bee brain (Sinakevitch et al., 2011). These antibodies also recognize an isoform of the AmOA1 ortholog in the fruit fly (OAMB, mushroom body OA receptor). Here we describe in detail the distribution of AmOA1 receptors in different types of neurons in the honey bee and fruit fly antennal lobes. We integrate this information into a detailed anatomical analysis of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), uni- and multi-glomerular projection neurons (uPNs, and mPNs) and local interneurons (LNs) in glomeruli of the antennal lobe. These neurons were revealed by dye injection into the antennal nerve, antennal lobe, medial and lateral antenno-protocerbral tracts (m-APT and l-APT), and lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) by use of labeled cell lines in the fruit fly or by staining with anti-GABA. We found that ORN receptor terminals and uPNs largely do not show immunostaining for AmOA1. About seventeen GABAergic mPNs leave the antennal lobe through the ml-APT and branch into the LPL. Many, but not all, mPNs show staining for AmOA1. AmOA1 receptors are also in glomeruli on GABAergic processes associated with LNs. The data suggest that in both species one important action of OA in the antennal lobe involves modulation of different types of inhibitory neurons via AmOA1 receptors. We integrated this new information into a model of circuitry within glomeruli of the antennal lobes of these species. PMID:24187534

  13. Açai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. PMID:20080168

  14. Rearing the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster Under Axenic and Gnotobiotic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Koyle, Melinda L; Veloz, Madeline; Judd, Alec M; Wong, Adam C-N; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E; Chaston, John M

    2016-01-01

    The influence of microbes on myriad animal traits and behaviors has been increasingly recognized in recent years. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model for understanding microbial interactions with animal hosts, facilitated by approaches to rear large sample sizes of Drosophila under microorganism-free (axenic) conditions, or with defined microbial communities (gnotobiotic). This work outlines a method for collection of Drosophila embryos, hypochlorite dechorionation and sterilization, and transfer to sterile diet. Sterilized embryos are transferred to sterile diet in 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and developing larvae and adults remain free of any exogenous microbes until the vials are opened. Alternatively, flies with a defined microbiota can be reared by inoculating sterile diet and embryos with microbial species of interest. We describe the introduction of 4 bacterial species to establish a representative gnotobiotic microbiota in Drosophila. Finally, we describe approaches for confirming bacterial community composition, including testing if axenic Drosophila remain bacteria-free into adulthood. PMID:27500374

  15. Temporal Overlap and Co-Occurrence in a Guild of Sub-Tropical Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Gleidyane N.; Souza-Filho, Miguel F.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Lemos, Leandro J. U.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of community assembly have emphasized snapshot comparisons of spatially replicated samples from “natural” assemblages. Agro-ecosystems are characterized by relatively little habitat heterogeneity and no dispersal barriers for actively flying insects. Therefore, dynamic patterns of species segregation and aggregation are more likely to reflect the direct or indirect effects of species interactions. We studied the temporal organization of a guild of 21 congeneric species of Anastrepha that colonized fruit orchards in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. This assemblage also included the introduced Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. One hundred six consecutive weekly censuses (11 Jan 2002-16 Jan 2004) of flies in guava, loquat, and peach orchards revealed a pattern of minimum abundance during the coldest months of each year (June and July) and a maximum abundance during periods of flowering and fruit ripening. Overall, phenological overlap was greater than expected by chance. However, conditioned on the pattern of seasonal abundances, temporal occurrence and abundance matrices exhibited patterns of significant species segregation and anti-nestedness. In each year, the 3 orchards contained a small number of species pairs that exhibited statistically significant temporal segregation or aggregation. Most aggregated and segregated pairs reflected seasonal shifts in species presences that were not related to variation in air temperature. Most of the significant pairwise associations involved C. capitata: 8 of the 11 segregated pairs and 2 of the 7 aggregated pairs. These results suggest that species interactions between introduced and native species can be an important determinant of species associations in agro-ecosystems. PMID:26161855

  16. Honey bee foraging preferences, effects of sugars, and fruit fly toxic bait components.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis

    2009-08-01

    Field tests were carried out to evaluate the repellency of the Dow AgroSciences fruit fly toxic bait GF-120 (NF Naturalyte) to domestic honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). GF-120 is an organically registered attractive bait for tephritid fruit flies composed of spinosad, hydrolyzed protein (Solulys), high-fructose corn syrup (ADM CornSweet 42 high-fructose corn syrup, referred to as invertose sugar or invertose here), vegetable oils, adjuvants, humectants, and attractants. Tests were carried out with non-Africanized honey bees in February and March 2005 and 2007 during periods of maximum hunger for these bees. In all tests, bees were first trained to forage from plates of 30% honey-water (2005) or 30% invertose (2007). In 2005 bees were offered choices between honey-water and various bait components, including the complete toxic bait. In 2007, similar tests were performed except bees were attracted with 30% invertose then offered the bait components or complete bait as no-choice tests. Initially, the 2005 tests used all the components of GF-120 except the spinosad as the test bait. After we were convinced that bees would not collect or be contaminated by the bait, we tested the complete GF-120. Behavior of the bees indicated that during initial attraction and after switching the baits, the bait components and the complete bait were repellent to honey bees, but the honey-water remained attractive. Invertose was shown to be less attractive to bees, addition of Solulys eliminated almost all bee activity, and addition of ammonium acetate completely eliminated feeding in both choice and no-choice tests. These results confirm previous tests showing that bees do not feed on GF-120 and also show that honey bees are repelled by the fruit fly attractant components of the bait in field tests. PMID:19736759

  17. Extension of the use of Augmentoria for Sanitation in a Cropping System Susceptible to the Alien Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: This study reports efforts to demonstrate to growers of fruiting crops a technique to sequester emerging adult flies while conserving their parasitoid natural enemies. Sequestering infested fruit to prevent progeny survival is often overlooked. Methods: Demonstration trials were cond...

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Age-Related Sleep Loss in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Meagan; Keene, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    Across phyla, aging is associated with reduced sleep duration and efficiency. Both aging and sleep involve complex genetic architecture and diverse cell types and are heavily influenced by diet and environment. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of age-dependent changes in sleep will require integrative approaches that go beyond examining these two processes independently. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, provides a genetically amenable system for dissecting the molecular basis of these processes. In this review, we examine the role of metabolism and circadian rhythms in age-dependent sleep loss. PMID:23594925

  19. Microfluidic tools for developmental studies of small model organisms--nematodes, fruit flies, and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Lu, Hang

    2013-02-01

    Studying the genetics of development with small model organisms such as the zebrafish (Danio Rerio), the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), and the soil-dwelling nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans), provide unique opportunities for understanding related processes and diseases in humans. These model organisms also have potential for use in drug discovery and toxicity-screening applications. There have been sweeping developments in microfabrication and microfluidic technologies for manipulating and imaging small objects, including small model organisms, which allow high-throughput quantitative biological studies. Here, we review recent progress in microfluidic tools able to manipulate small organisms and project future directions and applications of these techniques and technologies. PMID:23161817

  20. Recent advances in methyl eugenol and cue-lure technologies for fruit fly detection, monitoring, and control in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Shelly, Todd E; Leblanc, Luc; Piñero, Jaime C

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, an important aspect of invasive insect pest management is more effective, safer detection and control systems. Phenyl propanoids are attractive to numerous species of Dacinae fruit flies. Methyl eugenol (ME) (4-allyl-1, 2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate), cue-lure (C-L) (4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone), and raspberry ketone (RK) (4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) are powerful male-specific lures. Most evidence suggests a role of ME and C-L/RK in pheromone synthesis and mate attraction. ME and C-L/RK are used in current fruit fly programs for detection, monitoring, and control. During the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program in the interest of worker safety and convenience, liquid C-L/ME and insecticide (i.e., naled and malathion) mixtures were replaced with solid lures and insecticides. Similarly, Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) with a sprayable Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT), in combination with ME (against Bactrocera dorsalis, oriental fruit fly) or C-L/RK (against B. cucurbitae, melon fly), and the reduced-risk insecticide, spinosad, was developed for area-wide suppression of fruit flies. The nontarget effects of ME and C-L/RK to native invertebrates were examined. Although weak attractiveness was recorded to flower-visiting insects, including bees and syrphid flies, by ME, effects to native Drosophila and other Hawaiian endemics were found to be minimal. These results suggested that the majority of previously published records, including those of endemic Drosophilidae, were actually for attraction to dead flies inside fruit fly traps. Endemic insect attraction was not an issue with C-L/RK, because B. cucurbitae were rarely found in endemic environments. PMID:20831962

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Meihua; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Caiyu; Zhou, Xin

    2016-07-01

    The pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau, is an important quarantine pest in many countries because of its mass destructiveness to a variety of vegetable and fruit plants. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of B. tau. Its complete mitogenome sequence is 15,687 bp in length, which contains a non-coding control region and all of the 37 genes of bilaterian animals (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). A phylogenetic tree of the complete mitogenome of all available Tephritidae species was established to approve the accuracy. The base composition of mitogenome sequence and the gene arrangement including directions are rather conservative, compared to other published mitogenomes of Bactrocera species. This first complete mitogenome of B. tau will facilitate the development of new DNA markers for species diagnosis, therefore improving accurate detection of quarantine species. PMID:26024140

  2. Resistance of Mexican fruit fly to quarantine treatments of high-pressure processing combined with cold.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan F; Vargas-Ortiz, Manuel A; Montoya, Pablo; García, Hugo S; Velazquez, Gonzalo; Ramírez, José A; Vázquez, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important insects infesting fruits. Although high pressure has been proposed as an alternative quarantine process for this pest, conditions applied to destroy eggs and larvae can also damage the fruits. The objective of this study was to assess the biological viability of A. ludens eggs treated by high-pressure processing at 0°C, establishing whether nondestroyed eggs and larvae preserved their ability to develop and reproduce. One-, 2-, 3-, and 4-day-old eggs were pressurized at 50, 70, or 90 MPa for 0, 3, 6, or 9 min. The hatching ability of pressurized eggs and their capacity to develop larvae, pupae, and reproductive adults were evaluated. The ability of pressurized larvae to pupate was also registered. The results showed that most of the eggs that resisted the treatments were able to produce adults with capability to reproduce a new generation of A. ludens flies. Larvae were less resistant than eggs. All larvae were killed at 90 MPa for 9 min. The pressure induced the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) in second- and third-instar larvae. The HSP showed a baroprotective effect in A. ludens larvae. These results are relevant to the industry because they show that eggs of insects infesting fruits treated by high-pressure processing were able to pupate after treatments. This indicates that efforts must be addressed to destroy all eggs because most of the surviving organisms could reach an adult stage and reproduce. PMID:21492022

  3. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Chipan; Zhang, Qun; Saccone, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies. PMID:23867609

  4. The genetic basis for fruit odor discrimination in Rhagoletis flies and its significance for sympatric host shifts.

    PubMed

    Dambroski, Hattie R; Linn, Charles; Berlocher, Stewart H; Forbes, Andrew A; Roelofs, Wendell; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2005-09-01

    Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) use volatile compounds emitted from the surface of ripening fruit as important chemosensory cues for recognizing and distinguishing among alternative host plants. Host choice is of evolutionary significance in Rhagoletis because these flies mate on or near the fruit of their respective host plants. Differences in host choice based on fruit odor discrimination therefore result in differential mate choice and prezygotic reproductive isolation, facilitating sympatric speciation in the absence of geographic isolation. We test for a genetic basis for host fruit odor discrimination through an analysis of F2 and backcross hybrids constructed between apple-, hawthorn-, and flowering dogwood-infesting Rhagoletis flies. We recovered a significant proportion (30-65%) of parental apple, hawthorn, and dogwood fly response phenotypes in F2 hybrids, despite the general failure of F1 hybrids to reach odor source spheres. Segregation patterns in F2 and backcross hybrids suggest that only a modest number of allelic differences at a few loci may underlie host fruit odor discrimination. In addition, a strong bias was observed for F2 and backcross flies to orient to the natal fruit blend of their maternal grandmother, implying the existence of cytonuclear gene interactions. We explore the implications of our findings for the evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation. PMID:16261733

  5. Extension of the use of Augmentoria for Sanitation in a Cropping System Susceptible to the Alien Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are a major problem of fruit and vegetable crops throughout the world. Management programs for the control of these pests use a range of techniques, but sequestering fruit to prevent progeny survival is often overlooked. This study reports efforts to extend to growers of fruit...

  6. High-speed laser microsurgery of alert fruit flies for fluorescence imaging of neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Supriyo; Liang, Liang; Ho, Eric T. W.; Urbanek, Karel E.; Luo, Liqun; Baer, Thomas M.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a key means of monitoring cellular function in live organisms, but surgical preparation of a live animal for microscopy often is time-consuming, requires considerable skill, and limits experimental throughput. Here we introduce a spatially precise (<1-µm edge precision), high-speed (<1 s), largely automated, and economical protocol for microsurgical preparation of live animals for optical imaging. Using a 193-nm pulsed excimer laser and the fruit fly as a model, we created observation windows (12- to 350-µm diameters) in the exoskeleton. Through these windows we used two-photon microscopy to image odor-evoked Ca2+ signaling in projection neuron dendrites of the antennal lobe and Kenyon cells of the mushroom body. The impact of a laser-cut window on fly health appears to be substantially less than that of conventional manual dissection, for our imaging durations of up to 18 h were ∼5–20 times longer than prior in vivo microscopy studies of hand-dissected flies. This improvement will facilitate studies of numerous questions in neuroscience, such as those regarding neuronal plasticity or learning and memory. As a control, we used phototaxis as an exemplary complex behavior in flies and found that laser microsurgery is sufficiently gentle to leave it intact. To demonstrate that our techniques are applicable to other species, we created microsurgical openings in nematodes, ants, and the mouse cranium. In conjunction with emerging robotic methods for handling and mounting flies or other small organisms, our rapid, precisely controllable, and highly repeatable microsurgical techniques should enable automated, high-throughput preparation of live animals for optical experimentation. PMID:24167298

  7. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Fertility and Fecundity of Two Species of Fruit Flies and Horizontal Transmission of Mycotic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sookar, P.; Bhagwant, S.; Allymamod, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are the major pest of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Fruit growers make use of broad-spectrum insecticides to protect their crops from fruit fly attack. This method of fruit fly control is hazardous to the environment and is a threat to beneficial insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which was isolated from the soils of Mauritius, was used to investigate whether fungus-treated adult fruit flies could transfer conidia to non-treated flies during mating, and whether fungal infection could have an effect on mating behavior, fecundity, and fertility of the two female fruit fly species. When treated male flies were maintained together with non-treated female flies, they were able to transmit infection to untreated females, resulting in high mortalities. Similarly, fungus-infected female flies mixed with untreated males also transmitted infections to males, also resulting in high mortalities. Infection by M. anisopliae also resulted in the reduction of the number of eggs produced by females of B. cucurbitae. The results suggest that M. anisopliae may have potential for use in integrated control programs of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae using the sterile insect technique in Mauritius. PMID:25201230

  8. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  9. Using modified fruit fly optimisation algorithm to perform the function test and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Tsao

    2013-06-01

    Evolutionary computation is a computing mode established by practically simulating natural evolutionary processes based on the concept of Darwinian Theory, and it is a common research method. The main contribution of this paper was to reinforce the function of searching for the optimised solution using the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), in order to avoid the acquisition of local extremum solutions. The evolutionary computation has grown to include the concepts of animal foraging behaviour and group behaviour. This study discussed three common evolutionary computation methods and compared them with the modified fruit fly optimization algorithm (MFOA). It further investigated the ability of the three mathematical functions in computing extreme values, as well as the algorithm execution speed and the forecast ability of the forecasting model built using the optimised general regression neural network (GRNN) parameters. The findings indicated that there was no obvious difference between particle swarm optimization and the MFOA in regards to the ability to compute extreme values; however, they were both better than the artificial fish swarm algorithm and FOA. In addition, the MFOA performed better than the particle swarm optimization in regards to the algorithm execution speed, and the forecast ability of the forecasting model built using the MFOA's GRNN parameters was better than that of the other three forecasting models.

  10. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose {ge}20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  12. Fitness costs of an insecticide resistance and their population dynamical consequences in the oriental fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chi-Chun; Okuyama, Toshinori; Wu, Wen-Jer; Feng, Hai-Tung; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Naled is a commonly used insecticide for controlling populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Taiwan and other countries. B. dorsalis has developed resistance to the insecticide, and the resistance management is an important issue. Ecological effects (e.g., fitness costs) of the resistance, when fully understood, can be used for the resistance management. This study examined the effects of the insecticide resistance on important life history traits (i.e., survival rates, stage durations, and fecundity) of the oriental fruit fly by comparing the traits of insecticide resistant individuals and susceptible individuals. Population dynamical properties were also examined using a stage-structured matrix model that was parameterized with the empirical data. The results revealed that susceptible individuals had shorter stage durations (e.g., grew faster) and reproduced more than resistant individuals. The average longevity of sexually mature susceptible adults was longer than that of sexually mature resistant adults. The matrix population model predicted that a population of the susceptible individuals would grow faster than a population of the resistant individuals in the absence of the insecticide. The sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that the sexually immature adult stage is a good candidate for controlling B. dorsalis populations. PMID:22299368

  13. Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Leftwich, Philip T.; Koukidou, Martha; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Gong, Hong-Fei; Zacharopoulou, Antigoni; Fu, Guoliang; Chapman, Tracey; Economopoulos, Aris; Vontas, John; Alphey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal) strains for medfly can overcome many of the problems of SIT associated with irradiation. Here, we present life-history characterizations for two medfly RIDL strains, OX3864A and OX3647Q. Our results show (i) full functionality of RIDL, (ii) equivalency of RIDL and wild-type strains for life-history characteristics, and (iii) a high level of sexual competitiveness against both wild-type and wild-derived males. We also present the first proof-of-principle experiment on the use of RIDL to eliminate medfly populations. Weekly releases of OX3864A males into stable populations of wild-type medfly caused a successive decline in numbers, leading to eradication. The results show that genetic control can provide an effective alternative to SIT for the control of pest insects. PMID:25122230

  14. Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Philip T; Koukidou, Martha; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Gong, Hong-Fei; Zacharopoulou, Antigoni; Fu, Guoliang; Chapman, Tracey; Economopoulos, Aris; Vontas, John; Alphey, Luke

    2014-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal) strains for medfly can overcome many of the problems of SIT associated with irradiation. Here, we present life-history characterizations for two medfly RIDL strains, OX3864A and OX3647Q. Our results show (i) full functionality of RIDL, (ii) equivalency of RIDL and wild-type strains for life-history characteristics, and (iii) a high level of sexual competitiveness against both wild-type and wild-derived males. We also present the first proof-of-principle experiment on the use of RIDL to eliminate medfly populations. Weekly releases of OX3864A males into stable populations of wild-type medfly caused a successive decline in numbers, leading to eradication. The results show that genetic control can provide an effective alternative to SIT for the control of pest insects. PMID:25122230

  15. Organophosphate resistance in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, populations in Greece and Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Skouras, Panagiotis J; Margaritopoulos, John T; Seraphides, Nicos A; Ioannides, Ioannis M; Kakani, Evi G; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D; Tsitsipis, John A

    2007-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most important pest of olives in countries around the Mediterranean basin. Its control has been based mostly on bait sprays with organophosphate insecticides (usually dimethoate or fenthion) for about 40 years. In the present study, the resistance status of olive fruit fly populations to dimethoate was examined in Greece and Cyprus over 2 years. Thirty-one populations from various regions of Greece, nine from Cyprus and one laboratory susceptible strain, which served as a control, were assayed by topical application of dimethoate. Considerable variation in the resistance levels to dimethoate was recorded in the populations of B. oleae, with resistance ratios ranging from 6.3 to 64.4 (ED(50) values 12.5-128.7 ng dimethoate per insect). The highest resistance ratios were found in populations from Crete, and the lowest in those from Cyprus. This variation could be attributed to different selection pressures from insecticidal applications among populations from the various regions. Migration of resistant genotypes, either autonomous or via commerce, may also be involved. PMID:17103369

  16. Molecular Phylogeny and Identification of the Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata, Established in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M.; El Fiky, Zaki A.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic structure of the Egyptian peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae)) population was analyzed using total RNA from adult females. A portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 369 bp was amplified using RT-PCR, and was sequenced and analyzed to clarify the phylogenetic relationship of B. zonata established in Egypt. The data suggested that the gene shared a similarity in sequence compared to Bactrocera COI gene found in GenBank. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed based on nucleotide sequences in order to examine the position of the Egyptian population among many other species of fruit flies. The results indicate that four accession numbers of B. zonata (three from New Zealand and one from India) are closely related, while the Egyptian B. zonata are close to the 71 accession numbers of Bactrocera include one B. zonata from New Zealand. These two B. zonata from Egypt and New Zealand showed a close relationship in neighbor—joining analysis using the seven accession numbers of B. zonata. In addition, a theoretical restriction map of the homology portion of the COI gene was constructed using 212 restriction enzymes obtained from the restriction enzyme database to identify the Egyptian and New Zealand B. zonata. PMID:22958094

  17. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed. PMID:24020292

  18. Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of a Micro-CT Based Bio-Realistic Fruit Fly Wing

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Joshua; Doig, Graham; Tsafnat, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    The aerodynamic features of a bio-realistic 3D fruit fly wing in steady state (snapshot) flight conditions were analyzed numerically. The wing geometry was created from high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of the fruit fly Drosophila virilis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the wing were conducted at ultra-low Reynolds numbers ranging from 71 to 200, and at angles of attack ranging from -10° to +30°. It was found that in the 3D bio-realistc model, the corrugations of the wing created localized circulation regions in the flow field, most notably at higher angles of attack near the wing tip. Analyses of a simplified flat wing geometry showed higher lift to drag performance values for any given angle of attack at these Reynolds numbers, though very similar performance is noted at -10°. Results have indicated that the simplified flat wing can successfully be used to approximate high-level properties such as aerodynamic coefficients and overall performance trends as well as large flow-field structures. However, local pressure peaks and near-wing flow features induced by the corrugations are unable to be replicated by the simple wing. We therefore recommend that accurate 3D bio-realistic geometries be used when modelling insect wings where such information is useful. PMID:25954946

  19. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-06-01

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces. PMID:25946079

  20. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yingxin; Liu, Yuxiang; Ruan, Minghua; Feng, Xu; Wang, Jiachun; Chu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zesheng

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat were used to mimic the effects of damage caused by acute oxidative stress. D-galactose was used to mimic chronic pathological aging. CSOL significantly prolonged the lifespan of the fruit flies under physiological conditions. The activity of SOD1 and CAT was upregulated, and LF accumulation was inhibited by CSOL. CSOL had no effect on the transcriptional levels (mRNA) of these enzymes. The survival time of the fruit flies which were negatively affected by exposure to H2O2 or paraquat was significantly prolonged by CSOL. In fruit flies pathologically aged by epxosure to D-galactose, CSOL also significantly prolonged their lifespan, upregulated the activity of SOD1 and CAT, and inhibited LF accumulation. The findings of our study indicate that CSOL prolongs the lifespan of fruit flies through an anti-oxidative stress pathway involving the upregulation of SOD1 and CAT activity and the inhibition of LF accumulation. CSOL may thus be explored as a novel agent for slowing the human aging process. PMID:26239097

  1. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, YINGXIN; LIU, YUXIANG; RUAN, MINGHUA; FENG, XU; WANG, JIACHUN; CHU, ZHIYONG; ZHANG, ZESHENG

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat were used to mimic the effects of damage caused by acute oxidative stress. D-galactose was used to mimic chronic pathological aging. CSOL significantly prolonged the lifespan of the fruit flies under physiological conditions. The activity of SOD1 and CAT was upregulated, and LF accumulation was inhibited by CSOL. CSOL had no effect on the transcriptional levels (mRNA) of these enzymes. The survival time of the fruit flies which were negatively affected by exposure to H2O2 or paraquat was significantly prolonged by CSOL. In fruit flies pathologically aged by epxosure to D-galactose, CSOL also significantly prolonged their lifespan, upregulated the activity of SOD1 and CAT, and inhibited LF accumulation. The findings of our study indicate that CSOL prolongs the lifespan of fruit flies through an anti-oxidative stress pathway involving the upregulation of SOD1 and CAT activity and the inhibition of LF accumulation. CSOL may thus be explored as a novel agent for slowing the human aging process. PMID:26239097

  2. Antipredator behavior of the new mass-reared unisexual strain of the Mexican Fruit Fly.

    PubMed

    González-López, G I; Rao, D; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Orozco-Dávila, D; Pérez-Staples, D

    2016-06-01

    Tephritid pests controlled through the sterile insect technique (SIT) are mass-reared and subsequently released in affected areas. Several quality parameters are currently used to test adults, but none take into account interactions with a predator. When sterile males are released in the field, they will need to avoid predators until they reach sexual maturity and survive long enough to mate with wild females. Spiders are one of the most common predators that flies may encounter in release sites. In this study, we evaluated the antipredator behavior of a mass-reared sterile unisexual strain ('Tapachula-7') of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) against their spider predators. We sampled spiders in citrus trees to determine which families could be more common. We established the baseline activity rates of sterile Tapachula-7 (Tap-7) flies in comparison with wild flies. We also tested the behavior of the fertile and sterile bisexual strain and wild flies against hunting spiders (Family Salticidae) and orb building spiders (Family Tetragnathidae). We recorded 18 spider families, with Salticidae being the most dominant. Tap-7 flies diminished their activity in comparison with wild males at 1800 h but showed similar activity levels earlier in the day. When exposed to orb-web spiders (Leucauge venusta), Tap-7, fertile and sterile males from the bisexual strain had similar rates of survival, but Tap-7 males showed lower survival than wild males. Against hunting spiders (Phidippus audax), wild males had higher probability of defensive wing displays, but there was no difference in spider attack rates. In general, sterile Tap -7 males performed as well as males from the bisexual strain, although they had lower survival than wild males. This could be due to either mass-rearing and/or irradiation effects. We recommend the use of the defensive wing display behavior as a quality parameter and propose a rapid and effective method to evaluate fly

  3. Foraging behavior by six fruit fly parasitoids(Hymenoptera:Braconidae) released as single- or multiple-species cohorts in field cages: influence of fruit location and host density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In nature, both native and exotic fruit fly parasitoids exhibit spatial and temporal overlaps in distribution. To better characterize the spatial component of foraging in the braconid portion of this guild, and to examine the effects of intra- and interspecific competition on resource partitioning, ...

  4. Temporal regulation of proteome profile in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Perumal; Jayapalan, Jaime J; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S; Arumugam, Manjula; Hashim, Onn H

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diurnal rhythms of protein synthesis controlled by the biological clock underlie the rhythmic physiology in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we conducted a proteome-wide investigation of rhythmic protein accumulation in D. melanogaster. Materials and Methods. Total protein collected from fly samples harvested at 4 h intervals over the 24 h period were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, trypsin digestion and MS/MS analysis. Protein spots/clusters were identified with MASCOT search engine and Swiss-Prot database. Expression of proteins was documented as percentage of volume contribution using the Image Master 2D Platinum software. Results. A total of 124 protein spots/clusters were identified using MS/MS analysis. Significant variation in the expression of 88 proteins over the 24-h period was observed. A relatively higher number of proteins was upregulated during the night compared to the daytime. The complexity of temporal regulation of the D. melanogaster proteome was further reflected from functional annotations of the differently expressed proteins, with those that were upregulated at night being restricted to the heat shock proteins and proteins involved in metabolism, muscle activity, protein synthesis/folding/degradation and apoptosis, whilst those that were overexpressed in the daytime were apparently involved in metabolism, muscle activity, ion-channel/cellular transport, protein synthesis/folding/degradation, redox homeostasis, development and transcription. Conclusion. Our data suggests that a wide range of proteins synthesized by the fruit fly, D. melanogaster, is under the regulation of the biological clock. PMID:27257555

  5. Temporal regulation of proteome profile in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jayapalan, Jaime J.; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S.; Arumugam, Manjula; Hashim, Onn H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diurnal rhythms of protein synthesis controlled by the biological clock underlie the rhythmic physiology in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we conducted a proteome-wide investigation of rhythmic protein accumulation in D. melanogaster. Materials and Methods. Total protein collected from fly samples harvested at 4 h intervals over the 24 h period were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, trypsin digestion and MS/MS analysis. Protein spots/clusters were identified with MASCOT search engine and Swiss-Prot database. Expression of proteins was documented as percentage of volume contribution using the Image Master 2D Platinum software. Results. A total of 124 protein spots/clusters were identified using MS/MS analysis. Significant variation in the expression of 88 proteins over the 24-h period was observed. A relatively higher number of proteins was upregulated during the night compared to the daytime. The complexity of temporal regulation of the D. melanogaster proteome was further reflected from functional annotations of the differently expressed proteins, with those that were upregulated at night being restricted to the heat shock proteins and proteins involved in metabolism, muscle activity, protein synthesis/folding/degradation and apoptosis, whilst those that were overexpressed in the daytime were apparently involved in metabolism, muscle activity, ion-channel/cellular transport, protein synthesis/folding/degradation, redox homeostasis, development and transcription. Conclusion. Our data suggests that a wide range of proteins synthesized by the fruit fly, D. melanogaster, is under the regulation of the biological clock. PMID:27257555

  6. Carbohydrate Diet and Reproductive Performance of a Fruit Fly Parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha tryoni

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley Louisa; Reynolds, Olivia Louise; Mansfield, Sarah; Micallef, Jessica Louise; Gurr, Geoff Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative releases of parasitoid wasps are often used successfully for biological control of fruit flies in programs worldwide. The development of cheaper and more effective augmentative releases of the parasitoid wasp Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) may allow its use to be expanded to cover Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a serious pest of many vegetables and most fruit production in Australia. This demands a fuller understanding of the parasitoid's reproductive biology. In this study, mating status, fecundity, and size of female D. tryoni were determined under laboratory conditions. A range of pre-release diets, 10% concentrations of honey, white sugar, and golden syrup, were also assessed in the laboratory. Mature egg loads and progeny yields of mated and unmated parasitoid females were statistically similar, demonstrating that mating status was not a determinant of parasitoid performance. Female lifespan was not negatively impacted by the act of oviposition, though larger females carried more eggs than smaller individuals, indicating a need to produce large females in mass-rearing facilities to maintain this trait. White sugar gave the highest adult female lifespan, while honey and golden syrup shared similar survivorship curves, all significantly greater compared with water control females. Pre-release feeding of D. tryoni, particularly with white sugar, may enhance the impact of released parasitoids on B. tryoni. These findings are important because honey is currently the standard diet for mass-reared braconids, but white sugar is less than one-third the cost of other foods; however further work is required to assess postrelease performance of the parasitoid. PMID:24224552

  7. Field evaluation of melolure, a formate analogue of cuelure and reassessment of fruit fly species trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly surveillance programmes rely on the use of chemical lures to monitor and control Tephritid fruit flies incursions. Significant economic advantages could be achieved by increasing the effectiveness of these chemical lures. In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure (CL...

  8. The Sterile Insect Technique and the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): Assessing the Utility of Aromatherapy in a Hawaiian Coffee Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating abilit...

  9. Food Deprivation Effects on Carbohydrate Levels and Their Relation to Mortality of Western Cherry Fruit Fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Exposed to Spinosad Bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional state of tephritid fruit flies affects various behaviors. The objectives of this study were to determine food deprivation effects on carbohydrate levels and their relation to feeding responses to spinosad bait (GF-120® Naturalyte® Fruit Fly Bait), measured indirectly by mortality, i...

  10. Improved attractants for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): responses of sterile and wild flies to (-) enantiomer of ceralure B1.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; Holler, Tim; Cristofaro, Massimo; Lux, Slawomir; Raw, Andre S; Moses, Amy L; Carvalho, Lori A

    2003-12-01

    Tests were conducted on wild Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capiata (Wiedemann), in Hawaii, Italy, and Kenya, and on sterile released flies in Florida and California with a new male attractant, (-)-ceralure B1. Compared on an equal dosage basis, Mediterranean fruit fly males were significantly more attracted to the (-)-ceralure B1 than to trimedlure in each of the sites tested except for California. Compared with the standard commercial 2 g trimedlure plug, 10 mg applied on cotton wicks (Kauai) was as attractive to wild males as trimedlure after the first 2 d of the test but not after 7 d. At a dose of 40 mg (50 times less than in the 2-g plug), the (-)-ceralure B1 was significantly more attractive to male flies than the 2-g trimedlure plug for the first week of service (Florida) but not after 2 wk. Studies using released sterile flies in Florida confirm our previous work on the improved attraction of (-)-ceralure B1 (40 mg) over trimedlure. However, this trend did not hold up in a single test conducted in a residential area in California that did not show a significant difference in attraction using 20 mg of compound. Future refinements in synthesis and costs of this compound and increased availability and testing will be needed before any final evaluation in the field can be carried out. PMID:14977108

  11. DISC1 causes associative memory and neurodevelopmental defects in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Furukubo-Tokunaga, K; Kurita, K; Honjo, K; Pandey, H; Ando, T; Takayama, K; Arai, Y; Mochizuki, H; Ando, M; Kamiya, A; Sawa, A

    2016-09-01

    Originally found in a Scottish family with diverse mental disorders, the DISC1 protein has been characterized as an intracellular scaffold protein that associates with diverse binding partners in neural development. To explore its functions in a genetically tractable system, we expressed the human DISC1 in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). As in mammalian neurons, DISC1 is localized to diverse subcellular domains of developing fly neurons including the nuclei, axons and dendrites. Overexpression of DISC1 impairs associative memory. Experiments with deletion/mutation constructs have revealed the importance of amino-terminal domain (46-290) for memory suppression whereas carboxyl domain (598-854) and the amino-terminal residues (1-45) including the nuclear localization signal (NLS1) are dispensable. DISC1 overexpression also causes suppression of axonal and dendritic branching of mushroom body neurons, which mediate a variety of cognitive functions in the fly brain. Analyses with deletion/mutation constructs reveal that protein domains 598-854 and 349-402 are both required for the suppression of axonal branching, while amino-terminal domains including NLS1 are dispensable. In contrast, NLS1 was required for the suppression of dendritic branching, suggesting a mechanism involving gene expression. Moreover, domain 403-596 is also required for the suppression of dendritic branching. We also show that overexpression of DISC1 suppresses glutamatergic synaptogenesis in developing neuromuscular junctions. Deletion/mutation experiments have revealed the importance of protein domains 403-596 and 349-402 for synaptic suppression, while amino-terminal domains including NLS1 are dispensable. Finally, we show that DISC1 functionally interacts with the fly homolog of Dysbindin (DTNBP1) via direct protein-protein interaction in developing synapses. PMID:26976042

  12. Sodium chromate demonstrates some insulin-mimetic properties in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Perkhulyn, Natalia V; Rovenko, Bohdana M; Zvarych, Tetyana V; Lushchak, Oleh V; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of food supplementation with sodium chromate at concentrations of 1-500 μM on development of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and food intake, carbohydrate and lipid pools in adult fruit flies were investigated. Food supplementation with hexavalent chromium (Na2CrO4) at high concentrations delayed larval development and decreased the percentage of larvae that pupated which indicated a relatively low toxicity. The supplement decreased glucose levels in fly hemolymph, but at concentrations of 5-25 μM increased fly carbohydrate reserves: hemolymph trehalose and whole body trehalose and glycogen. The data on parameters of carbohydrate metabolism show that chromate possesses some insulin-mimetic properties. The changes in metabolism of carbohydrates under chromate exposure were also accompanied by an increase in total lipid levels and in the portion of triacylglycerides among all lipids. Chromate addition to fly food did not affect male or female body mass, but reduced food consumption by females at all concentrations used, whereas in males only 500 μM chromate decreased food consumption. The data show that: (1) Cr(6+) has many of the same effects as Cr(3+) suggesting that it might be just as effective to treat diabetic states, likely as a result of intracellular reduction of Cr(6+) ions, and (2) the Drosophila model can be used to develop new approaches to investigate the molecular mechanisms of chromium as an insulin-mimetic. Although it is usually believed that hexavalent chromium possesses higher toxicity than the trivalent ion, due to its easier penetration into the cell, application of hexavalent chromium may substantially decrease the chromium doses needed to get the desired effects. PMID:25220772

  13. Aromatized to Find Mates: α-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of α-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to α-pinene affects their sexual performance. Results Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of α-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to α-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. Conclusions This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications. PMID:24260571

  14. Postzygotic isolating factor in sympatric speciation in Rhagoletis flies: reduced response of hybrids to parental host-fruit odors.

    PubMed

    Linn, Charles E; Dambroski, Hattie R; Feder, Jeffrey L; Berlocher, Stewart H; Nojima, Satoshi; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2004-12-21

    Rhagoletis pomonella is a model for sympatric speciation (divergence without geographic isolation) by means of host-plant shifts. Many Rhagoletis species are known to use fruit odor as a key olfactory cue to distinguish among their respective host plants. Because Rhagoletis rendezvous on or near the unabscised fruit of their hosts to mate, behavioral preferences for fruit odor translate directly into premating reproductive isolation among flies. Here, we report that reciprocal F(1) hybrids between the apple and hawthorn host races of R. pomonella, as well as between the host races and an undescribed sibling species infesting Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) do not respond to host fruit volatiles in wind-tunnel assays at doses that elicit maximal directed flight in parental flies. The reduced ability of hybrids to orient to fruit volatiles could result from a conflict between neural pathways for preference and avoidance behaviors, and it suggests that hybrids might suffer a fitness disadvantage for finding fruit in nature. Therefore, host-specific mating may play a dual role as an important postzygotic as well as a premating reproductive barrier to isolate sympatric Rhagoletis flies. PMID:15591346

  15. An evaluation of alternative insecticides to diazinon for control of tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger

    2009-02-01

    Diazinon has been used extensively in the past as part of California eradication programs for tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a soil drench, but it is being phased out for this purpose in the United States. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of Platinum, Force, Admire, Regent, and Warrior was estimated after application to sand and soil as drenches for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Hawaii. Susceptibility of each species differed. In sand, the order of toxicity at LC50 based on the 95% confidence limit overlap approach for C. capitata from most toxic to least toxic was diazinon > Force = Warrior > Admire = Platinum > Regent. The order of toxicity for B. dorsalis was diazinon > Platinum = Warrior = Force > Regent = Admire. The order of toxicity for B. cucurbitae was Warrior = diazinon > Force = Regent = Platinum = Admire. Based on the dose ratio method, Warrior was not significantly different at LC50 than diazinon for B. cucurbitae only. All other insecticides were significantly different from diazinon at LC50. Studies in sand were followed by an evaluation of specific concentrations of Warrior and Force in soil collected from two sites on the island of Kauai. Average concentrations that caused at least 95% mortality in soil in all three fruit fly species were 121 g active ingredient (AI)/ha for Force and 363 g (AI)/ha for Warrior compared with 182 g (AI)/ha for diazinon. These results indicate that Force and Warrior could be used as soil treatments for control of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:19253629

  16. Mortality and Oviposition in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) Exposed for Different Periods to Insecticide Baits in the Presence and Absence of Food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, by killing flies before they can oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. The ...

  17. Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction. PMID:22694925

  18. Addition of Wheat Germ Oil to a Liquid Larval Diet for Rearing Improved Quality Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat germ oil was added into a low waste larval liquid diet for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to optimize the fruit fly performance. Various concentrations of 0.04, 0.07, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.66 % of wheat germ oil were evaluated. Results showed that the addition of wheat germ oil did not affec...

  19. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  20. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  1. Germline transformation of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)(Diptera:Tephritidae) with a piggyBac transposon vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is a highly significant pest in olive growing countries whose control may be enhanced by the use of genetically-modified strains, especially for sterile insect technique programs. To improve and expand this technology, piggyBac-mediated germline transformation ...

  2. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  3. Attraction and Electroantennography responses of the male Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, to natural essential oils and synthetic blends.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments and long range bioassays were used to understand the difference in attractiveness among various natural essential oils for the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata. Using electroantennography, we have selected various antennally active chemicals and tested their role in the ...

  4. Larval dietary wheat germ oil influences age-specific protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in essential dietary components alter global gene expression patterns in animals. We reported on a proteomics study designed to identify molecular markers of deficiencies in culture media developed for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. In that study, we found significant changes i...

  5. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  6. Evaluating the use of irradiated caribean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) larvae for laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing and augmentative release of hymenopterous parasitoids has been a component of area-wide management programs for several tephritid fruit flies, including pestiferous species of the genus Anastrepha (Cancino and Montoya, in press). Laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szeplige...

  7. An Evaluation of Alternative Insecticides to Diazinon for Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diazinon has been used extensively in the past as part of California eradication programs for tephritid fruit flies, but is being phased out for this purpose in the United States. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of Platinum®, Force®, Admire®, Regent®, and Warrior® was estimated after applica...

  8. GF-120, Nulure, and Mazoferm Effects on Feeding Responses and Infestations of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine feeding responses of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, to 40% (vol/vol) GF-120, Nulure, and Mazoferm bait and to the insecticide spinosad only in 2005 and 2006 in Washington State. When water or baits were sprayed on branches or were placed ...

  9. 75 FR 12961 - Regulation of the Interstate Movement of Lemons from Areas Quarantined for Mediterranean Fruit Fly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ..., including Medfly. On September 21, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 48013-48014, Docket No... the Federal Register (75 FR 4228-4253, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0022) on January 26, 2010, and effective... Mediterranean Fruit Fly AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  10. Field Performance and Fitness of an Olive Fruit Fly Parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) mass reared on irradiated Medfly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) (230,908) were produced from sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped from September 2008 to January 2009 to the USDA-ARS, SJVASC, Parlier for biological control ...

  11. Automatic image analysis and spot classification for detection of fruit fly infestation in hyperspectral images of mangoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm has been developed to identify spots generated in hyperspectral images of mangoes infested with fruit fly larvae. The algorithm incorporates background removal, application of a Gaussian blur, thresholding, and particle count analysis to identify locations of infestations. Each of the f...

  12. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  13. Yeast Extract: Sucrose Ratio Effects on Egg Load, Survival, and Mortality Caused by GF-120 in Western Cherry Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrinsic sources of nitrogen are needed by tephritid fruit flies for optimal nutrition. In this study, relationships between yeast extract diets containing 0, 0.109, 0.545, 1.09, 2.18, 3.27, and 5.45% nitrogen (N) and diet intake, survival, egg production, and responses to spinosad bait in western...

  14. A safe and effective propylene glycol based capture liquid for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) traps baited with synthetic lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antifreeze is often used as the capture liquid in insect traps for its preservation and evaporation attributes. In tests reported herein, fruit fly traps using non-toxic household propylene glycol based antifreeze captured significantly more Anastrepha ludens than did traps with the automotive anti...

  15. A qPCR-based method for detecting parasitism of Fopius arisanus (Sonan) in oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Parasitism rate detection and parasitoid species identification are necessary in fruit fly biological control. Currently release of mass-reared Fopius arisanus is occurring world-wide, as this species is effective in controlling Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis capitata. While release i...

  16. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of western cherry fruit fly in sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-06-01

    Nonchemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.). The two treatments developed use a chamber temperature of 45 degrees C for 45 min and a chamber temperature of 47 degreesd C for 25 min, both under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2 degrees C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of western cherry fruit fly while preserving commodity market quality. There was no definitive egg or larval stage, which was demonstrated to be the most tolerant to either controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system treatment. Efficacy tests for both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of >5000 western cherry fruit flies in each treatment. These treatments may provide, with further study, quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where western cherry fruit fly is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired. PMID:16813295

  17. Detection of Caribbean fruit fly [(Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)]-infested grapefruit with portable gas chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New technologies are being sought by plant protection officials to more quickly and efficiently identify concealed pests in imported commodities. The zNose portable gas chromatography unit was investigated as a tool for identifying organic volatile signatures indicative of Caribbean fruit fly infest...

  18. Pupal x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We did protein analysis using 1-12-d-old adults from irradiated and non-irradiated oriental fruit fly pupae. We found that exposing pupae to x-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 30 proteins in adult males. There were 7 proteins (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

  19. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  20. Captures of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in biolure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  1. Ring-fluorinated analog of methyl eugenol: Attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly attractive to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds which have both pheromonal and allomonal functions. Side-chain metabolic act...

  2. Susceptibility of Preimaginal Western Cherry Fruit Fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Last instar larvae of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, were infected by isolates of Beauveria bassiana incorporated into sterile sand and non-sterile orchard soil. Over 20 % of buried R. indifferens pupae and over 80 % of larvae entering sand treated with either of two B. bassia...

  3. Suitability of a liquid larval diet for rearing the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfa...

  4. Antennal responses of West Indian and Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to monitor and detect tephritid fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha currently involve MultiLure traps baited with two food-based synthetic attractants; ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). These baits are used in Central America, Florida, Texas, and the Caribbean, each region...

  5. New control agents and techniques for the suppression of invasive Anastrepha spp. fruit flies and other pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-releases of fruit fly parasitoids can result in significant pest population suppression. However, the costs are sometimes prohibitive and a number of research projects have centered on providing 1) the best possible candidates for the expensive procedure and 2) minimizing the procedural costs. ...

  6. Attraction and electroantennogram responses of male Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to volatile chemicals from Persea, Litchi and Ficus wood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trimedlure is the most effective male-targeted lure for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). A similar response is elicited by plant substances that contain a-copaene, a naturally-occurring sesquiterpene. a-copaene is a complex, highly-volatile, widely-distributed plant comp...

  7. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field. PMID:24073692

  8. Circadian clock properties of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting early and late emergence chronotypes.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, K L; Vaze, Koustubh M; Ratna, Karatgi; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The role of circadian clocks in timing daily behaviors is widely acknowledged, and while empirical evidence suggests that clock period is correlated with the preferred phase of a rhythmic behavior (chronotype), other clock properties have also been hypothesized to underlie chronotype variation. Here, we report that fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster populations exhibiting evening emergence chronotype (late) are characterized by higher incidence of behavioral arrhythmicity in constant dim light, wider range of entrainment, reduced rates of re-entrainment to simulated jet-lag and higher amplitude of both entrained and free-running rhythms as compared to those exhibiting morning emergence chronotype (early). Our results thus highlight the role of circadian clock properties such as zeitgeber sensitivity, amplitude and coupling in driving chronotype variation. PMID:26654995

  9. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; Shelly, T.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [Spanish] Los articulos presentados en este numero se enfocan en el desarrollo y la validacion de procedimientos para mejorar la calidad total de moscas de las frutas esteriles para su uso en programas de manejo integrado de plagas en donde la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) es uno de los componentes clave. El grupo fue coordinado y parcialmente financiado por la Division Conjunta de Tecnicas Nucleares para la Alimentacion y la Agricultura de la FAO/OIEA, Viena, Austria, por un periodo de

  10. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  11. Conversion of the chill susceptible fruit fly larva (Drosophila melanogaster) to a freeze tolerant organism

    PubMed Central

    Koštál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Zahradníčková, Helena; Cimlová, Jana; Štětina, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Among vertebrates, only a few species of amphibians and reptiles tolerate the formation of ice crystals in their body fluids. Freeze tolerance is much more widespread in invertebrates, especially in overwintering insects. Evolutionary adaptations for freeze tolerance are considered to be highly complex. Here we show that surprisingly simple laboratory manipulations can change the chill susceptible insect to the freeze tolerant one. Larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly of tropical origin with a weak innate capacity to tolerate mild chilling, can survive when approximately 50% of their body water freezes. To achieve this goal, synergy of two fundamental prerequisites is required: (i) shutdown of larval development by exposing larvae to low temperatures (dormancy) and (ii) incorporating the free amino acid proline in tissues by feeding larvae a proline-augmented diet (cryopreservation). PMID:22331891

  12. Genetic manipulation of genes and cells in the nervous system of the fruit fly

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Simpson, Julie H.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has lead to insights in neural development, axon guidance, ion channel function, synaptic transmission, learning and memory, diurnal rythmicity, and neural disease that have had broad implications for neuroscience. Drosophila is currently the eukaryotic model organism that permits the most sophisticated in vivo manipulations to address the function of neurons and neuronally expressed genes. Here, we summarize many of the techniques that help assess the role of specific neurons by labeling, removing, or altering their activity. We also survey genetic manipulations to identify and characterize neural genes by mutation, over-expression, and protein labeling. Here, we attempt to acquaint the reader with available options and contexts to apply these methods. PMID:22017985

  13. Ultrastructure of the Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Ali, Nashat A.; Mohamed, Hend O.

    2014-01-01

    Antennal morphology and funicular sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study focused on the sensillae found on the antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus that bears the arista) of B. zonata. Antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of the males. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, were heavily covered with microtrichia and bear bristles. Numerous microtrichia as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic, clavate, and coeloconic sensillae were observed on the funiculus. SEM studies showed some differences in size and also in position of some sensillae on the antennae of the females of B. zonata. The sensillae found on the funiculus, such as trichoid and basiconic sensillae, were significantly larger in females. PMID:25373192

  14. Hermes-mediated germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Michel, K; Stamenova, A; Pinkerton, A C; Franz, G; Robinson, A S; Gariou-Papalexiou, A; Zacharopoulou, A; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    2001-04-01

    We report the use of the Hermes transposable element for germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Hermes was able to genetically transform this insect at an estimated frequency between 0.6 and 1.1%, which is comparable to the transformation frequencies obtained for this species when using other transposable elements. Hermes integrates into the medfly genome by a cut-and-paste mechanism and the sequences integrated into the genome are delimited by the terminal nucleotides of the Hermes inverted terminal repeats. Integration resulted in the generation of 8 bp target site duplications, the sequences of which conformed to the target site duplications generated by hAT element transposition in insects. The Hermes element is one additional genetic tool that can be deployed in manipulating and characterizing the medfly genome. PMID:11422511

  15. A new long-life trimedlure dispenser for Mediterranean fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Ruiz, Javier; Sanchis, Juan; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    New agricultural techniques are attempting to reduce the application of synthesized pesticides and replace them with new environmentally friendly methods such as mass trapping, mating disruption, or chemosterilization techniques. All these methods are based on the release of a lure for insect attraction or confusion. The success of the chosen method depends on the quality of the attractant emission from the dispenser. Currently, used dispensers with a polymeric matrix and new dispensers with mesoporous inorganic materials were evaluated to obtain more efficient emission kinetics. In this study, the selected pest was the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the lure used was trimedlure (TML). The dispensers were validated by means of a field study comparing insect catches with attractant release values. As a result, we have demonstrated that mesoporous dispensers have a clearly longer lifetime than the polymeric plug. Furthermore, the attractant release rate is less dependent on temperature in mesoporous than in polymeric dispensers. PMID:18767743

  16. Mating time of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Henning, Frederico; Matioli, Sergio R

    2006-01-01

    Allochronic reproductive isolation seems to be an important factor in speciation processes in Tephritidae since specific mating times are a widespread feature of its species. The timing of matings of the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) was investigated through group-focal observations, during ten days, under laboratory conditions. The number of observed matings and males exhibiting calling behavior varied significantly according to time of day. Sexual activities seemed to be concentrated in the afternoon period, with the male calling behavior reaching a peak between 3:30p.m. and 4:30p.m., and mating occurred most frequently from 2:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. PMID:17352082

  17. Latent luciferase activity in the fruit fly revealed by a synthetic luciferin

    PubMed Central

    Mofford, David M.; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Beetle luciferases are thought to have evolved from fatty acyl-CoA synthetases present in all insects. Both classes of enzymes activate fatty acids with ATP to form acyl-adenylate intermediates, but only luciferases can activate and oxidize d-luciferin to emit light. Here we show that the Drosophila fatty acyl-CoA synthetase CG6178, which cannot use d-luciferin as a substrate, is able to catalyze light emission from the synthetic luciferin analog CycLuc2. Bioluminescence can be detected from the purified protein, live Drosophila Schneider 2 cells, and from mammalian cells transfected with CG6178. Thus, the nonluminescent fruit fly possesses an inherent capacity for bioluminescence that is only revealed upon treatment with a xenobiotic molecule. This result expands the scope of bioluminescence and demonstrates that the introduction of a new substrate can unmask latent enzymatic activity that differs significantly from an enzyme’s normal function without requiring mutation. PMID:24616520

  18. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment. PMID:26763219

  19. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A.; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper. PMID:27537351

  20. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain.

    PubMed

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper. PMID:27537351

  1. Assessment effect of gamma radiation on the flight ability of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders).

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ismail Ragab; El-Aw, M A M; Hashem, A G; Draz, K A

    2013-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt 60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively. PMID:24506040

  2. High sexual signalling rates of young individuals predict extended life span in male Mediterranean fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Carey, James R; Müller, Hans-Georg; Zhang, Ying

    2004-01-01

    In a laboratory study, we monitored the lifetime sexual signalling (advertisement) of wild male Mediterranean fruit flies, and we tested the hypothesis that high lifetime intensity of sexual signalling indicates high survival probabilities. Almost all males exhibited signalling and individual signalling rates were highly variable from the beginning of the adults' maturity and throughout their life span (average life span 62.3 days). Sexual signalling rates after day 10 (peak maturity) were consistently high until about 1 week before death. There was a positive relationship between daily signalling rates and life span, and an increase in signalling level by one unit over all times was associated with an approximately 50% decrease in mortality rate. Signalling rates early in adult life (day 6-20) were higher in the longest-lived than in the shortest-lived flies. These results support the hypothesis that intense sexual signalling indicates longer life span. We discuss the importance of age-specific behavioural studies for understanding the evolution of male life histories. PMID:14576929

  3. Comparison of sexual compatibility between laboratory and wild Mexican fruit flies under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Meza-Hernández, José Salvador; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2006-12-01

    The sexual compatibility between laboratory (LF) and wild (WF) strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), was analyzed using analogous methodologies and experimental arenas under both laboratory and field conditions. Sexual compatibility was quantified with the following indices: the isolation index (ISI), male relative performance index (MRP), female relative performance index (FRPI), and the relative sterility index (RSI). ISI detected a certain level of incompatibility between strains under both laboratory and field conditions, because LF females tended to mate with LF males. LF mating performance was higher under laboratory than under field conditions. The relative performance indices for LF and the relative sterility index were higher in the laboratory than in the field. Differences between LF and WF in the times that males started calling and mating were observed in both environments. Importantly, WF males reduced their sexual activity under laboratory environments, whereas LF maintained similar activity levels in both conditions. The possible applications of the above-mentioned methods, not only to assess fly quality but also to determine the suitability of conditions in mass-rearing facilities, are discussed. Correlating laboratory quality to sexual behavior may contribute in the development of environmental parameters for mass-rearing facilities. PMID:17195663

  4. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Early Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8–10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae. PMID:25474564

  5. Flight dynamics and control of evasive maneuvers: the fruit fly's takeoff.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Francisco A; Card, Gwyneth M; Fontaine, Ebraheem I; Dickinson, Michael H; Murray, Richard M

    2009-09-01

    We have approached the problem of reverse-engineering the flight control mechanism of the fruit fly by studying the dynamics of the responses to a visual stimulus during takeoff. Building upon a prior framework [G. Card and M. Dickinson, J. Exp. Biol., vol. 211, pp. 341-353, 2008], we seek to understand the strategies employed by the animal to stabilize attitude and orientation during these evasive, highly dynamical maneuvers. As a first step, we consider the dynamics from a gray-box perspective: examining lumped forces produced by the insect's legs and wings. The reconstruction of the flight initiation dynamics, based on the unconstrained motion formulation for a rigid body, allows us to assess the fly's responses to a variety of initial conditions induced by its jump. Such assessment permits refinement by using a visual tracking algorithm to extract the kinematic envelope of the wings [E. I. Fontaine, F. Zabala, M. Dickinson, and J. Burdick, "Wing and body motion during flight initiation in Drosophila revealed by automated visual tracking," submitted for publication] in order to estimate lift and drag forces [F. Zabala, M. Dickinson, and R. Murray, "Control and stability of insect flight during highly dynamical maneuvers," submitted for publication], and recording actual leg-joint kinematics and using them to estimate jump forces [F. Zabala, "A bio-inspired model for directionality control of flight initiation," to be published.]. In this paper, we present the details of our approach in a comprehensive manner, including the salient results. PMID:19643699

  6. Remating inhibition in female Queensland fruit flies: effects and correlates of sperm storage.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Aaron M T; Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Taylor, Phillip W

    2006-02-01

    Reproductive success of male insects commonly hinges both on their ability to secure copulations with many mates and also on their ability to inseminate and inhibit subsequent sexual receptivity of their mates to rival males. We here present the first investigation of sperm storage in Queensland fruit flies (Tephritidae: Bactrocera tryoni; a.k.a. 'Q-flies') and address the question of whether remating inhibition in females is directly influenced by or correlated with number of sperm stored from their first mates. We used irradiation to disrupt spermatogenesis and thereby experimentally reduce the number of sperm stored by some male's mates while leaving other aspects of male sexual performance (mating probability, latency until copulating, copula duration) unaffected. Females that mated with irradiated rather than normal males were less likely to store any sperm at all (50% vs. 89%) and, if some sperm were stored, the number was greatly reduced (median 11 vs. 120). Despite the considerable differences in sperm storage, females mated by normal males and irradiated males were similarly likely to remate at the next opportunity, indicating (1) number of sperm stored does not directly drive female remating inhibition and (2) factors actually responsible for remating inhibition are similarly expressed in normal and irradiated males. While overall levels of remating were similar for mates of normal and irradiated males, factors responsible for female remating inhibition were positively associated with presence and number of sperm stored by mates of normal but not irradiated males. We suggest seminal fluids as the most likely factor responsible for remating inhibition in female Q-flies, as these are likely to be transported in proportion to number of sperm in normal males, be uninfluenced by irradiation, and be transported without systematic relation to sperm number in irradiated males. PMID:16289534

  7. Taxonomy, Ecology, and Management of Native and Exotic Fruit Fly Species in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ekesi, Sunday; De Meyer, Marc; Mohamed, Samira A; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Horticulture is one of the most important agricultural subsectors in Africa, providing income, creating employment opportunities, and enhancing food and nutritional security. However, tephritid fruit flies are responsible for both direct and indirect losses, with alien invasive species often having the most severe ecological and economic impact. In the past 20 years, systematic analysis of tephritids has provided comparative information on taxonomy, synonymy, and character-state differentiation. New molecular techniques are now available for identifying species, reconstructing phylogenies, and studying population genetic structures. Research on biology, host range and shifts, thermotolerance, and demography has provided useful information for developing predictive and ecological niche models to guide management methods. In recent years, the responses of various species to attractants have been documented. Several suppression methods, including the release of coevolved parasitoid species targeting invasives, have been promoted within the context of integrated pest management, leading to improvement in the quality and quantity of fruits and vegetables produced. However, there is still the need for wide-scale availability of these technologies to smallholder growers across Africa. PMID:26735644

  8. Developmental study of mercury effects on the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Abnoos, Hamideh; Mahdavi-shahri, Naser; Haddad, Farhang; Jalal, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals such as mercury is one of the most important human problems. It might have severe teratogenic effects on embryonic development. Some pharmacological and physiological aspects of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are similar to humans. So the stages of egg to adult fruit fly, as a developmental model, were employed in the study. Wild adult insects were maintained in glass dishes containing standard medium at 25 °C in complete darkness. Five pairs of 3-day old flies were then transferred to standard culture dishes containing different concentrations of mercury ion. They were removed after 8 hours. We considered the following: The rate of larvae becoming pupae and pupae to adults; the time required for the development; the hatching rate in the second generation without mercury in the culture; the morphometric changes during development in both length and width of the eggs through two generations; larvae, pupae and adult thorax length and width. The results showed that mercury in culture (20–100 mg/l) increase the duration of larvae (p<0.01) and pupae (p<0.01) development, the rate of larvae becoming pupae (p<0.001); pupae maturation (p<0.05), the hatching rate (p<0.01), the length (p<0.05) and width of larvae (p<0.01) and pupae (p<0.001) and the length in the adult thorax (p<0.01) decreased significantly. There was no effect upon the size of eggs. There were also no larvae hatching in concentrations of 200 mg/l of mercury. Negative effects of mercury as a heavy metal are possibly due to the interference of this metal in cellular signaling pathways, such as: Notch signaling and protein synthesis during the period of development. Since it bonds chemically with the sulfur hydride groups of proteins, it causes damage to the cell membrane and decreases the amount of RNA. This is the cause of failure of many enzyme mechanisms. PMID:24170977

  9. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  10. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Birke, A; Acosta, E; Aluja, M

    2015-12-01

    Anastepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly polyphagous fruit fly that is able to develop in a wide range of hosts. Understanding the limits of this pest's host range could provide valuable information for pest management and plant breeding for pest resistance. Previous studies have shown that guavas (Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.), are not attacked under natural conditions by A. ludens. To understand this phenomenon, guavas were exposed to natural infestation by A. ludens and to other fruit fly species that infest guavas in nature (Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastepha obliqua (Macquart)). Once the susceptible phenological stage of guavas was determined, fruit infestation levels were compared between A. ludens and A. striata. Choice and non-choice tests were performed under field-cage conditions. Under field conditions, guavas were susceptible to A. striata and A. fraterculus attack all the way from when fruit was undeveloped to when fruit began to ripen. No infestation by A. ludens was recorded under natural conditions. Similar results were obtained when forced exposures were performed, indicating that unripe guavas were preferred by A. striata over ripe fruit, and that infestation rates were higher at early fruit maturity stages. Under forced oviposition conditions, A. ludens larvae were unable to develop in unripe guavas but did so in fully ripe fruit. However, A. ludens fitness parameters were dramatically affected, exhibiting reduced survival and reduced pupal weight compared to conspecifics that developed in a natural host, grapefruit. We confirm that P. guajava should not be treated as a natural host of this pestiferous species, and suggest that both behavioral aspects and the fact that larvae are unable to adequately develop in this fruit, indeed represent clear limits to A. ludens's broad host range. PMID:26343267

  11. Dispersal of Rhagoletis cerasi in Commercial Cherry Orchards: Efficacy of Soil Covering Nets for Cherry Fruit Fly Control

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Baker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Demand for organic cherries offers producers a premium price to improve their commercial viability. Organic standards require that producers find alternatives to pesticides. Soil treatments to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephrididae) appear to be an attractive option. However, soil treatments can only be effective if the migration of flies is low, because mature flies may migrate from near-by trees for oviposition. To examine the general potential of soil treatments and to understand the dispersal and flight behaviour of R. cerasi within orchards, experiments using netting to cover the soil were conducted in two orchards with different pest pressure during two years. The netting reduced flight activity by 77% and fruit infestation by 91%. The data showed that the flies have a dispersal of less than 5 m within orchards, which is very low. The low thresholds for tolerance for infested fruit in the fresh market creates a strong economic incentive for control, therefore, soil covering is a promising strategy for controlling R. cerasi in commercial orchards. PMID:26466801

  12. Sterile insect technique and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the utility of aromatherapy in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Rodd, Charles; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. One potential solution involves the prerelease exposure of males to particular attractants. In particular, exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root oil (GRO) has been shown to increase mating success in laboratory and field cage trials. Here, we describe a field experiment that compares the level of egg sterility observed in two Hawaiian coffee, Coffea arabica L., plots, with GRO-exposed, sterile males released in one (treated) plot and nonexposed, sterile males released in the other (control) plot. Once per week in both plots over a 13-wk period, sterile males were released, trap captures were scored to estimate relative abundance of sterile and wild males, and coffee berries were collected and dissected in the laboratory to estimate the incidence of unhatched (sterile) eggs. Data on wild fly abundance and the natural rate of egg hatch also were collected in a remote area that received no sterile males. Despite that sterile:wild male ratios were significantly lower in the treated plot than in the control plot, the incidence of sterile eggs was significantly higher in the treated plot than in the control plot. Correspondingly, significantly higher values of Fried's competitiveness index (C) were found, on average, for treated than control sterile males. This study is the first to identify an association between the GRO "status" of sterile males and the incidence of egg sterility in the field and suggests that prerelease, GRO exposure may represent a simple and inexpensive means to increase the effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs. PMID:17461047

  13. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... pests, and 1 mite. Fruit flies Jarvis's fruit fly (Bactrocera jarvisi). Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni). Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Lepidopteran pests Yellow peach moth (Conogethes... of Litchi Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  14. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest. PMID:25727685

  15. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.

    1985-12-01

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method.

  16. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature. PMID:25772096

  17. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods. PMID:26845547

  18. FLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flies constitute a major group of nuisance species world wide in rural and urban situations. The public and health care officials can become more aware of the potential risks from flies and other urban pests by compiling the available information into an easily readable book form. Scientists from ...

  19. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable. PMID:22812118

  20. Life table assay of field-caught Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, reveals age bias

    PubMed Central

    Kouloussis, Nikos A.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng; Katsoyannos, Byron I.; Duyck, Pierre-François; Carey, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Though traps are used widely to sample phytophagous insects for research or management purposes, and recently in aging research, possible bias stemming from differential response of individuals of various ages to traps has never been examined. In this paper, we tested the response of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) males and females of four ages (spanning from 1 to 40 days) to McPhail-type traps baited with a synthetic food attractant in field cages and found that the probability of trapping was significantly influenced by age. The type of food on which flies were maintained before testing (sugar or protein) also had a strong effect and interacted with age. In another experiment, we collected wild C. capitata adults of unknown age using 1–3 methods and then reared them in the laboratory until death. The survival schedules of these flies were subsequently used in a life table assay to infer their age at the time of capture. Results showed that on a single sampling date, males captured in traps baited with a food attractant were younger compared with males aspirated from fruiting host trees, or males captured in traps baited with a sex attractant. Likewise, females captured in food-baited traps were younger compared with aspirated females. In addition to providing the first evidence of age-dependent sampling bias for a phytophagous insect species, this paper also provides a novel approach to estimate the differences in the age composition of samples collected with different techniques. These findings are of utmost importance for several categories of insects, medically important groups notwithstanding. PMID:22844133

  1. Body appendages fine-tune posture and moments in freely manoeuvring fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Berthé, Ruben; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2015-10-01

    The precise control of body posture by turning moments is key to elevated locomotor performance in flying animals. Although elevated moments for body stabilization are typically produced by wing aerodynamics, animals also steer using drag on body appendages, shifting their centre of body mass, and changing moments of inertia caused by active alterations in body shape. To estimate the instantaneous contribution of each of these components for posture control in an insect, we three-dimensionally reconstructed body posture and movements of body appendages in freely manoeuvring fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) by high-speed video and experimentally scored drag coefficients of legs and body trunk at low Reynolds number. The results show that the sum of leg- and abdomen-induced yaw moments dominates wing-induced moments during 17% of total flight time but is, on average, 7.2-times (roll, 3.4-times) smaller during manoeuvring. Our data reject a previous hypothesis on synergistic moment support, indicating that drag on body appendages and mass-shift inhibit rather than support turning moments produced by the wings. Numerical modelling further shows that hind leg extension alters the moments of inertia around the three main body axes of the animal by not more than 6% during manoeuvring, which is significantly less than previously reported for other insects. In sum, yaw, pitch and roll steering by body appendages probably fine-tune turning behaviour and body posture, without providing a significant advantage for posture stability and moment support. Motion control of appendages might thus be part of the insect's trimming reflexes, which reduce imbalances in moment generation caused by unilateral wing damage and abnormal asymmetries of the flight apparatus. PMID:26347566

  2. Male courtship behavior of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, from an Argentinean laboratory strain.

    PubMed

    Gomez Cendra, P; Calcagno, G; Belluscio, L; Vilardi, J C

    2011-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest of fruit species of warm regions of the Americas, including Argentina. Some authors claim that this taxon includes a group of cryptic species. In order to evaluate possible targets of sexual selection, it is necessary to analyze ethological aspects of male courtship and identify particular steps that strongly influence mating success. A mating test designed to evaluate behavioral differences between insects that achieve copulation (successful males) and those that did not mate (unsuccessful males) could also be relevant for the possible implementation of control programs based on sterile insect technique. Reared insects need to be evaluated periodically, since genetic drift and artificial selection associated with rearing conditions could have a detrimental effect on their ability to compete for matings in nature. In this study, courtship behavior of A. fraterculus males from a laboratory strain was analyzed for the first time through video recordings. Three components for the activities were identified: calling, wing positions, and movements. Also, the time that males spent on each step of the courtship was registered, including the last activities before attempting copulation. Data showed that mating achievement occurs relatively quickly; 65% of the successful males reached copulation within the first ten minutes after the male and female were placed together. Behavioral differences were detected between successful and unsuccessful males. The former group tended to invest more time in activities directly related with mating (Spin, Arrowhead, Attempt); however, as courtship progressed, unsuccessful males increased the time dedicated to activities not directly associated to mating (Call 0, Relax,Stationary). There was not a single sequence of activities leading to success, but the analysis of the last activities performed before mating attempts indicated that the most

  3. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect

    PubMed Central

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  4. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Rombauts, Stephane; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology. PMID:23824998

  5. Ectotherms in Variable Thermal Landscapes: A Physiological Evaluation of the Invasive Potential of Fruit Flies Species.

    PubMed

    Boher, Francisca; Trefault, Nicole; Estay, Sergio A; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and biological invasions pose one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance may also impact native and invasive organisms, although differentially. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and the variance of temperature on the expression of heat shock protein (hsp90) in adults of the invasive fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the native Drosophila gaucha in Mediterranean habitats of central Chile. We observed that, under these experimental conditions, hsp90 mRNA expression was higher in the invasive species but absent in the native one. Apparently, the biogeographic origin and niche conservatisms are playing a role in the heat shock response of these species under different putative scenarios of climate change. We suggest that in order to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impact of climate change and biological invasions, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of climatic variables, as well as the evolutionary original conditions of the native and invasive species. PMID:27486407

  6. Development, preimaginal phases and adult sensillar equipment in Aganaspis parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; de Pedro, Luis; Beitia, Francisco; Sabater, Beatriz; Asís, Josep Daniel; Polidori, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    Aganaspis daci and Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) are important parasitoids of fruit flies. Here we studied, with light and scanning electron microscopy, aspects of their morphology that could help with plans to mass rear and thus contribute to improved pest control (preimaginal phases) and to shed light on parasitoid-pest relationships (sensillar equipment). The two species present a stalked egg, eucoiliform first and second-instar larvae and hymenopteriform third instar and mature larvae. The first instar presents tegumental differentiations in the mesoma and first metasomal segment in A. daci, but not in A. pelleranoi, while unlike other figitids, neither species displays setae in the mesosomal processes. Second and third instar and mature larvae present tegumental differentiations in A. daci, but not in A. pelleranoi. The moniliform (female) and filiform (male) antennae of A. daci and A. pelleranoi harbor seven types of sensilla, four of them (sensilla campaniformia, sensilla coeloconica type II, and two types of sensilla trichoidea) described here for the first time in Cynipoidea. The largest sensilla were the multiporous placoid sensilla, which were smaller and more numerous in A. pelleranoi. Species also differed to some extent in morphology of sensilla coeloconica. Observations on the ovipositor revealed the presence of coeloconic sensilla on Valva I in both species. PMID:23985273

  7. Ectotherms in Variable Thermal Landscapes: A Physiological Evaluation of the Invasive Potential of Fruit Flies Species

    PubMed Central

    Boher, Francisca; Trefault, Nicole; Estay, Sergio A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and biological invasions pose one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance may also impact native and invasive organisms, although differentially. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and the variance of temperature on the expression of heat shock protein (hsp90) in adults of the invasive fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the native Drosophila gaucha in Mediterranean habitats of central Chile. We observed that, under these experimental conditions, hsp90 mRNA expression was higher in the invasive species but absent in the native one. Apparently, the biogeographic origin and niche conservatisms are playing a role in the heat shock response of these species under different putative scenarios of climate change. We suggest that in order to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impact of climate change and biological invasions, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of climatic variables, as well as the evolutionary original conditions of the native and invasive species. PMID:27486407

  8. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality. PMID:27135433

  9. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  10. Transcriptome Profiling of Sexual Maturation and Mating in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R.; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest. PMID:22303464

  11. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest. PMID:22303464

  12. Fitness benefits of the fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata on a non-native rose host.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Kim; Smit, Christian; Schilthuizen, Menno; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2016-05-01

    Many species have been introduced worldwide into areas outside their natural range. Often these non-native species are introduced without their natural enemies, which sometimes leads to uncontrolled population growth. It is rarely reported that an introduced species provides a new resource for a native species. The rose hips of the Japanese rose, Rosa rugosa, which has been introduced in large parts of Europe, are infested by the native monophagous tephritid fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata. We studied differences in fitness benefits between R. alternata larvae using R. rugosa as well as native Rosa species in the Netherlands. R. alternata pupae were larger and heavier when the larvae fed on rose hips of R. rugosa. Larvae feeding on R. rugosa were parasitized less frequently by parasitic wasps than were larvae feeding on native roses. The differences in parasitization are probably due to morphological differences between the native and non-native rose hips: the hypanthium of a R. rugosa hip is thicker and provides the larvae with the possibility to feed deeper into the hip, meaning that the parasitoids cannot reach them with their ovipositor and the larvae escape parasitization. Our study shows that native species switching to a novel non-native host can experience fitness benefits compared to the original native host. PMID:26781302

  13. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua.

    PubMed

    Scally, M; Into, F; Thomas, D B; Ruiz-Arce, R; Barr, N B; Schuenzel, E L

    2016-08-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific relationships within A. obliqua as well as interspecific relationships to other Anastrepha species using a multi-locus data set comprising nine loci (seven nuclear, two mitochondrial) with 105 operational taxonomic units. The results based on a concatenated set of nuclear loci strongly support the monophyly of A. obliqua and most of the other species previously identified by morphology. A split between Peruvian A. obliqua samples and those from other locations was also identified. These results contrast with prior findings of relationships within A. obliqua based on mitochondrial data, as we found a marked discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial loci. These analyses suggest that introgression, particularly between A. obliqua and fraterculus species, may be one explanation for the discrepancy and the high mitochondrial diversity reported for A. obliqua could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. PMID:27126185

  14. Population structure and cryptic genetic variation in the mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Delatte, Hélène; Nzogela, Yasinta Beda; Simiand, Christophe; Quilici, Serge; De Meyer, Marc; Mwatawala, Maulid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fruit fly Ceratitis cosyra is an important agricultural pest negatively affecting the mango crop production throughout Africa and also feeding on a variety of other wild and cultivated hosts. The occurrence of deeply divergent haplotypes, as well as extensive morphological variability, previously suggested possible cryptic speciation within Ceratitis cosyra. Here we provide the first large-scale characterisation of the population structure of Ceratitis cosyra with the main objective of verifying cryptic genetic variation. A total of 348 specimens from 13 populations were genotyped at 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) deviations were observed in 40.4% of locus-population combinations and suggested the occurrence of genetic substructuring within populations. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) showed genetic divergence between the vast majority of vouchers from Burundi and Tanzania (plus a few outliers from other African countries) and all other specimens sampled. Individual Bayesian assignments confirmed the existence of two main genotypic groups also occurring in sympatry. These data provided further support to the hypothesis that Ceratitis cosyra might include cryptic species. However, additional integrative taxonomy, possibly combining morphological, ecological and physiological approaches, is required to provide the necessary experimental support to this model. PMID:26798276

  15. Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Szyniszewska, Anna M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  16. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. PMID:26466718

  17. Morphological Features of the Ovaries During Oogenesis of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Relation to the Physiological State

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ming-Yi; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Jang, Eric B.; Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of physiological state in insects is useful in furthering the understanding of how insect behavior changes with age. Central to this determination is the identification of characters that allow assessment of physiological age. While non-destructive measures produce the most desired outcomes, internal markers may be more diagnostic and reliable. In this study, key morphological characters during previtellogenesis through vitellogenesis and ovulation were assessed as markers to determine physiological states of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ovary length and width, ovarian index (length × width), and egg load of laboratory-reared B. dorsalis females recorded daily from eclosion up to 80 days old suggested significant differences in the ovarian index and egg load between females from each oogenesis stage. Parity status determined by the presence of follicular relics was found to provide high-accuracy classifications for B. dorsalis females. The presence of follicular relics with distinct morphological features provides a reliable identification tool to determine the physiological state of wild female oriental fruit fly. The potential applications of this technique to identify the physiological age of female fruit flies to study behavioral attributes in their natural habitat, and also the potential applications in relation to field control, are discussed. PMID:23463982

  18. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures. PMID:26352751

  19. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

  20. Improvement of mass-rearing procedures for an olive fruit fly parasitoid – duration of exposure to hosts affects production of Psyttalia lounsburyi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe economic damage in California. Control of this fly is currently limited to pesticides. The USDA-ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montpellier, France established a classical biological control program nearly 15 y...

  1. Host Plant Use by and New Host Records of Apple Maggot, Western Cherry Fruit Fly, and Other Rhagoletis Species (Diptera: Tephritidae). I. Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant use by apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in five cities or towns and several habitats of difference commercial importance within south central Washington state was de...

  2. Evaluation of SPLAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for "Attract-and-Kill" of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT(TM) ME (methyl eugenol) and C-L (cue-lure) “attract and kill” sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared to other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, respectively. Fie...

  3. Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure Traps with Solid Lure and Insecticide Dispensers for Fruit Fly Monitoring and Male Annihilation in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii fruit fly A...

  4. A genomic perspective towards assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly eradication in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata, are extensively used in control programmes involving sterile insect technique. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release into the field to compete with w...

  5. Enlargement of cultivated olive fruit reduces the efficiency of the larval olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated olive fruit are greatly enlarged as a result of domestication. In this study, we examined the effects of fruit size within a cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different-sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission) grown in California on th...

  6. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  7. Toxicity induced by Prasiola crispa to fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea: evidence for bioinsecticide action.

    PubMed

    Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Paula, Mariane Trindade; Pereira, Betina Kappel; Albuquerque, Margelli Pereira; Victoria, Filipe Carvalho; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of the alga Prasiola crispa extract (PcE) were investigated in a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) model. In flies, toxicity was assessed as mortality and biochemical alterations including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers. The cardiotoxic action of PcE was also examined in a model of semi-isolated cockroach heart. The administration of PcE (2 mg/ml) to flies for 24 h resulted in a marked increase in mortality rate (7.6-fold rise compared to control). AChE activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, and hydroperoxide formation remained unchanged. Fly glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly altered after PcE treatment. Fraction III (ethyl acetate) of PcE was significantly more toxic to flies compared to fractions I (methanol) and II (ethanol). A significant decrease was noted in cockroach semi-isolated heart function. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), an oxidizing agent, concomitant with the extract significantly blocked this effect, suggesting that reduced compounds may be involved in the cardiotoxic action produced by PcE. Our results show for the first time the adverse effects of PcE in two insect models, Drosophila melanogaster and Nauphoetacinerea. The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function. PMID:24555652

  8. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  9. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  10. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, C.; Williams, T.; Sivinski, J.; Birke, A.; Aluja, M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  11. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  12. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  13. Evaluation of the Mating Competitiveness of the Adult Oriental Fruit Fly Reared as Larvae in Liquid vs. Those Raised on Standard Wheat-based Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three strains (standard lab, DTWP pupal color sexing strain and wild strain) of adult oriental fruit flies, which were reared as larvae on a liquid diet, mill feed diet (Tanaka’s diet), or natural host fruit diet, were evaluated for mating competitiveness in both indoor and outdoor Boller’s mating c...

  14. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family ...

  15. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-10-01

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ≍7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The

  16. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

  17. Identification of novel vibration- and deflection-sensitive neuronal subgroups in Johnston's organ of the fruit fly

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Eriko; Yamada, Daichi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Asai, Tomonori; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster responds behaviorally to sound, gravity, and wind. Johnston's organ (JO) at the antennal base serves as a sensory organ in the fruit fly to detect these mechanosensory stimuli. Among the five anatomically defined subgroups of sensory neurons in JO, subgroups A and B detect sound vibrations and subgroups C and E respond to static deflections, such as gravity and wind. The functions of subgroup-D JO neurons, however, remain unknown. In this study, we used molecular-genetic methods to explore the physiologic properties of subgroup-D JO neurons. Both vibrations and static deflection of the antennal receiver activated subgroup-D JO neurons. This finding clearly revealed that zone D in the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC), the projection target of subgroup-D JO neurons, is a primary center for antennal vibrations and deflection in the fly brain. We anatomically identified two types of interneurons downstream of subgroup-D JO neurons, AMMC local neurons (AMMC LNs), and AMMC D1 neurons. AMMC LNs are local neurons whose projections are confined within the AMMC, connecting zones B and D. On the other hand, AMMC D1 neurons have both local dendritic arborizations within the AMMC and descending projections to the thoracic ganglia, suggesting that AMMC D1 neurons are likely to relay information of the antennal movement detected by subgroup-D JO neurons from the AMMC directly to the thorax. Together, these findings provide a neural basis for how JO and its brain targets encode information of complex movements of the fruit fly antenna. PMID:24847281

  18. Fruit fly optimization based least square support vector regression for blind image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Rui; Li, Junshan; Yang, Yawei

    2014-11-01

    The goal of image restoration is to reconstruct the original scene from a degraded observation. It is a critical and challenging task in image processing. Classical restorations require explicit knowledge of the point spread function and a description of the noise as priors. However, it is not practical for many real image processing. The recovery processing needs to be a blind image restoration scenario. Since blind deconvolution is an ill-posed problem, many blind restoration methods need to make additional assumptions to construct restrictions. Due to the differences of PSF and noise energy, blurring images can be quite different. It is difficult to achieve a good balance between proper assumption and high restoration quality in blind deconvolution. Recently, machine learning techniques have been applied to blind image restoration. The least square support vector regression (LSSVR) has been proven to offer strong potential in estimating and forecasting issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a LSSVR-based image restoration method. However, selecting the optimal parameters for support vector machine is essential to the training result. As a novel meta-heuristic algorithm, the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) can be used to handle optimization problems, and has the advantages of fast convergence to the global optimal solution. In the proposed method, the training samples are created from a neighborhood in the degraded image to the central pixel in the original image. The mapping between the degraded image and the original image is learned by training LSSVR. The two parameters of LSSVR are optimized though FOA. The fitness function of FOA is calculated by the restoration error function. With the acquired mapping, the degraded image can be recovered. Experimental results show the proposed method can obtain satisfactory restoration effect. Compared with BP neural network regression, SVR method and Lucy-Richardson algorithm, it speeds up the restoration rate and

  19. Taxonomic Identity of the Invasive Fruit Fly Pest, Bactrocera invadens: Concordance in Morphometry and DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Khamis, Fathiya M.; Masiga, Daniel K.; Mohamed, Samira A.; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D2 = 122.9) was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1) and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4). Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s.), branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree. PMID:23028649

  20. The evolution of Bab paralog expression and abdominal pigmentation among Sophophora fruit fly species.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Joseph R; Rogers, William A; Rebeiz, Mark; Williams, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of gene networks lies at the heart of understanding trait divergence. Intrinsic to development is the dimension of time: a network must be altered during the correct phase of development to generate the appropriate phenotype. One model of developmental network evolution is the origination of dimorphic (male-specific) abdomen pigmentation in the fruit fly subgenus Sophophora. In Drosophila (D.) melanogaster, dimorphic pigmentation is controlled by the dimorphic expression of the paralogous Bab1 and Bab2 transcription factors that repress pigmentation. These expression patterns are thought to have evolved from a monomorphic ancestral state. Here we show that the spatial domain and contrast in dimorphic Bab expression increases during the latter half of pupal development, and this late pupal expression is necessary and sufficient to suppress pigmentation. Late pupal Bab expression was monomorphic for species from basal clades exhibiting monomorphic pigmentation, though dimorphic expression was observed in D. pseudoobscura that represents an intermediate-branching monomorphic clade. Among species from the dimorphic Sophophora clades, Bab expression was dimorphic, but a poor correlation was found between the domains of expression and male pigmentation. Lastly, while Bab paralog co-expression was generally observed, an instance of paralog-specific expression was found, indicating more complex regulatory mechanisms and mutational effects have shaped the evolution of the bab locus. These results highlight the importance of the time and place of Bab expression for pigmentation development and evolution, and suggest that dimorphism evolved early in Sophophora, but diversity in male pigmentation was not further shaped by alterations in Bab expression. PMID:24261445

  1. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers. PMID:25026662

  2. Recurrent Modification of a Conserved Cis-Regulatory Element Underlies Fruit Fly Pigmentation Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, William A.; Salomone, Joseph R.; Tacy, David J.; Camino, Eric M.; Davis, Kristen A.; Rebeiz, Mark; Williams, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of morphological traits occurs through the collective action of networks of genes connected at the level of gene expression. As any node in a network may be a target of evolutionary change, the recurrent targeting of the same node would indicate that the path of evolution is biased for the relevant trait and network. Although examples of parallel evolution have implicated recurrent modification of the same gene and cis-regulatory element (CRE), little is known about the mutational and molecular paths of parallel CRE evolution. In Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, the Bric-à-brac (Bab) transcription factors control the development of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits on the posterior abdomen. Female-specific Bab expression is regulated by the dimorphic element, a CRE that possesses direct inputs from body plan (ABD-B) and sex-determination (DSX) transcription factors. Here, we find that the recurrent evolutionary modification of this CRE underlies both intraspecific and interspecific variation in female pigmentation in the melanogaster species group. By reconstructing the sequence and regulatory activity of the ancestral Drosophila melanogaster dimorphic element, we demonstrate that a handful of mutations were sufficient to create independent CRE alleles with differing activities. Moreover, intraspecific and interspecific dimorphic element evolution proceeded with little to no alterations to the known body plan and sex-determination regulatory linkages. Collectively, our findings represent an example where the paths of evolution appear biased to a specific CRE, and drastic changes in function were accompanied by deep conservation of key regulatory linkages. PMID:24009528

  3. Sniffing Out Chemosensory Genes from the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Falchetto, Marco; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Field, Linda M.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs). A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs) were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera Bactrocera and

  4. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Poyet, Mathilde; Le Roux, Vincent; Gibert, Patricia; Meirland, Antoine; Prévost, Geneviève; Eslin, Patrice; Chabrerie, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas) of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology) potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these “trap plants” may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly. PMID:26581101

  5. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    PubMed

    Poyet, Mathilde; Le Roux, Vincent; Gibert, Patricia; Meirland, Antoine; Prévost, Geneviève; Eslin, Patrice; Chabrerie, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas) of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology) potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these "trap plants" may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly. PMID:26581101

  6. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    PubMed Central

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Schliserman, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions. PMID:26466633

  7. Effects of diet and host access on fecundity and lifespan in two fruit fly species with different life history patterns

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, James F.; Chen, Kehui; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Vargas, Roger I.; Carey, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive ability of female tephritids can be limited and prevented by denying access to host plants and restricting the dietary precursors of vitellogenesis. The mechanisms underlying the delayed egg production in each case are initiated by different physiological processes that are anticipated to have dissimilar effects on lifespan and reproductive ability later in life. The egg laying abilities of laboratory reared females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedmann) and melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett) from Hawaii are delayed or suppressed by limiting access to host fruits and dietary protein. In each case, this is expected to prevent the loss of lifespan associated with reproduction until protein or hosts are introduced. Two trends are observed in each species: Firstly, access to protein at eclosion leads to a greater probability of survival and higher reproductive ability than if it is delayed, and secondly, that delayed host access reduces lifetime reproductive ability without improving life expectancy. When host access and protein availability are delayed, the rate of reproductive senescence is reduced in the medfly, whereas the rate of reproductive senescence is generally increased in the melon fly. Overall, delaying reproduction lowers the fitness of females by constraining their fecundity for the remainder of the lifespan without extending the lifespan. PMID:23483775

  8. Inferences on the population structure and colonization process of the invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, N; Bonizzoni, M; Thanaphum, S; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Gugliemino, C R

    2007-09-01

    The phytophagous insects of the Tephritidae family offer different case histories of successful invasions. An example is Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, the oriental fruit fly which has been recognized as a key pest of Asia and the Pacific. It is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the genetic aspects of its invasion process have remained relatively unexplored. Using microsatellite markers we have investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area. Results of clustering and admixture, associated with phylogenetic and migration analyses, were used to evaluate the changes in population genetic structure that this species underwent during its invasion process and establishment in the different areas. The colonization process of this fly is associated with a relatively stable population demographic structure, especially in an unfragmented habitat, rich in intensive cultivation such as in Southeast Asia. In this area, the results suggest a lively demographic history, characterized by evolutionary recent demographic expansions and no recent bottlenecks. Cases of genetic isolation attributable to geographical factors, fragmented habitats and/or fruit trade restrictions were observed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Hawaii. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western orientated migration route from China to the West. PMID:17845427

  9. Nuclear DISC1 regulates CRE-mediated gene transcription and sleep homeostasis in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, N; Ando, T; Maruyama, Y; Fujimuro, M; Mochizuki, H; Honjo, K; Shimoda, M; Toda, H; Sawamura-Yamamoto, T; Makuch, L A; Hayashi, A; Ishizuka, K; Cascella, N G; Kamiya, A; Ishida, N; Tomoda, T; Hai, T; Furukubo-Tokunaga, K; Sawa, A

    2008-12-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is one of major susceptibility factors for a wide range of mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and autism spectrum conditions. DISC1 is located in several subcellular domains, such as the centrosome and the nucleus, and interacts with various proteins, including NudE-like (NUDEL/NDEL1) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)/CREB2. Nevertheless, a role for DISC1 in vivo remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we have generated a Drosophila model for examining normal functions of DISC1 in living organisms. DISC1 transgenic flies with preferential accumulation of exogenous human DISC1 in the nucleus display disturbance in sleep homeostasis, which has been reportedly associated with CREB signaling/CRE-mediated gene transcription. Thus, in mammalian cells, we characterized nuclear DISC1, and identified a subset of nuclear DISC1 that colocalizes with the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies, a nuclear compartment for gene transcription. Furthermore, we identified three functional cis-elements that regulate the nuclear localization of DISC1. We also report that DISC1 interacts with ATF4/CREB2 and a corepressor N-CoR, modulating CRE-mediated gene transcription. PMID:18762802

  10. Pupal mortality and adult emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to the fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae).

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Lacey, Lawrence A; Bishop, Belinda J B

    2009-12-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides alone for fly control could be fumigation of the fly's overwintering habitat using the fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & Hess (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) in conjunction with reduced insecticide use. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are biocidal for a variety of organisms. In this study, the main objectives were to determine the effects of M. albus VOCs on mortality of R. indifferens pupae and on adult emergence under laboratory conditions. In fumigation chamber experiments, a 14-d exposure of pupae in soil to VOCs resulted in 61.9% control, and exposure to VOCs for 7, 10, and 14 d reduced fly emergence by 44.2, 70.0, and 86.3%, respectively, relative to controls. In an experiment using plastic covers to retain VOCs in treated soil, a concentration of 1% M. albus formulation (fungus + rye grain) did not affect pupal mortality and fly emergence, but a concentration of 5% M. albus formulation resulted in 27.4% control and reduced fly emergence by 30.1% relative to the control. Larvae of R. indifferens that were dropped onto soil with 1% M. albus formulation were not affected by the fungus. Results indicate that prolonged exposure and high concentrations of M. albus VOCs can cause significant mortality of R. indifferens pupae in soil and delay adult emergence. PMID:20069829

  11. Fly-by-light optical bus interface module (OBIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargano, Robert

    1995-05-01

    Driving the need for optics in flight control are the issues of wire weight, HIRF, and system bandwidth. With the advent of advanced Vehicle Management System (VMS) systems and the higher level of functional and physical integration of subsystems such as the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and the Subsystem Utility Integration Technology (SUIT) program, optics in flight control offer attractive system benefits. Advanced VMS control functions generate large quantities of data to be transmitted over the VMS buses for processing. This paper will address the implementation of a module that will support the high throughput requirements of an advanced VMS system. The module is defined as the Optical Bus Interface Module (OBIM) and utilizes the AS1773A 20 mbps fiber optic bus for the VMS system bus. In addition, the module supports 5 mbps fiber optic Cross Channel Data Links (CCDLs) for the exchange of flight critical data in redundant architectures.

  12. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. PMID:26850034

  13. Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Putoa, Rudolph; Eitam, Avi

    2007-06-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was discovered on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. From 1998 to 2006, B. dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. dorsalis, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt) suggested B. dorsalis had displaced these two species and become the most abundant fruit fly in coastal areas. To suppress B. dorsalis populations, a classical biological control program was initiated to introduce the natural enemy Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into French Polynesia from Hawaii. Wasps were released and established on Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands. In guava, Psidium guajava L., collections for Tahiti, F. arisanus parasitism of fruit flies was 2.1, 31.8, 37.5, and 51.9% for fruit collected for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Based on guava collections in 2002 (before releases) and 2006 (after releases), there was a subsequent decrease in numbers of B. dorsalis, B. tryoni, and B. kirki fruit flies emerging (per kilogram of fruit) by 75.6, 79.3, and 97.9%, respectively. These increases in F. arisanus parasitism and decreases in infestation were similar for other host fruit. Establishment of F. arisanus is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into South America, Africa, and China where species of the B. dorsalis complex are established. PMID:17598524

  14. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens. PMID:26314048

  15. The scarlet eye colour gene of the tephritid fruit fly: Bactrocera tryoni and the nature of two eye colour mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J T; Bennett, C L; Stewart, G J; Frommer, M; Raphael, K A

    2003-06-01

    A homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster eye-colour gene, scarlet (st), has been isolated from the genome of the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. The comparison of the B. tryoni and D. melanogaster scarlet gene shows 71.2% and 79.3% sequence identity at the DNA and the derived amino acid level, respectively. Two allelic eye-colour mutations of B. tryoni, orange-eyes and lemon-eyes, have been recovered and found to be colocalized with the st gene. The st gene sequence in the two mutant strains has been examined for DNA sequence changes and expression levels. PMID:12752660

  16. Commuting fruit bats beneficially modulate their flight in relation to wind

    PubMed Central

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Fahr, Jakob; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When animals move, their tracks may be strongly influenced by the motion of air or water, and this may affect the speed, energetics and prospects of the journey. Flying organisms, such as bats, may thus benefit from modifying their flight in response to the wind vector. Yet, practical difficulties have so far limited the understanding of this response for free-ranging bats. We tracked nine straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) that flew 42.5 ± 17.5 km (mean ± s.d.) to and from their roost near Accra, Ghana. Following detailed atmospheric simulations, we found that bats compensated for wind drift, as predicted under constant winds, and decreased their airspeed in response to tailwind assistance such that their groundspeed remained nearly constant. In addition, bats increased their airspeed with increasing crosswind speed. Overall, bats modulated their airspeed in relation to wind speed at different wind directions in a manner predicted by a two-dimensional optimal movement model. We conclude that sophisticated behavioural mechanisms to minimize the cost of transport under various wind conditions have evolved in bats. The bats’ response to the wind is similar to that reported for migratory birds and insects, suggesting convergent evolution of flight behaviours in volant organisms. PMID:24648227

  17. Female-biased attraction of Oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from Terminalia catappa L.

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Jang, Eric B

    2006-11-01

    Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Porapak Q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with SPME collections producing larger EAD responses from a greater number of compounds. Geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest EAD responses. A synthetic blend containing SPME collected, EAD stimulatory compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind tunnel bioassays, but heavily male-biased trap captures in a larger olfactometer arena. A nine-component subset of compounds eliciting relatively small EAD responses (EAD minor) and consisting of equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate, and (E)-beta-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males. PMID:17082987

  18. Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2010-01-01

    Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

  19. PI3K/AKT signaling modulates transcriptional expression of EWS/FLI1 through specificity protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Chiara; Boro, Aleksandar; Rechfeld, Florian; Lopez-Garcia, Laura A.; Gierisch, Maria E.; Schäfer, Beat W.; Niggli, Felix K.

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most frequent bone cancer in childhood and is characterized by the presence of the balanced translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) in more than 85% of cases, generating a dysregulated transcription factor EWS/FLI1. This fusion protein is an essential oncogenic component of ES development which is necessary for tumor cell maintenance and represents an attractive therapeutic target. To search for modulators of EWS/FLI1 activity we screened a library of 153 targeted compounds and identified inhibitors of the PI3K pathway to directly modulate EWS/FLI1 transcription. Surprisingly, treatment of four different ES cell lines with BEZ235 resulted in down regulation of EWS/FLI1 mRNA and protein by ∼50% with subsequent modulation of target gene expression. Analysis of the EWS/FLI1 promoter region (−2239/+67) using various deletion constructs identified two 14bp minimal elements as being important for EWS/FLI1 transcription. We identified SP1 as modulator of EWS/FLI1 gene expression and demonstrated direct binding to one of these regions in the EWS/FLI1 promoter by EMSA and ChIP experiments. These results provide the first insights on the transcriptional regulation of EWS/FLI1, an area that has not been investigated so far, and offer an additional molecular explanation for the known sensitivity of ES cell lines to PI3K inhibition. PMID:26336820

  20. Three-dimensional tracking and behaviour monitoring of multiple fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Ardekani, Reza; Biyani, Anurag; Dalton, Justin E; Saltz, Julia B; Arbeitman, Michelle N; Tower, John; Nuzhdin, Sergey; Tavaré, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The increasing interest in the investigation of social behaviours of a group of animals has heightened the need for developing tools that provide robust quantitative data. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an attractive model for behavioural analysis; however, there are still limited ways to monitor fly behaviour in a quantitative manner. To study social behaviour of a group of flies, acquiring the position of each individual over time is crucial. There are several studies that have tried to solve this problem and make this data acquisition automated. However, none of these studies has addressed the problem of keeping track of flies for a long period of time in three-dimensional space. Recently, we have developed an approach that enables us to detect and keep track of multiple flies in a three-dimensional arena for a long period of time, using multiple synchronized and calibrated cameras. After detecting flies in each view, correspondence between views is established using a novel approach we call the 'sequential Hungarian algorithm'. Subsequently, the three-dimensional positions of flies in space are reconstructed. We use the Hungarian algorithm and Kalman filter together for data association and tracking. We evaluated rigorously the system's performance for tracking and behaviour detection in multiple experiments, using from one to seven flies. Overall, this system presents a powerful new method for studying complex social interactions in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:23034355

  1. Initial Observations of Fruit Fly;s Flight with its b1 Motor Neuron Altered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Melfi, James, Jr.

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have suggested that one of the fly's 17 steering muscles, the first basalar muscle (b1) is responsible for maintaining flight stability. To test this, we compare the flight behavior of normal flies with genetically modified flies whose motor neuron to the b1 muscle is silenced. We report our initial observation of the difference and similarity between these two lines supplied by Janelia Farm. We also discuss the basic question for quantifying flight, what makes a good flier? Partly supported by the Visiting Scientist program at HHMI-Janelia Farm.

  2. Response of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to an attract-and-kill trap in greenhouse cage tests.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2014-01-01

    A novel attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was constructed with yellow corrugated plastic in an inverted cylindrical pan shape formed from a disk and collar. The trap components were tested under three greenhouse temperatures and humidities of warm, hot, and very hot for attractiveness to caged young or older adults. A greater proportion of adults regardless of age were found underneath the devices including disks, cylindrical pans, and pans with pheromone lures and test units of cylindrical pans sprayed with water, insecticidal bait spray, and with lures. The effect was related to lower temperatures on the underside compared with the top and the intolerance of the pest to heat. A circular collar added to the perimeter of the disk that formed the top of the inverted cylinder made the attract-and-kill trap more attractive to adults than the disk alone. Pheromone lures or bait sprays did not increase adult attraction, so were not needed for efficacy. The cylindrical pan was especially attractive to adults when temperatures were high by providing shelter from the heat. At very high temperatures, the pan became unattractive, possibly due to heating of the construction materials. Cylindrical pans sprayed with water on the underside attracted the highest number of adults especially at high temperatures. Greenhouse tests showed that the inverted cylindrical pan design has potential as an attract-and-kill device for olive fruit fly control. PMID:25368094

  3. Development of resistance to spinosad in oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory selection and cross-resistance.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the potential for the development of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in a laboratory colony of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Resistance was selected by using topical applications of spinosad. After eight generations of selection, the LD50 of the selected line was 408 times greater compared with that of the untreated parental colony. This spinosad-resistant line did not exhibit cross-resistance to 10 other insecticides tested, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion. fenthion, formothion, and malathion) one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate). However, using lines previously selected for resistance to these same insecticides, two of the 10 lines tested (naled- and malathion-resistant) did show some cross-resistance to spinosad. Also, oriental fruit flies from different field collections where naled and malathion have been used for control purposes displayed some resistance to spinosad. In addition, the effects of direct ingestion of spinosad through dietary supplementation also were tested. Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed in this study provide new information that will be useful for managing the development of resistance when spinosad is used to control B. dorsalis in the field. PMID:16813333

  4. ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Gorohovski, Alessandro; Lacroix, Vincent; Rogers, Mark; Ibanez, Kristina; Boullosa, Cesar; Andres Leon, Eduardo; Ben-Hur, Asa; Valencia, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Chimeric RNAs that comprise two or more different transcripts have been identified in many cancers and among the Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) isolated from different organisms; they might represent functional proteins and produce different disease phenotypes. The ChiTaRS database of Chimeric Transcripts and RNA-Sequencing data (http://chitars.bioinfo.cnio.es/) collects more than 16 000 chimeric RNAs from humans, mice and fruit flies, 233 chimeras confirmed by RNA-seq reads and ∼2000 cancer breakpoints. The database indicates the expression and tissue specificity of these chimeras, as confirmed by RNA-seq data, and it includes mass spectrometry results for some human entries at their junctions. Moreover, the database has advanced features to analyze junction consistency and to rank chimeras based on the evidence of repeated junction sites. Finally, 'Junction Search' screens through the RNA-seq reads found at the chimeras' junction sites to identify putative junctions in novel sequences entered by users. Thus, ChiTaRS is an extensive catalog of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeras that will extend our understanding of the evolution of chimeric transcripts in eukaryotes and can be advantageous in the analysis of human cancer breakpoints. PMID:23143107

  5. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  6. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  7. Viability of Cabralea canjerana Extracts to Control the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus

    PubMed Central

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus. PMID:25373194

  8. Segmentation of center brains and optic lobes in 3D confocal images of adult fruit fly brains.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shing Chun Benny; Ruan, Zongcai; Zhao, Ting; Long, Fuhui; Jenett, Arnim; Simpson, Julie; Myers, Eugene W; Peng, Hanchuan

    2010-02-01

    Automatic alignment (registration) of 3D images of adult fruit fly brains is often influenced by the significant displacement of the relative locations of the two optic lobes (OLs) and the center brain (CB). In one of our ongoing efforts to produce a better image alignment pipeline of adult fruit fly brains, we consider separating CB and OLs and align them independently. This paper reports our automatic method to segregate CB and OLs, in particular under conditions where the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low, the variation of the image intensity is big, and the relative displacement of OLs and CB is substantial. We design an algorithm to find a minimum-cost 3D surface in a 3D image stack to best separate an OL (of one side, either left or right) from CB. This surface is defined as an aggregation of the respective minimum-cost curves detected in each individual 2D image slice. Each curve is defined by a list of control points that best segregate OL and CB. To obtain the locations of these control points, we derive an energy function that includes an image energy term defined by local pixel intensities and two internal energy terms that constrain the curve's smoothness and length. Gradient descent method is used to optimize this energy function. To improve both the speed and robustness of the method, for each stack, the locations of optimized control points in a slice are taken as the initialization prior for the next slice. We have tested this approach on simulated and real 3D fly brain image stacks and demonstrated that this method can reasonably segregate OLs from CBs despite the aforementioned difficulties. PMID:19698789

  9. Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets.

    PubMed

    Stuhl, Charles; Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Lapointe, Stephen; Paranhos, Beatriz Jordão; Aluja, Martín

    2011-11-01

    While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae), can survive on fruit juices as they seep from injured fruit. An ability to exploit fruit juice would allow such a parasitoid to efficiently forage for hosts and food sources simultaneously. Two New World opiines, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), are also prominent Anastrepha parasitoids and are roughly sympatric. All three species were provided with: (1) pulp and juice diets derived from a highly domesticated Old World fruit (orange, Citrus sinensis L.) that is only recently sympatric with the Mexican flies and parasitoids and so offered little opportunity for the evolution of feeding-adaptations and (2) a less-domesticated New World fruit (guava, Psidium guajava L.), sympatric over evolutionary time with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. Both sexes of D. longicaudata died when provided guava pulp or juice at a rate similar to a water-only control. D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, presumably adapted to the nutrient/chemical constituents of guava, also died at a similar rate. Survival of all three species on orange pulp and juice was greater than on water, and often equaled that obtained on a honey and water solution. In confirmatory experiments in Mexico, D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, as well as other tephritid parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fisher), all died at a significantly higher rates when provided guava in comparison to a honey and water diet. Such a result is likely due to guavas being repellent, innutritious or toxic. D. longicaudata clearly consumed guava juice tagged with a colored dye. Dilutions of orange and guava juice resulted in shorter lifespans than dilutions of orange

  10. Aromatherapy on a large scale: Exposing entire holding rooms to ginger root oil increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly in field cage trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly. Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in male mating competitiveness. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is w...

  11. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  12. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  13. A novel lenticular arena to quantify locomotor competence in walking fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Tom Mekdara, Nalong; Goto, Joy June; Choudhury, Songita; Jerry Mekdara, Prasong; Yingst, Nicholas; Cao, Yu; Berg, Otto; Katharina Müller, Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become an important invertebrate model organism in biological and medical research, for mutational and genetic analysis, and in toxicological screening. Many screening assays have been developed that assess the flies' mortality, reproduction, development, morphology, or behavioral competence. In this study, we describe a new assay for locomotor competence. It comprises a circular walking arena with a lenticular floor and a flat cover (the slope of the floor increases gradually from the center to the edge of the arena) plus automated fly tracking and statistical analysis. This simple modification of a flat arena presents a graduated physical challenge, with which we can assess fine gradations of motor ability, since a fly's time average radial distance from the arena center is a direct indicator of its climbing ability. The time averaged distribution of flies as a function of slope, activity levels, and walking speed, yields a fine grained picture of locomotory ability and motivation levels. We demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this assay (compared with a conventional tap-down test) by observing flies treated with a neurotoxin (BMAA) that acts as a glutamate agonist. The assay proves well suited to detect dose effects and progression effects with higher statistical power than the traditional tap-down, but it has a higher detection limit, making it less sensitive to treatment effects. PMID:22605539

  14. Tephritid fruit fly Populations in a Dragonfruit Orchard in Hawaii: Border Plant Use and Infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dragonfruit, Hylocereus undatus, has been grown commercially in Southeast Asia, Australia, South America, Israel and the United States. In Hawaii, commercial fruit production has recently begun, based on newly introduced varieties. Dragonfruit originating from Vietnam, but intercepted in Japan, ha...

  15. Host breadth and parasitoids of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David A; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Twenty fruit species representing 12 families were collected from various regions in western Puerto Rico and monitored for the emergence of Anastrepha spp. pupae. We collected 14,154 tephritid pupae from 16 fruit species representing 10 families. The relative infestations of these fruits (pupae per kilogram of fruit) were recorded. Recorded host ranges were not in complete agreement with those reported in the literature. This host-use pattern should give pause to regulators of fruit importation and exportation that base their decisions on literature from regions other than those of immediate interest to them. We recovered the braconid parasitoid Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) from tephritid pupae collected from Mangifera indica L., Spondias mombin L., Psidium guajava L., Chrysobalanus icacos L., Terminalia catappa L., and Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel. We collected one specimen of the parasitoid Doryctobracon aerolatus (Szepligeti) from the west coast (Añasco), which had not been previously reported in Puerto Rico. We present a preliminary phenology of what are probably the primary fruit hosts of the Anastrepha spp. of Puerto Rico. We also present the first report of Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel and Coffea arabica L. as reproductive hosts of A. suspensa. PMID:18348802

  16. Weathering trials of Amulet cue-lure and Amulet methyl eugenol "attract-and-kill" stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Mackey, Bruce; Bull, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Amulet C-L (cue-lure) and Amulet ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber "attract-and-kill" dispensers containing fipronil were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (melon fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), respectively. In paired tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, whereas ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, whereas ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56-d-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers also were compared, inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against B. dorsalis, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, fipronil C-L dispensers compared favorably for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are novel prepackaged formulations containing C-L or ME and fipronil that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. PMID:16334323

  17. EVALUATION OF SEQUENTIAL EXPOSURE OF IRRADIATED HOSTS TO MAXIMIZE THE MASS REARING OF FRUIT FLY PARASITOIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of evaluations were carried out to assess the feasibility of sequentially exposing tephritid hosts to two different parasitoid species, thus allowing unparasitized flies to be attacked and optimizing the production in natural enemy mass-rearing programs. Larvae or pupae of Anastrepha ludens...

  18. Morgan’s Legacy: Fruit Flies and the Functional Annotation of Conserved Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    In 1915, “The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity” was published by four prominent Drosophila geneticists. They discovered that genes form linkage groups on chromosomes inherited in a Mendelian fashion and laid the genetic foundation that promoted Drosophila as a model organism. Flies continue to offer great opportunities, including studies in the field of functional genomics. PMID:26406362

  19. HPLC-MS analysis of pheromone glucoconjugates in oral secretions of male Anastrepha Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using high performance liquid chromatography combined with ESi, APCI, and PBEI mass spectroscopy, novel terpenoid glycoconjugates were identified in oral secretions of several Anastrepha fly species; these findings suggest that non-volatile pheromone signals are used in their lek mating strategies. ...

  20. Consideration of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell, a eurytomid (Hymenoptera) with unusual foraging behaviors, as a biological control agent of tephritid (Diptera) fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe some aspects of the oviposition bevavior and demography of a recently discovered Mexican parasitoid species, Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), exhibiting the novel behavior of attacking tephritid fruit fly pupae (Anastrepha spp.) buried in the soil. Rates...

  1. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  2. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  3. Evaluation of Cuelure and Methyl Eugenol solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) monitoring and control in Tahiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of solid male lure (cuelure (C-L)/raspberry ketone (RK) - against Bactrocera tyroni (Froggatt), and methyl eugenol (ME) - against oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and insecticide formulations, were evaluated in Tahiti Island (French Polynesia), as alternatives to current monitori...

  4. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  5. Di- and Tri-flourinated analogs of methyl eugenol: attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly 1 attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal properties. Previously, we demonstra...

  6. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  7. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann),Version 2.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MEDHOST,Version 2.0 is the second revision of:"MEDHOST: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann),Version 1.0," which was released in 1998 as a Windows-based executable database and listed all plant species reported as hosts of Medit...

  8. Regional suppression of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the Pacific through biological control and prospects for future introductions into other areas of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are important economically throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS, U.S Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world wide leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawa...

  9. Consideration of Eurytoma Sivinskii Gates and Grissell, a Eurytomid (Hymenoptera) with unusual foraging behaviours, as a biological control agent of Tephritid (Diptera) fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oviposition behavior and demography of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell, a parasite of pestiferous fruit flies (Tephritidae), is documented. The burrowing behavior during host-seeking is reported for Eurytoma for the first time. Demographic and host location information is also presented....

  10. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  11. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  12. EAG and behavioral responses of the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) to terminal diamines in a food-based lure.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current monitoring programs for Anastrepha fruit flies utilize a food-based synthetic lure consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine (1, 4 diaminobutane). Identification of additional attractant chemicals may lead to development of a more effective trapping system. This study, conducted with the...

  13. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  14. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  15. Haltere-mediated equilibrium reflexes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, M H

    1999-05-29

    Flies display a sophisticated suite of aerial behaviours that require rapid sensory-motor processing. Like all insects, flight control in flies is mediated in part by motion-sensitive visual interneurons that project to steering motor circuitry within the thorax. Flies, however, possess a unique flight control equilibrium sense that is encoded by mechanoreceptors at the base of the halteres, small dumb-bell-shaped organs derived through evolutionary transformation of the hind wings. To study the input of the haltere system onto the flight control system, I constructed a mechanically oscillating flight arena consisting of a cylindrical array of light-emitting diodes that generated the moving image of a 30 degrees vertical stripe. The arena provided closed-loop visual feedback to elicit fixation behaviour, an orientation response in which flies maintain the position of the stripe in the front portion of their visual field by actively adjusting their wing kinematics. While flies orientate towards the stripe, the entire arena was swung back and forth while an optoelectronic device recorded the compensatory changes in wing stroke amplitude and frequency. In order to reduce the background changes in stroke kinematics resulting from the animal's closed-loop visual fixation behaviour, the responses to eight identical mechanical rotations were averaged in each trial. The results indicate that flies possess a robust equilibrium reflex in which angular rotations of the body elicit compensatory changes in both the amplitude and stroke frequency of the wings. The results of uni- and bilateral ablation experiments demonstrate that the halteres are required for these stability reflexes. The results also confirm that halteres encode angular velocity of the body by detecting the Coriolis forces that result from the linear motion of the haltere within the rotating frame of reference of the fly's thorax. By rotating the flight arena at different orientations, it was possible to

  16. Haltere-mediated equilibrium reflexes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, M H

    1999-01-01

    Flies display a sophisticated suite of aerial behaviours that require rapid sensory-motor processing. Like all insects, flight control in flies is mediated in part by motion-sensitive visual interneurons that project to steering motor circuitry within the thorax. Flies, however, possess a unique flight control equilibrium sense that is encoded by mechanoreceptors at the base of the halteres, small dumb-bell-shaped organs derived through evolutionary transformation of the hind wings. To study the input of the haltere system onto the flight control system, I constructed a mechanically oscillating flight arena consisting of a cylindrical array of light-emitting diodes that generated the moving image of a 30 degrees vertical stripe. The arena provided closed-loop visual feedback to elicit fixation behaviour, an orientation response in which flies maintain the position of the stripe in the front portion of their visual field by actively adjusting their wing kinematics. While flies orientate towards the stripe, the entire arena was swung back and forth while an optoelectronic device recorded the compensatory changes in wing stroke amplitude and frequency. In order to reduce the background changes in stroke kinematics resulting from the animal's closed-loop visual fixation behaviour, the responses to eight identical mechanical rotations were averaged in each trial. The results indicate that flies possess a robust equilibrium reflex in which angular rotations of the body elicit compensatory changes in both the amplitude and stroke frequency of the wings. The results of uni- and bilateral ablation experiments demonstrate that the halteres are required for these stability reflexes. The results also confirm that halteres encode angular velocity of the body by detecting the Coriolis forces that result from the linear motion of the haltere within the rotating frame of reference of the fly's thorax. By rotating the flight arena at different orientations, it was possible to

  17. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  18. Physiological basis for low-temperature survival and storage of quiescent larvae of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Štětina, Tomáš; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Colinet, Hervé; Zahradníčková, Helena; Opekarová, Iva; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The cryopreservation techniques proposed for embryos of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are not yet ready for practical use. Alternative methods for long-term storage of D. melanogaster strains, although urgently needed, do not exist. Herein, we describe a narrow interval of low temperatures under which the larvae of D. melanogaster can be stored in quiescence for up to two months. The development of larvae was arrested at the pre-wandering stage under fluctuating thermal regime (FTR), which simultaneously resulted in diminishing the accumulation of indirect chill injuries. Our physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses revealed that compared to larvae stored at constant low temperatures, the larvae stored under FTR conditions were able to decrease the rates of depletion of energy substrates, exploited brief warm episodes of FTR for homeostatic control of metabolite levels, and more efficiently exerted protection against oxidative damage. PMID:27573891

  19. Olfaction in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. I: Identification of olfactory receptor neuron types responding to environmental odors.

    PubMed

    Hull, C D; Cribb, B W

    2001-05-01

    The electroantennogram method was used to investigate the number of distinct olfactory receptor neuron types responding to a range of behaviorally active volatile chemicals in gravid Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni. Three receptor neuron types were identified. One type responds to methyl butyrate, 2-butanone, farnesene, and carbon dioxide; a second to ethanol; and a third to n-butyric acid and ammonia. The receptor neuron type responding to methyl butyrate, 2-butanone, farnesene, and carbon dioxide consists of three subtypes. The presence of a limited number of receptor neuron types responding to a diverse set of chemicals and the reception of carbon dioxide by a receptor neuron type that responds to other odorants are novel aspects of the peripheral olfactory discrimination process. PMID:11471941

  20. Physiological basis for low-temperature survival and storage of quiescent larvae of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Štětina, Tomáš; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Colinet, Hervé; Zahradníčková, Helena; Opekarová, Iva; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The cryopreservation techniques proposed for embryos of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are not yet ready for practical use. Alternative methods for long-term storage of D. melanogaster strains, although urgently needed, do not exist. Herein, we describe a narrow interval of low temperatures under which the larvae of D. melanogaster can be stored in quiescence for up to two months. The development of larvae was arrested at the pre-wandering stage under fluctuating thermal regime (FTR), which simultaneously resulted in diminishing the accumulation of indirect chill injuries. Our physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses revealed that compared to larvae stored at constant low temperatures, the larvae stored under FTR conditions were able to decrease the rates of depletion of energy substrates, exploited brief warm episodes of FTR for homeostatic control of metabolite levels, and more efficiently exerted protection against oxidative damage. PMID:27573891

  1. Analysis of the distribution of the brain cells of the fruit fly by an automatic cell counting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Kato, Kentaro; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Ito, Kei

    2005-05-01

    The fruit fly is the smallest brain-having model animal. Its brain is said to consist only of about 250,000 neurons, whereas it shows “the rudiments of consciousness” in addition to its high abilities such as learning and memory. As the starting point of the exhaustive analysis of its brain-circuit information, we have developed a new algorithm of counting cells automatically from source 2D/3D figures. In our algorithm, counting cells is realized by embedding objects (typically, disks/balls), each of which has exclusive volume. Using this method, we have succeeded in counting thousands of cells accurately. This method provides us the information necessary for the analysis of brain circuits: the precise distribution of the whole brain cells.

  2. Survey of heritable endosymbionts in southern Mexico populations of the fruit fly species Anastrepha striata and A. ludens.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Humberto; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Mateos, Mariana

    2012-12-01

    Heritable endosymbiotic bacteria associated with insects are ubiquitous and taxonomically diverse. Many of these endosymbionts influence the fitness of their hosts and/or manipulate their host reproduction. Exploiting the effects of endosymbionts on hosts for pest control is a growing research area, but requires knowledge of endosymbionts associated with the target pest population. In this study, we used molecular methods to screen southern Mexico populations of two species of tephritid fruit fly pests, Anastrepha ludens and A. striata, for heritable bacteria. The only heritable endosymbiont found was Wolbachia in A. striata. Based on multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analyses, this Wolbachia strain is new and belongs to the Wolbachia supergroup B. Wolbachia strains previously reported in members of the genus Anastrepha in South America belong to supergroup A. We discuss the potential implications for pest control of the presence of a different Wolbachia strain in southern Mexico. PMID:22961037

  3. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally. PMID:26173905

  4. Effects of a fruit and host-derived compound on orientation and oviposition in Utetes anastrephae, a little studied opiine braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Anastrepha spp. fruit flies (Tephritidae:Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies would benefit from: 1) synthetic attractants to monitor the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids and 2) synthetic oviposition stimulants to more economical to produce parasitoid species that are now prohibitively costly to mass-rear....

  5. Ultrastructural findings in the brain of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mice exposed to high-energy particle radiation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amelio, F.; Kraft, L.M.; D'Antoni-D'Amelio, E.; Benton, E.V.; Miquel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of high energy, heavy particle (HZE) radiation were studied in the brain of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) exposed to argon (40Ar) or krypton (84Kr) ions. In the flies exposed to argon the fluence ranged from 6 X 10(4) to 8 X 10(7) particles/cm2. The insects were killed 35 days after exposure. Extensive tissue fragmentation was observed at the higher fluence employed. At fluences ranging from 5 X 10(6) (one hit/two cell bodies) to 9 X 10(4) (one hit/90 cell bodies) particles/cm2, swelling of the neuronal cytoplasm and focally fragmented membranes was observed. Marked increase of glial lamellae around nerve cell processes was seen at fluences ranging from one hit/six to one hit/135 cell bodies. In the flies irradiated with krypton, the fluences employed were 5.8 X 10(3) and 2.2 X 10(6) particles/cm2. Acute and late effects were evaluated. In the flies killed 36 hours after exposure (acute effects) to either fluence, glycogen particles were found in the neuroglial compartment. The granules were no longer present in flies killed 35 days later (late effects). From these studies it appears that the Drosophila brain is a useful model to investigate radiation damage to mature neurons, neuroglia, and therefore, to the glio-neuronal metabolic unit. In a separate study, the synaptic profiles of the neuropil in layers II-III of the frontal cerebral cortex of anesthesized adult LAFl mice were quantitatively appraised after exposure to argon (40Ar) particles. The absorbed dose ranged from 0.05 to 5 gray (Gy) plateau. It was determined that the sodium pentobarbital anesthesia per se results in a significant decrease in synaptic profile length one day after anesthetization, with return to normal values after 2-28 days. Irradiation with 0.05-5 Gy argon particles significantly inhibited the synaptic shortening effect of anesthesia at one day after exposure.

  6. Yeast hydrolysate supplementation increases field abundance and persistence of sexually mature sterile Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O L; Orchard, B A; Collins, S R; Taylor, P W

    2014-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a non-chemical approach used to control major pests from several insect families, including Tephritidae, and entails the mass-release of sterile insects that reduce fertility of wild populations. For SIT to succeed, released sterile males must mature and compete with wild males to mate with wild females. To reach sexual maturity, the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), must obtain adequate nutrition after adult emergence; however, in current SIT programs sterile B. tryoni receive a pre-release diet that lacks key nutrients required to sustain sexual development. The chief objective of this study was to determine whether pre-release yeast hydrolysate (YH) supplements affect the persistence and abundance of sexually mature sterile male B. tryoni under field conditions. Experiments were run in outdoor cages under conditions of low and high environmental stress that differed markedly in temperature and humidity, and in the field. Under low environmental stress conditions, survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under three diet treatments: (i) sugar only, (ii) sugar plus YH or (iii) sugar plus YH for 48 h and sugar only thereafter. Under high environmental stress conditions survival of sterile B. tryoni was monitored in cages under four diet treatments: (i) white sugar only, (ii) brown sugar only, (iii) white sugar plus YH and (iv) brown sugar plus YH. In a replicated field study, we released colour-marked sterile B. tryoni from two diet regimes, YH-supplemented or YH-deprived, and monitored abundance of sexually mature males. In the low-stress cage study, there was no effect of diet, although overall females lived longer than males. In the high stress cage study, mortality was lower for YH-fed flies than YH-deprived flies and females lived longer than males. In the field, YH supplementation resulted in higher abundance of sexually mature sterile males, with 1.2 YH-fed flies

  7. Economic and Highly Effective Trap-Lure Combination to Monitor the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Orchard Level.

    PubMed

    Lasa, R; Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Antonio, S; Aluja, M

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring population levels of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), at the orchard level prior and during the fruit ripening period can result in significant savings in the costs of managing this pestiferous insect. Unfortunately, to date, no highly effective and economically viable trap is available to growers. To move toward this goal, trap-lure combinations were evaluated in trials performed in citrus orchards in Veracruz, Mexico. CeraTrap, an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein from pig intestinal mucose, was 3.6 times more attractive to A. ludens than the most commonly used bait of Captor (hydrolyzed protein and borax) when using Multilure traps. When several commercial traps were evaluated, the efficacy of a simple and inexpensive transparent polyethylene (PET) bottle with 10-mm lateral holes was similar to that of the costly Multilure trap when baited with CeraTrap and significantly more effective than a Multilure trap baited with Captor. PET bottles filled with Cera Trap, rebaited at 8-wk intervals, and tested in trials encompassing 72 ha of citrus groves, were significantly more effective than Multilure traps baited with Captor that need to be serviced weekly. In addition to this relevant finding, CeraTrap baited traps detected A. ludens at lower population densities and attracted a significantly higher number of flies at all densities when compared with Captor-baited traps. We conclude that CeraTrap represents a cost-effective and highly efficient bait that will enable us to pursue the goal of developing economic thresholds, a badly needed management tool for A. ludens. PMID:26470304

  8. Development, genetic and cytogenetic analyses of genetic sexing strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha ludens is among the pests that have a major impact on México's economy because it attacks fruits as citrus and mangoes. The Mexican Federal government uses integrated pest management to control A. ludens through the Programa Nacional Moscas de la Fruta [National Fruit Fly Program, SAGARPA-SENASICA]. One of the main components of this program is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which is used to control field populations of the pest by releasing sterile flies. Results To increase the efficiency of this technique, we have developed a genetic sexing strain (GSS) in which the sexing mechanism is based on a pupal colour dimorphism (brown-black) and is the result of a reciprocal translocation between the Y chromosome and the autosome bearing the black pupae (bp) locus. Ten strains producing wild-type (brown pupae) males and mutant (black pupae) females were isolated. Subsequent evaluations for several generations were performed in most of these strains. The translocation strain named Tapachula-7 showed minimal effect on survival and the best genetic stability of all ten strains. Genetic and cytogenetic analyses were performed using mitotic and polytene chromosomes and we succeeded to characterize the chromosomal structure of this reciprocal translocation and map the autosome breakpoint, despite the fact that the Y chromosome is not visible in polytene nuclei following standard staining. Conclusions We show that mitotic and polytene chromosomes can be used in cytogenetic analyses towards the development of genetic control methods in this pest species. The present work is the first report of the construction of GSS of Anastrepha ludens, with potential use in a future Moscafrut operational program. PMID:25472896

  9. The Microbiome of Field-Caught and Laboratory-Adapted Australian Tephritid Fruit Fly Species with Different Host Plant Use and Specialisation.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J L; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A; Riegler, M

    2015-08-01

    Tephritid fruit fly species display a diversity of host plant specialisation on a scale from monophagy to polyphagy. Furthermore, while some species prefer ripening fruit, a few are restricted to damaged or rotting fruit. Such a diversity of host plant use may be reflected in the microbial symbiont diversity of tephritids and their grade of dependency on their microbiomes. Here, we investigated the microbiome of six tephritid species from three genera, including species that are polyphagous pests (Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera neohumeralis, Bactrocera jarvisi, Ceratitis capitata) and a monophagous specialist (Bactrocera cacuminata). These were compared with the microbiome of a non-pestiferous but polyphagous tephritid species that is restricted to damaged or rotting fruit (Dirioxa pornia). The bacterial community associated with whole fruit flies was analysed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon pyrosequencing to detect potential drivers of taxonomic composition. Overall, the dominant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae and Acetobacteraceae (both Proteobacteria), and Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae (both Firmicutes). Comparisons across species and genera found different microbial composition in the three tephritid genera, but limited consistent differentiation between Bactrocera species. Within Bactrocera species, differentiation of microbial composition seemed to be influenced by the environment, possibly including their diets; beyond this, tephritid species identity or ecology also had an effect. The microbiome of D. pornia was most distinct from the other five species, which may be due to its ecologically different niche of rotting or damaged fruit, as opposed to ripening fruit favoured by the other species. Our study is the first amplicon pyrosequencing study to compare the microbiomes of tephritid species and thus delivers important information about the turnover of microbial diversity within and between fruit fly species and their potential

  10. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  11. Sexual selection in true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): transcriptome and experimental evidences for phytochemicals increasing male competitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Prentis, Peter J; Mangalam, Kalimuthu P; Schutze, Mark K; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In male tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera, feeding on secondary plant compounds (sensu lato male lures = methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone and zingerone) increases male mating success. Ingested male lures alter the male pheromonal blend, normally making it more attractive to females and this is considered the primary mechanism for the enhanced mating success. However, the male lures raspberry ketone and zingerone are known, across a diverse range of other organisms, to be involved in increasing energy metabolism. If this also occurs in Bactrocera, then this may represent an additional benefit to males as courtship is metabolically expensive and lure feeding may increase a fly's short-term energy. We tested this hypothesis by performing comparative RNA-seq analysis between zingerone-fed and unfed males of Bactrocera tryoni. We also carried out behavioural assays with zingerone- and cuelure-fed males to test whether they became more active. RNA-seq analysis revealed, in zingerone-fed flies, up-regulation of 3183 genes with homologues transcripts to those known to regulate intermale aggression, pheromone synthesis, mating and accessory gland proteins, along with significant enrichment of several energy metabolic pathways and gene ontology terms. Behavioural assays show significant increases in locomotor activity, weight reduction and successful mating after mounting; all direct/indirect measures of increased activity. These results suggest that feeding on lures leads to complex physiological changes, which result in more competitive males. These results do not negate the pheromone effect, but do strongly suggest that the phytochemical-induced sexual selection is governed by both female preference and male competitive mechanisms. PMID:25112896

  12. Ability of male Queensland fruit flies to inhibit receptivity in multiple mates, and the associated recovery of accessory glands.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Taylor, Phillip W

    2008-02-01

    Mating success of male insects is commonly determined by their ability to find and copulate with multiple females, but is also determined by their ability to transfer an effective ejaculate. In order to succeed in these tasks, males must first succeed in replenishing the necessary reproductive reserves between mating opportunities. We here investigate the ability of male Queensland fruit flies ('Q-fly') to recover from their first matings in time to both mate again the following day and to induce sexual inhibition in successive mates. We have previously found that accessory gland fluids (AGFs) transferred in the ejaculate of male Q-flies are directly responsible for induction of sexual inhibition in their mates. We here investigate changes in male accessory gland, testis and ejaculatory apodeme dimensions that are likely to reflect depletion and recovery of contents. We found no differences between virgin and previously mated males in their ability to obtain matings or to induce sexual inhibition in their mates, indicating a full recovery of the necessary reproductive reserves between mating opportunities. Whereas no changes were detected in testis or ejaculatory apodeme size following mating, the recovery of male ability to inhibit female remating was closely reflected in the mesodermal accessory gland dimensions; these accessory glands greatly diminished in size (length and area) immediately after mating, with recovery commencing between 5.5 and 11 h after mating. The accessory glands then expanded to reach their original size in time to mate the following day and induce sexual inhibition in the next mate. PMID:18083187

  13. Fruit flies on the front line: the translational impact of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Perrimon, Norbert; Bonini, Nancy M.; Dhillon, Paraminder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila melanogaster has been adopted as one of the most-used model systems since it was first introduced by Thomas Morgan for the study of heredity in the early 20th century. Its experimental tractability and similarity of its biological pathways to those of humans have placed the model at the forefront of research into human development and disease. With the ongoing accumulation of genetic tools and assays, the fly community has at its fingertips the resources to generate diverse Drosophila disease models for the study of genes and pathways involved in a wide range of disorders. In recent years, the fly has also been used successfully for drug screening. In this Editorial, we introduce a Special Collection of reviews, interviews and original research articles that highlight some of the many ways that Drosophila has made, and continues to make, an impact on basic biological insights and translational science. PMID:26935101

  14. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects are sensitive to extended periods of cold temperatures. Cold storage for a few days to several weeks during transit to markets is a common feature of many fresh fruit and vegetable export and distribution systems and an underappreciated cause of mortality in quarantine pests that can en...

  15. Green tea catechins upregulate superoxide dismutase and catalase in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuk Man; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen Yu

    2007-05-01

    Chinese Longjing green tea is an excellent source of polyphenol antioxidants. HPLC analysis revealed that Longjing green tea catechin extract (GTC) contained 62% epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 19% epigallocatechin (EGC), 9% epicatechin gallate (ECG), and 7% epicatechin (EC). Investigating the effect of GTC on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster, we observed that a 10 mg GTC/mL diet could prolong its 50% survival time by 36% and mean lifespan by 16%. This was consistent with 17% reduction in total body lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) level in GTC-treated flies compared to the control group. Supplementation of 10 mg GTC/mL diet increased the survival time only in wild type Oregon-R-C (OR) but not in two mutant fly lines, SOD(n108)/TM3 (gene for superoxide dismutase (SOD) was knocked out) and Cat(n1)/TM3 (gene for catalase was knocked out), when the flies were challenged with paraquat or hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, SOD and catalase activities in OR wild type increased by 40 and 19%, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the genes for copper-zinc containing SOD (CuZnSOD), manganese containing SOD (MnSOD), and catalase were upregulated. It was concluded that prolonging lifespan by GTC in D. melanogaster was influenced, among others, by upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. PMID:17440995

  16. Light conditions affect sexual performance in a lekking tephritid fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2011-08-01

    Sensory systems are very susceptible to early environment experience. Mating success depends on the transmission of information from the signaller to the receiver, which means that sensory biases caused by developmental environment are likely to affect sexual selection. We investigated the impact of the developmental visual environment (light spectrum) on male copulation behaviour and female preference in the lekking tephritid Anastrepha ludens. We reared flies in four different light spectrum conditions - red light, blue light, shaded light and darkness - during their first 16 days after emerging from pupae. We found that the light environment experienced during early adulthood affected mating frequency and, in some cases, the latency to copulate, but not copulation duration. Males exposed to any of the three light treatments (red, blue or shaded light) were more frequently chosen as mating partners than dark-reared males. Flies reared under dark conditions exhibited the lowest mating performance out of any of the rearing environments. Under field cage conditions, a slight assortative mating between blue- and red-light-reared flies was detected. Additionally, females reared in blue light and darkness mated less compared with females reared in red and shaded light. Our data demonstrate that male mating behaviour is flexible in response to light environment. The findings suggest that light spectrum only weakly affects the direction of sexual selection by female choice; however, dark rearing environments deeply affect mating success. PMID:21753054

  17. A computer program for an analysis of the relative motion of a space station and a free flying experiment module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the relative motion of a free flying experiment module in the vicinity of a space station under the perturbative effects of drag and earth oblateness was made. A listing of a computer program developed for determining the relative motion of a module utilizing the Cowell procedure is presented, as well as instructions for its use.

  18. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  19. Can consumption of antioxidant rich mushrooms extend longevity?: antioxidant activity of Pleurotus spp. and its effects on Mexican fruit flies' (Anastrepha ludens) longevity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José E; Jiménez-Pérez, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The variability of antioxidant capacity of 14 strains of the edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. was determined, and the effect of selected mushroom supplements on the longevity of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of the fruiting bodies was determined by three different methods, measuring the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts, the OH radical scavenging capacity, and the total phenol content. The inhibition percentage of the DPPH radical varied between 32.6 and 85.7% and total phenols varied between 30.6 and 143.3 mg/g. The strains with the highest (Pleurotus djamor ECS-0142) and lowest (Pleurotus ostreatus ECS-1123) antioxidant capacity were selected to study their effect on the survival, life expectancy, and mortality of the Mexican fruit fly A. ludens. The results demonstrated differing responses between male and female flies. High concentrations of mushrooms (5 and 20%) in the diet resulted in a decrease in life expectancy. However, flies on the diet with 1% P. djamor ECS-0142 showed slightly but significantly greater survival than those on the control diet. The possible adverse effect of protein content in mushroom extracts is discussed. PMID:26499817

  20. The NMDA Receptor Promotes Sleep in the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Jun; Ueno, Taro; Mitsuyoshi, Madoka; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that sleep is essential for learning and memory. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a novel model for studying sleep. We previously found a short sleeper mutant, fumin (fmn), and identified its mutation in the dopamine transporter gene. We reported similarities in the molecular basis of sleep and arousal regulation between mammals and Drosophila. In aversive olfactory learning tasks, fmn mutants demonstrate defective memory retention, which suggests an association between sleep and memory. In an attempt to discover additional sleep related genes in Drosophila, we carried out a microarray analysis comparing mRNA expression in heads of fmn and control flies and found that 563 genes are differentially expressed. Next, using the pan-neuronal Gal4 driver elav-Gal4 and UAS-RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown individual genes, we performed a functional screen. We found that knockdown of the NMDA type glutamate receptor channel gene (Nmdar1) (also known as dNR1) reduced sleep. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays an important role in learning and memory both in Drosophila and mammals. The application of the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, reduced sleep in control flies, but not in fmn. These results suggest that NMDAR promotes sleep regulation in Drosophila. PMID:26023770

  1. Phototactic personality in fruit flies and its suppression by serotonin and white

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Jamey S.; Stokes, Chris; de Bivort, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila typically move toward light (phototax positively) when startled. The various species of Drosophila exhibit some variation in their respective mean phototactic behaviors; however, it is not clear to what extent genetically identical individuals within each species behave idiosyncratically. Such behavioral individuality has indeed been observed in laboratory arthropods; however, the neurobiological factors underlying individual-to-individual behavioral differences are unknown. We developed “FlyVac,” a high-throughput device for automatically assessing phototaxis in single animals in parallel. We observed surprising variability within every species and strain tested, including identically reared, isogenic strains. In an extreme example, a domesticated strain of Drosophila simulans harbored both strongly photopositive and strongly photonegative individuals. The particular behavior of an individual fly is not heritable and, because it persists for its lifetime, constitutes a model system for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of personality. Although all strains assayed had greater than expected variation (assuming binomial sampling), some had more than others, implying a genetic basis. Using genetics and pharmacology, we identified the metabolite transporter White and white-dependent serotonin as suppressors of phototactic personality. Because we observed behavioral idiosyncrasy in all experimental groups, we suspect it is present in most behaviors of most animals. PMID:23150588

  2. The NMDA Receptor Promotes Sleep in the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Jun; Ueno, Taro; Mitsuyoshi, Madoka; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that sleep is essential for learning and memory. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a novel model for studying sleep. We previously found a short sleeper mutant, fumin (fmn), and identified its mutation in the dopamine transporter gene. We reported similarities in the molecular basis of sleep and arousal regulation between mammals and Drosophila. In aversive olfactory learning tasks, fmn mutants demonstrate defective memory retention, which suggests an association between sleep and memory. In an attempt to discover additional sleep related genes in Drosophila, we carried out a microarray analysis comparing mRNA expression in heads of fmn and control flies and found that 563 genes are differentially expressed. Next, using the pan-neuronal Gal4 driver elav-Gal4 and UAS-RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown individual genes, we performed a functional screen. We found that knockdown of the NMDA type glutamate receptor channel gene (Nmdar1) (also known as dNR1) reduced sleep. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays an important role in learning and memory both in Drosophila and mammals. The application of the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, reduced sleep in control flies, but not in fmn. These results suggest that NMDAR promotes sleep regulation in Drosophila. PMID:26023770

  3. Identification, characterization and target gene analysis of testicular microRNAs in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Tariq, K; Peng, W; Saccone, G; Zhang, H

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate various diverse biological processes including insect spermatogenesis. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the most destructive horticultural pests in East Asia and the Pacific region. Although developmental miRNA profiles of B. dorsalis have enriched our knowledge, specific testicular miRNAs in this dipteran species are unexplored. In this study, we identified miRNAs from B. dorsalis testes by deep sequencing, which provided an overview of miRNA expression during spermatogenesis. Small RNA libraries were constructed from the testes of fully mature (FM), immature (IM) and middle-aged (MA) adult flies of B. dorsalis. Small RNA sequencing and data analysis revealed 172 known and 78 novel miRNAs amongst these libraries. Pairwise comparisons of libraries led to the identification of 24, 15 and 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in FM vs. IM, FM vs. MA and IM vs. MA insects, respectively. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted 124 target genes against the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, the expression patterns of six randomly selected miRNAs (from the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs) and their putative target genes (from the 124 predicted target genes) were analysed in the testis of B. dorsalis by quantitative real-time PCR, which showed that out of six, four tested miRNAs-mRNAs had an inverse expression pattern and are probably co-regulated. This study is the first comparative profile of the miRNA transcriptome in three developmental stages of the testis, and provides a useful resource for further studies on the role of miRNAs in spermatogenesis in B. dorsalis. PMID:26486729

  4. Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure causes antioxidant defence responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Lais Mattos; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies (of both genders) that were 1 to 3days old were exposed to different glyphosate concentrations (0.0mg/L=control, 1.0mg/L, 2.0mg/L, 5.0mg/L and 10.0mg/L) in the diet for 24h and 96h. After the exposure periods, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were quantified. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (i.e., keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gclc, gclm, gss, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2) was evaluated via RT-PCR. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated only after the 96h exposure period. The results indicated that Roundup exposure leads to a reduction in ROS levels in flies exposed for 96h. ACAP levels and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system exhibited an increase from 24h, while LPO did not show any significant alterations in both exposure periods. AChE activity was not affected following Roundup exposure. Our data suggest that Roundup exposure causes an early activation of the antioxidant defence system in D. melanogaster, and this can prevent subsequent damage caused by ROS. PMID:26980113

  5. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por

  6. Analyses of Fruit Flies That Do Not Express Selenoproteins or Express the Mouse Selenoprotein, Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B1, Reveal a Role of Selenoproteins in Stress Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Shchedrina, Valentina A.; Kabil, Hadise; Vorbruggen, Gerd; Lee, Byung Cheon; Turanov, Anton A.; Hirosawa-Takamori, Mitsuko; Kim, Hwa-Young; Harshman, Lawrence G.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Selenoproteins are essential in vertebrates because of their crucial role in cellular redox homeostasis, but some invertebrates that lack selenoproteins have recently been identified. Genetic disruption of selenoprotein biosynthesis had no effect on lifespan and oxidative stress resistance of Drosophila melanogaster. In the current study, fruit flies with knock-out of the selenocysteine-specific elongation factor were metabolically labeled with 75Se; they did not incorporate selenium into proteins and had the same lifespan on a chemically defined diet with or without selenium supplementation. These flies were, however, more susceptible to starvation than controls, and this effect could be ascribed to the function of selenoprotein K. We further expressed mouse methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), a selenoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized methionine residues and has protein repair function, in the whole body or the nervous system of fruit flies. This exogenous selenoprotein could only be expressed when the Drosophila selenocysteine insertion sequence element was used, whereas the corresponding mouse element did not support selenoprotein synthesis. Ectopic expression of MsrB1 in the nervous system led to an increase in the resistance against oxidative stress and starvation, but did not affect lifespan and reproduction, whereas ubiquitous MsrB1 expression had no effect. Dietary selenium did not influence lifespan of MsrB1-expressing flies. Thus, in contrast to vertebrates, fruit flies preserve only three selenoproteins, which are not essential and play a role only under certain stress conditions, thereby limiting the use of the micronutrient selenium by these organisms. PMID:21622567

  7. Field Evaluation of Melolure, a Formate Analogue of Cuelure, and Reassessment of Fruit Fly Species Trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Campbell, Angus J; Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure or methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol is a very effective lure, but cuelure is less effective likely due to low volatility. A new formate analogue of cuelure, melolure, has increased volatility, resulting in improved efficacy with the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett. We tested the efficacy of melolure with fruit fly species in Sydney as part of the National Exotic Fruit Fly Monitoring programme. This monitoring programme has 71 trap sites across Sydney, with each trap site comprising separate Lynfield traps containing either cuelure, methyl eugenol, or capilure lure. In 2008, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure plugs was added to seven sites. In 2009 and 2010, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure wicks was added to 11 trap sites and traps were monitored fortnightly for 2 yr. Capture rates for melolure traps were similar to cuelure traps for Dacus absonifacies (May) and Dacus aequalis (Coquillet), but melolure traps consistently caught fewer Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) than cuelure traps. However, trap sites with both a cuelure and melolure traps had increased capture rates for D. absonifacies and D. aequalis, and a marginally significant increase for B. tryoni. Melolure plugs were less effective than melolure wicks, but this effect may be related to lure concentration. The broader Bactrocera group species were attracted more to cuelure than melolure while the Dacus group species were attracted more to melolure than cuelure. There is no benefit in switching from cuelure to melolure to monitor B. tryoni, the most important fruit fly pest in Australia. PMID:26470243

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Entomopathogenic Bacterium Bacillus pumilus 15.1, a Strain Highly Toxic to the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramón, Diana C.; Palma, Leopoldo; Berry, Colin; Osuna, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We present the draft whole-genome sequence of the entomopathogenic Bacillus pumilus 15.1 strain that consists of 3,795,691 bp and 3,776 predicted protein-coding genes. This genome sequence provides the basis for understanding the potential mechanism behind the toxicity and virulence of B. pumilus 15.1 against the Mediterranean fruit fly. PMID:26404596

  9. Leg impairment magnifies reproductive costs in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Vargas, Roger I; Carey, James R

    2013-04-01

    Injuries frequently accumulate with age in nature. Despite the commonality of injury and the resulting impairment, there are limited experimental data for the effects of impairment on life history trade-offs between reproduction and survival in insects. We tested the effects of artificial injury and the resulting impairment on the reproductive costs and behavior of male medflies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Treatment flies were impaired by amputating tarsomere segments 2-5 from the right foreleg at either eclosion or age 22 days. The effect of impairment and age on the cost of reproduction was tested by varying the timing of female availability among the treatments. Courtship behavior and copulation rates were observed hourly from age 2-5 days to determine the effects of impairment on reproductive behavior. Female access combined with the impairment reduced the life expectancy of males more than the impairment alone, whereas the health effect of amputation was influenced by age. Conversely, the risk of death due to impairment was not influenced by the males' mating status prior to amputation. The males' copulation success was reduced due to impairment, whereas courtship behavior was not affected. Impairment does not reduce the males' impulse to mate but decreases the females' receptivity to copulation, while also increasing the cost of each successful mating. Overall, minor impairment lowers the reproductive success of males and reduces longevity. PMID:23525182

  10. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae).

    PubMed

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2009-05-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein. PMID:19304818

  11. Cuticular hydrocarbons corroborate the distinction between lowland and highland Natal fruit fly (Tephritidae, Ceratitis rosa) populations

    PubMed Central

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Ekesi, Sunday; Meyer, Marc De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) and morphology of two Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations, putatively belonging to two cryptic taxa, were analysed. The chemical profiles were characterised by two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. CHs of Ceratitis rosa that originated from the lowlands and highlands of Kenya comprised of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons in the range of the carbon backbone from C14 to C37. Hydrocarbons containing C29, C31, C33 and C35 carbon atoms predominated in these two populations. 2-Methyltriacontane was the predominant compound in both populations. Quantitative differences in the distribution of hydrocarbons of different chain lengths, mainly the C22, C32, C33 and C34 compounds of these two populations, were observed despite indistinct qualitative differences in these hydrocarbons. Morphological analyses of male legs confirmed that the flies belong to different morphotypes of Ceratitis rosa previously labelled as R1 and R2 for lowland and highland populations, respectively. A statistical analysis of the CH compositions of the putative R1 and R2 species showed distinct interspecific identities, with several CHs specific for each of the lowland and highland populations. This study supports a hypothesis that the taxon Ceratitis rosa consists of at least two biological species. PMID:26798275

  12. Exposure to ginger root oil enhances mating success of irradiated, mass-reared males of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shelly, T E; McInnis, D O

    2001-12-01

    Previous research revealed that exposure to ginger root oil, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, containing the known male attractant (a-copaene) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from a newly established laboratory colony. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to ginger root oil likewise enhanced the mating competitiveness of irradiated C. capitata males from a 5-yr-old mass-reared strain. Mating tests were conducted in field cages containing guava trees (Psidium guajava L.) to monitor the mating frequency of irradiated, mass-reared and wild males competing for wild females. In the absence of chemical exposure, wild males outcompeted the mass-reared males and obtained 74% of all matings. However, following exposure to ginger root oil (20 microl for 6 h), the mating frequencies were reversed. Whether exposed as mature (3-d-old) or immature (1-d-old) adults, mass-reared males achieved approximately 75% of all matings in tests conducted 2 or 4 d following exposure, respectively. Irradiated, mass-reared males prevented from contacting the oil directly (i.e., exposed to the odor only for 6 h) still exhibited a mating advantage over wild males. In an additional study, signaling levels and female arrivals were compared between males exposed to ginger root oil and nonexposed males, but no significant differences were detected. The implications of these findings for the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:11777043

  13. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of BdFoxO gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Bei; Yang, Wen-Jia; Xie, Yi-Fei; Xu, Kang-Kang; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-03-10

    The forkhead box O transcription factor (FoxO) is an important downstream transcription factor in the well-conserved insulin signaling pathway, which regulates the body size and development of insects. In this study, the FoxO gene (BdFoxO) was identified from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The open reading frame of BdFoxO (2732 bp) encoded a 910 amino acid protein, and the sequence was well conserved with other insect species. The BdFoxO was highly expressed in larvae and pupae among different development stages, and the highest tissue-specific expression level was found in the fat bodies compared to the testis, ovary, head, thorax, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of adults. Interestingly, we found BdFoxO expression was also up-regulated by starvation, but down-regulated when re-fed. Moreover, the injection of BdFoxO double-stranded RNAs into third-instar larvae significantly reduced BdFoxO transcript levels, which in turn down-regulated the expression of other four genes in the insulin signaling pathway. The silencing of BdFoxO resulted in delayed pupation, and the insect body weight increased significantly compared with that of the control. These results suggested that BdFoxO plays an important role in body size and development in B. dorsalis. PMID:26701614

  14. Organization of projection neurons and local neurons of the primary auditory center in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Eriko; Seki, Haruyoshi; Asai, Tomonori; Morimoto, Takako; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Ito, Kei; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2016-04-15

    Acoustic communication between insects serves as an excellent model system for analyzing the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory information processing. The detailed organization of auditory neural circuits in the brain has not yet been described. To understand the central auditory pathways, we used the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model and performed a large-scale analysis of the interneurons associated with the primary auditory center. By screening expression driver strains and performing single-cell labeling of these strains, we identified 44 types of interneurons innervating the primary auditory center. Five types were local interneurons whereas the other 39 types were projection interneurons connecting the primary auditory center with other brain regions. The projection neurons comprised three frequency-selective pathways and two frequency-embracive pathways. Mapping of their connection targets revealed that five neuropils in the brain-the wedge (WED), anterior ventrolateral protocerebrum, posterior ventrolateral protocerebrum (PVLP), saddle (SAD), and gnathal ganglia (GNG)-were intensively connected with the primary auditory center. In addition, several other neuropils, including visual and olfactory centers in the brain, were directly connected to the primary auditory center. The distribution patterns of the spines and boutons of the identified neurons suggest that auditory information is sent mainly from the primary auditory center to the PVLP, WED, SAD, GNG, and thoracico-abdominal ganglia. Based on these findings, we established the first comprehensive map of secondary auditory interneurons, which indicates the downstream information flow to parallel ascending pathways, multimodal pathways, and descending pathways. PMID:26762251

  15. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata. PMID:26806764

  16. Invasion History of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in the Pacific-Asia Region: Two Main Invasion Routes

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong; Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, was initially recorded in Taiwan Island in 1912, and has dispersed to many areas in the Pacific-Asia region over the last century. The area of origin of the species may be confidently placed in South-East China. However, routes of range expansion to new areas and underlying population processes remain partially unclear, despite having been the subject of several studies. To explore the invasion history of this species, a partition of the cox1 gene of mitochondrial DNA was used to investigate genetic diversity, haplotype phylogeny and demographic history of 35 populations, covering China and South-East Asia and including marginal populations from Pakistan and Hawaii. Based on neighbor-joining tree analysis and the distribution of haplotypes, two main invasion routes are inferred: one from South-East China to Central China, another from South-East China to South-East Asia, with both routes probably coinciding in Central China. Populations in Taiwan Island and Hainan Island might have originated in South-East China. The marginal populations in Pakistan and Hawaii might have undergone founding events or genetic bottlenecks. Possible strategies for the control of this species are proposed based on the invasion history and reconstructed expansion routes. PMID:22567138

  17. Effects of age, sex, and genotype on high-sensitivity metabolomic profiles in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Li, Shuzhao; Sidik, Alfire; Jones, Dean P; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have used whole-genome sequencing and gene expression profiling to identify genes associated with age, in the hope of understanding the underlying mechanisms of senescence. But there is a substantial gap from variation in gene sequences and expression levels to variation in age or life expectancy. In an attempt to bridge this gap, here we describe the effects of age, sex, genotype, and their interactions on high-sensitivity metabolomic profiles in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Among the 6800 features analyzed, we found that over one-quarter of all metabolites were significantly associated with age, sex, genotype, or their interactions, and multivariate analysis shows that individual metabolomic profiles are highly predictive of these traits. Using a metabolomic equivalent of gene set enrichment analysis, we identified numerous metabolic pathways that were enriched among metabolites associated with age, sex, and genotype, including pathways involving sugar and glycerophospholipid metabolism, neurotransmitters, amino acids, and the carnitine shuttle. Our results suggest that high-sensitivity metabolomic studies have excellent potential not only to reveal mechanisms that lead to senescence, but also to help us understand differences in patterns of aging among genotypes and between males and females. PMID:24636523

  18. Sexy DEG/ENaC channels involved in gustatory detection of fruit fly pheromones.

    PubMed

    Pikielny, Claudio W

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbon pheromones on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster modulate the complex courtship behavior of males. Recently, three members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) family of sodium channel subunits, Ppk25, Ppk23, and Ppk29 (also known as Nope), have been shown to function in gustatory perception of courtship-modulating contact pheromones. All three proteins are required for the activation of male courtship by female pheromones. Specific interactions between two of them have been demonstrated in cultured cells, suggesting that, in a subset of cells where they are coexpressed, these three subunits function within a common heterotrimeric DEG/ENaC channel. Such a DEG/ENaC channel may be gated by pheromones, either directly or indirectly, or alternatively may control the excitability of pheromone-sensing cells. In addition, these studies identify taste neurons that respond specifically to courtship-modulating pheromones and mediate their effects on male behavior. Two types of pheromone-sensing taste neurons, F and M cells, have been defined on the basis of their specific response to either female or male pheromones. These reports set the stage for the dissection of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate gustatory detection of contact pheromones. PMID:23131844

  19. Exposure of free-flying birds to anticholinesterase insecticides in two conventionally managed fruit orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borges, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    Conventionally managed orchards receive extensive applications of anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides throughout the growing season. Because many avian species make use of these environments for nesting and foraging, they may receive substantial exposure to anti-ChEs. The model used to assess avian risk in these environments is highly simplified, and indicator species used in risk studies may misrepresent the risk of the species in the field. A better understanding of avian risk is needed, and should begin with a closer examination o# their exposure in these environments. Exposure of free-flying birds was examined in two conventional orchards during the nesting seasons of 1999 and 2000. Our goal was to demonstrate the influences of species and chemical differences on the exposure we observed. Plasma ChE activity and ChE reactivation were used to identify exposure in multiple species following anti-ChE applications (applied singly and in mixtures). Chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis), and American robins (Turdus migratorius) demonstrated significant ChE activity depression in 1999 (p 0.005), and only chipping sparrows demonstrated significant depression in 2000 (p = 0.0002). These three species demonstrated the highest proportion of exposed individuals among all species examined in both years. Because many chemicals were simultaneously present in each orchard, chemical influences on the exposure we observed could not be discerned. This work does demonstrate, however, that avian species differ significantly in their exposure, and that chipping sparrows demonstrated the greatest exposure among the species analyzed. These results underscore the need for multiple species studies and for choosing indicator species on a biologically relevant basis.

  20. Circadian Clock Dysfunction and Psychiatric Disease: Could Fruit Flies have a Say?

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, Mauro Agostino; Sandrelli, Federica

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence of a link between the circadian system and psychiatric diseases. Studies in humans and mammals suggest that environmental and/or genetic disruption of the circadian system leads to an increased liability to psychiatric disease. Disruption of clock genes and/or the clock network might be related to the etiology of these pathologies; also, some genes, known for their circadian clock functions, might be associated to mental illnesses through clock-independent pleiotropy. Here, we examine the features which we believe make Drosophila melanogaster a model apt to study the role of the circadian clock in psychiatric disease. Despite differences in the organization of the clock system, the molecular architecture of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian oscillators are comparable and many components are evolutionarily related. In addition, Drosophila has a rather complex nervous system, which shares much at the cell and neurobiological level with humans, i.e., a tripartite brain, the main neurotransmitter systems, and behavioral traits: circadian behavior, learning and memory, motivation, addiction, social behavior. There is evidence that the Drosophila brain shares some homologies with the vertebrate cerebellum, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the dysfunctions of which have been tied to mental illness. We discuss Drosophila in comparison to mammals with reference to the: organization of the brain and neurotransmitter systems; architecture of the circadian clock; clock-controlled behaviors. We sum up current knowledge on behavioral endophenotypes, which are amenable to modeling in flies, such as defects involving sleep, cognition, or social interactions, and discuss the relationship of the circadian system to these traits. Finally, we consider if Drosophila could be a valuable asset to understand the relationship between circadian clock malfunction and psychiatric disease. PMID:25941512