Science.gov

Sample records for fts catalytic evaluation

  1. Electrostatic Evaluation of the ARES I FTS Antenna Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2010-01-01

    Surface resistivity and volume resistivity data show all the tested non-metallic materials of the Ares I FTS antenna assembly to be insulative. The external materials (White foam, phenolic) should be able to develop a large surface charge density upon tribocharging with ice crystal impingement. Dielectric breakdown tests on the FTS antenna housing materials show that each of the insulative materials are very resistive to electrical breakdown. The thicknesses of these materials in a nominal housing should protect the antenna from direct breakdown from external triboelectric charging potentials. Per data from the Air Force study, a maximum external electric potential in the range of 100kV can be developed on surfaces tribocharged by ice crystal impingement. Testing showed that under operational pressure ranges, this level of exterior voltage can result in a potential of about 6 kV induced on the electrically floating interior antenna vanes. Testing the vanes up to this voltage level showed that electrostatic discharges can occur between the electrically floating vanes and the center, grounded screw heads. Repeated tests with multiple invisible and visible discharges caused only superficial physical damage to the vanes. Fourier analysis of the discharge signals showed that the frequency range of credible discharges would not interfere with the nominal operation of the FTS antenna. However, due to the limited scope, short timetable, and limited funding of this study, a direct measurement of the triboelectric charge that could be generated on the Ares I antenna housing when the rocket traverses an ice cloud at supersonic speeds was not performed. Instead, data for the limited Air Force study [3] was used as input for our experiments. The Air Force data used was not collected with a sensor located to provide us with the best approximation at the geometry of the Ares I rocket, namely that of the windshield electrometer, because brush discharges to the metal frame of the

  2. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  3. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  4. FTS2000 network architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  5. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel 2,5,6-Trisubstituted Benzimidazoles Targeting FtsZ as Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bora; Awasthi, Divya; Chowdhury, Soumya R.; Melief, Eduard H.; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E.; Slayden, Richard A.; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    Filamenting temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), an essential cell division protein, is a promising target for the drug discovery of new-generation antibacterial agents against various bacterial pathogens. As a part of SAR studies on benzimidazoles, we have synthesized a library of 376 novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, bearing ether or thioether linkage at the 6-position. In a preliminary HTP screening against Mtb H37Rv, 108 compounds were identified as hits at a cut off concentration of 5 μg/mL. Among those hits, 10 compounds exhibited MIC values in the range of 0.63–12.5 μg/mL. Light scattering assay and TEM analysis with the most potent compound 5a clearly indicate that its molecular target is Mtb-FtsZ. Also, the Kd of 5a with Mtb-FtsZ was determined to be 1.32 μM. PMID:24726304

  6. FTS3: Quantitative Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, H.; Salichos, M.; Keeble, O.; Andreeva, J.; Ayllon, A. A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Magini, N.; Roiser, S.; Simon, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The overall success of LHC data processing depends heavily on stable, reliable and fast data distribution. The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) relies on the File Transfer Service (FTS) as the data movement middleware for moving sets of files from one site to another. This paper describes the components of FTS3 monitoring infrastructure and how they are built to satisfy the common and particular requirements of the LHC experiments. We show how the system provides a complete and detailed cross-virtual organization (VO) picture of transfers for sites, operators and VOs. This information has proven critical due to the shared nature of the infrastructure, allowing a complete view of all transfers on shared network links between various workflows and VOs using the same FTS transfer manager. We also report on the performance of the FTS service itself, using data generated by the aforementioned monitoring infrastructure both during the commissioning and the first phase of production. We also explain how this monitoring information and network metrics produced can be used both as a starting point for troubleshooting data transfer issues, but also as a mechanism to collect information such as transfer efficiency between sites, achieved throughput and its evolution over time, most common errors, etc, and take decision upon them to further optimize transfer workflows. The service setup is subject to sites policies to control the network resource usage, as well as all the VOs making use of the Grid resources at the site to satisfy their requirements. FTS3 is the new version of FTS and has been deployed in production in August 2014.

  7. Involvement of FtsE ATPase and FtsX Extracellular Loops 1 and 2 in FtsEX-PcsB Complex Function in Cell Division of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39

    PubMed Central

    Sham, Lok-To; Jensen, Katelyn R.; Bruce, Kevin E.; Winkler, Malcolm E.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The FtsEX protein complex has recently been proposed to play a major role in coordinating peptidoglycan (PG) remodeling by hydrolases with the division of bacterial cells. According to this model, cytoplasmic FtsE ATPase interacts with the FtsZ divisome and FtsX integral membrane protein and powers allosteric activation of an extracellular hydrolase interacting with FtsX. In the major human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a large extracellular-loop domain of FtsX (ECL1FtsX) is thought to interact with the coiled-coil domain of the PcsB protein, which likely functions as a PG amidase or endopeptidase required for normal cell division. This paper provides evidence for two key tenets of this model. First, we show that FtsE protein is essential, that depletion of FtsE phenocopies cell defects caused by depletion of FtsX or PcsB, and that changes of conserved amino acids in the FtsE ATPase active site are not tolerated. Second, we show that temperature-sensitive (Ts) pcsB mutations resulting in amino acid changes in the PcsB coiled-coil domain (CCPcsB) are suppressed by ftsX mutations resulting in amino acid changes in the distal part of ECL1FtsX or in a second, small extracellular-loop domain (ECL2FtsX). Some FtsX suppressors are allele specific for changes in CCPcsB, and no FtsX suppressors were found for amino acid changes in the catalytic PcsB CHAP domain (CHAPPcsB). These results strongly support roles for both ECL1FtsX and ECL2FtsX in signal transduction to the coiled-coil domain of PcsB. Finally, we found that pcsBCC(Ts) mutants (Ts mutants carrying mutations in the region of pcsB corresponding to the coiled-coil domain) unexpectedly exhibit delayed stationary-phase autolysis at a permissive growth temperature. PMID:23860769

  8. In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of an FtsZ Inhibitor, TXA-709, and Its Active Metabolite, TXA-707, in a Murine Neutropenic Thigh Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Lepak, Alexander J.; Parhi, Ajit; Madison, Michaela; Marchillo, Karen; VanHecker, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Processes of cellular division are attractive targets for new drug development. FtsZ, an integral protein involved in cell cytokinesis, is a representative example. In the present study, the pharmacodynamic (PD) activity of an FtsZ inhibitor, TXA-709, and its active metabolite, TXA-707, was evaluated in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model against 5 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant isolates. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the TXA-707 active metabolite were examined after oral administration of the TXA-709 prodrug at 10, 40, and 160 mg/kg of body weight. The half-life ranged from 3.2 to 4.4 h, and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) were relatively linear over the doses studied. All organisms exhibited an MIC of 1 mg/liter. Dose fractionation demonstrated the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC ratio) to be the PD index most closely linked to efficacy (R2 = 0.72). Dose-dependent activity was demonstrated against all 5 isolates, and the methicillin-resistance phenotype did not alter the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets. Net stasis was achieved against all isolates and a 1-log10 kill level against 4 isolates. PD targets included total drug 24-h AUC/MIC values of 122 for net stasis and 243 for 1-log10 killing. TXA-709 and TXA-707 are a promising novel antibacterial class and compound for S. aureus infections. These results should prove useful for design of clinical dosing regimen trials. PMID:26259789

  9. The commissioning of FTS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdElazim, Sherif

    Despite that over half the energy emitted by the universe falls in the sub-millimetre wavelength region, and the fact that sub-millimetre astronomy enables the study of star formation, it remains an unexplored field. This is due to the low transmittance of the atmosphere and the complexity of the instrumentation. However, recent advances in technology have resulted in instruments that can explore this waveband. One such instrument, FTS-2, is a Fourier transform spectrometer that has been developed for use with a new bolometric camera SCUBA-2. FTS-2 will provide wide field imaging spectroscopy at sub-millimetre wavelengths. This thesis presents the current performance of FTS-2 based on the results obtained from commissioning. As with the application with any new technology, unforeseen issues emerged. The thesis identifies several issues and introduces potential solutions. Although limited astronomical data were obtained, spectra of Venus have been analysed, and provide an indication of the potential of FTS-2.

  10. Dr-FtsA, an Actin Homologue in Deinococcus radiodurans Differentially Affects Dr-FtsZ and Ec-FtsZ Functions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Kruti; Misra, Hari S.

    2014-01-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans genome encodes homologues of divisome proteins including FtsZ and FtsA. FtsZ of this bacterium (Dr-FtsZ) has been recently characterized. In this paper, we study FtsA of D. radiodurans (Dr-FtsA) and its involvement in regulation of FtsZ function. Recombinant Dr-FtsA showed neither ATPase nor GTPase activity and its polymerization was ATP dependent. Interestingly, we observed that Dr-FtsA, when compared with E. coli FtsA (Ec-FtsA), has lower affinity for both Dr-FtsZ and Ec-FtsZ. Also, Dr-FtsA showed differential effects on GTPase activity and sedimentation characteristics of Dr-FtsZ and Ec-FtsZ. For instance, Dr-FtsA stimulated GTPase activity of Dr-FtsZ while GTPase activity of Ec-FtsZ was reduced in the presence of Dr-FtsA. Stimulation of GTPase activity of Dr-FtsZ by Dr-FtsA resulted in depolymerization of Dr-FtsZ. Dr-FtsA effects on GTPase activity and polymerization/depolymerisation characteristics of Dr-FtsZ did not change significantly in the presence of ATP. Recombinant E. coli expressing Dr-FtsA showed cell division inhibition in spite of in trans expression of Dr-FtsZ in these cells. These results suggested that Dr-FtsA, although it lacks ATPase activity, is still functional and differentially affects Dr-FtsZ and Ec-FtsZ function in vitro. PMID:25551229

  11. Evaluation of a non-catalytic coating for metallic TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, C. M.; Brown, R. D.; Shideler, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A commercially available ceramic coating was evaluated for application to metallic heat shields for Shuttle-type entry vehicles. Coated Inconel 617 specimens were subjected to thermal shock cycles, surface emittances were measured, and surface equilibrium temperatures were measured for coated and oxidized specimens exposed to an arc-tunnel environment. The coating adhered very well to the metal and appeared to be very non-catalytic.

  12. Localization of FtsI (PBP3) to the Septal Ring Requires Its Membrane Anchor, the Z Ring, FtsA, FtsQ, and FtsL

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, David S.; Chen, Joseph C.; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon

    1999-01-01

    Assembly of the division septum in bacteria is mediated by several proteins that localize to the division site. One of these, FtsI (also called penicillin-binding protein 3) of Escherichia coli, consists of a short cytoplasmic domain, a single membrane-spanning segment, and a large periplasmic domain that encodes a transpeptidase activity involved in synthesis of septal peptidoglycan. We have constructed a merodiploid strain with a wild-type copy of ftsI at the normal chromosomal locus and a genetic fusion of ftsI to the green fluorescent protein (gfp) at the lambda attachment site. gfp-ftsI was expressed at physiologically appropriate levels under control of a regulatable promoter. Consistent with previous results based on immunofluorescence microscopy GFP-FtsI localized to the division site during the later stages of cell growth and throughout septation. Localization of GFP-FtsI to the cell pole(s) was not observed unless the protein was overproduced about 10-fold. Membrane anchor alterations shown previously to impair division but not membrane insertion or transpeptidase activity were found to interfere with localization of GFP-FtsI to the division site. In contrast, GFP-FtsI localized well in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics that inhibit the transpeptidase activity of FtsI. Septal localization depended upon every other division protein tested (FtsZ, FtsA, FtsQ, and FtsL). We conclude that FtsI is a late recruit to the division site, and that its localization depends on an intact membrane anchor. PMID:9882665

  13. Selected amplification of the cell division genes ftsQ-ftsA-ftsZ in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vinella, D; Cashel, M; D'Ari, R

    2000-01-01

    Rapidly growing Escherichia coli is unable to divide in the presence of the antibiotic mecillinam, whose direct target is penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2), responsible for the elongation of the cylindrical portion of the cell wall. Division can be restored in the absence of PBP2 activity by increasing the concentration of the cell division proteins FtsQ, FtsA, and FtsZ. We tried to identify regulators of the ftsQ-ftsA-ftsZ operon among mecillinam-resistant mutants, which include strains overexpressing these genes. By insertional mutagenesis with mini-Tn10 elements, we selected for insertions that conferred mecillinam resistance. Among 15 such mutants, 7 suppressed the thermosensitivity of the ftsZ84(Ts) mutant, strongly suggesting that they had increased FtsZ activity. In all 7 cases, however, the mutants resulted from a duplication of the ftsQAZ region. These duplications seemed to result from multiple events, suggesting that no simple insertional inactivation can result in a mutant with sufficiently amplified ftsQAZ expression to confer mecillinam resistance. The structure of the duplications suggests a general method for constructing directed duplications of precise sequences. PMID:11102351

  14. Roles for both FtsA and the FtsBLQ subcomplex in FtsN-stimulated cell constriction in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Persons, Logan; Lee, Lynda; de Boer, Piet A. J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Escherichia coli FtsN is a bitopic membrane protein that is essential for triggering active cell constriction. A small periplasmic subdomain (EFtsN) is required and sufficient for function, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We isolated extragenic EFtsN*-suppressing mutations that restore division in cells producing otherwise non-functional variants of FtsN. These mapped to the IC domain of FtsA in the cytoplasm and to small subdomains of the FtsB and FtsL proteins in the periplasm. All FtsB and FtsL variants allowed survival without EFtsN, but many then imposed a new requirement for interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of FtsN (NFtsN) with FtsA. Alternatively, variants of FtsA, FtsB or FtsL acted synergistically to allow cell division in the complete absence of FtsN. Strikingly, moreover, substitution of a single residue in FtsB (E56) proved sufficient to rescue ΔftsN cells as well. In FtsN+ cells, EFtsN*-suppressing mutations promoted cell fission at an abnormally small cell size, and caused cell shape and integrity defects under certain conditions. This and additional evidence support a model in which FtsN acts on either side of the membrane to induce a conformational switch in both FtsA and the FtsBLQ subcomplex to derepress septal peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane invagination. PMID:25496160

  15. Novel farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS)-eluting composite structures.

    PubMed

    Kraitzer, Amir; Kloog, Yoel; Zilberman, Meital

    2009-06-28

    Farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS) is a new specific nontoxic drug with a mild hydrophobic nature, which acts as a Ras antagonist and can therefore be used for stent applications as well as for local cancer treatment. FTS-loaded bioresorbable core/shell fiber structures were developed and studied in order to investigate the FTS release mechanism. These structures were composed of a polyglyconate core and a porous poly(d,l-lactic-glycolic acid) shell loaded with FTS, prepared using freeze drying of inverted emulsions. The effects of the emulsion's composition (formulation) and process kinetics on the FTS release from the coatings were studied with reference to the shell morphology and degradation profile. The FTS release profiles exhibited a burst effect accompanied by a release rate which decreased with time and lasted for 15-40 days. The process was found to affect the drug release profile via two routes: (1) Direct, through water uptake and swelling of the structure, leading to a FTS burst release. Degradation of the host polymer affects the FTS release rate at a later stage. (2) Indirect effect of the microstructure on the release profile, which occurs via an emulsion stability mechanism. The copolymer composition is the most important parameter affecting the release behavior in our system. Other parameters, including polymer content, O:A phase ratio and homogenization rate exhibited only minor effects on the FTS release profile. The controlled release of the new drug FTS is reported here for the first time. PMID:19491026

  16. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Scot P.; Rueden, Kelsey J.; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Cox, John V.; Belland, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g., FtsZ) and late (e.g., FtsI/Pbp3) components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with Escherichia coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components. PMID:26617598

  17. Distinct functions of chloroplast FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 in Z-ring structure and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    TerBush, Allan D.

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ, a cytoskeletal GTPase, forms a contractile ring for cell division in bacteria and chloroplast division in plants. Whereas bacterial Z rings are composed of a single FtsZ, those in chloroplasts contain two distinct FtsZ proteins, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, whose functional relationship is poorly understood. We expressed fluorescently tagged FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 in fission yeast to investigate their intrinsic assembly and dynamic properties. FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 formed filaments with differing morphologies when expressed separately. FRAP showed that FtsZ2 filaments were less dynamic than FtsZ1 filaments and that GTPase activity was essential for FtsZ2 filament turnover but may not be solely responsible for FtsZ1 turnover. When coexpressed, the proteins colocalized, consistent with coassembly, but exhibited an FtsZ2-like morphology. However, FtsZ1 increased FtsZ2 exchange into coassembled filaments. Our findings suggest that FtsZ2 is the primary determinant of chloroplast Z-ring structure, whereas FtsZ1 facilitates Z-ring remodeling. We also demonstrate that ARC3, a regulator of chloroplast Z-ring positioning, functions as an FtsZ1 assembly inhibitor. PMID:23128242

  18. Targeting the Wolbachia Cell Division Protein FtsZ as a New Approach for Antifilarial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiru; Garner, Amanda L.; Gloeckner, Christian; Janda, Kim D.; Carlow, Clotilde K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of antibiotics targeting the obligate bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia of filarial parasites has been validated as an approach for controlling filarial infection in animals and humans. Availability of genomic sequences for the Wolbachia (wBm) present in the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has enabled genome-wide searching for new potential drug targets. In the present study, we investigated the cell division machinery of wBm and determined that it possesses the essential cell division gene ftsZ which was expressed in all developmental stages of B. malayi examined. FtsZ is a GTPase thereby making the protein an attractive Wolbachia drug target. We described the molecular characterization and catalytic properties of Wolbachia FtsZ. We also demonstrated that the GTPase activity was inhibited by the natural product, berberine, and small molecule inhibitors identified from a high-throughput screen. Furthermore, berberine was also effective in reducing motility and reproduction in B. malayi parasites in vitro. Our results should facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors of FtsZ as a novel anti-symbiotic approach for controlling filarial infection. Note The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper are available in GenBank™ Data Bank under the accession number wAlB-FtsZ (JN616286). PMID:22140592

  19. FtsA forms actin-like protofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Freund, Stefan MV; Löwe, Jan

    2012-01-01

    FtsA is an early component of the Z-ring, the structure that divides most bacteria, formed by tubulin-like FtsZ. FtsA belongs to the actin family of proteins, showing an unusual subdomain architecture. Here we reconstitute the tethering of FtsZ to the membrane via FtsA's C-terminal amphipathic helix in vitro using Thermotoga maritima proteins. A crystal structure of the FtsA:FtsZ interaction reveals 16 amino acids of the FtsZ tail bound to subdomain 2B of FtsA. The same structure and a second crystal form of FtsA reveal that FtsA forms actin-like protofilaments with a repeat of 48 Å. The identical repeat is observed when FtsA is polymerized using a lipid monolayer surface and FtsAs from three organisms form polymers in cells when overexpressed, as observed by electron cryotomography. Mutants that disrupt polymerization also show an elongated cell division phenotype in a temperature-sensitive FtsA background, demonstrating the importance of filament formation for FtsA's function in the Z-ring. PMID:22473211

  20. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  1. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier Transform Spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three datasets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Lab at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and between 1.5 and 3

  2. A Bactericidal Guanidinomethyl Biaryl That Alters the Dynamics of Bacterial FtsZ Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Malvika; Parhi, Ajit K.; Zhang, Yongzheng; LaVoie, Edmond J.; Tuske, Steve; Arnold, Eddy; Kerrigan, John E.; Pilch, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of multidrug resistance among clinically significant bacterial pathogens underscores a critical need for the development of new classes of antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. Here we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a guanidinomethyl biaryl compound {1-((4′-(tert-butyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl)guanidine} that targets the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. In vitro studies with various bacterial FtsZ proteins reveal that the compound alters the dynamics of FtsZ self-polymerization via a stimulatory mechanism, while minimally impacting the polymerization of tubulin, the closest mammalian homologue of FtsZ. The FtsZ binding site of the compound is identified through a combination of computational and mutational approaches. The compound exhibits a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity, including activity against the multidrug-resistant pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), while also exhibiting a minimal potential to induce resistance. Taken together, our results highlight the compound as a promising new FtsZ-targeting bactericidal agent. PMID:23050700

  3. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  4. Role of FtsEX in cell division of Escherichia coli: viability of ftsEX mutants is dependent on functional SufI or high osmotic strength.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, at least 12 proteins, FtsZ, ZipA, FtsA, FtsE/X, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL, FtsB, FtsW, FtsI, FtsN, and AmiC, are known to localize to the septal ring in an interdependent and sequential pathway to coordinate the septum formation at the midcell. The FtsEX complex is the latest recruit of this pathway, and unlike other division proteins, it is shown to be essential only on low-salt media. In this study, it is shown that ftsEX null mutations are not only salt remedial but also osmoremedial, which suggests that FtsEX may not be involved in salt transport as previously thought. Increased coexpression of cell division proteins FtsQ-FtsA-FtsZ or FtsN alone restored the growth defects of ftsEX mutants. ftsEX deletion exacerbated the defects of most of the mutants affected in Z ring localization and septal assembly; however, the ftsZ84 allele was a weak suppressor of ftsEX. The viability of ftsEX mutants in high-osmolarity conditions was shown to be dependent on the presence of a periplasmic protein, SufI, a substrate of twin-arginine translocase. In addition, SufI in multiple copies could substitute for the functions of FtsEX. Taken together, these results suggest that FtsE and FtsX are absolutely required for the process of cell division in conditions of low osmotic strength for the stability of the septal ring assembly and that, during high-osmolarity conditions, the FtsEX and SufI functions are redundant for this essential process. PMID:17071757

  5. The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) NASA's first operational robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J.; Halterman, K.; Hewitt, D.; Sabelhaus, P.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has completed the preliminary definition phase of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and is now preparing to begin the detailed design and fabrication phase. The FTS will be designed and built by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, CO, for the Goddard Space Flight Center, in support of the Space Station Freedom Program. The design concepts for the FTS are discussed, as well as operational scenarios for the assembly, maintenance, servicing and inspection tasks which are being considered for the FTS. The upcoming Development Test Flight (DTF-1) is the first of two shuttle test flights to test FTS operations in the environment of space and to demonstrate the FTS capabilities in performing tasks for Space Station Freedom. Operational planning for DTF-1 is discussed as well as development plans for the operational support of the FTS on the space station.

  6. Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Bekker, D. L.; Blavier, J. L.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.; Frankenberg, C.; Key, R.; Manatt, K.; Miller, C. E.; Natraj, V.; Rider, D. M.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In order to confidently project the future evolution of climate and support efforts to mitigate the climate change, quantifying the emissions of CO2 and CH4 is a national and international priority. To accomplish this goal, new observational approaches are required that operate over spatial scales ranging from regional to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to decadal. Geostationary satellite observations of CO2, CH4 and correlative quantities such as CO and chlorophyll fluorescence provide a new measurement approach to deliver the quantity and quality of data needed for improved flux estimates and an improved understanding of the partitioning between biogenic and anthropogenic sources. GeoFTS is an exciting new concept that combines the game changing technology of imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with the observational advantages of a geostationary orbit. The GeoFTS observations enable well-posed surface-atmospheric carbon exchange assessments as well as quantify the atmospheric signatures of anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions. GeoFTS uses a single instrument to make measurements in the near-infrared spectral region at high spectral resolution. The imaging FTS measures atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO to deliver high-resolution maps multiple times per day. A half-meter-sized cube, the instrument is designed to be a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial GEO satellite. The instrument leverages recent NASA technology investments, uses a flight-proven interferometer and sensor chip assemblies, and requires no new technology development. NASA and other government agencies have adopted the hosted payload implementation approach because it substantially reduces the overall mission cost. Dense continuous mapping (4 km x 4 km pixels at 40 deg. latitude) is a transformational advance beyond, and complementary to, the capabilities of the NASA missions of record in low earth orbit, providing two to three orders of magnitude improvement in the number of

  7. FtsZ Polymerization Assays: Simple Protocols and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Król, Ewa; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro, and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. FtsZ polymerization has been extensively studied in vitro using basic methods including light scattering, sedimentation, GTP hydrolysis assays and electron microscopy. Buffer conditions influence both the polymerization properties of FtsZ, and the ability of FtsZ to interact with regulatory proteins. Here, we describe protocols for FtsZ polymerization studies and validate conditions and controls using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis FtsZ as model proteins. A low speed sedimentation assay is introduced that allows the study of the interaction of FtsZ with proteins that bundle or tubulate FtsZ polymers. An improved GTPase assay protocol is described that allows testing of GTP hydrolysis over time using various conditions in a 96-well plate setup, with standardized incubation times that abolish variation in color development in the phosphate detection reaction. The preparation of samples for light scattering studies and electron microscopy is described. Several buffers are used to establish suitable buffer pH and salt concentration for FtsZ polymerization studies. A high concentration of KCl is the best for most of the experiments. Our methods provide a starting point for the in vitro characterization of FtsZ, not only from E. coli and B. subtilis but from any other bacterium. As such, the methods can be used for studies of the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or the testing of antibacterial drugs which may affect FtsZ polymerization. PMID:24300445

  8. Comparison of upper tropospheric carbon monoxide from MOPITT, ACE-FTS, and HIPPO-QCLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Alonso, Sara; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.; Gille, John C.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Pan, Laura L.; Park, Mijeong; Manney, Gloria L.; Bernath, Peter F.; Boone, Chris D.; Walker, Kaley A.; Kolonjari, Felicia; Wofsy, Steven C.; Pittman, Jasna; Daube, Bruce C.

    2014-12-01

    Products from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are regularly validated using in situ airborne measurements. However, few of these measurements reach into the upper troposphere, thus hindering MOPITT validation in that region. Here we evaluate upper tropospheric (~500 hPa to the tropopause) MOPITT CO profiles by comparing them to satellite Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) retrievals and to measurements from the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research Pole to Pole Observations (HIPPO) Quantum Cascade Laser Spectrometer (QCLS). Direct comparison of colocated v5 MOPITT thermal infrared-only retrievals, v3.0 ACE-FTS retrievals, and HIPPO-QCLS measurements shows a slight positive MOPITT CO bias within its 10% accuracy requirement with respect to the other two data sets. Direct comparison of colocated ACE-FTS and HIPPO-QCLS measurements results in a small number of samples due to the large disparity in sampling pattern and density of these data sets. Thus, two additional indirect techniques for comparison of noncoincident data sets have been applied: tracer-tracer (CO-O3) correlation analysis and analysis of profiles in tropopause coordinates. These techniques suggest a negative bias of ACE-FTS with respect to HIPPO-QCLS; this could be caused by differences in resolution (horizontal, vertical) or by deficiencies in the ACE-FTS CO retrievals below ~20 km of altitude, among others. We also investigate the temporal stability of MOPITT and ACE-FTS data, which provide unique global CO records and are thus important in climate analysis. Our results indicate that the relative bias between the two data sets has remained generally stable during the 2004-2010 period.

  9. The bypass of ZipA by overexpression of FtsN requires a previously unknown conserved FtsN motif essential for FtsA-FtsN interaction supporting a model in which FtsA monomers recruit late cell division proteins to the Z ring

    PubMed Central

    Pichoff, Sebastien; Du, Shishen; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Summary Assembly of the divisome in E. coli occurs in two temporally distinct steps. First, FtsZ filaments attached to the membrane through interaction with FtsA and ZipA coalesce into a Z ring at midcell. After a delay, additional proteins are recruited to the Z ring in a hierarchical manner to form a complete divisome, activated by the arrival of FtsN. Recently, we proposed the interaction of FtsA with itself competes with its ability to recruit downstream division proteins (both require the same IC domain of FtsA) and that ZipA’s essential function is to promote the formation of FtsA monomers. Here, we tested whether overexpression of a downstream division protein could make ZipA dispensable, presumably by shifting the FtsA equilibrium to monomers. Only overexpression of FtsN bypassed ZipA and we identified a motif in the cytoplasmic domain of FtsN required for both the bypass of ZipA and interaction with FtsA. In addition, this cytoplasmic motif has to be linked to the periplasmic E domain of FtsN in order to bypass ZipA, suggesting that FtsN was linking FtsA to periplasmic components of the divisome. These results are used to further elaborate our model for the role of FtsA in recruiting downstream division proteins. PMID:25496259

  10. DCS/FTS Commercial Satellite Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, T.; Rosner, R.; Pearsall, C.

    In order to control the rising costs of telephonic services and meeting the increasing demand for wideband video and data services within U.S. Federal Government agencies, the Defense Communications Agency and the General Services Administration have begun the implementation of a leased Commercial Satellite Communications System. Service volume demand, commonality of service requirements, and common geographic communities of interest facilitate economies of scale in the course of meeting DOD and other Federal agencies' objectives. The service, which incorporates the Federal Telecommunications Service and is therefore designated DCS/FTS, is presently studied with respect to military and national objectives.

  11. Synthesis, characterisation, and catalytic evaluation of hierarchical faujasite zeolites: milestones, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Verboekend, D; Nuttens, N; Locus, R; Van Aelst, J; Verolme, P; Groen, J C; Pérez-Ramírez, J; Sels, B F

    2016-06-13

    Faujasite (X, Y, and USY) zeolites represent one of the most widely-applied and abundant catalysts and sorbents in the chemical industry. In the last 5 years substantial progress was made in the synthesis, characterisation, and catalytic exploitation of hierarchically-structured variants of these zeolites. Hererin, we provide an overview of these contributions, highlighting the main advancements regarding the evaluation of the nature and functionality of introduced secondary porosity. The novelty, efficiency, versatility, and sustainability of the reported bottom-up and (predominately) top-down strategies are discussed. The crucial role of the relative stability of faujasites in aqueous media is highlighted. The interplay between the physico-chemical properties of the hierarchical zeolites and their use in petrochemical and biomass-related catalytic processes is assessed. PMID:26313001

  12. The FtsZ-Like Protein FtsZm of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense Likely Interacts with Its Generic Homolog and Is Required for Biomineralization under Nitrate Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Frank D.; Raschdorf, Oliver; Nudelman, Hila; Messerer, Maxim; Katzmann, Emanuel; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Zarivach, Raz

    2014-01-01

    Midcell selection, septum formation, and cytokinesis in most bacteria are orchestrated by the eukaryotic tubulin homolog FtsZ. The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (MSR-1) septates asymmetrically, and cytokinesis is linked to splitting and segregation of an intracellular chain of membrane-enveloped magnetite crystals (magnetosomes). In addition to a generic, full-length ftsZ gene, MSR-1 contains a truncated ftsZ homolog (ftsZm) which is located adjacent to genes controlling biomineralization and magnetosome chain formation. We analyzed the role of FtsZm in cell division and biomineralization together with the full-length MSR-1 FtsZ protein. Our results indicate that loss of FtsZm has a strong effect on microoxic magnetite biomineralization which, however, could be rescued by the presence of nitrate in the medium. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that FtsZm-mCherry does not colocalize with the magnetosome-related proteins MamC and MamK but is confined to asymmetric spots at midcell and at the cell pole, coinciding with the FtsZ protein position. In Escherichia coli, both FtsZ homologs form distinct structures but colocalize when coexpressed, suggesting an FtsZ-dependent recruitment of FtsZm. In vitro analyses indicate that FtsZm is able to interact with the FtsZ protein. Together, our data suggest that FtsZm shares key features with its full-length homolog but is involved in redox control for magnetite crystallization. PMID:24272781

  13. Collective effects of torsion in FtsZ filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González de Prado Salas, Pablo; Tarazona, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence points to the presence of torsion in FtsZ bonds. In addition, experiments with FtsZ mutants on surfaces resulted in new aggregates that cannot be explained by older models for FtsZ dynamics. We use an interaction model for FtsZ derived from molecular dynamics simulations and expand a fine-grained lattice model used to describe FtsZ aggregates on a surface. This new model includes different anchoring angles for the monomers and allows bond twist, two ingredients that oppose each other resulting in a more dynamic and interesting system. We study the role and importance of these conflicting elements and how the aggregates are characterized by the different interaction parameters.

  14. Resilient FTS3 service at GridKa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, T.; Bubeliene, J.; Hoeft, B.; Obholz, L.; Petzold, A.; Wisniewski, K.

    2015-12-01

    The FTS (File Transfer Service) service provides a transfer job scheduler to distribute and replicate vast amounts of data over the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructures. Compared to the channel model of the previous versions, the most recent version of FTS simplifies and improves the flexibility of the service while reducing the load to the service components. The improvements allow to handle a higher number of transfers with a single FTS3 setup. Covering now continent-wide transfers compared to the previous version, whose installations handled only transfers within specific clouds, a resilient system becomes even more necessary with the increased number of depending users. Having set up a FTS3 services at the German T1 site GridKa at KIT in Karlsruhe, we present our experiences on the preparations for a high-availability FTS3 service. Trying to avoid single points of failure, we rely on a database cluster as fault tolerant data back-end and the FTS3 service deployed on an own cluster setup to provide a resilient infrastructure for the users. With the database cluster providing a basic resilience for the data back-end, we ensure on the FTS3 service level a consistent and reliable database access through a proxy solution. On each FTS3 node a HAproxy instance is monitoring the integrity of each database node and distributes database queries over the whole cluster for load balancing during normal operations; in case of a broken database node, the proxy excludes it transparently to the local FTS3 service. The FTS3 service itself consists of a main and a backup instance, which takes over the identity of the main instance, i.e., IP, in case of an error using a CTDB (Cluster Trivial Database) infrastructure offering clients a consistent service.

  15. Manned Mars mission on-orbit operations FTS capabilities assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Frank G.; Jackson, Stewart W.

    1989-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the characteristics and capabilities of the flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), under development at GSFC at the time the report was prepared; the project has since been cancelled. The assessment was directed toward developing the FTS to enable assembly and servicing of the Mars vehicle at the space station; facilitate rendezvous, docking, and fluid transfer operations involving the Mars vehicle fuel tank; to perform strip-mining operations on the lunar/martian surfaces; and to construct a three-story shelter on the martian surface. The report considers the FTS' mechanical, electrical, thermal, and operational subsystems, as well as its proposed manipulator capabilities.

  16. Chloroplast FtsZ assembles into a contractible ring via tubulin-like heteropolymerization.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yamato; Mogi, Yuko; TerBush, Allan D; Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast division is driven by a ring containing FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 proteins, which originated from bacterial FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein; however, mechanistic details of the chloroplast FtsZ ring remain unclear. Here, we report that FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 can heteropolymerize into a contractible ring ex vivo. Fluorescently labelled FtsZ1 and/or FtsZ2 formed single rings in cells of the yeast Pichia pastoris. Photobleaching experiments indicated that co-assembly of FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 imparts polarity to polymerization. Assembly of FtsZ chimaeras revealed that the protofilaments assemble via heteropolymerization of FtsZ2 and FtsZ1. Contraction of the ring was accompanied by an increase in the filament turnover rate. Our findings suggest that the evolutionary duplication of FtsZ in plants may have increased the mobility and kinetics of FtsZ ring dynamics in chloroplast division. Thus, the gene duplication and heteropolymerization of chloroplast FtsZs may represent convergent evolution with eukaryotic tubulin. PMID:27322658

  17. Recent Topics about the GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR L2 Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Kikuchi, N.; Inoue, M.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Yokota, T.

    2014-12-01

    The column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane (XCO2 and XCH4) have been retrieved globally from the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral data observed with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The retrieval results have been released as the GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR L2 product, and there are two related topics recently. From mid-June, 2014, the TANSO-FTS has recorded interferograms with the zero-path difference (ZPD) position shifted about 800 fringes from its nominal position to avoid the operation with an unstable condition after the sudden shutdown of GOSAT by solar paddle accident at the end of May, 2014. This brings slightly, but non-negligible lower spectral resolution on the observed spectrum. If the nominal instrumental line shape function (ILSF) is used in the retrieval analysis, a beat structure is appeared in the residual spectrum and the retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 show negative bias. The ILSF considering the 800-fringe bias of the ZPD position is provided by JAXA, and the most of the beat structure are disappeared by using this ILSF. The retrieval accuracy and precision will be evaluated until the presentation. Other topic is the evaluation of the sample of the new TANSO-FTS L1B product. JAXA plans to implement following items for SWIR spectrum in the new version; (i) new sampling interval non-uniformity correction (SINUC), (ii) updated non-linearity correction, and (iii) unified spectral resolution to avoid the ZPD position shift. Preliminary evaluation shows that the new SINUC can remove a small bias in the XCO2 and XCH4 due to the scan direction. Further evaluation as well as the latest status of the L2 version up are also presented.

  18. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  19. An Evaluation of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process for Use in a Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Borchers, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    An experimental program has been developed to evaluate the potential of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) technology for use as a Mars Transit Vehicle water purification system. Design modifications which will be required to ensure proper operation of the VPCAR system in reduced gravity are also evaluated. The VPCAR system is an integrated wastewater treatment technology that combines a distillation process with high temperature catalytic oxidation. The distillation portion of the system utilizes a vapor compression distillation process to provide an energy efficient phase change separation. This portion of the system removes any inorganic salts and large molecular weight, organic contaminates, i.e., non-volatile, from the product water stream and concentrates these contaminates into a byproduct stream. To oxidize the volatile organic compounds and ammonia, a vapor phase, high temperature catalytic oxidizer is used. This catalytic system converts these compounds along with the aqueous product into CO2, H2O, and N2O. A secondary catalytic bed can then be used to reduce the N2O to nitrogen and oxygen (although not evaluated in this study). This paper describes the design specification of the VPCAR process, the relative benefits of its utilization in a Mars Transit Vehicle, and the design modification which will be required to ensure its proper operation in reduced gravity. In addition, the results of an experimental evaluation of the processors is presented. This evaluation presents the processors performance based upon product water purity, water recovery rates, and power.

  20. Preparation of gold nanoparticles using Salicornia brachiata plant extract and evaluation of catalytic and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Subramanian, Swetha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Ganapathy; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-09-15

    The current study deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Salicornia brachiata (Sb) and evaluation of their antibacterial and catalytic activity. The SbAuNPs showed purple color with a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 532 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed polydispersed AuNPs with the size range from 22 to 35 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray and thin layer X-ray diffraction analysis clearly shows that SbAuNPs was pure and crystalline in nature. As prepared gold nanoparticles was used as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol and methylene blue to leucomethylene blue. The green synthesized nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria, as evidenced by their zone of inhibition. In addition, we showed that the SbAuNPs in combination with the regular antibiotic, ofloxacin, exhibit superior antibacterial activity than the individual. PMID:24762573

  1. Preparation of gold nanoparticles using Salicornia brachiata plant extract and evaluation of catalytic and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Subramanian, Swetha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Ganapathy; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-09-01

    The current study deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Salicornia brachiata (Sb) and evaluation of their antibacterial and catalytic activity. The SbAuNPs showed purple color with a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 532 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed polydispersed AuNPs with the size range from 22 to 35 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray and thin layer X-ray diffraction analysis clearly shows that SbAuNPs was pure and crystalline in nature. As prepared gold nanoparticles was used as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol and methylene blue to leucomethylene blue. The green synthesized nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria, as evidenced by their zone of inhibition. In addition, we showed that the SbAuNPs in combination with the regular antibiotic, ofloxacin, exhibit superior antibacterial activity than the individual.

  2. Contribution of the FtsQ Transmembrane Segment to Localization to the Cell Division Site▿

    PubMed Central

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Robichon, Carine; Haan, Gert Jan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Koningstein, Gregory; van Bloois, Edwin; Beckwith, Jon; Luirink, Joen

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsQ is a central component of the divisome. FtsQ is a bitopic membrane protein with a large C-terminal periplasmic domain. In this work we investigated the role of the transmembrane segment (TMS) that anchors FtsQ in the cytoplasmic membrane. A set of TMS mutants was made and analyzed for the ability to complement an ftsQ mutant. Study of the various steps involved in FtsQ biogenesis revealed that one mutant (L29/32R;V38P) failed to functionally insert into the membrane, whereas another mutant (L29/32R) was correctly assembled and interacted with FtsB and FtsL but failed to localize efficiently to the cell division site. Our results indicate that the FtsQ TMS plays a role in FtsQ localization to the division site. PMID:17693520

  3. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  4. Protein quality control in organelles - AAA/FtsH story.

    PubMed

    Janska, Hanna; Kwasniak, Malgorzata; Szczepanowska, Joanna

    2013-02-01

    This review focuses on organellar AAA/FtsH proteases, whose proteolytic and chaperone-like activity is a crucial component of the protein quality control systems of mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes. We compare the AAA/FtsH proteases from yeast, mammals and plants. The nature of the complexes formed by AAA/FtsH proteases and the current view on their involvement in degradation of non-native organellar proteins or assembly of membrane complexes are discussed. Additional functions of AAA proteases not directly connected with protein quality control found in yeast and mammals but not yet in plants are also described shortly. Following an overview of the molecular functions of the AAA/FtsH proteases we discuss physiological consequences of their inactivation in yeast, mammals and plants. The molecular basis of phenotypes associated with inactivation of the AAA/FtsH proteases is not fully understood yet, with the notable exception of those observed in m-AAA protease-deficient yeast cells, which are caused by impaired maturation of mitochondrial ribosomal protein. Finally, examples of cytosolic events affecting protein quality control in mitochondria and chloroplasts are given. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. PMID:22498346

  5. A novel quinoline derivative that inhibits mycobacterial FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Bini; Ross, Larry; Reynolds, Robert C

    2013-07-01

    High throughput phenotypic screening of large commercially available libraries through two NIH programs has produced thousands of potentially interesting hits for further development as antitubercular agents. Unfortunately, these screens do not supply target information, and further follow up target identification is required to allow optimal rational design and development of highly active and selective clinical candidates. Cheminformatic analysis of the quinoline and quinazoline hits from these HTS screens suggested a hypothesis that certain compounds in these two classes may target the mycobacterial tubulin homolog, FtsZ. In this brief communication, activity of a lead quinoline against the target FtsZ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is confirmed as well as good in vitro whole cell antibacterial activity against Mtb H37Rv. The identification of a putative target of this highly tractable pharmacophore should help medicinal chemists interested in targeting FtsZ and cell division develop a rational design program to optimize this activity toward a novel drug candidate. PMID:23647650

  6. Commissioning of the FTS-2 Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, M.; Naylor, D.; Gom, B.; Bell, G.; Friberg, P.; Bintley, D.

    2015-09-01

    FTS-2 is the intermediate resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer coupled to the SCUBA-2 facility bolometer camera at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. Although in principle FTS instruments have the advantage of relatively simple optics compared to other spectrometers, they require more sophisticated data processing to compute spectra from the recorded interferogram signal. In the case of FTS-2, the complicated optical design required to interface with the existing telescope optics introduces performance compromises that complicate spectral and spatial calibration, and the response of the SCUBA-2 arrays introduce interferogram distortions that are a challenge for data reduction algorithms. We present an overview of the pipeline and discuss new algorithms that have been written to correct the noise introduced by unexpected behavior of the SCUBA-2 arrays.

  7. Subunit organization of a synechocystis hetero-oligomeric thylakoid FtsH complex involved in photosystem II repair.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Marko; Yu, Jianfeng; Krynicka, Vendula; Barker, Myles; Tichy, Martin; Komenda, Josef; Nixon, Peter J; Nield, Jon

    2012-09-01

    FtsH metalloproteases are key components of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which operates to maintain photosynthetic activity in the light. Despite their physiological importance, the structure and subunit composition of thylakoid FtsH complexes remain uncertain. Mutagenesis has previously revealed that the four FtsH homologs encoded by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 are functionally different: FtsH1 and FtsH3 are required for cell viability, whereas FtsH2 and FtsH4 are dispensable. To gain insights into FtsH2, which is involved in selective D1 protein degradation during PSII repair, we used a strain of Synechocystis 6803 expressing a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged derivative (FtsH2-GST) to isolate FtsH2-containing complexes. Biochemical analysis revealed that FtsH2-GST forms a hetero-oligomeric complex with FtsH3. FtsH2 also interacts with FtsH3 in the wild-type strain, and a mutant depleted in FtsH3, like ftsH2(-) mutants, displays impaired D1 degradation. FtsH3 also forms a separate heterocomplex with FtsH1, thus explaining why FtsH3 is more important than FtsH2 for cell viability. We investigated the structure of the isolated FtsH2-GST/FtsH3 complex using transmission electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The three-dimensional structural model obtained at a resolution of 26 Å revealed that the complex is hexameric and consists of alternating FtsH2/FtsH3 subunits. PMID:22991268

  8. Seasonal variability of upper tropospheric acetone using ACE-FTS observations and LMDz-INCA model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Harrison, Jeremy; Szopa, Sophie; Bernath, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The vertically-resolved distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (oVOCs) are mainly inferred from surface and airborne measurements with limited spatial and temporal coverage. This results in a limited understanding of the atmospheric budget of these compounds and of their impact on the upper tropospheric chemistry. In the last decade, satellite observations which complement in-situ measurements have become available, providing global distributions of several oVOCs. For example, Scisat-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) has measured several oVOCs including methanol and formaldehyde. ACE is a Canadian-led satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere that has been in operation since 2004. The primary instrument on board is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) featuring broad spectral coverage in the infrared (750-4400 cm-1) with high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1). The FTS instrument can measure down to 5 km altitude with a high signal-to-noise ratio using solar occultation. The ACE-FTS has the ability to measure seasonal and height-resolved distributions of minor tropospheric constituents on a near-global scale and provides the opportunity to evaluate our understanding of important atmospheric oxygenated organic species. ACE-FTS acetone retrievals will be presented. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of acetone will be described and compared to LMDz-INCA model simulations.

  9. SCUBA-2 Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS-2) commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gom, Brad G.; Naylor, David A.; Friberg, Per; Bell, Graham S.; Bintley, Daniel; Abdelazim, Sherif; Sherwood, Matt

    2014-07-01

    We present the latest commissioning results and instrument performance for the SCUBA-2 imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS-2) installed at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This ancillary instrument provides intermediate spectral resolution (R ~10 to 5000) across both the 450 and 850 μm atmospheric transmission windows with a FOV of ~5 arcmin2. The superconducting TES sensors and SQUID readout of SCUBA-2 present unique challenges for operation of an FTS; the sensitivity requirements demand high detector linearity and stability in addition to control of systematic atmospheric and optical spillover effects. We discuss the challenges encountered during commissioning and ongoing efforts to mitigate their effects.

  10. FtsH11 Proteases play a critical role in high temperature stress tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FtsHs (Filamentous temperature sensitive H), ATP-dependent zinc metalloproteases of the AAA-superfamily, play essential roles in the turn over of thylakoid proteins damaged by high light stress during photosynthesis. Here, we show that FtsH11, one of the 12 FtsH members in Arabidopsis, plays critic...

  11. AAA+ Chaperone ClpX Regulates Dynamics of Prokaryotic Cytoskeletal Protein FtsZ*

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Nishikori, Shingo; Miyagi, Atsushi; Ando, Toshio; Ogura, Teru

    2010-01-01

    AAA+ chaperone ClpX has been suggested to be a modulator of prokaryotic cytoskeletal protein FtsZ, but the details of recognition and remodeling of FtsZ by ClpX are largely unknown. In this study, we have extensively investigated the nature of FtsZ polymers and mechanisms of ClpX-regulated FtsZ polymer dynamics. We found that FtsZ polymerization is inhibited by ClpX in an ATP-independent manner and that the N-terminal domain of ClpX plays a crucial role for the inhibition of FtsZ polymerization. Single molecule analysis with high speed atomic force microscopy directly revealed that FtsZ polymer is in a dynamic equilibrium between polymerization and depolymerization on a time scale of several seconds. ClpX disassembles FtsZ polymers presumably by blocking reassembly of FtsZ. Furthermore, Escherichia coli cells overproducing ClpX and N-terminal domain of ClpX show filamentous morphology with abnormal localization of FtsZ. These data together suggest that ClpX modulates FtsZ polymer dynamics in an ATP-independent fashion, which is achieved by interaction between the N-terminal domain of ClpX and FtsZ monomers or oligomers. PMID:20022957

  12. Crystal structure of the cell division protein FtsA from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    van den Ent, F; Löwe, J

    2000-10-16

    Bacterial cell division requires formation of a septal ring. A key step in septum formation is polymerization of FtsZ. FtsA directly interacts with FtsZ and probably targets other proteins to the septum. We have solved the crystal structure of FtsA from Thermotoga maritima in the apo and ATP-bound form. FtsA consists of two domains with the nucleotide-binding site in the interdomain cleft. Both domains have a common core that is also found in the actin family of proteins. Structurally, FtsA is most homologous to actin and heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70). An important difference between FtsA and the actin family of proteins is the insertion of a subdomain in FtsA. Movement of this subdomain partially encloses a groove, which could bind the C-terminus of FtsZ. FtsZ is the bacterial homologue of tubulin, and the FtsZ ring is functionally similar to the contractile ring in dividing eukaryotic cells. Elucidation of the crystal structure of FtsA shows that another bacterial protein involved in cytokinesis is structurally related to a eukaryotic cytoskeletal protein involved in cytokinesis. PMID:11032797

  13. Experimental evaluation of two premixing-prevaporizing fuel injection concepts for a gas turbine catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R.

    1976-01-01

    A premixing-prevaporizing fuel system to be used with a catalytic combustor was evaluated for possible application in an automotive gas turbine. Spatial fuel distribution and degree of vaporization were measured using jet A fuel. Two types of air blast injectors were tested, a splash groove injector and a multiple jet cross stream injector. Air swirlers with vane angles of 15 deg and 30 deg were used to improve the spatial fuel distribution in a 12 cm diameter tubular rig. Distribution and vaporization measurements were made 35.5 cm downstream of the injector. The spatial fuel distribution was nearly uniform with the multiple jet contrastream injector and the splash-groove injector with a 30 deg air swirler. The vaporization was nearly 100 percent at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, and at 800 K inlet air temperature fuel oxidation reactions were observed. The total pressure loss was less than 0.5 percent of the total pressure for the multiple jet cross stream injector and the splash groove injector (without air swirler) and less than 1 percent for the splash groove with a 30 deg air swirler.

  14. Evaluation of variation in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha oncogene and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, K N; Garcia-Closas, M; Fredericksen, Z; Kosel, M; Pankratz, V S; Hopper, J L; Dite, G S; Apicella, C; Southey, M C; Schmidt, M K; Broeks, A; Van ‘t Veer, L J; Tollenaar, R A E M; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Hein, A; Ekici, A B; Johnson, N; Peto, J; dos Santos Silva, I; Gibson, L; Sawyer, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerin, M J; Chanock, S; Lissowska, J; Hunter, D J; Hoover, R N; Thomas, G D; Milne, R L; Pérez, JI Arias; González-Neira, A; Benítez, J; Burwinkel, B; Meindl, A; Schmutzler, R K; Bartrar, C R; Hamann, U; Ko, Y D; Brüning, T; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R; Wang-Gohrke, S; Dörk, T; Schürmann, P; Bremer, M; Hillemanns, P; Bogdanova, N; Zalutsky, J V; Rogov, Y I; Antonenkova, N; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Mannermaa, A; Kataja, V; Kosma, V-M; Hartikainen, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Chen, X; Peterlongo, P; Bonanni, B; Bernard, L; Manoukian, S; Wang, X; Cerhan, J; Vachon, C M; Olson, J; Giles, G G; Baglietto, L; McLean, C A; Severi, G; John, E M; Miron, A; Winqvist, R; Pylkäs, K; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A; Grip, M; Andrulis, I; Knight, J A; Glendon, G; Mulligan, A M; Cox, A; Brock, I W; Elliott, G; Cross, S S; Pharoah, P P; Dunning, A M; Pooley, K A; Humphreys, M K; Wang, J; Kang, D; Yoo, K-Y; Noh, D-Y; Sangrajrang, S; Gabrieau, V; Brennan, P; McKay, J; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Couch, F J; Easton, D F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Somatic mutations in phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) are frequent in breast tumours and have been associated with oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 overexpression, lymph node metastasis and poor survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between inherited variation in this oncogene and risk of breast cancer. Methods: A single-nucleotide polymorphism from the PIK3CA locus that was associated with breast cancer in a study of Caucasian breast cancer cases and controls from the Mayo Clinic (MCBCS) was genotyped in 5436 cases and 5280 controls from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study and in 30 949 cases and 29 788 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Results: Rs1607237 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in MCBCS, CGEMS and all studies of white Europeans combined (odds ratio (OR)=0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95–0.99, P=4.6 × 10−3), but did not reach significance in the BCAC replication study alone (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.01, P=0.139). Conclusion: Common germline variation in PIK3CA does not have a strong influence on the risk of breast cancer PMID:22033276

  15. Experimental evaluation of premixing-prevaporizing fuel injection concepts for a gas turbine catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evolve and evaluate a premixing-prevaporizing fuel system to be used with a catalytic combustor for possible application in an automotive gas turbine. Spatial fuel distribution and degree of vaporization were measured using Jet A fuel. Three types of air blast injectors, an air assist nozzle and a simplex pressure atomizer were tested. Air swirlers with vane angles up to 30 deg were used to improve the spatial fuel distribution. The work was done in a 12-cm (4.75-in.) diameter tubular rig. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa (3 and 5 atm), inlet air temperatures up to 800 K (980 F), velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) and fuel-air ratios of 0.01 and 0.025. Uniform spatial fuel distributions that were within plus or minus 10 percent of the mean were obtained. Complete vaporization of the fuel was achieved with air blast configurations at inlet air temperatures of 550 K (530 F) and higher. The total pressure loss was less than 0.5 percent for configurations without air swirlers and less than 1 percent for configurations with a 30 deg vane angle air swirler.

  16. Transcriptional analysis of ftsZ within the dcw cluster in Bacillus mycoides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Bacillus mycoides, as well as in other members of the B. cereus group, the tubulin-like protein of the division septum FtsZ is encoded by the distal gene of the cluster division and cell wall (dcw). Along the cluster the genes coding for structural proteins of the division apparatus are intermingled with those coding for enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, raising the possibility that genes with this different function might be coexpressed. Transcription of ftsZ in two model bacteria had been reported to differ: in B. subtilis, the ftsZ gene was found transcribed as a bigenic mRNA in the AZ operon; in E. coli, the transcripts of ftsZ were monogenic, expressed by specific promoters. Here we analyzed the size and the initiation sites of RNAs transcribed from ftsZ and from other cluster genes in two B. mycoides strains, DX and SIN, characterized by colonies of different chirality and density, to explore the correlation of the different morphotypes with transcription of the dcw genes. Results In both strains, during vegetative growth, the ftsZ-specific RNAs were composed mainly of ftsZ, ftsA-ftsZ and ftsQ-ftsA-ftsZ transcripts. A low number of RNA molecules included the sequences of the upstream murG and murB genes, which are involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. No cotranscription was detected between ftsZ and the downstream genes of the SpoIIG cluster. The monogenic ftsZ RNA was found in both strains, with the main initiation site located inside the ftsA coding sequence. To confirm the promoter property of the site, a B. mycoides construct carrying the ftsA region in front of the shortened ftsZ gene was inserted into the AmyE locus of B. subtilis 168. The promoter site in the ftsA region was recognized in the heterologous cellular context and expressed as in B. mycoides. Conclusions The DX and SIN strains of B. mycoides display very similar RNA transcription specificity. The ftsZ messenger RNA can be found either as an independent transcript or

  17. Ligand screening using fluorescence thermal shift analysis (FTS).

    PubMed

    Luan, Chi-Hao; Light, Samuel H; Dunne, Sara F; Anderson, Wayne F

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence thermal shift (FTS) method is a biophysical technique that can improve productivity in a structural genomics pipeline and provide a fast and easy platform for identifying ligands in protein function or drug discovery screening. The technique has gained widespread popularity in recent years due to its broad-scale applicability, throughput, and functional relevance. FTS is based on the principle that a protein unfolds at a critical temperature that depends upon its intrinsic stability. A probe that will fluoresce when bound to hydrophobic surfaces is used to monitor protein unfolding as temperature is increased. In this manner, conditions or small molecules that affect the thermal stability of a protein can be identified. Herein, principles, protocols, data analysis, and special considerations of FTS screening as performed for the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) pipeline are described in detail. The CSGID FTS screen is designed as a high-throughput 384-well assay to be performed on a robotic platform; however, all protocols can be adapted to a 96-well format that can be assembled manually. Data analysis can be performed using a simple curve fitting of the fluorescent signal using a Boltzmann or double Boltzmann equation. A case study of 100 proteins screened against Emerald Biosystem's ADDit™ library is included as discussion. PMID:24590724

  18. A role for the FtsQLB complex in cytokinetic ring activation revealed by an ftsL allele that accelerates division

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Mary-Jane; Bernhardt, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The cytokinetic apparatus of bacteria is initially formed by the polymerization of the tubulin-like FtsZ protein into a ring structure at midcell. This so-called Z-ring facilitates the recruitment of many additional proteins to the division site to form the mature divisome machine. Although the assembly pathway leading to divisome formation has been well characterized, the mechanisms that trigger cell constriction remain unclear. In this report, we study a “forgotten” allele of ftsL from Escherichia coli, which encodes a conserved division gene of unknown function. We discovered that this allele promotes the premature initiation of cell division. Further analysis also revealed that the mutant bypasses the requirement for the essential division proteins ZipA, FtsK, and FtsN and partially bypasses the need for FtsA. These findings suggest that rather than serving simply as a protein scaffold within the divisome, FtsL may play a more active role in the activation of the machine. Our results support a model in which FtsL, along with its partners FtsB and FtsQ, function as part of a sensing mechanism that promotes the onset of cell wall remodeling processes needed for the initiation of cell constriction once assembly of the divisome complex is deemed complete. PMID:25496050

  19. Characterization of facteur thymique sérique (FTS) in the thymus. I. Fixation of anti-FTS antibodies on thymic reticulo-epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Monier, J C; Dardenne, M; Pléau, J M; Schmitt, D; Deschaux, P; Bach, J F

    1980-01-01

    Facteur thymique sérique (FTS) is a circulating nonapeptide inducing T cell differentiation. Its strict thymus dependency, already shown by its disappearance after thymectomy and its presence in thymus extracts, was confirmed using indirect immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase by the binding to reticulo-epithelial cells of an antibody produced against synthetic FTS. The specificity of the reaction was demonstrated by the inhibition of binding observed after preincubating the anti-FTS antibody with synthetic FTS. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7011612

  20. Evaluation of the Catalytic Contribution from a Positioned General Base in Ketosteroid Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Vandana; Yabukarski, Filip; Pinney, Margaux; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-08-10

    Proton transfer reactions are ubiquitous in enzymes and utilize active site residues as general acids and bases. Crystal structures and site-directed mutagenesis are routinely used to identify these residues, but assessment of their catalytic contribution remains a major challenge. In principle, effective molarity measurements, in which exogenous acids/bases rescue the reaction in mutants lacking these residues, can estimate these catalytic contributions. However, these exogenous moieties can be restricted in reactivity by steric hindrance or enhanced by binding interactions with nearby residues, thereby resulting in over- or underestimation of the catalytic contribution, respectively. With these challenges in mind, we investigated the catalytic contribution of an aspartate general base in ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) by exogenous rescue. In addition to removing the general base, we systematically mutated nearby residues and probed each mutant with a series of carboxylate bases of similar pKa but varying size. Our results underscore the need for extensive and multifaceted variation to assess and minimize steric and positioning effects and determine effective molarities that estimate catalytic contributions. We obtained consensus effective molarities of ∼5 × 10(4) M for KSI from Comamonas testosteroni (tKSI) and ∼10(3) M for KSI from Pseudomonas putida (pKSI). An X-ray crystal structure of a tKSI general base mutant showed no additional structural rearrangements, and double mutant cycles revealed similar contributions from an oxyanion hole mutation in the wild-type and base-rescued reactions, providing no indication of mutational effects extending beyond the general base site. Thus, the high effective molarities suggest a large catalytic contribution associated with the general base. A significant portion of this effect presumably arises from positioning of the base, but its large magnitude suggests the involvement of additional catalytic mechanisms as well

  1. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Daniel O.; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli. PMID:27609565

  2. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division.

    PubMed

    Daley, Daniel O; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli. PMID:27609565

  3. Thicker is better? Synthesis and evaluation of well-defined polymer brushes with controllable catalytic loadings.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Antony E; Dirani, Ali; d'Haese, Cécile; Deumer, Gladys; Guo, Weiming; Hensenne, Peter; Nahra, Fady; Laloyaux, Xavier; Haufroid, Vincent; Nysten, Bernard; Riant, Olivier; Jonas, Alain M

    2012-12-01

    Polymer brushes (PBs) have been used as supports for the immobilization of palladium complexes on silicon surfaces. The polymers were grown by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and postdecorated with dipyridylamine (dpa) ligands. The pendant dpa units were in turn complexed with [Pd(OAc)(2)] to afford hybrid catalytic surfaces. A series of catalytic samples of various thicknesses (ca. 20-160 nm) and associated palladium loadings (ca. 10-45 nmol  cm(-2)) were obtained by adjusting the SI-ATRP reaction time and characterized by ellipsometry, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). ICP-MS revealed a near-linear relationship between thickness of the polymer brush and palladium content, which confirmed the robustness of the preparation and postmodification sequence presented herein, rendering possible the creation of functional architectures with predefined catalytic potential. The activities of the catalytic PBs were determined by systematically exploring a full range of substrate-to-catalyst ratios in a model palladium(0)-catalyzed reaction. Quantitative transformations were observed for loadings down to 0.03 mol % and a maximum turnover number (TON) of around 3500 was established for the system. Comparison of the catalytic performances evidenced a singular influence of the thickness on conversions and TONs. The limited recyclability of the hairy catalysts has been attributed to palladium leaching. PMID:23032959

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-substituted indolizinoquinolinediones as catalytic DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Le-Mao; Zhang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yuan; Wei, Hong-Yu; He, Xi-Xin; Gu, Lian-Quan; Huang, Zhi-Shu; Pommier, Yves; An, Lin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work, indolizinoquinolinedione derivative 1 was identified as a Top1 catalytic inhibitor. Herein, a series of 6-substituted indolizinoquinolinedione derivatives were synthesized through modification of the parent compound 1. Top1 cleavage and relaxation assays indicate that none of these novel compounds act as classical Top1 poison, and that the compounds with alkylamino terminus at C-6 side chain, including 8, 11–16, 18–21, 25, 26 and 28–30, are the most potent Top1 catalytic inhibitors. Top1-mediated unwinding assay demonstrated that 14, 22 and 26 were Top1 catalytic inhibitors without Top1-mediated unwinding effect. Moreover, MTT results showed that compounds 26, 28–30 exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human leukemia HL-60 cells, and that compound 26 exerts potent cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells at nanomolar range. PMID:26188908

  5. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of Pd-Ag alloys on ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. C.; Rego, R.; Fernandes, L. S.; Tavares, P. B.

    2011-08-01

    Pd-Ag alloys containing different amounts of Ag (8, 21 and 34 at.%) were prepared in order to evaluate their catalytic activity towards the ethanol oxidation (EOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions. A sequential electroless deposition of Ag and Pd on a stainless steel disc, followed by annealing at 650 °C under Ar stream, was used as the alloy electrode deposition process. From half-cell measurements in a 1.0 M NaOH electrolyte at ≅20 °C, it was found that alloying Pd with Ag leads to an increases of the ORR and EOR kinetics, relative to Pd. Among the alloys under study, the 21 at.% Ag content alloy presents the highest catalytic activity for the EOR and the lowest Ag content alloy (8 at.% Ag) shows the highest ORR activity. Moreover, it was found that the selectivity of Pd-Ag alloys towards ORR is sustained when ethanol is present in the electrolyte.

  6. Evaluation of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Primary Amines and Implications to Selective Catalytic Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the mandated reduction of NOx, advanced emission control technologies are being implemented. One strategy is the adaptation of selective catalytic reduction units with urea as a focus. However, urea suffers from issues such as stability at elevated temperatures and the tendency to form deposits...

  7. FtsZ Ring Stability: of Bundles, Tubules, Crosslinks, and Curves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Durand-Heredia, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The first step in bacterial cytokinesis is the assembly of a stable but dynamic cytokinetic ring made up of the essential tubulin homolog FtsZ at the future site of division. Although FtsZ and its role in cytokinesis have been studied extensively, the precise architecture of the in vivo medial FtsZ ring (Z ring) is not well understood. Recent advances in superresolution imaging suggest that the Z ring comprises short, discontinuous, and loosely bundled FtsZ polymers, some of which are tethered to the membrane. A diverse array of regulatory proteins modulate the assembly, stability, and disassembly of the Z ring via direct interactions with FtsZ. Negative regulators of FtsZ play a critical role in ensuring the accurate positioning of FtsZ at the future site of division and in maintaining Z ring dynamics by controlling FtsZ polymer assembly/disassembly processes. Positive regulators of FtsZ are essential for tethering FtsZ polymers to the membrane and promoting the formation of stabilizing lateral interactions, permitting assembly of a mature Z ring. The past decade has seen the identification of several factors that promote FtsZ assembly, presumably through a variety of distinct molecular mechanisms. While a few of these proteins are broadly conserved, many positive regulators of FtsZ assembly are limited to small groups of closely related organisms, suggesting that FtsZ assembly is differentially modulated across bacterial species. In this review, we focus on the roles of positive regulators in Z ring assembly and in maintaining the integrity of the cytokinetic ring during the early stages of division. PMID:23457247

  8. The GTPase Activity of Escherichia coli FtsZ Determines the Magnitude of the FtsZ Polymer Bundling by ZapA in Vitro†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ polymerizes in a ring-like structure at mid cell to initiate cell division in Escherichia coli. The ring is stabilized by a number of proteins among which the widely conserved ZapA protein. Using antibodies against ZapA, we found surprisingly that the cellular concentration of ZapA is approximately equal to that of FtsZ. This raised the question of how the cell can prevent their interaction and thereby the premature stabilization of FtsZ protofilaments in nondividing cells. Therefore, we studied the FtsZ−ZapA interaction at the physiological pH of 7.5 instead of pH 6.5 (the optimal pH for FtsZ polymerization), under conditions that stimulate protofilament formation (5 mM MgCl2) and under conditions that stimulate and stabilize protofilaments (10 mM MgCl2). Using pelleting, light scattering, and GTPase assays, it was found that stabilization and bundling of FtsZ polymers by ZapA was inversely correlated to the GTPase activity of FtsZ. As GTP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting factor for depolymerization of FtsZ, we propose that ZapA will only enhance the cooperativity of polymer association during the transition from helical filament to mid cell ring and will not stabilize the short single protofilaments in the cytoplasm. All thus far published in vitro data on the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA have been obtained with His-ZapA. We found that in our case the presence of a His tag fused to ZapA prevented the protein to complement a ΔzapA strain in vivo and that it affected the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA in vitro. PMID:19842714

  9. FtsHi4 Is Essential for Embryogenesis Due to Its Influence on Chloroplast Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shipeng; Su, Yanping; Liang, Qiuju; Meng, Hongyan; Shen, Songdong; Fan, Yunliu; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Chunyi

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast formation is associated with embryo development and seedling growth. However, the relationship between chloroplast differentiation and embryo development remains unclear. Five FtsHi genes that encode proteins with high similarity to FtsH proteins, but lack Zn2+-binding motifs, are present in the Arabidopsis genome. In this study, we showed that T-DNA insertion mutations in the Arabidopsis FtsHi4 gene resulted in embryo arrest at the globular-to-heart–shaped transition stage. Transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed abnormal plastid differentiation with a severe defect in thylakoid formation in the mutant embryos. Immunocytological studies demonstrated that FtsHi4 localized in chloroplasts as a thylakoid membrane-associated protein, supporting its essential role in thylakoid membrane formation. We further showed that FtsHi4 forms protein complexes, and that there was a significant reduction in the accumulation of D2 and PsbO (two photosystem II proteins) in mutant ovules. The role of FtsHi4 in chloroplast development was confirmed using an RNA-interfering approach. Additionally, mutations in other FtsHi genes including FtsHi1, FtsHi2, and FtsHi5 caused phenotypic abnormalities similar to ftshi4 with respect to plastid differentiation during embryogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest that FtsHi4, together with FtsHi1, FtsHi2, and FtsHi5 are essential for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis. PMID:24964212

  10. New temperature and pressure retrieval algorithm for high-resolution infrared solar occultation spectroscopy: analysis and validation against ACE-FTS and COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, K. S.; Toon, G. C.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.

    2015-10-01

    Motivated by the initial selection of a high-resolution solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to fly to Mars on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, we have been developing algorithms for retrieving volume mixing ratio vertical profiles of trace gases, the primary component of which is a new algorithm and software for retrieving vertical profiles of temperature and pressure from the spectra. In contrast to Earth-observing instruments, which can rely on accurate meteorological models, a priori information, and spacecraft position, Mars retrievals require a method with minimal reliance on such data. The temperature and pressure retrieval algorithms developed for this work were evaluated using Earth-observing spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) FTS, a solar occultation instrument in orbit since 2003, and the basis for the instrument selected for a Mars mission. ACE-FTS makes multiple measurements during an occultation, separated in altitude by 1.5-5 km, and we analyze 10 CO2 vibration-rotation bands at each altitude, each with a different usable altitude range. We describe the algorithms and present results of their application and their comparison to the ACE-FTS data products. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) provides vertical profiles of temperature up to 40 km with high vertical resolution. Using six satellites and GPS radio occultation, COSMIC's data product has excellent temporal and spatial coverage, allowing us to find coincident measurements with ACE with very tight criteria: less than 1.5 h and 150 km. We present an inter-comparison of temperature profiles retrieved from ACE-FTS using our algorithm, that of the ACE Science Team (v3.5), and from COSMIC. When our retrievals are compared to ACE-FTS v3.5, we find mean differences between -5 and +2 K, and that our retrieved profiles have no seasonal or zonal biases, but do have a warm bias in the stratosphere and a cold bias in the

  11. New temperature and pressure retrieval algorithm for high-resolution infrared solar occultation spectroscopy: analysis and validation against ACE-FTS and COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kevin S.; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the initial selection of a high-resolution solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to fly to Mars on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, we have been developing algorithms for retrieving volume mixing ratio vertical profiles of trace gases, the primary component of which is a new algorithm and software for retrieving vertical profiles of temperature and pressure from the spectra. In contrast to Earth-observing instruments, which can rely on accurate meteorological models, a priori information, and spacecraft position, Mars retrievals require a method with minimal reliance on such data. The temperature and pressure retrieval algorithms developed for this work were evaluated using Earth-observing spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) FTS, a solar occultation instrument in orbit since 2003, and the basis for the instrument selected for a Mars mission. ACE-FTS makes multiple measurements during an occultation, separated in altitude by 1.5-5 km, and we analyse 10 CO2 vibration-rotation bands at each altitude, each with a different usable altitude range. We describe the algorithms and present results of their application and their comparison to the ACE-FTS data products. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) provides vertical profiles of temperature up to 40 km with high vertical resolution. Using six satellites and GPS radio occultation, COSMIC's data product has excellent temporal and spatial coverage, allowing us to find coincident measurements with ACE with very tight criteria: less than 1.5 h and 150 km. We present an intercomparison of temperature profiles retrieved from ACE-FTS using our algorithm, that of the ACE Science Team (v3.5), and from COSMIC. When our retrievals are compared to ACE-FTS v3.5, we find mean differences between -5 and +2 K and that our retrieved profiles have no seasonal or zonal biases but do have a warm bias in the stratosphere and a cold bias in the

  12. Effects of various kinetic rates of FtsZ filaments on bacterial cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    He, Zi; Liu, Zhuan; Guo, Kunkun; Ding, Lina

    2015-12-21

    Cell morphodynamics during bacterial cytokinesis are theoretically explored by a combination of phase field model for rod-shaped cells and a kinetic description for FtsZ ring maintenance. The division times and cell shapes have been generally decided by the competition between the constriction forces generated by FtsZ rings and the curvature elastic energy for cells. The dependences of cell morphodynamics during bacterial cytokinesis on various kinetic rates of FtsZ filaments are focused in the present study. It is found that the obtained results with the experimental parameters are well comparable to the observed results physiologically. Likewise, the quasi-steady states for FtsZ rings are found to be well consistent with the theoretical results derived from the kinetic description of FtsZ rings. In addition, morphological phase diagram is presented as functions of the membrane associate rate for both short FtsZ filaments and free FtsZ monomers, and the depolymerization rate of GDP-bound FtsZ monomers at the tip of filaments within the ring. Our results would provide a better understanding of the details of in vivo kinetics, including the kinetic rates within FtsZ rings. PMID:26567889

  13. Super-resolution imaging of the bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Phoebe C; Cox, Guy C; Monahan, Leigh G; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2011-06-01

    The idea of a bacterial cytoskeleton arose just 10 years ago with the identification of the cell division protein, FtsZ, as a tubulin homolog. FtsZ plays a pivotal role in bacterial division, and is present in virtually all prokaryotes and in some eukaryotic organelles. The earliest stage of bacterial cell division is the assembly of FtsZ into a Z ring at the division site, which subsequently constricts during cytokinesis. FtsZ also assembles into dynamic helical structures along the bacterial cell, which are thought to act as precursors to the Z ring via a cell cycle-mediated FtsZ polymer remodelling. The fine structures of the FtsZ helix and ring are unknown but crucial for identifying the molecular details of Z ring assembly and its regulation. We now reveal using STED microscopy that the FtsZ helical structure in cells of the gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, is a highly irregular and discontinuous helix of FtsZ; very different to the smooth cable-like appearance observed by conventional fluorescence optics. STED also identifies a novel FtsZ helical structure of smaller pitch that is invisible to standard optical methods, identifying a possible third intermediate in the pathway to Z ring assembly, which commits bacterial cells to divide. PMID:20933427

  14. Catalytic Properties of Intramembrane Aspartyl Protease Substrate Hydrolysis Evaluated Using a FRET Peptide Cleavage Assay.

    PubMed

    Naing, Swe-Htet; Vukoti, Krishna M; Drury, Jason E; Johnson, Jennifer L; Kalyoncu, Sibel; Hill, Shannon E; Torres, Matthew P; Lieberman, Raquel L

    2015-09-18

    Chemical details of intramembrane proteolysis remain elusive despite its prevalence throughout biology. We developed a FRET peptide assay for the intramembrane aspartyl protease (IAP) from Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1 in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry cleavage site analysis. IAP can hydrolyze the angiotensinogen sequence, a substrate for the soluble aspartyl protease renin, at a predominant cut site, His-Thr. Turnover is slow (min(-1) × 10(-3)), affinity and Michaelis constant (Km) values are in the low micromolar range, and both catalytic rates and cleavage sites are the same in detergent as reconstituted into bicelles. Three well-established, IAP-directed inhibitors were directly confirmed as competitive, albeit with modest inhibitor constant (Ki) values. Partial deletion of the first transmembrane helix results in a biophysically similar but less active enzyme than full-length IAP, indicating a catalytic role. Our study demonstrates previously unappreciated similarities with soluble aspartyl proteases, provides new biochemical features of IAP and inhibitors, and offers tools to study other intramembrane protease family members in molecular detail. PMID:26118406

  15. The Hetero-Hexameric Nature of a Chloroplast AAA+ FtsH Protease Contributes to Its Thermodynamic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Tamar; Adam, Zach; Prag, Gali

    2012-01-01

    FtsH is an evolutionary conserved membrane-bound metalloprotease complex. While in most prokaryotes FtsH is encoded by a single gene, multiple FtsH genes are found in eukaryotes. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Arabidopsis chloroplast FtsH is a hetero-hexamer. This raises the question why photosynthetic organisms require a heteromeric complex, whereas in most bacteria a homomeric one is sufficient. To gain structural information of the possible complexes, the Arabidopsis FtsH2 (type B) and FtsH5 (type A) were modeled. An in silico study with mixed models of FtsH2/5 suggests that heteromeric hexamer structure with ratio of 4∶2 is more likely to exists. Specifically, calculation of the buried surface area at the interfaces between neighboring subunits revealed that a hetero-complex should be thermodynamically more stable than a homo-hexamer, due to the presence of additional hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. To biochemically assess this model, we generated Arabidopsis transgenic plants, expressing epitope-tagged FtsH2 and immuno-purified the protein. Mass-spectrometry analysis showed that FtsH2 is associated with FtsH1, FtsH5 and FtsH8. Interestingly, we found that ‘type B’ subunits (FtsH2 and FtsH8) were 2–3 fold more abundant than ‘type A’ (FtsH1 and FtsH5). The biochemical data corroborate the in silico model and suggest that the thylakoid FtsH hexamer is composed of two ‘type A’ and four ‘type B’ subunits. PMID:22558304

  16. Identification and Characterization of ZapC, a Stabilizer of the FtsZ Ring in Escherichia coli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Heredia, Jorge M.; Yu, Helen H.; De Carlo, Sacha; Lesser, Cammie F.; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, spatiotemporal control of cell division occurs at the level of the assembly/disassembly process of the essential cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. A number of regulators interact with FtsZ and modulate the dynamics of the assembled FtsZ ring at the midcell division site. In this article, we report the identification of an FtsZ stabilizer, ZapC (Z-associated protein C), in a protein localization screen conducted with E. coli. ZapC colocalizes with FtsZ at midcell and interacts directly with FtsZ, as determined by a protein-protein interaction assay in yeast. Cells lacking or overexpressing ZapC are slightly elongated and have aberrant FtsZ ring morphologies indicative of a role for ZapC in FtsZ regulation. We also demonstrate the ability of purified ZapC to promote lateral bundling of FtsZ in a sedimentation reaction visualized by transmission electron microscopy. While ZapC lacks sequence similarity with other nonessential FtsZ regulators, ZapA and ZapB, all three Zap proteins appear to play an important role in FtsZ regulation during rapid growth. Taken together, our results suggest a key role for lateral bundling of the midcell FtsZ polymers in maintaining FtsZ ring stability during division. PMID:21216995

  17. Evaluation of humic fractions potential to produce bio-oil through catalytic hydroliquefaction.

    PubMed

    Lemée, L; Pinard, L; Beauchet, R; Kpogbemabou, D

    2013-12-01

    Humic substances were extracted from biodegraded lignocellulosic biomass (LCBb) and submitted to catalytic hydroliquefaction. The resulting bio-oils were compared with those of the initial biomass. Compared to fulvic and humic acids, humin presented a high conversion rate (74 wt.%) and the highest amount of liquid fraction (66 wt.%). Moreover it represented 78% of LCBb. Humin produced 43 wt.% of crude oil and 33 wt.% of hexane soluble fraction containing hydrocarbons which is a higher yield than those from other humic substances as well as from the initial biomass. Hydrocarbons were mainly aromatics, but humin produces the highest amount of aliphatics. Considering the quantity, the quality and the molecular composition of the humic fractions, a classification of the potential of the latter to produce fuel using hydroliquefaction process can be assess: Hu>AF>AH. The higher heating value (HHV) and oxygen content of HSF from humin were fully compatible with biofuel characteristics. PMID:24140851

  18. Highly uniform CeO2 hierarchical microstructures: Facile synthesis and catalytic activity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhong, Sheng-Liang; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-12-01

    Highly uniform pancake-like CeOHCO3 hierarchical microstructures have been successfully prepared by a simple gelatin-assisted mixed-solvothermal route. Ceria hierarchical microstructures with similar morphology were obtained after thermal treatment of the CeOHCO3 hierarchical microstructures at 700 °C for 4 h. The CeOHCO3 microstructures can be selectively obtained by varying the composition of solvent, concentration of gelatin and triethylenetetramine (TETA). The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The possible formation process of the CeOHCO3 microstructures was briefly discussed. Gold coated ceria microstructures were also prepared which show excellent catalytic activity in the conversion of carbon monoxide, the T50 and T90 are at 240 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of the Catalytic Activity and Cytotoxicity of Palladium Nanocubes. The Role of Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Dahal, Eshan; Curtiss, Jessica; Subedi, Deepak; Chen, Gen; Houston, Jessica P.; Smirnov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that palladium nanocubes (PdNC) are capable of generating singlet oxygen without photo-excitation simply via chemisorption of molecular oxygen on its surface. Such a trait would make PdNC a highly versatile catalyst suitable in organic synthesis and a Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) inducing cancer treatment reagent. Here we thoroughly investigated the catalytic activity of PdNC with respect to their ability to produce singlet oxygen and to oxidize 3,5,3′,5′-tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB), as well as, analyzed the cytotoxic properties of PdNC on HeLa cells. Our findings showed no evidence of singlet oxygen production by PdNC. The nanocubes’ activity is not necessarily linked to activation of oxygen. The oxidation of substrate on PdNC can be a first step followed by PdNC regeneration with oxygen or other oxidant. The catalytic activity of PdNC towards oxidation of TMB is very high and shows direct two-electrons oxidation when the surface of PdNC is clean and the ratio of TMB/PdNC is not very high. Sequential one electron oxidation is observed when the pristine quality of PdNC surface is compromised by serum or uncontrolled impurities and/or the ratio of TMB/PdNC is high. Clean PdNC in serum-free media efficiently induce apoptosis of HeLa cells. It is the primary route of cell death and is associated with hyperpolarization of mitochondria, contrary to a common mitochondrial depolarization initiated by ROS. Again, the effects are very sensitive to how well the pristine surface of PdNC is preserved, suggesting that PdNC can be used as an apoptosis inducing agent but only with appropriate drug delivery system. PMID:25886644

  20. Evaluation of the catalytic activity and cytotoxicity of palladium nanocubes: the role of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Eshan; Curtiss, Jessica; Subedi, Deepak; Chen, Gen; Houston, Jessica P; Smirnov, Sergei

    2015-05-13

    Recently, it has been reported that palladium nanocubes (PdNC) are capable of generating singlet oxygen without photoexcitation simply via chemisorption of molecular oxygen on its surface. Such a trait would make PdNC a highly versatile catalyst suitable in organic synthesis and a Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) inducing cancer treatment reagent. Here we thoroughly investigated the catalytic activity of PdNC with respect to their ability to produce singlet oxygen and to oxidize 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and analyzed the cytotoxic properties of PdNC on HeLa cells. Our findings showed no evidence of singlet oxygen production by PdNC. The nanocubes' activity is not necessarily linked to activation of oxygen. The oxidation of substrate on PdNC can be a first step, followed by PdNC regeneration with oxygen or other oxidant. The catalytic activity of PdNC toward the oxidation of TMB is very high and shows direct two-electron oxidation when the surface of the PdNC is clean and the ratio of TMB/PdNC is not very high. Sequential one electron oxidation is observed when the pristine quality of PdNC surface is compromised by serum or uncontrolled impurities and/or the ratio of TMB/PdNC is high. Clean PdNC in serum-free media efficiently induce apoptosis of HeLa cells. It is the primary route of cell death and is associated with hyperpolarization of mitochondria, contrary to a common mitochondrial depolarization initiated by ROS. Again, the effects are very sensitive to how well the pristine surface of PdNC is preserved, suggesting that PdNC can be used as an apoptosis inducing agent, but only with appropriate drug delivery system. PMID:25886644

  1. Evaluation of four sample treatments for determination of platinum in automotive catalytic converters by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Ana I.; Alvarado, José I.

    2006-09-01

    Conventional and microwave assisted digestion, both using aqua regia, alkaline fusion with lithium metaborate and aqueous slurries were evaluated as sample treatments for determination of Pt in automotive catalytic converters by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS). Determination of platinum by GF-AAS in samples of the catalytic converter's substrates, prepared by the four methods described, indicates that the highest platinum concentration i.e. maximum Pt extraction in the range of 748 ± 15-998 ± 10 μg mL - 1 , is obtained for samples dissolved by alkaline fusion, closely followed by analysis of aqueous plus Triton X-100 slurries 708 ± 14-958 ± 10 μg mL - 1 , while neither one of the acid digestion procedures achieved total dissolution of the samples. Slurry analysis is thus shown to be a viable alternative and is recommended, based on its speed and ease of implementation. Aqueous standards calibration curves and the standard addition methods were also compared. The results showed that no appreciable matrix effects are present, regardless of the sample preparation procedure used. Precision of the measurements, expressed as percentage relative standard deviation, ranged between 2.5 to 4.9%. Accuracy of the results was assessed by recovery tests which rendered values between 98.9 and 100.9%.

  2. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of isatin derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zhi-Min; Sun, Juan; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Seven isatin derivatives have been designed, and their chemical structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, 1H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Structural stabilization followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule. These compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities. Docking simulations have been performed to position compounds into the FtsZ active site to determine their probable binding models. All of the compounds exhibited better antibacterial activities. Interestingly, compound 5c and 5d exhibited better antibacterial activities with IC50 values of 0.03 and 0.05 μmol/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Compound 5g displays antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 0.672 and 0.830 μmol/mL against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively.

  3. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaoi, T.; Laksanalamai, P.; Jiemjit, A.; Kagawa, H. K.; Alton, T.; Trent, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. [Partial sequence homology of FtsZ in phylogenetics analysis of lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Xiu-zhu

    2005-10-01

    FtsZ is a structurally conserved protein, which is universal among the prokaryotes. It plays a key role in prokaryote cell division. A partial fragment of the ftsZ gene about 800bp in length was amplified and sequenced and a partial FtsZ protein phylogenetic tree for the lactic acid bacteria was constructed. By comparing the FtsZ phylogenetic tree with the 16S rDNA tree, it was shown that the two trees were similar in topology. Both trees revealed that Pediococcus spp. were closely related with L. casei group of Lactobacillus spp. , but less related with other lactic acid cocci such as Enterococcus and Streptococcus. The results also showed that the discriminative power of FtsZ was higher than that of 16S rDNA for either inter-species or inter-genus and could be a very useful tool in species identification of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16342751

  5. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, T; Laksanalamai, P; Jiemjit, A; Kagawa, H K; Alton, T; Trent, J D

    2000-09-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. PMID:10973825

  6. The ftsQ1p gearbox promoter of Escherichia coli is a major sigma S-dependent promoter in the ddlB-ftsA region.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, M; Kusano, S; Ishihama, A; Vicente, M

    1998-10-01

    The most potent promoters in the ddlB-ftsA region of the dcw cluster have been analysed for sigmaS-dependent transcription. Only the gearbox promoter ftsQ1p was found to be transcribed in vitro by RNA polymerase holoenzyme coupled to sigmaS (EsigmaS). This dependency on sigmaS was also found in vivo when single-copy fusions to a reporter gene were analysed in rpoS and rpoS+ backgrounds. Although ftsQ1p can be transcribed by RNA polymerase containing either sigmaD or sigmaS, there is a preference for EsigmaS when the assay conditions include potassium glutamate and supercoiled templates, a property shared with the bolA1p gearbox promoter. The rest of the promoters assayed, ftsQ2p and ftsZ2p3p4p, similarly to the control bolA2p promoter, were preferentially transcribed by EsigmaD, the housekeeper polymerase. The ftsQ1p and the bolA1p promoters also share the presence of AT-rich sequences upstream of the - 35 region and the requirement for an intact wild-type alpha-subunit for a proficient transcription, allowing their joint classification as gearboxes. PMID:9791185

  7. FtsZ-less prokaryotic cell division as well as FtsZ- and dynamin-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division

    PubMed Central

    Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Nakamura, Mami; Uzuka, Akihiro; Era, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast division machinery is a mixture of a stromal FtsZ-based complex descended from a cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts and a cytosolic dynamin-related protein (DRP) 5B-based complex derived from the eukaryotic host. Molecular genetic studies have shown that each component of the division machinery is normally essential for normal chloroplast division. However, several exceptions have been found. In the absence of the FtsZ ring, non-photosynthetic plastids are able to proliferate, likely by elongation and budding. Depletion of DRP5B impairs, but does not stop chloroplast division. Chloroplasts in glaucophytes, which possesses a peptidoglycan (PG) layer, divide without DRP5B. Certain parasitic eukaryotes possess non-photosynthetic plastids of secondary endosymbiotic origin, but neither FtsZ nor DRP5B is encoded in their genomes. Elucidation of the FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast division mechanism will lead to a better understanding of the function and evolution of the chloroplast division machinery and the finding of the as-yet-unknown mechanism that is likely involved in chloroplast division. Recent studies have shown that FtsZ was lost from a variety of prokaryotes, many of which lost PG by regressive evolution. In addition, even some of the FtsZ-bearing bacteria are able to divide when FtsZ and PG are depleted experimentally. In some cases, alternative mechanisms for cell division, such as budding by an increase of the cell surface-to-volume ratio, are proposed. Although PG is believed to have been lost from chloroplasts other than in glaucophytes, there is some indirect evidence for the existence of PG in chloroplasts. Such information is also useful for understanding how non-photosynthetic plastids are able to divide in FtsZ-depleted cells and the reason for the retention of FtsZ in chloroplast division. Here we summarize information to facilitate analyses of FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division. PMID

  8. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

    2000-12-01

    Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

  9. The 75-kilodalton antigen of Bartonella bacilliformis is a structural homolog of the cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Padmalayam, I; Anderson, B; Kron, M; Kelly, T; Baumstark, B

    1997-01-01

    A genomic library of Bartonella bacilliformis was constructed and screened with human anti-Bartonella serum from a patient with the chronic, verruga peruana phase of bartonellosis. An immunoreactive clone isolated from this library was found to code for a 591-amino-acid protein with a high degree of sequence similarity to the FtsZ family of proteins. The degree of amino acid identity between the B. bacilliformis protein (FtsZ[Bb]) and the other FtsZ proteins is especially pronounced over the N-terminal 321 amino acids (N-terminal domain) of the sequence, with values ranging from 45% identity for the homolog from Micrococcus luteus (FtsZ[Ml]) to 91% identity for the homolog from Rhizobium melliloti, (FtsZ[Rm1]). All of the functional domains required for FtsZ activity are conserved in FtsZ(Bb) and are located within the N-terminal domain of the protein. FtsZ(Bb) is approximately twice as large as most of the other FtsZ proteins previously reported, a property it shares with FtsZ(Rm1). Like the Rhizobium homolog, FtsZ(Bb) has a C-terminal region of approximately 256 amino acids that is absent in the other FtsZ proteins. Evidence is presented that implicates this region in the protein's antigenicity and suggests that, unlike most other FtsZ homologs, FtsZ(Bb) is at least partly exposed at the cell surface. PCR analysis revealed that an ftsZ gene similar in size to the B. bacilliformis gene is present in Bartonella henselae, a bacterium that is closely related to B. bacilliformis. PMID:9226264

  10. Transcription of ftsZ oscillates during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, T; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Aldea, M; Vicente, M

    1993-01-01

    The FtsZ protein is a key element controlling cell division in Escherichia coli. A powerful transcription titration assay was used to quantify the ftsZ mRNA present in synchronously dividing cells. The ftsZ mRNA levels oscillate during the cell cycle reaching a maximum at about the time DNA replication initiates. This cell cycle dependency is specifically due to the two proximal ftsZ promoters. A strain was constructed in which expression of ftsZ could be modulated by an exogenous inducer. In this strain cell size and cell division frequency were sensitive to the cellular FtsZ contents, demonstrating the rate-limiting role of this protein in cell division. Transcriptional activity of the ftsZ promoters was found to be independent of DnaA, indicating that DNA replication and cell division may be independently controlled at the time when new rounds of DNA replication are initiated. This suggests a parallelism between the prokaryotic cell cycle signals and the START point of eukaryotic cell cycles. Images PMID:8404863

  11. Specificity of the transport of lipid II by FtsW in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Sijbrandi, Robert; Lutters, Mandy; Verheul, Jolanda; Martin, Nathaniel I; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2014-05-23

    Synthesis of biogenic membranes requires transbilayer movement of lipid-linked sugar molecules. This biological process, which is fundamental in prokaryotic cells, remains as yet not clearly understood. In order to obtain insights into the molecular basis of its mode of action, we analyzed the structure-function relationship between Lipid II, the important building block of the bacterial cell wall, and its inner membrane-localized transporter FtsW. Here, we show that the predicted transmembrane helix 4 of Escherichia coli FtsW (this protein consists of 10 predicted transmembrane segments) is required for the transport activity of the protein. We have identified two charged residues (Arg(145) and Lys(153)) within this segment that are specifically involved in the flipping of Lipid II. Mutating these two amino acids to uncharged ones affected the transport activity of FtsW. This was consistent with loss of in vivo activity of the mutants, as manifested by their inability to complement a temperature-sensitive strain of FtsW. The transport activity of FtsW could be inhibited with a Lipid II variant having an additional size of 420 Da. Reducing the size of this analog by about 274 Da resulted in the resumption of the transport activity of FtsW. This suggests that the integral membrane protein FtsW forms a size-restricted porelike structure, which accommodates Lipid II during transport across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:24711460

  12. Specificity of the Transport of Lipid II by FtsW in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Sijbrandi, Robert; Lutters, Mandy; Verheul, Jolanda; Martin, Nathaniel I.; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of biogenic membranes requires transbilayer movement of lipid-linked sugar molecules. This biological process, which is fundamental in prokaryotic cells, remains as yet not clearly understood. In order to obtain insights into the molecular basis of its mode of action, we analyzed the structure-function relationship between Lipid II, the important building block of the bacterial cell wall, and its inner membrane-localized transporter FtsW. Here, we show that the predicted transmembrane helix 4 of Escherichia coli FtsW (this protein consists of 10 predicted transmembrane segments) is required for the transport activity of the protein. We have identified two charged residues (Arg145 and Lys153) within this segment that are specifically involved in the flipping of Lipid II. Mutating these two amino acids to uncharged ones affected the transport activity of FtsW. This was consistent with loss of in vivo activity of the mutants, as manifested by their inability to complement a temperature-sensitive strain of FtsW. The transport activity of FtsW could be inhibited with a Lipid II variant having an additional size of 420 Da. Reducing the size of this analog by about 274 Da resulted in the resumption of the transport activity of FtsW. This suggests that the integral membrane protein FtsW forms a size-restricted porelike structure, which accommodates Lipid II during transport across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:24711460

  13. FtsZ in Bacterial Cytokinesis: Cytoskeleton and Force Generator All in One†

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Harold P.; Anderson, David E.; Osawa, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Summary: FtsZ, a bacterial homolog of tubulin, is well established as forming the cytoskeletal framework for the cytokinetic ring. Recent work has shown that purified FtsZ, in the absence of any other division proteins, can assemble Z rings when incorporated inside tubular liposomes. Moreover, these artificial Z rings can generate a constriction force, demonstrating that FtsZ is its own force generator. Here we review light microscope observations of how Z rings assemble in bacteria. Assembly begins with long-pitch helices that condense into the Z ring. Once formed, the Z ring can transition to short-pitch helices that are suggestive of its structure. FtsZ assembles in vitro into short protofilaments that are ∼30 subunits long. We present models for how these protofilaments might be further assembled into the Z ring. We discuss recent experiments on assembly dynamics of FtsZ in vitro, with particular attention to how two regulatory proteins, SulA and MinC, inhibit assembly. Recent efforts to develop antibacterial drugs that target FtsZ are reviewed. Finally, we discuss evidence of how FtsZ generates a constriction force: by protofilament bending into a curved conformation. PMID:21119015

  14. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the MinC-FtsZ Interaction in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Castellen, Patricia; Nogueira, Maria Luiza C.; Bettini, Jefferson; Portugal, Rodrigo V.; Zeri, Ana Carolina M.; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J.

    2013-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria is regulated by proteins that interact with FtsZ and modulate its ability to polymerize into the Z ring structure. The best studied of these regulators is MinC, an inhibitor of FtsZ polymerization that plays a crucial role in the spatial control of Z ring formation. Recent work established that E. coli MinC interacts with two regions of FtsZ, the bottom face of the H10 helix and the extreme C-terminal peptide (CTP). Here we determined the binding site for MinC on Bacillus subtilis FtsZ. Selection of a library of FtsZ mutants for survival in the presence of Min overexpression resulted in the isolation of 13 Min-resistant mutants. Most of the substitutions that gave rise to Min resistance clustered around the H9 and H10 helices in the C-terminal domain of FtsZ. In addition, a mutation in the CTP of B. subtilis FtsZ also produced MinC resistance. Biochemical characterization of some of the mutant proteins showed that they exhibited normal polymerization properties but reduced interaction with MinC, as expected for binding site mutations. Thus, our study shows that the overall architecture of the MinC-FtsZ interaction is conserved in E. coli and B. subtilis. Nevertheless, there was a clear difference in the mutations that conferred Min resistance, with those in B. subtilis FtsZ pointing to the side of the molecule rather than to its polymerization interface. This observation suggests that the mechanism of Z ring inhibition by MinC differs in both species. PMID:23577149

  15. A Compete-and-Survive Mechanism Explains the Single FtsZ-Ring Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ganhui; Xiong, Li-Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cytokinesis is a critical step in cell reproduction. In bacterial cells, this process is mediated by the cytoskeletal Z ring which is assembled from FtsZ filaments that are ``anchored'' to the cell membrane through ZipA/FtsA molecules. Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching experiments have shown that the Z ring is highly dynamic, with recovery half time of 8 ~ 30 seconds, yet has a rather persistent overall structure. But it is unclear how a single narrow dynamic Z ring emerges from a big pool of cytoplasmic FtsZ molecules. Here, we developed a rule-based molecular model with FtsZ and ZipA/FtsA molecules, by explicitly considering the elementary assembling events of molecules and their diffusion. Our model can not only efficiently reproduce the Z ring with experimentally observed statistical properties, but provide a convenient way to combine biochemical dynamic and physical assembling processes within the same spatiotemporal modeling framework. In agreement with experiments, we showed that the spontaneous self-assembling process relies on the molecular ``stoichiometry'': either high or low FtsZ to ZipA/FtsA ratios would result in multiple Z rings or aggregated bundles. Our in silico FRAP experiment further yields a recovery half time comparable to experimental results. These results indicate that the rapid turnover dynamics prevents the FtsZ molecules from being sequestered by small FtsZ bundles dispersed over the membrane, allowing single Z ring to emerge and mature. This dynamic colocalization mechanism provides cells a simple way for spatial regulation.

  16. The ftsZ Gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis is expressed Through Multiple Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sougata; Anand, Deepak; Vijay, Srinivasan; Gupta, Prabuddha; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2011-01-01

    The principal essential bacterial cell division gene ftsZ is differentially expressed through multiple transcripts in diverse genera of bacteria in order to meet cell division requirements in compliance with the physiological niche of the organism under different environmental conditions. We initiated transcriptional analyses of ftsZ gene of the fast growing saprophytic mycobacterium, Mycobacterium smegmatis, as the first step towards understanding the requirements for FtsZ for cell division under different growth phases and stress conditions. Primer extension analyses identified four transcripts, T1, T2, T3, and T4. Transcriptional fusion studies using gfp showed that the respective putative promoter regions, P1, P2, P3, and P4, possessed promoter activity. T1, T2, and T3 were found to originate from the intergenic region between ftsZ and the upstream gene, ftsQ. T4 was initiated from the 3’ portion of the open reading frame of ftsQ. RT-PCR analyses indicated co-transcription of ftsQ and ftsZ. The four transcripts were present in the cells at all growth phases and at different levels in the cells exposed to a variety of stress conditions in vitro. T2 and T3 were absent under hypoxia and nutrient-depleted stationary phase conditions, while the levels of T1 and T4 remained unaffected. These studies showed that ftsZ gene expression through multiple transcripts and differential expression of the transcripts at different growth phases and under stress conditions are conserved in M. smegmatis, like in other Actinomycetes. PMID:21772930

  17. Robotic technologies of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) including fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The original FTS concept for Space Station Freedom (SSF) was to provide telerobotic assistance to enhance crew activity and safety and to reduce crew EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) activity. The first flight of the FTS manipulator systems would demonstrate several candidate tasks and would verify manipulator performance parameters. These first flight tasks included unlocking a SSF Truss Joint, mating/demating a fluid coupling, contact following of a contour board, demonstrating peg-in-hole assembly, and grasping and moving a mass. Future tasks foreseen for the FTS system included ORU (Orbit Replaceable Unit) change-out, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing, Gamma Ray Observatory refueling, and several in-situ SSF servicing and maintenance tasks. Operation of the FTS was planned to evolve from teleoperation to fully autonomous execution of many tasks. This wide range of mission tasks combined with the desire to evolve toward fully autonomy forced several requirements which may seen extremely demanding to the telerobotics community. The FTS requirements appear to have been created to accommodate the open-ended evolution plan such that operational evolution would not be impeded by function limitations. A recommendation arising from the FTS program to remedy the possible impacts from such ambitious requirements is to analyze candidate robotic tasks. Based on these task analyses, operational impacts against development impacts were weighed prior to requirements definition. Many of the FTS requirements discussed in the following sections greatly influenced the development cost and schedule of the FTS manipulator. The FTS manipulator has been assembled at Martin Marietta and is currently in testing. Successful component tests indicate a manipulator which achieves unprecedented performance specifications.

  18. The optical design of a far infrared imaging FTS for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Carmen; Zuluaga, Pablo; Jellema, Willem; González Fernández, Luis Miguel; Belenguer, Tomas; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Kooijman, Peter Paul; Najarro, Francisco; Eggens, Martin; Roelfsema, Peter; Nakagawa, Takao

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the optical design of the far infrared imaging spectrometer for the JAXA's SPICA mission. The SAFARI instrument, is a cryogenic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (iFTS), designed to perform backgroundlimited spectroscopic and photometric imaging in the band 34-210 μm. The all-reflective optical system is highly modular and consists of three main modules; input optics module, interferometer module (FTS) and camera bay optics. A special study has been dedicated to the spectroscopic performance of the instrument, in which the spectral response and interference of the instrument have been modeled, as the FTS mechanism scans over the total desired OPD range.

  19. SB-RA-2001 Inhibits Bacterial Proliferation by Targeting FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials. PMID:24749867

  20. PARAMETRIC EVALUATION OF VOC/HAP (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS-HAZARDOUS/TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS) DESTRUCTION VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the use of a pilot-scale catalytic incineration unit/solvent generation system to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic incineration as a way to destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous/toxic air pollutants (HAPs). Objectives of the study ...

  1. MinC Protein Shortens FtsZ Protofilaments by Preferentially Interacting with GDP-bound Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.; García-Montañés, Concepción; Reija, Belén; Monterroso, Begoña; Margolin, William; Alfonso, Carlos; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of MinC with FtsZ and its effects on FtsZ polymerization were studied under close to physiological conditions by a combination of biophysical methods. The Min system is a widely conserved mechanism in bacteria that ensures the correct placement of the division machinery at midcell. MinC is the component of this system that effectively interacts with FtsZ and inhibits the formation of the Z-ring. Here we report that MinC produces a concentration-dependent reduction in the size of GTP-induced FtsZ protofilaments (FtsZ-GTP) as demonstrated by analytical ultracentrifugation, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Our experiments show that, despite being shorter, FtsZ protofilaments maintain their narrow distribution in size in the presence of MinC. The protein had the same effect regardless of its addition prior to or after FtsZ polymerization. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that MinC bound to FtsZ-GDP with a moderate affinity (apparent KD ∼10 μm at 100 mm KCl and pH 7.5) very close to the MinC concentration corresponding to the midpoint of the inhibition of FtsZ assembly. Only marginal binding of MinC to FtsZ-GTP protofilaments was observed by analytical ultracentrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Remarkably, MinC effects on FtsZ-GTP protofilaments and binding affinity to FtsZ-GDP were strongly dependent on ionic strength, being severely reduced at 500 mm KCl compared with 100 mm KCl. Our results support a mechanism in which MinC interacts with FtsZ-GDP, resulting in smaller protofilaments of defined size and having the same effect on both preassembled and growing FtsZ protofilaments. PMID:23853099

  2. ORGANIC EMISSIONS EVALUATION OF A PAINT BAKE OVEN WITH CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a test program conducted at a paint bake oven facility. The purpose was to measure total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations at the inlet and outlet of an incinerator with heat recovery used to reduce organic solvent emissions. Data were also collected to evalu...

  3. Kinetic evaluation of phenolase activity of tyrosinase using simplified catalytic reaction system.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Itoh, Shinobu

    2003-10-29

    A very simple tyrosinase reaction system has been developed using borate anion as a trapping agent of catechols and hydroxylamine as an external reductant to evaluate the phenolase activity without the interference of catecholase activity. Reactivities of variously para-substituted phenols in this system were compared directly to those of the phenols in the model reactions, demonstrating that the enzymatic oxygenation reaction of phenols proceeds via the same mechanism as the model reaction, that is, electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism. PMID:14570470

  4. Tubular Liposomes with Variable Permeability for Reconstitution of FtsZ Rings

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Masaki; Erickson, Harold P.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a system for producing tubular multilamellar liposomes that incorporate the protein FtsZ on the inside. We start with a mixture of spherical multilamellar liposomes with FtsZ initially on the outside. Shearing forces generated by applying a coverslip most likely distort some of the spherical liposomes into a tubular shape, and causes some to leak and incorporate FtsZ inside. We describe protocols for liposome preparation, and for preparing membrane-targeted FtsZ that can assemble contractile Z rings inside the tubular liposomes. We also describe the characterization of the multilamellar liposomes in terms of the permeability or leakiness for a small fluorescent dye and larger protein molecules. These liposomes may be useful for reconstitution of other biological systems. PMID:19903547

  5. Electrostatics and Intrinsic Disorder Drive Translocon Binding of the SRP Receptor FtsY.

    PubMed

    Lakomek, Nils-Alexander; Draycheva, Albena; Bornemann, Thomas; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Integral membrane proteins in bacteria are co-translationally targeted to the SecYEG translocon for membrane insertion via the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. The SRP receptor FtsY and its N-terminal A domain, which is lacking in any structural model of FtsY, were studied using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The A domain is mainly disordered and highly flexible; it binds to lipids via its N terminus and the C-terminal membrane targeting sequence. The central A domain binds to the translocon non-specifically and maintains disorder. Translocon targeting and binding of the A domain is driven by electrostatic interactions. The intrinsically disordered A domain tethers FtsY to the translocon, and because of its flexibility, allows the FtsY NG domain to scan a large area for binding to the NG domain of ribosome-bound SRP, thereby promoting the formation of the quaternary transfer complex at the membrane. PMID:27346853

  6. A large-stroke cryogenic imaging FTS system for SPICA-Safari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellema, Willem; van Loon, Dennis; Naylor, David; Roelfsema, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The scientific goals of the far-infrared astronomy mission SPICA challenge the design of a large-stroke imaging FTS for Safari, inviting for the development of a new generation of cryogenic actuators with very low dissipation. In this paper we present the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) system concept, as foreseen for SPICA-Safari, and we discuss the technical developments required to satisfy the instrument performance.

  7. Maize mutants lacking chloroplast FtsY exhibit pleiotropic defects in the biogenesis of thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yukari; Hirohashi, Toshiya; Kikuchi, Shingo; Belcher, Susan; Osborne, Erin; Yano, Satoshi; Terashima, Ichiro; Barkan, Alice; Nakai, Masato

    2004-01-01

    A chloroplast signal recognition particle (SRP) that is related to the SRP involved in secretion in bacteria and eukaryotic cells is used for the insertion of light-harvesting chlorophyll proteins (LHCPs) into the thylakoid membranes. A conserved component of the SRP mechanism is a membrane-bound SRP receptor, denoted FtsY in bacteria. Plant genomes encode FtsY homologs that are targeted to the chloroplast (cpFtsY). To investigate the in vivo roles of cpFtsY, we characterized maize cpFtsY and maize mutants having a Mu transposon insertion in the corresponding gene (chloroplast SRP receptor1, or csr1). Maize cpFtsY accumulates to much higher levels in leaf tissue than in roots and stems. Interestingly, it is present at similar levels in etiolated and green leaf tissue and was found to bind the prolamellar bodies of etioplasts. A null cpFtsY mutant, csr1-1, showed a substantial loss of leaf chlorophyll, whereas a "leaky" allele, csr1-3, conditioned a more moderate chlorophyll deficiency. Both alleles caused the loss of various LHCPs and the thylakoid-bound photosynthetic enzyme complexes and were seedling lethal. By contrast, levels of the membrane-bound components of the thylakoid protein transport machineries were not altered. The thylakoid membranes in csr1-1 chloroplasts were unstacked and reduced in abundance, but the prolamellar bodies in mutant etioplasts appeared normal. These results demonstrate the essentiality of cpFtsY for the biogenesis not only of the LHCPs but also for the assembly of the other membrane-bound components of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:14688289

  8. Report on SARS backfit evaluation, Catalytic, Inc. Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.F. Jr.

    1980-07-02

    A site visit was made in company with the DOE-OPTA-EA Safety and Health Official for the purpose of providing that official with technical assistance in evaluating the validity of an earlier DOE-OPTA recommendation exempting this facility from the Safety and Analysis and Review backfit requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. A further purpose of the visit was to assess and evaluate the occupational safety and health program at this facility, as compared with the criteria and guidelines contained in ASFE Order 5481.1. Adequate documentation regarding compliance with codes, standards, and regulations were observed at this facility. There is in existence an ongoing continuous safety analysis effort for both modifications or additions to this facility. Adequate environmental safeguards and plans and procedures were observed. The SARS backfit exemption is appropriate. The occupational safety and health program is in many ways a model for the scope of work and nature of hazards involved, and is consistent with ASFE guidelines and statutory requirements.

  9. Evaluation of anode (electro)catalytic materials for the direct borohydride fuel cell: Methods and benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olu, Pierre-Yves; Job, Nathalie; Chatenet, Marian

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, different methods are discussed for the evaluation of the potential of a given catalyst, in view of an application as a direct borohydride fuel cell DBFC anode material. Characterizations results in DBFC configuration are notably analyzed at the light of important experimental variables which influence the performances of the DBFC. However, in many practical DBFC-oriented studies, these various experimental variables prevent one to isolate the influence of the anode catalyst on the cell performances. Thus, the electrochemical three-electrode cell is a widely-employed and useful tool to isolate the DBFC anode catalyst and to investigate its electrocatalytic activity towards the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in the absence of other limitations. This article reviews selected results for different types of catalysts in electrochemical cell containing a sodium borohydride alkaline electrolyte. In particular, propositions of common experimental conditions and benchmarks are given for practical evaluation of the electrocatalytic activity towards the BOR in three-electrode cell configuration. The major issue of gaseous hydrogen generation and escape upon DBFC operation is also addressed through a comprehensive review of various results depending on the anode composition. At last, preliminary concerns are raised about the stability of potential anode catalysts upon DBFC operation.

  10. Evaluation of the catalytic specificity, biochemical properties, and milk clotting abilities of an aspartic peptidase from Rhizomucor miehei.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues; Souto, Tatiane Beltramini; de Oliveira, Tássio Brito; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Karcher, Daniel; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; de Oliveira, Arthur H C; Rodrigues, André; Rosa, Jose C; Cabral, Hamilton

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we detail the specificity of an aspartic peptidase from Rhizomucor miehei and evaluate the effects of this peptidase on clotting milk using the peptide sequence of k-casein (Abz-LSFMAIQ-EDDnp) and milk powder. Molecular mass of the peptidase was estimated at 37 kDa, and optimum activity was achieved at pH 5.5 and 55 °C. The peptidase was stable at pH values ranging from 3 to 5 and temperatures of up 45 °C for 60 min. Dramatic reductions in proteolytic activity were observed with exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate, and aluminum and copper (II) chloride. Peptidase was inhibited by pepstatin A, and mass spectrometry analysis identified four peptide fragments (TWSISYGDGSSASGILAK, ASNGGGGEYIFGGYDSTK, GSLTTVPIDNSR, and GWWGITVDRA), similar to rhizopuspepsin. The analysis of catalytic specificity showed that the coagulant activity of the peptidase was higher than the proteolytic activity and that there was a preference for aromatic, basic, and nonpolar amino acids, particularly methionine, with specific cleavage of the peptide bond between phenylalanine and methionine. Thus, this peptidase may function as an important alternative enzyme in milk clotting during the preparation of cheese. PMID:27165660

  11. Surface characterization and catalytic evaluation of copper-promoted Al-MCM-41 toward hydroxylation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Parida, K M; Rath, Dharitri

    2009-12-15

    The Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (MCM-41) containing Cu and Al with Si/Al ratios varying from 100 to 10 and 1 to 6wt.% of Cu was synthesized under hydrothermal and impregnation conditions, respectively. The samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and (29)Si and (27)Al magic-angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectra. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the modified materials retain the standard MCM-41 structure. TPR patterns show the two-step reduction of Cu species. TPD study shows that Cu-impregnated Al-MCM-41 samples are more acidic than Al-MCM-41. From the MAS-NMR it was confirmed that most of the Al atoms are present tetrahedrally within the framework and some are present octahedrally in extraframework position. Impregnation of Cu shifted Al to the extraframework position. The catalytic activity of the samples toward hydroxylation of phenol in aqueous medium was evaluated using H(2)O(2) as the oxidant at 80 degrees C. The effects of reaction parameters such as temperature, catalyst amount, amount of H(2)O(2), and solvent were also investigated. Sample containing 4wt.% copper-loaded Al-MCM-41-100 showed high phenol conversion (78%) with 68% catechol and 32% hydroquinone selectivity. PMID:19782994

  12. Localization of Cell Division Protein FtsQ by Immunofluorescence Microscopy in Dividing and Nondividing Cells of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Buddelmeijer, Nienke; Aarsman, Mirjam E. G.; Kolk, Arend H. J.; Vicente, Miguel; Nanninga, Nanne

    1998-01-01

    The localization of cell division protein FtsQ in Escherichia coli wild-type cells was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy with specific monoclonal antibodies. FtsQ could be localized to the division site in constricting cells. FtsQ could also localize to the division site in ftsQ1(Ts) cells grown at the permissive temperature. A hybrid protein in which the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane domain were derived from the γ form of penicillin-binding protein 1B and the periplasmic domain was derived from FtsQ was also able to localize to the division site. This result indicates that the periplasmic domain of FtsQ determines the localization of FtsQ, as has also been concluded by others for the periplasmic domain of FtsN. Noncentral FtsQ foci were found in the area of the cell where the nucleoid resides and were therefore assumed to represent sites where the FtsQ protein is synthesized and simultaneously inserted into the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:9829918

  13. Architecture of the ring formed by the tubulin homologue FtsZ in bacterial cell division

    PubMed Central

    Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Bharat, Tanmay A M; Tsim, Matthew; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Membrane constriction is a prerequisite for cell division. The most common membrane constriction system in prokaryotes is based on the tubulin homologue FtsZ, whose filaments in E. coli are anchored to the membrane by FtsA and enable the formation of the Z-ring and divisome. The precise architecture of the FtsZ ring has remained enigmatic. In this study, we report three-dimensional arrangements of FtsZ and FtsA filaments in C. crescentus and E. coli cells and inside constricting liposomes by means of electron cryomicroscopy and cryotomography. In vivo and in vitro, the Z-ring is composed of a small, single-layered band of filaments parallel to the membrane, creating a continuous ring through lateral filament contacts. Visualisation of the in vitro reconstituted constrictions as well as a complete tracing of the helical paths of the filaments with a molecular model favour a mechanism of FtsZ-based membrane constriction that is likely to be accompanied by filament sliding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04601.001 PMID:25490152

  14. A benzamide-dependent ftsZ mutant reveals residues crucial for Z-ring assembly.

    PubMed

    Adams, David William; Wu, Ling Juan; Errington, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    In almost all bacteria, cell division is co-ordinated by the essential tubulin homologue FtsZ and represents an attractive but as yet unexploited target for new antibiotics. The benzamides, e.g. PC190723, are potent FtsZ inhibitors that have the potential to yield an important new class of antibiotic. However, the evolution of resistance poses a challenge to their development. Here we show that a collection of PC190723-resistant and -dependent strains of Staphylococcus aureus exhibit severe growth and morphological defects, questioning whether these ftsZ mutations would be clinically relevant. Importantly, we show that the most commonly isolated substitution remains sensitive to the simplest benzamide 3-MBA and likely works by occluding compound binding. Extending this analysis to Bacillus subtilis, we isolated a novel benzamide-dependent strain that divides using unusual helical division events. The ftsZ mutation responsible encodes the substitution of a highly conserved residue, which lies outside the benzamide-binding site and forms part of an interface between the N- and C-terminal domains that we show is necessary for normal FtsZ function. Together with an intragenic suppressor mutation that mimics benzamide binding, the results provide genetic evidence that benzamides restrict conformational changes in FtsZ and also highlights their utility as tools to probe bacterial division. PMID:26601800

  15. A benzamide‐dependent fts Z mutant reveals residues crucial for Z‐ring assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ling Juan

    2015-01-01

    Summary In almost all bacteria, cell division is co‐ordinated by the essential tubulin homologue FtsZ and represents an attractive but as yet unexploited target for new antibiotics. The benzamides, e.g. PC190723, are potent FtsZ inhibitors that have the potential to yield an important new class of antibiotic. However, the evolution of resistance poses a challenge to their development. Here we show that a collection of PC190723‐resistant and ‐dependent strains of S taphylococcus aureus exhibit severe growth and morphological defects, questioning whether these fts Z mutations would be clinically relevant. Importantly, we show that the most commonly isolated substitution remains sensitive to the simplest benzamide 3‐MBA and likely works by occluding compound binding. Extending this analysis to B acillus subtilis, we isolated a novel benzamide‐dependent strain that divides using unusual helical division events. The fts Z mutation responsible encodes the substitution of a highly conserved residue, which lies outside the benzamide‐binding site and forms part of an interface between the N‐ and C‐terminal domains that we show is necessary for normal FtsZ function. Together with an intragenic suppressor mutation that mimics benzamide binding, the results provide genetic evidence that benzamides restrict conformational changes in FtsZ and also highlights their utility as tools to probe bacterial division. PMID:26601800

  16. Charged Molecules Modulate the Volume Exclusion Effects Exerted by Crowders on FtsZ Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Reija, Belén; Jiménez, Mercedes; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of protein crowders, either combined or individually, on the GTP-induced FtsZ cooperative assembly, crucial for the formation of the dynamic septal ring and, hence, for bacterial division. It was earlier demonstrated that high concentrations of inert polymers like Ficoll 70, used to mimic the crowded cellular interior, favor the assembly of FtsZ into bundles with slow depolymerization. We have found, by fluorescence anisotropy together with light scattering measurements, that the presence of protein crowders increases the tendency of FtsZ to polymerize at micromolar magnesium concentration, being the effect larger with ovomucoid, a negatively charged protein. Neutral polymers and a positively charged protein also diminished the critical concentration of assembly, the extent of the effect being compatible with that expected according to pure volume exclusion models. FtsZ polymerization was also observed to be strongly promoted by a negatively charged polymer, DNA, and by some unrelated polymers like PEGs at concentrations below the crowding regime. The influence of mixed crowders mimicking the heterogeneity of the intracellular environment on the tendency of FtsZ to assemble was also studied and nonadditive effects were found to prevail. Far from exactly reproducing the bacterial cytoplasm environment, this approach serves as a simplified model illustrating how its intrinsically crowded and heterogeneous nature may modulate FtsZ assembly into a functional Z-ring. PMID:26870947

  17. Rational design of berberine-based FtsZ inhibitors with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Chan, Fung-Yi; Lu, Yu-Jing; Neves, Marco A C; Lui, Hok-Kiu; Wang, Yong; Chow, Ka-Yan; Chan, Kin-Fai; Yan, Siu-Cheong; Leung, Yun-Chung; Abagyan, Ruben; Chan, Tak-Hang; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of the functional activity of Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protein, an essential and highly conserved bacterial cytokinesis protein, is a promising approach for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid widely used in traditional Chinese and native American medicines for its antimicrobial properties, has been recently reported to inhibit FtsZ. Using a combination of in silico structure-based design and in vitro biological assays, 9-phenoxyalkyl berberine derivatives were identified as potent FtsZ inhibitors. Compared to the parent compound berberine, the derivatives showed a significant enhancement of antibacterial activity against clinically relevant bacteria, and an improved potency against the GTPase activity and polymerization of FtsZ. The most potent compound 2 strongly inhibited the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with MIC values between 2 and 4 µg/mL, and was active against the Gram-negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with MIC values of 32 and 64 µg/mL respectively. The compound perturbed the formation of cytokinetic Z-ring in E. coli. Also, the compound interfered with in vitro polymerization of S. aureus FtsZ. Taken together, the chemical modification of berberine with 9-phenoxyalkyl substituent groups greatly improved the antibacterial activity via targeting FtsZ. PMID:24824618

  18. Rational Design of Berberine-Based FtsZ Inhibitors with Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ning; Chan, Fung-Yi; Lu, Yu-Jing; Neves, Marco A. C.; Lui, Hok-Kiu; Wang, Yong; Chow, Ka-Yan; Chan, Kin-Fai; Yan, Siu-Cheong; Leung, Yun-Chung; Abagyan, Ruben; Chan, Tak-Hang; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of the functional activity of Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protein, an essential and highly conserved bacterial cytokinesis protein, is a promising approach for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid widely used in traditional Chinese and native American medicines for its antimicrobial properties, has been recently reported to inhibit FtsZ. Using a combination of in silico structure-based design and in vitro biological assays, 9-phenoxyalkyl berberine derivatives were identified as potent FtsZ inhibitors. Compared to the parent compound berberine, the derivatives showed a significant enhancement of antibacterial activity against clinically relevant bacteria, and an improved potency against the GTPase activity and polymerization of FtsZ. The most potent compound 2 strongly inhibited the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with MIC values between 2 and 4 µg/mL, and was active against the Gram-negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with MIC values of 32 and 64 µg/mL respectively. The compound perturbed the formation of cytokinetic Z-ring in E. coli. Also, the compound interfered with in vitro polymerization of S. aureus FtsZ. Taken together, the chemical modification of berberine with 9-phenoxyalkyl substituent groups greatly improved the antibacterial activity via targeting FtsZ. PMID:24824618

  19. FtsZ Protofilament Curvature Is the Opposite of Tubulin Rings.

    PubMed

    Housman, Max; Milam, Sara L; Moore, Desmond A; Osawa, Masaki; Erickson, Harold P

    2016-07-26

    FtsZ protofilaments (pfs) form the bacterial cytokinetic Z ring. Previous work suggested that a conformational change from straight to curved pfs generated the constriction force. In the simplest model, the C-terminal membrane tether is on the outside of the curved pf, facing the membrane. Tubulin, a homologue of FtsZ, also forms pfs with a curved conformation. However, it is well-established that tubulin rings have the C terminus on the inside of the ring. Could FtsZ and tubulin rings have the opposite curvature? In this study, we explored the FtsZ curvature direction by fusing large protein tags to the FtsZ termini. Thin section electron microscopy showed that the C-terminal tag was on the outside, consistent with the bending pf model. This has interesting implications for the evolution of tubulin. Tubulin likely began with the curvature of FtsZ, but evolution managed to reverse direction to produce outward-curving rings, which are useful for pulling chromosomes. PMID:27368355

  20. Hydrogen-oxygen catalytic ignition and thruster investigation. Volume 2: High pressure thruster evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. J.; Heckert, B.; Burge, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    A high pressure thruster effort was conducted with the major objective of demonstrating a duct cooling concept with gaseous propellant in a thruster operating at nominally 300 psia and 1500 lbf. The analytical design methods for the duct cooling were proven in a series of tests with both ambient and reduced temperature propellants. Long duration tests as well as pulse mode tests demonstrated the feasibility of the concept. All tests were conducted with a scaling of the raised post triplet injector design previously demonstrated at 900 lbf in demonstration firings. A series of environmental conditioned firings were also conducted to determine the effects of thermal soaks, atmospheric air and high humidity. This volume presents the results of the high pressure thruster evaluations.

  1. SAFARI: A Far Infrared Imaging FTS-Spectrometer for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Jellema, W.; Swinyard, B. M.

    2011-05-01

    The far-IR spectral window plays host to a critical range of both spectroscopic and photometric diagnostics with which to study our Galaxy and beyond, at wavelengths completely blocked by the Earth’s atmosphere. The proposed Japanese-led IR space telescope SPICA, with its cryogenically cooled ~3.2m telescope (<6 K) will be the next step in sensitivity after Herschel. SPICA is a "mission of opportunity" in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program. SPICA will be the only space observatory of its era to bridge the far-IR wavelength gap between JWST and ALMA, and carry out unique science not achievable at visible or submm wavelengths. This contribution summarizes the design concept behind SAFARI: a far-IR imaging FTS-spectrometer covering the ~34-210 μm waveband that is one of a suite of instruments for SPICA. SAFARI is proposed by a consortium of European and Canadian institutions led by SRON. We also highlight some of the science questions that it will be possible to address in the field of Astrochemistry.

  2. ACE-FTS instrument: activities in preparation for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre; Walker, Kaley A.; Fortin, Serge; Deutsch, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is the mission selected by the Canadian Space Agency for its next science satellite, SCISAT-1. ACE consists of a suite of instruments in which the primary element is an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) coupled with an auxiliary 2-channel visible (525 nm) and near infrared imager (1020 nm). A secondary instrument, MAESTRO, provides spectrographic data from the near ultra-violet to the near infrared, including the visible spectral range. In combination the instrument payload covers the spectral range from 0.25 to 13.3 micron. A comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature will be made by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. The ACE mission will measure and analyse the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. A high inclination (74 degrees), low earth orbit (650 km) allows coverage of tropical, mid-latitude and polar regions. This paper presents the instrument-related activities in preparation for launch. In particular, activities related to the integration of instrument to spacecraft are presented as well as tests of the instrument on-board the SciSat-1 bus. Environmental qualification activities at spacecraft-level are described. An overview of the characterization and calibration campaign is presented. Activities for integration and verification at launch site are also covered. The latest status of the spacecraft is also presented.

  3. Clean catalytic combustor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekstedt, E. E.; Lyon, T. F.; Sabla, P. E.; Dodds, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A combustor program was conducted to evolve and to identify the technology needed for, and to establish the credibility of, using combustors with catalytic reactors in modern high-pressure-ratio aircraft turbine engines. Two selected catalytic combustor concepts were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The combustors were sized for use in the NASA/General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3). One of the combustor designs was a basic parallel-staged double-annular combustor. The second design was also a parallel-staged combustor but employed reverse flow cannular catalytic reactors. Subcomponent tests of fuel injection systems and of catalytic reactors for use in the combustion system were also conducted. Very low-level pollutant emissions and excellent combustor performance were achieved. However, it was obvious from these tests that extensive development of fuel/air preparation systems and considerable advancement in the steady-state operating temperature capability of catalytic reactor materials will be required prior to the consideration of catalytic combustion systems for use in high-pressure-ratio aircraft turbine engines.

  4. CATALYTIC COMBUSTION COMPONENT AND SYSTEM PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop the components required for catalytic combustion system operation and evaluation. The systems investigated (firetube boiler, watertube boiler, and gas turbine), when integrated with the catalytic combustor, have potential for both ...

  5. Sensitivity Analysis for CO2 Retrieval using GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Akihide; Yoshida, Yukio; Dupuy, Eric; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Hiraki, Kaduo; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2015-04-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), launched in 2009, is the world's first satellite dedicated to global greenhouse gases observation. GOSAT-2, the successor mission to GOSAT, is scheduled for launch in early 2018. The Fourier Transform Spectrometer-2 (FTS-2) is the primary sensor onboard GOSAT-2. It observes infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. The FTS-2 obtains high resolution spectra using three bands in the near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and two bands in the thermal infrared (TIR) region. Column amounts and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from the radiance spectra obtained with the SWIR and TIR bands, respectively. Further, compared to the FTS onboard the GOSAT, the FTS-2 has several improvements: 1) added spectral coverage in the SWIR region for carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval, 2) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all bands, 3) extended range of along-track pointing angles for sunglint observations, 4) intelligent pointing to avoid cloud contamination. Since 2012, we have been developing a simulator software to simulate the spectral radiance data that will be acquired by the GOSAT-2 FTS-2. The purpose of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator is to analyze/optimize data with respect to the sensor specification, the parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of the Level 2 algorithms. The GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator includes the six components: 1) overall control, 2) sensor carrying platform, 3) spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier Transform module, 5) Level 1B (L1B) processing, and 6) L1B data output. It has been installed on the GOSAT Research Computation Facility (GOSAT RCF), which is a high-performance and energy-efficient supercomputer. More realistic and faster simulations have been made possible by the improvement of the details of sensor characteristics, the sophistication of the data processing and algorithms, the addition of the

  6. Characterization of the ftsZ cell division gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: expression in Escherichia coli and N. gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Salimnia, H; Radia, A; Bernatchez, S; Beveridge, T J; Dillon, J R

    2000-01-01

    We cloned the cell division gene ftsZ of the gram-negative coccus Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) strain CH811, characterized it genetically and phenotypically, and studied its localization in N. gonorrhoeae and Escherichia coli (Ec). The 1,179-bp ORF of ftsZ(Ng) encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.5 kDa. Protein sequence alignments indicate that FtsZ(Ng) is similar to other FtsZ proteins and contains the conserved GTP binding motif. FtsZ homologues were identified in several N. gonorrhoeae strains and in Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria polysaccharae and Neisseria cinerea either by Western blot or by PCR-Southern blot analysis. Attempts to inactivate the ftsZ(Ng) on the chromosome failed, indicating that it is essential for gonococcal growth. FtsZ(Ng) was synthesized in an in vitro transcription/translation system and was shown to be 43 kDa, the same size as in Western blots. Expression of the ftsZ(Ng) gene from nongonococcal promoters resulted in a filamentous phenotype in E. coli. Under controlled expression, the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein localized at the mid-cell division site in E. coli. E. coli expressing high levels of the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein formed filaments and exhibited different fluorescent structures including helices, spiral tubules extending from pole to pole, and regularly spaced dots or bands that did not localize at the middle of the cell. Expression of the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein in N. gonorrhoeae resulted in abnormal cell division as shown by electron microscopy. FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusions were also expressed in a gonococcal background using a unique shuttle vector. PMID:10648099

  7. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Zupan, John R; Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2013-05-28

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes. PMID:23674672

  8. Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of RCW 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodón, J. A.; Zavagno, A.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Habart, E.; Köhler, M.; Le Bourlot, J.; Le Petit, F.; Abergel, A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The expansion of Galactic H ii regions can trigger the formation of a new generation of stars. However, little is know about the physical conditions that prevail in these regions. Aims: We study the physical conditions that prevail in specific zones towards expanding H ii regions that trace representative media such as the photodissociation region, the ionized region, and condensations with and without ongoing star formation. Methods: We use the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board Herschel to observe the H ii region RCW 120. Continuum and lines are observed in the 190-670μm range. Line intensities and line ratios are obtained and used as physical diagnostics of the gas. We used the Meudon PDR code and the RADEX code to derive the gas density and the radiation field at nine distinct positions including the PDR surface and regions with and without star-formation activity. Results: For the different regions we detect the atomic lines [NII] at 205μm and [CI] at 370 and 609μm, the 12CO ladder between the J = 4 and J = 13 levels and the 13CO ladder between the J = 5 and J = 14 levels, as well as CH+ in absorption. We find gas temperatures in the range 45-250 K for densities of 104-106 cm-3, and a high column density on the order of NH ~ 1022 cm-2 that is in agreement with dust analysis. The ubiquitousness of the atomic and CH+ emission suggests the presence of a low-density PDR throughout RCW 120. High-excitation lines of CO indicate the presence of irradiated dense structures or small dense clumps containing young stellar objects, while we also find a less dense medium (NH ~ 1020 cm-2) with high temperatures (80-200 K). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates is a combination of direct targeting of FtsZ and permeabilization of bacterial membranes

    PubMed Central

    Król, Ewa; de Sousa Borges, Anabela; da Silva, Isabel; Polaquini, Carlos R.; Regasini, Luis O.; Ferreira, Henrique; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl gallates are compounds with reported antibacterial activity. One of the modes of action is binding of the alkyl gallates to the bacterial membrane and interference with membrane integrity. However, alkyl gallates also cause cell elongation and disruption of cell division in the important plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, suggesting that cell division proteins may be targeted by alkyl gallates. Here, we use Bacillus subtilis and purified B. subtilis FtsZ to demonstrate that FtsZ is a direct target of alkyl gallates. Alkyl gallates disrupt the FtsZ-ring in vivo, and cause cell elongation. In vitro, alkyl gallates bind with high affinity to FtsZ, causing it to cluster and lose its capacity to polymerize. The activities of a homologous series of alkyl gallates with alkyl side chain lengths ranging from five to eight carbons (C5–C8) were compared and heptyl gallate was found to be the most potent FtsZ inhibitor. Next to the direct effect on FtsZ, alkyl gallates also target B. subtilis membrane integrity—however the observed anti-FtsZ activity is not a secondary effect of the disruption of membrane integrity. We propose that both modes of action, membrane disruption and anti-FtsZ activity, contribute to the antibacterial activity of the alkyl gallates. We propose that heptyl gallate is a promising hit for the further development of antibacterials that specifically target FtsZ. PMID:25972861

  10. Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates is a combination of direct targeting of FtsZ and permeabilization of bacterial membranes.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewa; de Sousa Borges, Anabela; da Silva, Isabel; Polaquini, Carlos R; Regasini, Luis O; Ferreira, Henrique; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl gallates are compounds with reported antibacterial activity. One of the modes of action is binding of the alkyl gallates to the bacterial membrane and interference with membrane integrity. However, alkyl gallates also cause cell elongation and disruption of cell division in the important plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, suggesting that cell division proteins may be targeted by alkyl gallates. Here, we use Bacillus subtilis and purified B. subtilis FtsZ to demonstrate that FtsZ is a direct target of alkyl gallates. Alkyl gallates disrupt the FtsZ-ring in vivo, and cause cell elongation. In vitro, alkyl gallates bind with high affinity to FtsZ, causing it to cluster and lose its capacity to polymerize. The activities of a homologous series of alkyl gallates with alkyl side chain lengths ranging from five to eight carbons (C5-C8) were compared and heptyl gallate was found to be the most potent FtsZ inhibitor. Next to the direct effect on FtsZ, alkyl gallates also target B. subtilis membrane integrity-however the observed anti-FtsZ activity is not a secondary effect of the disruption of membrane integrity. We propose that both modes of action, membrane disruption and anti-FtsZ activity, contribute to the antibacterial activity of the alkyl gallates. We propose that heptyl gallate is a promising hit for the further development of antibacterials that specifically target FtsZ. PMID:25972861

  11. Deletion of the ftsZ-Like Gene Results in the Production of Superparamagnetic Magnetite Magnetosomes in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yao; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Jiangning; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Jiesheng; Li, Ying; Pan, Yongxin; Li, Jilun

    2010-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize unique organelles termed “magnetosomes,” which are membrane-enclosed structures containing crystals of magnetite or greigite. Magnetosomes form a chain around MamK cytoskeletal filaments and provide the basis for the ability of MTB to navigate along geomagnetic field lines in order to find optimal microaerobic habitats. Genomes of species of the MTB genus Magnetospirillum, in addition to a gene encoding the tubulin-like FtsZ protein (involved in cell division), contain a second gene termed “ftsZ-like,” whose function is unknown. In the present study, we found that the ftsZ-like gene of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 belongs to a 4.9-kb mamXY polycistronic transcription unit. We then purified the recombinant FtsZ-like protein to homogeneity. The FtsZ-like protein efficiently hydrolyzed ATP and GTP, with ATPase and GTPase activity levels of 2.17 and 5.56 μmol phosphorus per mol protein per min, respectively. The FtsZ-like protein underwent GTP-dependent polymerization into long filamentous bundles in vitro. To determine the role of the ftsZ-like gene, we constructed a ftsZ-like mutant (ΔftsZ-like mutant) and its complementation strain (ΔftsZ-like_C strain). Growth of ΔftsZ-like cells was similar to that of the wild type, indicating that the ΔftsZ-like gene is not involved in cell division. Transmission electron microscopic observations indicated that the ΔftsZ-like cells, in comparison to wild-type cells, produced smaller magnetosomes, with poorly defined morphology and irregular alignment, including large gaps. Magnetic analyses showed that ΔftsZ-like produced mainly superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite particles, whereas wild-type and ΔftsZ-like_C cells produced mainly single-domain (SD) particles. Our findings suggest that the FtsZ-like protein is required for synthesis of SD particles and magnetosomes in M. gryphiswaldense. PMID:20023033

  12. Chloroplast division in higher plants requires members of two functionally divergent gene families with homology to bacterial ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Stokes, K D; Rutherford, S M; Percival, A L; Lee, W Y

    1998-01-01

    The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process. PMID:9836740

  13. Synthesis, characterization and assembly of metal pnictide nanoparticles, and evaluation of their physicochemical (catalytic, magnetic, and semiconducting) properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senevirathne, Keerthisinghe

    Synthesis of transition metal phosphide (Ni2P) and arsenide (MnAs) discrete nanoparticles was conducted by following a solution-phase arrested precipitation route and the size- and structure-dependent physicochemical properties of these materials were explored. Furthermore, the assembly of metal phosphide nanoparticles into a network structure via a sol-gel process and the evaluation of their structure related properties also was conducted. The surface ligation chemistry of unsupported Ni2P nanoparticles prepared by arrested precipitation was found to strongly impact the structural integrity and the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalytic activity of Ni 2P nanoparticles. The HDS activity of unsupported surface modified Ni2P nanoparticles is higher than that of unsupported Ni2P prepared by temperature programmed reduction (TPR) but considerably lower than silica-supported Ni2P prepared by TPR. However, by supporting the pre-formed Ni 2P nanoparticles on silica, activity comparable to that of silica-supported Ni2P prepared by TPR can be achieved. The synthetic control offered by the Ni2P nanoparticle preparation, not achieved by TPR methods, is expected to enable a systematic study of particle size and shape effects on HDS activity. By using arrested precipitation reactions, for the first time, discrete and dispersible MnAs nanoparticles have been prepared and their magnetic properties evaluated. Syntheses were developed to target both the thermodynamically stable alpha-type (hexagonal) and the metastable beta-type (orthorhombic) MnAs nanoparticles. Surprisingly, both types of ˜25 nm particles exhibit nearly identical ferromagnetic behavior with blocking temperatures, T B, in the region ˜275-310 K, TC's of 315 K and room temperature coercivities of HC ˜ 190-320 Oe. No evidence of the expected structural transition from alpha to beta-MnAs at TC is observed. Oxidative sol-gel assembly of nanoparticles to make nanoparticulate gels was successfully employed to Ni2P

  14. Sequence-specific assembly of FtsK hexamers establishes directional translocation on DNA

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James E.; Sherratt, David J.; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    FtsK is a homohexameric, RecA-like dsDNA translocase that plays a key role in bacterial chromosome segregation. The FtsK regulatory γ-subdomain determines directionality of translocation through its interaction with specific 8 base pair chromosomal sequences [(KOPS); FtsK Orienting / Polarizing Sequence(s)] that are cooriented with the direction of replication in the chromosome. We use millisecond-resolution ensemble translocation and ATPase assays to analyze the assembly, initiation, and translocation of FtsK. We show that KOPS are used to initiate new translocation events rather than reorient existing ones. By determining kinetic parameters, we show sigmoidal dependences of translocation and ATPase rates on ATP concentration that indicate sequential cooperative coupling of ATP hydrolysis to DNA motion. We also estimate the ATP coupling efficiency of translocation to be 1.63–2.11 bp of dsDNA translocated/ATP hydrolyzed. The data were used to derive a model for the assembly, initiation, and translocation of FtsK hexamers. PMID:21048089

  15. Thylakoid-Bound FtsH Proteins Facilitate Proper Biosynthesis of Photosystem I1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thylakoid membrane-bound FtsH proteases have a well-characterized role in degradation of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein D1 upon repair of photodamaged PSII. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) var1 and var2 mutants, devoid of the FtsH5 and FtsH2 proteins, respectively, are capable of normal D1 protein turnover under moderate growth light intensity. Instead, they both demonstrate a significant scarcity of PSI complexes. It is further shown that the reduced level of PSI does not result from accelerated photodamage of the PSI centers in var1 or var2 under moderate growth light intensity. On the contrary, radiolabeling experiments revealed impaired synthesis of the PsaA/B reaction center proteins of PSI, which was accompanied by the accumulation of PSI-specific assembly factors. psaA/B transcript accumulation and translation initiation, however, occurred in var1 and var2 mutants as in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting problems in later stages of PsaA/B protein expression in the two var mutants. Presumably, the thylakoid membrane-bound FtsH5 and FtsH2 have dual functions in the maintenance of photosynthetic complexes. In addition to their function as a protease in the degradation of the photodamaged D1 protein, they also are required, either directly or indirectly, for early assembly of the PSI complexes. PMID:27208291

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis-gc/ms of spirulina: evaluation of a highly proteinaceous biomass source for production of fuels and chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis of microalgae offers a pathway towards the production of compounds derived from the thermal decomposition of triglycerides, proteins as well as lignocelluloses and their combinations thereof. When catalytically induced, this could lead to the production of fuels and chemicals including aro...

  17. Ground-based demonstration of imaging SWIR-FTS for space-based detection of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryota

    2013-10-01

    Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) has many advantages, especially for greenhouse gases and air pollution detection in the atmosphere, because a single instrument can provide wide spectral coverage and high spectral resolution with highly stabilized instrumental line function for all wavenumbers. Several channels are usually required to derive the column amount or vertical profile of a target species. Near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions are very attractive for remote sensing applications. The GHG and CO of precursors of air pollution have absorption lines in the SWIR region, and the sensitivity against change in the amounts in the boundary layer is high enough to measure mole fractions near the Earth surface. One disadvantage of conventional space-based FTS is the spatial density of effective observation. To improve the effective numbers of observations, an imaging FTS coupled with a two-dimensional (2D)-camera was considered. At first, a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based imaging FTS was considered. However, an MCT-based system requires a calibration source (black body and deep-space view) and a highly accurate and super-low temperature control system for the MCT detector. As a result, size, weight, and power consumption are increased and the cost of the instrument becomes too high. To reduce the size, weight, power consumption, and cost, a commercial 2D indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera can be used to detect SWIR light. To demonstrate a small imaging SWIR-FTS (IS-FTS), an imaging FTS coupled with a commercial 2D InGaAs camera was developed. In the demonstration, the CH4 gas cell was equipped with an IS-FTS for the absorber to make the spectra in the SWIR region. The spectra of CH4 of the IS-FTS demonstration model were then compared with those of traditional FTS. The spectral agreement between the traditional and IS-FTS instruments was very good.

  18. Dynamic Interaction of the Escherichia coli Cell Division ZipA and FtsZ Proteins Evidenced in Nanodiscs*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.; Reija, Belén; García, Concepción; Natale, Paolo; Alfonso, Carlos; Minton, Allen P.; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The full-length ZipA protein from Escherichia coli, one of the essential components of the division proto-ring that provides membrane tethering to the septation FtsZ protein, has been incorporated in single copy into nanodiscs formed by a membrane scaffold protein encircling an E. coli phospholipid mixture. This is an acellular system that reproduces the assembly of part of the cell division components. ZipA contained in nanodiscs (Nd-ZipA) retains the ability to interact with FtsZ oligomers and with FtsZ polymers. Interactions with FtsZ occur at similar strengths as those involved in the binding of the soluble form of ZipA, lacking the transmembrane region, suggesting that the transmembrane region of ZipA has little influence on the formation of the ZipA·FtsZ complex. Peptides containing partial sequences of the C terminus of FtsZ compete with FtsZ polymers for binding to Nd-ZipA. The affinity of Nd-ZipA for the FtsZ polymer formed with GTP or GMPCPP (a slowly hydrolyzable analog of GTP) is moderate (micromolar range) and of similar magnitude as for FtsZ-GDP oligomers. Polymerization does not stabilize the binding of FtsZ to ZipA. This supports the role of ZipA as a passive anchoring device for the proto-ring with little implication, if any, in the regulation of its assembly. Furthermore, it indicates that the tethering of FtsZ to the membrane shows sufficient plasticity to allow for its release from noncentral regions of the cytoplasmic membrane and its subsequent relocation to midcell when demanded by the assembly of a division ring. PMID:22787144

  19. Design and realization of data acquisition system of FTS based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiying; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    Earth observation is an important field of infrared remote sensing. Hyper-spectral remote sensing play an important role in weather forecast, environmental protection, agricultural production and geological survey. Now, Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) based on theory of Michelson interferometer has successfully been used to view the earth as a satellite-based instrument. The technology of FTS is an important research direction. This paper state the application of the FTS and give the analysis and research on interference signal sample and acquisition, in addition, it give a solution in which FPGA is used to complete the parallel capture of signal. In a conclusion, this design can accomplish the multi-channel and high-speed interferometer signal acquisition and transmission which is a base for further spectrum inversion and application.

  20. FtsZ Cytoskeletal Filaments as a Template for Metallic Nanowire Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Nili; Fichman, Galit; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular protein assemblies can serve as templates for the fabrication of inorganic nanowires due to their morphological reproducibility and innate proclivity to form well-ordered structures. Amongst the variety of naturally occurring nano-scale assemblies, cytoskeletal fibers from diverse biological sources represent a unique family of scaffolds for biomimetics as they efficiently self-assemble in vitro in a controllable manner to form stable filaments. Here, we harness the bacterial FtsZ filament system as a scaffold for protein-based metal nanowires, and further demonstrate the control of wire alignment with the use of an external magnetic field. Due to the ease at which the bacterial FtsZ is overexpressed and purified, as well as the extensive studies of its ultrastructural properties and physiological significance, FtsZ filaments are an ideal substrate for large-scale production and chemical manipulation. Using a biologically compatible electroless metal deposition technique initiated by adsorption of platinum as a surface catalyst, we demonstrate the coating of assembled FtsZ filaments with iron, nickel, gold, and copper to fabricate continuous nanowires with diameters ranging from 10-50 nm. Organic-inorganic hybrid wires were analyzed using high-resolution field-emission-gun transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and confirmed by energy-dispersive elemental analysis. We also achieved alignment of ferrofluid-coated FtsZ filaments using an external magnetic field. Overall, we provide evidence for the robustness of the FtsZ filament system as a molecular scaffold, and offer an efficient, biocompatible procedure for facile bottom-up assembly of metallic wires on biological templates. We believe that bottom-up fabrication methods as reported herein significantly contribute to the expanding toolkit available for the incorporation of biological materials in nano-scale devices for electronic and electromechanical applications. PMID:26328401

  1. A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH

    PubMed Central

    Lüdke, Alja; Krämer, Reinhard; Burkovski, Andreas; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of the membrane-bound AAA+ protease FtsH on membrane and cytoplasmic proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated in this study. For the analysis of the membrane fraction, anion exchange chromatography was combined with SDS-PAGE, while the cytoplasmic protein fraction was studied by conventional two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Results In contrast to the situation in other bacteria, deletion of C. glutamicum ftsH has no significant effect on growth in standard minimal medium or response to heat or osmotic stress. On the proteome level, deletion of the ftsH gene resulted in a strong increase of ten cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, namely biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein (accBC), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), homocysteine methyltransferase (metE), malate synthase (aceB), isocitrate lyase (aceA), a conserved hypothetical protein (NCgl1985), succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA), succinate dehydrogenase B (sdhB), succinate dehydrogenase CD (sdhCD), and glutamate binding protein (gluB), while 38 cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins showed a decreased abundance. The decreasing amount of succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA) in the cytoplasmic fraction of the ftsH mutant compared to the wild type and its increasing abundance in the membrane fraction indicates that FtsH might be involved in the cleavage of a membrane anchor of this membrane-associated protein and by this changes its localization. Conclusion The data obtained hint to an involvement of C. glutamicum FtsH protease mainly in regulation of energy and carbon metabolism, while the protease is not involved in stress response, as found in other bacteria. PMID:17254330

  2. Perpendicular planes of FtsZ arcs in spheroidal Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Pas, E; Einav, M; Woldringh, C L; Zaritsky, A

    2001-01-01

    Division planes in Escherichia coli, usually restricted to one dimension of the rod-shaped cell, were induced at all possible planes by transforming the cells to spheroids with mecillinam (inactivating PbpA). Such cells displayed many nucleoids and arcs of FtsZ, genetically tagged to green fluorescent protein, that developed to rings at constriction sites all around their surface. These observations are consistent with the view (Woldringh et al., J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 6030-6038) that nucleoids, forced during replication to segregate in the length axis of the cell by the rigid bacillary envelope, induce assembly of FtsZ to division rings in between them. PMID:11254985

  3. Characterization of the in vitro assembly of FtsZ in Arthrobacter strain A3 using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shanshan; Ding, Shenglong; Hou, Yannan; Yu, Linghui; Chen, Ximing; Xiao, Jianxi

    2016-10-01

    The self-assembly of FtsZ, the bacterial homolog of tubulin, plays an essential role in cell division. Light scattering technique is applied to real-time monitor the in vitro assembly of FtsZ in Arthrobacter strain A3, a newly isolated psychrotrophic bacterium. The critical concentration needed for the assembly is estimated as 6.7μM. The polymerization of FtsZ in Arthrobacter strain A3 requires both GTP and divalent metal ions, while salt is an unfavorable condition for the assembly. The FtsZ polymerizes under a wide range of pHs, with the fastest rate around pH 6.0. The FtsZ from Arthrobacter strain A3 resembles Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ in terms of the dependence on divalent metal ions and the slow polymerization rate, while it is different from M. tuberculosis FtsZ considering the sensitivity to salt and pH. The comparison of FtsZ from different organisms will greatly advance our understanding of the biological role of the key cell division protein. PMID:27164494

  4. Bacterial cell division protein FtsZ assembles into protofilament sheets and minirings, structural homologs of tubulin polymers.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, H P; Taylor, D W; Taylor, K A; Bramhill, D

    1996-01-01

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is a homolog of tubulin, but it has not been determined whether FtsZ polymers are structurally related to the microtubule lattice. In the present study, we have obtained high-resolution electron micrographs of two FtsZ polymers that show remarkable similarity to tubulin polymers. The first is a two-dimensional sheet of protofilaments with a lattice very similar to that of the microtubule wall. The second is a miniring, consisting of a single protofilament in a sharply curved, planar conformation. FtsZ minirings are very similar to tubulin rings that are formed upon disassembly of microtubules but are about half the diameter. This suggests that the curved conformation occurs at every FtsZ subunit, but in tubulin rings the conformation occurs at either beta- or alpha-tubulin subunits but not both. We conclude that the functional polymer of FtsZ in bacterial cell division is a long thin sheet of protofilaments. There is sufficient FtsZ in Escherichia coli to form a protofilament that encircles the cell 20 times. The similarity of polymers formed by FtsZ and tubulin implies that the protofilament sheet is an ancient cytoskeletal system, originally functioning in bacterial cell division and later modified to make microtubules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8552673

  5. Chloroplast targeting of FtsHprotease is essential for chloroplast development and thylakoid stability at elevated temperatures in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AtFtsH11 is a chloroplast and mitochondria dual targeted metalloprotease, identified as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures at all developmental stages. Our study showed that FtsH11 plays critical roles in both the early stages of chloroplast biogenesis and main...

  6. Retrieval of carbon dioxide vertical profiles from solar occultation observations and associated error budgets for ACE-FTS and CASS-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, C. E.; Boone, C. D.; Nassar, R.; Sutton, K. J.; Gordon, I. E.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-02-01

    An algorithm is developed to retrieve the vertical profile of carbon dioxide in the 5 to 25 km altitude range using mid-infrared solar occultation spectra from the main instrument of the ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission, namely the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The main challenge is to find an atmospheric phenomenon which can be used for accurate tangent height determination in the lower atmosphere, where the tangent heights (THs) calculated from geometric and timing information is not of sufficient accuracy. Error budgets for the retrieval of CO2 from ACE-FTS and the FTS on a potential follow-on mission named CASS (Chemical and Aerosol Sounding Satellite) are calculated and contrasted. Retrieved THs are typically within 60 m of those retrieved using the ACE version 3.x software after revisiting the temperature dependence of the N2 CIA (Collision-Induced Absorption) laboratory measurements and accounting for sulfate aerosol extinction. After correcting for the known residual high bias of ACE version 3.x THs expected from CO2 spectroscopic/isotopic inconsistencies, the remaining bias for tangent heights determined with the N2 CIA is -20m. CO2 in the 5-13 km range in the 2009-2011 time frame is validated against aircraft measurements from CARIBIC, CONTRAIL and HIPPO, yielding typical biases of -1.7 ppm in the 5-13 km range. The standard error of these biases in this vertical range is 0.4 ppm. The multi-year ACE-FTS dataset is valuable in determining the seasonal variation of the latitudinal gradient which arises from the strong seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere. The annual growth of CO2 in this time frame is determined to be 2.5 ± 0.7 ppm yr-1, in agreement with the currently accepted global growth rate based on ground-based measurements.

  7. Bacterial Division Proteins FtsZ and ZipA Induce Vesicle Shrinkage and Cell Membrane Invagination*

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Elisa J.; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Carrara, Paolo; Ropero, Noelia; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Stano, Pasquale; Jiménez, Mercedes; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Permeable vesicles containing the proto-ring anchoring ZipA protein shrink when FtsZ, the main cell division protein, polymerizes in the presence of GTP. Shrinkage, resembling the constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane, occurs at ZipA densities higher than those found in the cell and is modulated by the dynamics of the FtsZ polymer. In vivo, an excess of ZipA generates multilayered membrane inclusions within the cytoplasm and causes the loss of the membrane function as a permeability barrier. Overproduction of ZipA at levels that block septation is accompanied by the displacement of FtsZ and two additional division proteins, FtsA and FtsN, from potential septation sites to clusters that colocalize with ZipA near the membrane. The results show that elementary constriction events mediated by defined elements involved in cell division can be evidenced both in bacteria and in vesicles. PMID:23921390

  8. The Kil Peptide of Bacteriophage λ Blocks Escherichia coli Cytokinesis via ZipA-Dependent Inhibition of FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Haeusser, Daniel P.; Hoashi, Marina; Weaver, Anna; Brown, Nathan; Pan, James; Sawitzke, James A.; Thomason, Lynn C.; Court, Donald L.; Margolin, William

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of the essential, tubulin-like FtsZ protein into a ring-shaped structure at the nascent division site determines the timing and position of cytokinesis in most bacteria and serves as a scaffold for recruitment of the cell division machinery. Here we report that expression of bacteriophage λ kil, either from a resident phage or from a plasmid, induces filamentation of Escherichia coli cells by rapid inhibition of FtsZ ring formation. Mutant alleles of ftsZ resistant to the Kil protein map to the FtsZ polymer subunit interface, stabilize FtsZ ring assembly, and confer increased resistance to endogenous FtsZ inhibitors, consistent with Kil inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Cells with the normally essential cell division gene zipA deleted (in a modified background) display normal FtsZ rings after kil expression, suggesting that ZipA is required for Kil-mediated inhibition of FtsZ rings in vivo. In support of this model, point mutations in the C-terminal FtsZ-interaction domain of ZipA abrogate Kil activity without discernibly altering FtsZ-ZipA interactions. An affinity-tagged-Kil derivative interacts with both FtsZ and ZipA, and inhibits sedimentation of FtsZ filament bundles in vitro. Together, these data inspire a model in which Kil interacts with FtsZ and ZipA in the cell to prevent FtsZ assembly into a coherent, division-competent ring structure. Phage growth assays show that kil+ phage lyse ∼30% later than kil mutant phage, suggesting that Kil delays lysis, perhaps via its interaction with FtsZ and ZipA. PMID:24651041

  9. Evaluation of the catalytic reduction of nitrate for the determination of dissolved organic nitrogen in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Ambonguilat, Sonia; Gallard, Hervé; Garron, Anthony; Epron, Florence; Croué, Jean Philippe

    2006-02-01

    The catalytic reduction of nitrate ions into nitrogen gas was tested to partly remove dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) before the determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Experiments were conducted on nitrate solutions enriched with natural organic matter (NOM) isolates previously extracted from surface waters. Three catalysts Pd-In/Al2O3, Pd-Sn/Al2O3 and Pd/SnO2 were tested. Their noble metal (palladium) and promoter metal (indium or tin) contents are 5 and 1.75 wt%, respectively. Preliminary experiments performed on a solution containing 17 amino acids showed that most compounds were removed by less than 15%, probably due to sorption onto the catalysts. Reduction of nitrate in absence of NOM was complete after 20 min of reaction time and the removal of DIN was about 80% (about 19% formation of ammonium). In the presence of NOM (DOC 20 mgC/L, DON 0.67 mg N/L), the kinetic of nitrate reduction was slower and the reduction in DIN content was limited to 15% i.e. selectivity toward ammonium reached 85%. Adsorption tests showed a similar removal of both DOC and DON of about 70% and 30% onto Pd-Sn/Al2O3 and Pd/SnO2 catalysts, respectively, which confirmed that NOM probably compete with nitrate for active catalytic sites. In conclusion, catalytic reduction of nitrate before DON determination cannot be used because of DON sorption and low DIN removal. PMID:16436291

  10. Reduced Binding of the Endolysin LysTP712 to Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH Contributes to Phage Resistance.

    PubMed

    Roces, Clara; Campelo, Ana B; Escobedo, Susana; Wegmann, Udo; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Absence of the membrane protease FtsH in Lactococcus lactis hinders release of the bacteriophage TP712. In this work we have analyzed the mechanism responsible for the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH after phage infection. The lytic cassette of TP712 contains a putative antiholin-pinholin system and a modular endolysin (LysTP712). Inducible expression of the holin gene demonstrated the presence of a dual start motif which is functional in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells. Moreover, simulating holin activity with ionophores accelerated lysis of wildtype cells but not L. lactis ΔftsH cells, suggesting inhibition of the endolysin rather than a role of FtsH in holin activation. However, zymograms revealed the synthesis of an active endolysin in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH TP712 lysogens. A reporter protein was generated by fusing the cell wall binding domain of LysTP712 to the fluorescent mCherry protein. Binding of this reporter protein took place at the septa of both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that mutant cells bound 40% less protein. In conclusion, the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH is not due to direct action of the FtsH protease on the phage lytic proteins but rather to a putative function of FtsH in modulating the architecture of the L. lactis cell envelope that results in a lower affinity of the phage endolysin to its substrate. PMID:26904011

  11. Reduced Binding of the Endolysin LysTP712 to Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH Contributes to Phage Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Roces, Clara; Campelo, Ana B.; Escobedo, Susana; Wegmann, Udo; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Absence of the membrane protease FtsH in Lactococcus lactis hinders release of the bacteriophage TP712. In this work we have analyzed the mechanism responsible for the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH after phage infection. The lytic cassette of TP712 contains a putative antiholin–pinholin system and a modular endolysin (LysTP712). Inducible expression of the holin gene demonstrated the presence of a dual start motif which is functional in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells. Moreover, simulating holin activity with ionophores accelerated lysis of wildtype cells but not L. lactis ΔftsH cells, suggesting inhibition of the endolysin rather than a role of FtsH in holin activation. However, zymograms revealed the synthesis of an active endolysin in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH TP712 lysogens. A reporter protein was generated by fusing the cell wall binding domain of LysTP712 to the fluorescent mCherry protein. Binding of this reporter protein took place at the septa of both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that mutant cells bound 40% less protein. In conclusion, the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH is not due to direct action of the FtsH protease on the phage lytic proteins but rather to a putative function of FtsH in modulating the architecture of the L. lactis cell envelope that results in a lower affinity of the phage endolysin to its substrate. PMID:26904011

  12. The pH Dependence of Polymerization and Bundling by the Essential Bacterial Cytoskeltal Protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Gómez, Raúl; Roper, David I.; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Rodger, Alison

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that bacterial cell division is an intricate coordinated process of comparable complexity to that seen in eukaryotic cells. The dynamic assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ in the presence of GTP is fundamental to its activity. FtsZ polymerization is a very attractive target for novel antibiotics given its fundamental and universal function. In this study our aim was to understand further the GTP-dependent FtsZ polymerization mechanism and our main focus is on the pH dependence of its behaviour. A key feature of this work is the use of linear dichroism (LD) to follow the polymerization of FtsZ monomers into polymeric structures. LD is the differential absorption of light polarized parallel and perpendicular to an orientation direction (in this case that provided by shear flow). It thus readily distinguishes between FtsZ polymers and monomers. It also distinguishes FtsZ polymers and less well-defined aggregates, which light scattering methodologies do not. The polymerization of FtsZ over a range of pHs was studied by right-angled light scattering to probe mass of FtsZ structures, LD to probe real-time formation of linear polymeric fibres, a specially developed phosphate release assay to relate guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis to polymer formation, and electron microscopy (EM) imaging of reaction products as a function of time and pH. We have found that lowering the pH from neutral to 6.5 does not change the nature of the FtsZ polymers in solution—it simply facilitates the polymerization so the fibres present are longer and more abundant. Conversely, lowering the pH to 6.0 has much the same effect as introducing divalent cations or the FtsZ-associated protein YgfE (a putative ZapA orthologue in E. coli)—it stablizes associations of protofilaments. PMID:21738567

  13. Evidence That Bacteriophage λ Kil Peptide Inhibits Bacterial Cell Division by Disrupting FtsZ Protofilaments and Sequestering Protein Subunits.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M; Alfonso, Carlos; Margolin, William; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2015-08-14

    The effects of Kil peptide from bacteriophage λ on the assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ into one subunit thick protofilaments were studied using combined biophysical and biochemical methods. Kil peptide has recently been identified as the factor from bacteriophage λ responsible for the inhibition of bacterial cell division during lytic cycle, targeting FtsZ polymerization. Here, we show that this antagonist blocks FtsZ assembly into GTP-dependent protofilaments, producing a wide distribution of smaller oligomers compared with the average size of the intact protofilaments. The shortening of FtsZ protofilaments by Kil is detectable at concentrations of the peptide in the low micromolar range, the mid-point of the inhibition being close to its apparent affinity for GDP-bound FtsZ. This antagonist not only interferes with FtsZ assembly but also reverses the polymerization reaction. The negative regulation by Kil significantly reduces the GTPase activity of FtsZ protofilaments, and FtsZ polymers assembled in guanosine-5'-[(α,β)-methyleno]triphosphate are considerably less sensitive to Kil. Our results suggest that, at high concentrations, Kil may use an inhibition mechanism involving the sequestration of FtsZ subunits, similar to that described for other inhibitors like the SOS response protein SulA or the moonlighting enzyme OpgH. This mechanism is different from those employed by the division site selection antagonists MinC and SlmA. This work provides new insight into the inhibition of FtsZ assembly by phages, considered potential tools against bacterial infection. PMID:26124275

  14. Catalytic Hydrogenation of the Sweet Principles of Stevia rebaudiana, Rebaudioside B, Rebaudioside C, and Rebaudioside D and Sensory Evaluation of Their Reduced Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, and rebaudioside D; the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana was carried out using Pd(OH)2. Reduction of steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward synthetic chemistry with the catalyst Pd(OH)2 and structures of the corresponding dihydro derivatives were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data indicating that all are novel compounds being reported for the first time. Also, the taste properties of all reduced compounds were evaluated against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose. PMID:23203115

  15. Catalytic hydrogenation of the sweet principles of Stevia rebaudiana, Rebaudioside B, Rebaudioside C, and Rebaudioside D and sensory evaluation of their reduced derivatives.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, and rebaudioside D; the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana was carried out using Pd(OH)(2). Reduction of steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward synthetic chemistry with the catalyst Pd(OH)(2) and structures of the corresponding dihydro derivatives were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data indicating that all are novel compounds being reported for the first time. Also, the taste properties of all reduced compounds were evaluated against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose. PMID:23203115

  16. Space flight manipulator technologies and requirements for the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Headquarters' Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) joined efforts with Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Automation and Robotics Division and Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Information Systems Division to capture the technologies developed during the cancelled NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program planned for use on Space Station Freedom. The recent FTS technology capture effort completed the build and testing of one flight qualifiable FTS manipulator, deliverable to JSC's Automation & Robotics Division for environmental testing. The many robotic technologies developed to meet the 30 year space environment design requirements are discussed in this paper. The manipulator properties were to allow positioning control to one thousandths of an inch, with zero actuator backlash over a temperature range of -50 to +95 C, and were to include impedance control and inertial decoupling. Safety and reliability requirements are discussed that were developed to allow a thirty year life in space with minimum maintenance. The system had to meet the safety requirements for hazardous payloads for operation in the shuttle payload bay during demonstration test flights prior to station use. A brief description is contained on an orbiter based robotic experiment and operational application using the dexterous FTS manipulator operating on the end of the shuttle remote manipulator systems (SRMS) from ground control.

  17. Role of FtsH11 protease in thermoprotection of photosynthetic systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As sessile organisms, plants employ multiple mechanisms to cope with seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations associated with their habitats. AtFtsH11 protease gene was identified via map-based cloning as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures. Arabidopsis geno...

  18. Discovery of chlamydial peptidoglycan reveals bacteria with murein sacculi but without FtsZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilhofer, Martin; Aistleitner, Karin; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Kuru, Erkin; Hall, Edward; Brun, Yves V.; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydiae are important pathogens and symbionts with unique cell biological features. They lack the cell-division protein FtsZ, and the existence of peptidoglycan (PG) in their cell wall has been highly controversial. FtsZ and PG together function in orchestrating cell division and maintaining cell shape in almost all other bacteria. Using electron cryotomography, mass spectrometry and fluorescent labelling dyes, here we show that some environmental chlamydiae have cell wall sacculi consisting of a novel PG type. Treatment with fosfomycin (a PG synthesis inhibitor) leads to lower infection rates and aberrant cell shapes, suggesting that PG synthesis is crucial for the chlamydial life cycle. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of PG in a member of the Chlamydiae. They also present a unique example of a bacterium with a PG sacculus but without FtsZ, challenging the current hypothesis that it is the absence of a cell wall that renders FtsZ non-essential.

  19. AtFtsH4 perturbs the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengchun; ZHang, Daowei; Yang, Chengwei

    2014-07-25

    Mitochondrial AtFtsH4 protease is one of four inner membrane-bound FtsH proteases in Arabidopsis. We found that the loss of AtFtsH4 regulates Arabidopsis development and architecture by mediating the peroxidase-dependent interplay between hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and auxin homeostasis. These morphological changes were correlated with elevated levels of both hydrogen peroxide and peroxidases, which suggested that ftsh4-4 plant was related to the oxidative stress, and that the architecture was caused by the auxin homeostasis perturbation. This view was supported by the expression levels of several auxin signaling genes and auxin binding and transport genes were decreased significantly in ftsh4-4 plants. Taken together, our data published in the May issue of Molecular Plant suggests a link between the lack of AtFtsH4 protease, oxidative stress,s and auxin homeostasis to regulate plant growth and development. However, the detail molecular mechanisms of AtFtSH4 regulating oxidation stress and auxin homeostasis is unclear. Here, we present evidence that the high level accumulated of H 2O 2 in ftsh4-4 may correlates with the decreased mitochondrial respiration genes. We also showed that the decreased auxin level and auxin transport may caused by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. PMID:25061946

  20. Performance Verification of GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator and Sensitivity Analysis for Greenhouse Gases Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Dupuy, E.; Hiraki, K.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-2, which is scheduled for launch in early 2018, is the successor mission to the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The FTS-2 onboard the GOSAT-2 is a Fourier transform spectrometer, which has three bands in the near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and two bands in the thermal infrared (TIR) region to observe infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere with high-resolution spectra. Column amounts and vertical profiles of major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from acquired radiance spectra. In addition, the FTS-2 has several improvements from the FTS onboard the GOSAT: 1) added spectral coverage in the SWIR region for carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval, 2) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all bands, 3) extended range of along-track pointing angles for sunglint observations, 4) intelligent pointing to avoid cloud contamination. Since 2012, we have been developing a software tool, which is called the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, to simulate spectral radiance data that will be acquired by the GOSAT-2 FTS-2. The objective of it is to analyze/optimize data with respect to the sensor specification, the parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of Level 2 retrieval algorithms. It consists of six components: 1) overall control, 2) sensor carrying platform, 3) spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier transform module, 5) Level 1B (L1B) processing, and 6) L1B data output. More realistic and faster simulations have been made possible by the improvement of details about sensor characteristics, the sophistication of data processing and algorithms, the addition of various observation modes, the use of surface and atmospheric ancillary data, and the speed-up and parallelization of radiative transfer code. This simulator is confirmed to be working properly from the reproduction of GOSAT FTS L1B data depends on the ancillary data. We will summarize the

  1. Nearly arc-length tool path generation and tool radius compensation algorithm research in FTS turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Xuesen; Li, Zengqiang; Sun, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In the non-rotational symmetrical microstrcture surfaces generation using turning method with Fast Tool Servo(FTS), non-uniform distribution of the interpolation data points will lead to long processing cycle and poor surface quality. To improve this situation, nearly arc-length tool path generation algorithm is proposed, which generates tool tip trajectory points in nearly arc-length instead of the traditional interpolation rule of equal angle and adds tool radius compensation. All the interpolation points are equidistant in radial distribution because of the constant feeding speed in X slider, the high frequency tool radius compensation components are in both X direction and Z direction, which makes X slider difficult to follow the input orders due to its large mass. Newton iterative method is used to calculate the neighboring contour tangent point coordinate value with the interpolation point X position as initial value, in this way, the new Z coordinate value is gotten, and the high frequency motion components in X direction is decomposed into Z direction. Taking a typical microstructure with 4μm PV value for test, which is mixed with two 70μm wave length sine-waves, the max profile error at the angle of fifteen is less than 0.01μm turning by a diamond tool with big radius of 80μm. The sinusoidal grid is machined on a ultra-precision lathe succesfully, the wavelength is 70.2278μm the Ra value is 22.81nm evaluated by data points generated by filtering out the first five harmonics.

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  3. [Localization of the division protein FtsZ in mycoplasma cells Mycoplasma hominis].

    PubMed

    Vishniakov, I E; Borkhsenius, S N; Basovskiĭ, Iu I; Levitskiĭ, S A; Lazarev, V N; Snigirevskaia, E S; Komissarchik, Ia Iu

    2009-01-01

    Localization of the protein FtsZ in Mycoplasma hominis cells was determined. Ultra thin sections were treated by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against FtsZ M. hominis: a conjugate of protein A with colloidal gold particles was used instead of secondary antibodies. Considerable polymorphism of cells was seen on electron microscopy pictures of M. hominis cells, which is typical for mycoplasmas. Among a wide variety of cell shapes we distinguished dumbbell-shaped dividing cells, and the cells connected with each other with the aid of thin membrane tubules (former constrictions). Dominants distribution of the label in the constriction area of dividing M. hominis cells and in the area of the thin membrane tubules was observed. We revealed the cross septum in the mycoplasma cells for the first time, as well as the gold labeling of this structure. Furthermore, in some rounded and oval cells colloidal gold particles labeled the whole plasma membrane in ring-shaped manner. Probably, the label in these cases marks a submembrane contractile ring (Z-ring). The facts mentioned above confirm that FtsZ of M. hominis plays an active role in the mycoplasma cytokinesis. In a series of cases spiral-like distribution of gold particles was observed. Probably, FtsZ protofilaments in M. hominis cells can form spiral structures similar to Z-spirals of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Its presence in mycoplasma cells may be considered as an important argument in favour of model of Z-ring assembling through reorganization of Z-spirals. FtsZ also may participate in maintenance of mycoplasma cell shape (membrane localization). PMID:19435279

  4. A Defined Terminal Region of the E. coli Chromosome Shows Late Segregation and High FtsK Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meile, Jean-Christophe; Stouf, Mathieu; Capiaux, Hervé; Mercier, Romain; Lesterlin, Christian; Hallet, Bernard; Cornet, François

    2011-01-01

    Background The FtsK DNA-translocase controls the last steps of chromosome segregation in E. coli. It translocates sister chromosomes using the KOPS DNA motifs to orient its activity, and controls the resolution of dimeric forms of sister chromosomes by XerCD-mediated recombination at the dif site and their decatenation by TopoIV. Methodology We have used XerCD/dif recombination as a genetic trap to probe the interaction of FtsK with loci located in different regions of the chromosome. This assay revealed that the activity of FtsK is restricted to a ∼400 kb terminal region of the chromosome around the natural position of the dif site. Preferential interaction with this region required the tethering of FtsK to the division septum via its N-terminal domain as well as its translocation activity. However, the KOPS-recognition activity of FtsK was not required. Displacement of replication termination outside the FtsK high activity region had no effect on FtsK activity and deletion of a part of this region was not compensated by its extension to neighbouring regions. By observing the fate of fluorescent-tagged loci of the ter region, we found that segregation of the FtsK high activity region is delayed compared to that of its adjacent regions. Significance Our results show that a restricted terminal region of the chromosome is specifically dedicated to the last steps of chromosome segregation and to their coupling with cell division by FtsK. PMID:21799784

  5. Catalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  6. Evaluation of a catalytic reduction technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Eubank, C. S.; Hubler, C. S.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of a technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy-containing species in the atmosphere has been examined. In the technique, an NOy component species, which may include NO, NO2, NO3, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and particulate nitrate, are catalytically reduced by CO to form NO molecules on the surface of a metal converter tube, and the NO product is detected by chemiluminescence produced in reaction with O3. Among the catalysts tested in the temperature range of 25-500 C, Au was the preferred catalyst. The results of laboratory tests investigating the effects of pressure, O3, and H2O on NOy conversion, and the possible sources of interference, have shown that the technique is suitable for atmospheric analyses. The results of a test in ambient air at a remote ground-based field site are included.

  7. Structures of the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA bound to DNA and the C-terminal domain of the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by FtsZ, which polymerizes to create the cytokinetic Z ring. Multiple FtsZ-binding proteins regulate FtsZ polymerization to ensure the proper spatiotemporal formation of the Z ring at the division site. The DNA-binding protein SlmA binds to FtsZ and prevents Z-ring formation through the nucleoid in a process called "nucleoid occlusion" (NO). As do most FtsZ-accessory proteins, SlmA interacts with the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that is connected to the FtsZ core by a long, flexible linker. However, SlmA is distinct from other regulatory factors in that it must be DNA-bound to interact with the FtsZ CTD. Few structures of FtsZ regulator-CTD complexes are available, but all reveal the CTD bound as a helix. To deduce the molecular basis for the unique SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD regulatory interaction and provide insight into FtsZ-regulator protein complex formation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, and Klebsiella pneumonia SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD ternary complexes. Strikingly, the FtsZ CTD does not interact with SlmA as a helix but binds as an extended conformation in a narrow, surface-exposed pocket formed only in the DNA-bound state of SlmA and located at the junction between the DNA-binding and C-terminal dimer domains. Binding studies are consistent with the structure and underscore key interactions in complex formation. Combined, these data reveal the molecular basis for the SlmA-DNA-FtsZ interaction with implications for SlmA's NO function and underscore the ability of the FtsZ CTD to adopt a wide range of conformations, explaining its ability to bind diverse regulatory proteins. PMID:27091999

  8. Computational evaluation of the dynamic fluctuations of peripheral loops enclosing the catalytic tunnel of a family 7 cellobiohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Granum, David M; Schutt, Timothy C; Maupin, C Mark

    2014-05-22

    The size and character of the peripheral loops enclosing the active site for cellulase enzymes is believed to play a major role in dictating many critical enzymatic properties. For many cellulases it is observed that fully enclosed active sites forming a tunnel are more conducive to cellobiohydrolase activity and the ability to processively move along the substrate. Conversely, a more open active site groove is indicative of endoglucanase activity. For both cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases, the loop regions have been implicated in the ability of the enzyme to bind substrate, influence the pKa of active site residues, modulate the catalytic activity, and influence thermal stability. Reported here are constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) simulations that investigate the role of dynamic fluctuations, substrate interactions, and residue pKa values for the peripheral loops enclosing the active site of the cellobiohydrolase Melanocarpus albomyces Cel7B. Two highly flexible loop regions in the free enzyme have been identified, which impact the overall dynamical motions of the enzyme. Charge interactions between Asp198 and Asp367, which reside on two adjacent loops, were found to influence the overall loop conformations and dynamics. In the presence of a substrate the protonation of Asp367, Asp198, and Tyr370 were found to stabilize substrate binding and control the movement of two peripheral loops onto the active site containing the substrate (i.e., clamping down). The substrate-induced response of the loop regions secures the cellulose polymer in the catalytic tunnel and creates an environment that is conducive to hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond. PMID:24669967

  9. Retrieval of carbon dioxide vertical profiles from solar occultation observations and associated error budgets for ACE-FTS and CASS-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, C. E.; Boone, C. D.; Nassar, R.; Sutton, K. J.; Gordon, I. E.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm is developed to retrieve the vertical profile of carbon dioxide in the 5 to 25 km altitude range using mid-infrared solar occultation spectra from the main instrument of the ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission, namely the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The main challenge is to find an atmospheric phenomenon which can be used for accurate tangent height determination in the lower atmosphere, where the tangent heights (THs) calculated from geometric and timing information are not of sufficient accuracy. Error budgets for the retrieval of CO2 from ACE-FTS and the FTS on a potential follow-on mission named CASS (Chemical and Aerosol Sounding Satellite) are calculated and contrasted. Retrieved THs have typical biases of 60 m relative to those retrieved using the ACE version 3.x software after revisiting the temperature dependence of the N2 CIA (collision-induced absorption) laboratory measurements and accounting for sulfate aerosol extinction. After correcting for the known residual high bias of ACE version 3.x THs expected from CO2 spectroscopic/isotopic inconsistencies, the remaining bias for tangent heights determined with the N2 CIA is -20 m. CO2 in the 5-13 km range in the 2009-2011 time frame is validated against aircraft measurements from CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container), CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airline), and HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations), yielding typical biases of -1.7 ppm in the 5-13 km range. The standard error of these biases in this vertical range is 0.4 ppm. The multi-year ACE-FTS data set is valuable in determining the seasonal variation of the latitudinal gradient which arises from the strong seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere. The annual growth of CO2 in this time frame is determined to be 2.6 ± 0.4 ppm year-1, in agreement with the currently accepted global growth rate based on

  10. Exact modeling of lineshape and wavenumber variations for off-axis detectors in Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E.; Pires, A.; Poultney, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of detector arrays in the focal planes of FTS sensor systems allows simultaneous spectral and spatial measurements. However, spectral lineshapes and wavenumber locations depend upon the size and location of the detector elements with respect to the Haidinger fringe pattern of the FTS sensor. These spectral distortions can be generalized as a shift and shape change of the FTS sensor lineshape. Depending on the distortions that can be tolerated, a degree of field-widening can be obtained for a given Haidinger fringe pattern. An exact model for predicting the FTS lineshape distortions is presented. The model is applied to several contemporary applications in order to quantify the magnitude of distortions to be expected.

  11. Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE)Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Beer, R.; Blavier, J.; Bowman, K.; Eldering, A.; Rider, D.; Toon, G.; Traub, W.; Worden, J.

    2008-12-01

    The NRC decadal survey proposed the GEO-CAPE and GACM missions to study changes in atmospheric composition and the coastal oceans. To properly address air quality, the decadal survey highlighted the need for vertical profile measurements with sensitivity into the atmospheric boundary layer. The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS), a new project within the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, will measure all of the trace species called out in the decadal survey for GEO-CAPE and GACM. With continuous sensitivity from 0.26 to 15 micron and high spectral resolution, PanFTS combines the functionality of separate UV, visible and IR instruments in a single package. These capabilities also permit PanFTS to meet the requirements for high spatial resolution hyperspectral imaging of the coastal zone. This presentation will discuss the design approach and technology development challenges for PanFTS including high speed, high resolution focal plane arrays, and wide spectral coverage optical design.

  12. Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Beer, R.; Blavier, J. L.; Bowman, K. W.; Eldering, A.; Key, R.; Rider, D.; Toon, G. C.; Traub, W. A.; Worden, J.

    2009-12-01

    The NRC decadal survey proposed the GEO-CAPE and GACM missions to study changes in atmospheric composition and the coastal oceans. To properly address air quality, the decadal survey highlighted the need for vertical profile measurements with sensitivity into the atmospheric boundary layer. The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS), a new project within the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, will measure all of the trace species called out in the decadal survey for GEO-CAPE and GACM. With continuous sensitivity from 0.26 to 15 micron and high spectral resolution, PanFTS combines the functionality of separate UV, visible and IR instruments in a single package. These capabilities also permit PanFTS to meet the requirements for high spatial resolution hyperspectral imaging of the coastal zone. This presentation will discuss the design approach and technology development challenges for PanFTS including high speed, high resolution focal plane arrays, and wide spectral coverage optical design.

  13. New and Improved Infrared Spectroscopy of Halogen-Containing Species for ACE-FTS Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2014-06-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), onboard the SCISAT-1 satellite, is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) instrument covering the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region in solar occultation mode. Launched in August 2003, the ACE-FTS has been taking atmospheric measurements for over ten years. With long atmospheric pathlengths (˜300 km) and the sun as a radiation source, the ACE-FTS provides a low detection threshold for trace species in the atmosphere. In fact, it measures the vertical profiles of more molecules in the atmosphere than any other satellite instrument.

    Fluorine- and chlorine-containing molecules in the atmosphere are very strong greenhouse gases, meaning that even small amounts of these gases contribute significantly to the radiative forcing of climate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are regulated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol because they deplete the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not deplete the ozone layer and are not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, have been introduced as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs have global-warming potentials many times greater than carbon dioxide, and are increasing in the atmosphere at a very fast rate. The quantification of the atmospheric abundances of such molecules from measurements taken by the ACE-FTS and other satellite instruments crucially requires accurate quantitative infrared spectroscopy. HITRAN contains absorption cross section datasets for a number of these species, but many of them have minor deficiencies that introduce systematic errors into satellite retrievals. This talk will focus on new and improved laboratory measurements for a number of important halogenated species.

  14. Demonstration of Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Performance for Planetary and Geostationary Earth Observing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revercomb, Henry E.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Best, Fred A.; LaPorte, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    The combination of massively parallel spatial sampling and accurate spectral radiometry offered by imaging FTS makes it extremely attractive for earth and planetary remote sensing. We constructed a breadboard instrument to help assess the potential for planetary applications of small imaging FTS instruments in the 1 - 5 micrometer range. The results also support definition of the NASA Geostationary Imaging FTS (GIFTS) instrument that will make key meteorological and climate observations from geostationary earth orbit. The Planetary Imaging FTS (PIFTS) breadboard is based on a custom miniaturized Bomen interferometer that uses corner cube reflectors, a wishbone pivoting voice-coil delay scan mechanism, and a laser diode metrology system. The interferometer optical output is measured by a commercial infrared camera procured from Santa Barbara Focalplane. It uses an InSb 128x128 detector array that covers the entire FOV of the instrument when coupled with a 25 mm focal length commercial camera lens. With appropriate lenses and cold filters the instrument can be used from the visible to 5 micrometers. The delay scan is continuous, but slow, covering the maximum range of +/- 0.4 cm in 37.56 sec at a rate of 500 image frames per second. Image exposures are timed to be centered around predicted zero crossings. The design allows for prediction algorithms that account for the most recent fringe rate so that timing jitter produced by scan speed variations can be minimized. Response to a fixed source is linear with exposure time nearly to the point of saturation. Linearity with respect to input variations was demonstrated to within 0.16% using a 3-point blackbody calibration. Imaging of external complex scenes was carried out at low and high spectral resolution. These require full complex calibration to remove background contributions that vary dramatically over the instrument FOV. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the precise radiometric accuracy and noise characteristics.

  15. Comparison of lower tropospheric ozone columns observed by DIAL and GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, O.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Morino, I.; Ohyama, H.; Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Kawasaki, T.; Akaho, T.; Okumura, H.; Arai, K.; Matsunaga, T.; Yokota, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ozone plays important roles in climate change and air quality. We have been improving the ozone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) installed at Saga (33.24N, 130.29E), Japan in March 2011. Current DIAL consists of four Stimulated Raman Scattering lines (276, 287, 299, and 312 nm) which are generated by the fourth harmonic (266 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and a 2-m Raman cell filled with 8-atm CO2 gas, and 10-cm and 50-cm dia. receiving telescopes. With this DIAL, ozone profiles could be measured from ~ 300 m to 6 km~10 km altitude. Total and tropospheric ozone columns have been retrieved from the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer, measuring in the Thermal InfraRed (TANSO-FTS TIR) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) launched on 23, January 2009. Lower tropospheric ozone columns between 1 km and 6 km retrieved from GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR (9.6 μm band) within ×1 degree longitude/latitude centered at DIAL were compared with those of DIAL data in 2012 which were applied with GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR averaging kernels. Although GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR data were lower than DIAL data by 10×11%, they were in reasonable agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. Seasonal variations of lower tropospheric ozone columns are clearly seen, and high ozone mixing ratio events around 2 km altitude observed by DIAL are reported.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FTS high resolution of CoIII (Smillie+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Nave, G.; Smith, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of Co III was measured in the wavenumber region 33000-66000cm-1 (3030-1515Å) using the NIST vacuum ultraviolet region (VUV) FTS (Spectrum number 6, taken on 1999 August 30). The Co III spectrum was also observed in the region 234-2550Å with the 10.7m NIST normal incidence vacuum spectrograph (NIVS; two spectra named x872 and x875, recorded on 2005 May 26, and June 8, respectively). (5 data files).

  17. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf broth: Evaluation of their innate antimicrobial and catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Ajitha, B; Reddy, Y Ashok Kumar; Reddy, P Sreedhara

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared through green route with the aid of Momordica charantia leaf extract as both reductant and stabilizer. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) fringes revealed the structure of AgNPs as face centered cubic (fcc). Morphological studies elucidate the nearly spherical AgNPs formation with particle size in nanoscale. Biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be photoluminescent and UV-Vis absorption spectra showed one surface plasmon resonance peak (SPR) at 424nm attesting the spherical nanoparticles formation. XPS study provides the surface chemical nature and oxidation state of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR spectra ascertain the reduction and capping nature of phytoconstituents of leaf extract in AgNPs synthesis. Further, these AgNPs showed effective antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens and thus applicable as potent antimicrobial agent. In addition, the synthesized AgNPs were observed to have an excellent catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by M. charantia which was confirmed by the decrement in maximum absorbance values of methylene blue with respect to time and is ascribed to electron relay effect. PMID:25771428

  18. ZipA is a MAP-Tau homolog and is essential for structural integrity of the cytokinetic FtsZ ring during bacterial cell division.

    PubMed Central

    RayChaudhuri, D

    1999-01-01

    The first visible event in prokaryotic cell division is the assembly of the soluble, tubulin-like FtsZ GTPase into a membrane-associated cytokinetic ring that defines the division plane in bacterial and archaeal cells. In the temperature-sensitive ftsZ84 mutant of Escherichia coli, this ring assembly is impaired at the restrictive temperature causing lethal cell filamentation. Here I present genetic and morphological evidence that a 2-fold higher dosage of the division gene zipA suppresses thermosensitivity of the ftsZ84 mutant by stabilizing the labile FtsZ84 ring structure in vivo. I demonstrate that purified ZipA promotes and stabilizes protofilament assembly of both FtsZ and FtsZ84 in vitro and cosediments with the protofilaments. Furthermore, ZipA organizes FtsZ protofilaments into arrays of long bundles or sheets that probably represent the physiological organization of the FtsZ ring in bacterial cells. The N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of membrane-anchored ZipA contains sequence elements that resemble the microtubule-binding signature motifs in eukaryotic Tau, MAP2 and MAP4 proteins. It is postulated that the MAP-Tau-homologous motifs in ZipA mediate its binding to FtsZ, and that FtsZ-ZipA interaction represents an ancient prototype of the protein-protein interaction that enables MAPs to suppress microtubule catastrophe and/or to promote rescue. PMID:10228152

  19. The bacterial tubulin FtsZ requires its intrinsically disordered linker to direct robust cell wall construction

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Kousik; Miguel, Amanda; Desmarais, Samantha M.; Meier, Elizabeth L.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Goley, Erin D.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial GTPase FtsZ forms a cytokinetic ring at midcell, recruits the division machinery, and orchestrates membrane and peptidoglycan cell wall invagination. However, the mechanism for FtsZ regulation of peptidoglycan metabolism is unknown. The FtsZ GTPase domain is separated from its membrane-anchoring C-terminal conserved (CTC) peptide by a disordered C-terminal linker (CTL). Here, we investigate CTL function in Caulobacter crescentus. Strikingly, production of FtsZ lacking the CTL (ΔCTL) is lethal: cells become filamentous, form envelope bulges, and lyse, resembling treatment with β-lactam antibiotics. This phenotype is produced by FtsZ polymers bearing the CTC and a CTL shorter than 14 residues. Peptidoglycan synthesis still occurs downstream of ΔCTL, however cells expressing ΔCTL exhibit reduced peptidoglycan crosslinking and longer glycan strands than wildtype. Importantly, midcell proteins are still recruited to sites of ΔCTL assembly. We propose that FtsZ regulates peptidoglycan metabolism through a CTL-dependent mechanism that extends beyond simple protein recruitment. PMID:26099469

  20. The bacterial tubulin FtsZ requires its intrinsically disordered linker to direct robust cell wall construction.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Kousik; Miguel, Amanda; Desmarais, Samantha M; Meier, Elizabeth L; Casey Huang, Kerwyn; Goley, Erin D

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial GTPase FtsZ forms a cytokinetic ring at midcell, recruits the division machinery and orchestrates membrane and peptidoglycan cell wall invagination. However, the mechanism for FtsZ regulation of peptidoglycan metabolism is unknown. The FtsZ GTPase domain is separated from its membrane-anchoring C-terminal conserved (CTC) peptide by a disordered C-terminal linker (CTL). Here we investigate CTL function in Caulobacter crescentus. Strikingly, production of FtsZ lacking the CTL (ΔCTL) is lethal: cells become filamentous, form envelope bulges and lyse, resembling treatment with β-lactam antibiotics. This phenotype is produced by FtsZ polymers bearing the CTC and a CTL shorter than 14 residues. Peptidoglycan synthesis still occurs downstream of ΔCTL; however, cells expressing ΔCTL exhibit reduced peptidoglycan crosslinking and longer glycan strands than wild type. Importantly, midcell proteins are still recruited to sites of ΔCTL assembly. We propose that FtsZ regulates peptidoglycan metabolism through a CTL-dependent mechanism that extends beyond simple protein recruitment. PMID:26099469

  1. Is ftsH the Key to Plastid Longevity in Sacoglossan Slugs?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jan; Habicht, Jörn; Woehle, Christian; Huang, Changjie; Christa, Gregor; Wägele, Heike; Nickelsen, Jörg; Martin, William F.; Gould, Sven B.

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sequestered by sacoglossan sea slugs have long been a puzzle. Some sacoglossans feed on siphonaceous algae and can retain the plastids in the cytosol of their digestive gland cells. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) can remain photosynthetically active in some cases for months. Kleptoplast longevity itself challenges current paradigms concerning photosystem turnover, because kleptoplast photosystems remain active in the absence of nuclear algal genes. In higher plants, nuclear genes are essential for plastid maintenance, in particular, for the constant repair of the D1 protein of photosystem II. Lateral gene transfer was long suspected to underpin slug kleptoplast longevity, but recent transcriptomic and genomic analyses show that no algal nuclear genes are expressed from the slug nucleus. Kleptoplast genomes themselves, however, appear expressed in the sequestered state. Here we present sequence data for the chloroplast genome of Acetabularia acetabulum, the food source of the sacoglossan Elysia timida, which can maintain Acetabularia kleptoplasts in an active state for months. The data reveal what might be the key to sacoglossan kleptoplast longevity: plastids that remain photosynthetically active within slugs for periods of months share the property of encoding ftsH, a D1 quality control protease that is essential for photosystem II repair. In land plants, ftsH is always nuclear encoded, it was transferred to the nucleus from the plastid genome when Charophyta and Embryophyta split. A replenishable supply of ftsH could, in principle, rescue kleptoplasts from D1 photodamage, thereby influencing plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs. PMID:24336424

  2. Is ftsH the key to plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan; Habicht, Jörn; Woehle, Christian; Huang, Changjie; Christa, Gregor; Wägele, Heike; Nickelsen, Jörg; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sequestered by sacoglossan sea slugs have long been a puzzle. Some sacoglossans feed on siphonaceous algae and can retain the plastids in the cytosol of their digestive gland cells. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) can remain photosynthetically active in some cases for months. Kleptoplast longevity itself challenges current paradigms concerning photosystem turnover, because kleptoplast photosystems remain active in the absence of nuclear algal genes. In higher plants, nuclear genes are essential for plastid maintenance, in particular, for the constant repair of the D1 protein of photosystem II. Lateral gene transfer was long suspected to underpin slug kleptoplast longevity, but recent transcriptomic and genomic analyses show that no algal nuclear genes are expressed from the slug nucleus. Kleptoplast genomes themselves, however, appear expressed in the sequestered state. Here we present sequence data for the chloroplast genome of Acetabularia acetabulum, the food source of the sacoglossan Elysia timida, which can maintain Acetabularia kleptoplasts in an active state for months. The data reveal what might be the key to sacoglossan kleptoplast longevity: plastids that remain photosynthetically active within slugs for periods of months share the property of encoding ftsH, a D1 quality control protease that is essential for photosystem II repair. In land plants, ftsH is always nuclear encoded, it was transferred to the nucleus from the plastid genome when Charophyta and Embryophyta split. A replenishable supply of ftsH could, in principle, rescue kleptoplasts from D1 photodamage, thereby influencing plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs. PMID:24336424

  3. Raney nickel catalytic device

    DOEpatents

    O'Hare, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

  4. Quantification of strong emissions of methane in the Arctic using spectral measurements from TANSO-FTS and IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourakkadi, Zakia; Payan, Sébastien; Bureau, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after the carbon dioxide but it is 25 times more effective in contributing to the radiative forcing than the carbon dioxide(1). Since the pre-industrial times global methane concentration have more than doubled in the atmosphere. This increase is generally caused by anthropogenic activities like the massif use and extraction of fossil fuel, rice paddy agriculture, emissions from landfills... In recent years, several studies show that climate warming and thawing of permafrost act on the mobilization of old stored carbon in Arctic causing a sustained release of methane to the atmosphere(2),(3),(4). The methane emissions from thawing permafrost and methane hydrates in the northern circumpolar region will become potentially important in the end of the 21st centry because they could increase dramatically due to the rapid climate warming of the Artic and the large carbon pools stored there. The objective of this study is to evaluate and quantify methane strong emissions in this region of the globe using spectral measurements from the Thermal And Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). We use also the LMDZ-PYVAR model to simulate methane fluxes and to estimate how they could be observed by Infrared Sounders from space. To select spectra with high values of methane we developed a statistical approach based on the singular value decomposition. Using this approach we can identify spectra over the important emission sources of methane and we can by this way reduce the number of spectra to retrieve by an line-by-line radiative transfer model in order to focus on those which contain high amount of methane. In order to estimate the capacity of TANSO-FTS and IASI to detect peaks of methane emission with short duration at quasi-real time, we used data from MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) simulations

  5. Site-directed Fluorescence Labeling Reveals a Revised N-terminal Membrane Topology and Functional Periplasmic Residues in the Escherichia coli Cell Division Protein FtsK*

    PubMed Central

    Berezuk, Alison M.; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M.

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process. PMID:25002583

  6. The Nucleoid Occlusion SlmA Protein Accelerates the Disassembly of the FtsZ Protein Polymers without Affecting Their GTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Elisa J.; Monterroso, Begoña; Alfonso, Carlos; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Reija, Belén; Jiménez, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Division site selection is achieved in bacteria by different mechanisms, one of them being nucleoid occlusion, which prevents Z-ring assembly nearby the chromosome. Nucleoid occlusion in E. coli is mediated by SlmA, a sequence specific DNA binding protein that antagonizes FtsZ assembly. Here we show that, when bound to its specific target DNA sequences (SBS), SlmA reduces the lifetime of the FtsZ protofilaments in solution and of the FtsZ bundles when located inside permeable giant vesicles. This effect appears to be essentially uncoupled from the GTPase activity of the FtsZ protofilaments, which is insensitive to the presence of SlmA·SBS. The interaction of SlmA·SBS with either FtsZ protofilaments containing GTP or FtsZ oligomers containing GDP results in the disassembly of FtsZ polymers. We propose that SlmA·SBS complexes control the polymerization state of FtsZ by accelerating the disassembly of the FtsZ polymers leading to their fragmentation into shorter species that are still able to hydrolyze GTP at the same rate. SlmA defines therefore a new class of inhibitors of the FtsZ ring different from the SOS response regulator SulA and from the moonlighting enzyme OpgH, inhibitors of the GTPase activity. SlmA also shows differences compared with MinC, the inhibitor of the division site selection Min system, which shortens FtsZ protofilaments by interacting with the GDP form of FtsZ. PMID:25950808

  7. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  8. Evaluation of an EMITEC resistively heated metal monolith catalytic converter on two M100 neat methanol-fueled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Gregory K.; Schaefer, Ronald M.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the evaluation of a resistively heated catalyst system on two different methanol fueled vehicles. The EMITEC catalyst consisted of a compact resistively heated metal monolith in front of a larger conventional main converter. The EMITEC catalyst was evaluated on two neat methanol-fueled vehicles, a 1981 Volkswagen Rabbit and a 1988 Toyota Corolla. Emission testing was conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) CVS-75 test cycle. The emissions of primary interest were cold start methanol (unburned fuel), carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde.

  9. Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon(TM) soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor. In phase III a urine analog was used to evaluate the performance of the combined distillation/oxidation functions of the processor.

  10. Deletion of the ftsZ-like gene results in the production of superparamagnetic magnetite magnetosomes in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yao; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Jiangning; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Jiesheng; Li, Ying; Pan, Yongxin; Li, Jilun

    2010-02-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize unique organelles termed "magnetosomes," which are membrane-enclosed structures containing crystals of magnetite or greigite. Magnetosomes form a chain around MamK cytoskeletal filaments and provide the basis for the ability of MTB to navigate along geomagnetic field lines in order to find optimal microaerobic habitats. Genomes of species of the MTB genus Magnetospirillum, in addition to a gene encoding the tubulin-like FtsZ protein (involved in cell division), contain a second gene termed "ftsZ-like," whose function is unknown. In the present study, we found that the ftsZ-like gene of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 belongs to a 4.9-kb mamXY polycistronic transcription unit. We then purified the recombinant FtsZ-like protein to homogeneity. The FtsZ-like protein efficiently hydrolyzed ATP and GTP, with ATPase and GTPase activity levels of 2.17 and 5.56 mumol phosphorus per mol protein per min, respectively. The FtsZ-like protein underwent GTP-dependent polymerization into long filamentous bundles in vitro. To determine the role of the ftsZ-like gene, we constructed a ftsZ-like mutant (DeltaftsZ-like mutant) and its complementation strain (DeltaftsZ-like_C strain). Growth of DeltaftsZ-like cells was similar to that of the wild type, indicating that the DeltaftsZ-like gene is not involved in cell division. Transmission electron microscopic observations indicated that the DeltaftsZ-like cells, in comparison to wild-type cells, produced smaller magnetosomes, with poorly defined morphology and irregular alignment, including large gaps. Magnetic analyses showed that DeltaftsZ-like produced mainly superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite particles, whereas wild-type and DeltaftsZ-like_C cells produced mainly single-domain (SD) particles. Our findings suggest that the FtsZ-like protein is required for synthesis of SD particles and magnetosomes in M. gryphiswaldense. PMID:20023033

  11. FtsH is involved in the early stages of repair of photosystem II in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paulo; Thompson, Elinor; Bailey, Shaun; Kruse, Olaf; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Robinson, Colin; Mann, Nicholas H; Nixon, Peter J

    2003-09-01

    When plants, algae, and cyanobacteria are exposed to excessive light, especially in combination with other environmental stress conditions such as extreme temperatures, their photosynthetic performance declines. A major cause of this photoinhibition is the light-induced irreversible photodamage to the photosystem II (PSII) complex responsible for photosynthetic oxygen evolution. A repair cycle operates to selectively replace a damaged D1 subunit within PSII with a newly synthesized copy followed by the light-driven reactivation of the complex. Net loss of PSII activity occurs (photoinhibition) when the rate of damage exceeds the rate of repair. The identities of the chaperones and proteases involved in the replacement of D1 in vivo remain uncertain. Here, we show that one of the four members of the FtsH family of proteases (cyanobase designation slr0228) found in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 is important for the repair of PSII and is vital for preventing chronic photoinhibition. Therefore, the ftsH gene family is not functionally redundant with respect to the repair of PSII in this organism. Our data also indicate that FtsH binds directly to PSII, is involved in the early steps of D1 degradation, and is not restricted to the removal of D1 fragments. These results, together with the recent analysis of ftsH mutants of Arabidopsis, highlight the critical role played by FtsH proteases in the removal of damaged D1 from the membrane and the maintenance of PSII activity in vivo. PMID:12953117

  12. Structure of the tubulin/FtsZ-like protein TubZ from Pseudomonas bacteriophage ΦKZ.

    PubMed

    Aylett, Christopher H S; Izoré, Thierry; Amos, Linda A; Löwe, Jan

    2013-06-26

    Pseudomonas ΦKZ-like bacteriophages encode a group of related tubulin/FtsZ-like proteins believed to be essential for the correct centring of replicated bacteriophage virions within the bacterial host. In this study, we present crystal structures of the tubulin/FtsZ-like protein TubZ from Pseudomonas bacteriophage ΦKZ in both the monomeric and protofilament states, revealing that ΦKZ TubZ undergoes structural changes required to polymerise, forming a canonical tubulin/FtsZ-like protofilament. Combining our structures with previous work, we propose a polymerisation-depolymerisation cycle for the Pseudomonas bacteriophage subgroup of tubulin/FtsZ-like proteins. Electron cryo-microscopy of ΦKZ TubZ filaments polymerised in vitro implies a long-pitch helical arrangement for the constituent protofilaments. Intriguingly, this feature is shared by the other known subgroup of bacteriophage tubulin/FtsZ-like proteins from Clostridium species, which are thought to be involved in partitioning the genomes of bacteriophages adopting a pseudo-lysogenic life cycle. PMID:23528827

  13. A Multi-layered Protein Network Stabilizes the Escherichia coli FtsZ-ring and Modulates Constriction Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Shtengel, Gleb; Yang, Xinxing; Hess, Harald; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure (FtsZ-ring) at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery (divisome). Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E. coli: FtsZ, ZapA, ZapB and MatP. We show that these interacting proteins are arranged into a multi-layered protein network extending from the cell membrane to the chromosome, each with unique structural and dynamic properties. Further, we find that this protein network stabilizes the FtsZ-ring, and unexpectedly, slows down cell constriction, suggesting a new, unrecognized role for this network in bacterial cell division. Our results provide new insight into the structure and function of the divisome, and highlight the importance of coordinated cell constriction and chromosome segregation. PMID:25848771

  14. Demonstration of imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) performance for planetary and geostationary Earth observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revercomb, Henry E.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Best, Fred A.; LaPorte, Daniel D.

    2001-02-01

    The combination of massively parallel spatial sampling and accurate spectral radiometry offered by imaging FTS makes it extremely attractive for earth and planetary remote sensing. We constructed a breadboard instrument to help assess the potential for planetary applications of small imaging FTS instruments in the 1-5 micrometers range. The results also support definition of the NASA Geostationary Imaging FTS instrument that will make key meteorological and climate observations from geostationary earth orbit. The PIFTS pivoting voice- coil delay scan mechanism, and laser diode metrology system. The interferometer optical output is measured by a commercial IR camera procured from Santa Barbara Focal plane. It uses an InSb 128 by 128 detector array that covers the entire FOV of the instrument when coupled with a 25-mm focal length commercial camera lens. With appropriate lenses and cold filters the instrument can be used from the visible to 5 micrometers . The delay scan is continuos, but slow, covering the maximum range of +/- 0.4 cm in 37.56 sec at a rate of 500 image frames per second. Image exposures are timed to be centered around predicted zero crossings. The design allows for prediction algorithms that account for the most recent fringe rate so that timing jitter produced by scan speed variations can be minimized. Response to a fixed source is linear with exposure time nearly to the point of saturation. Linearity with respect to input variations was demonstrated to within 0.16 percent using a 3-point blackbody calibration. Imaging of external complex scenes was carried out at low and high spectral resolution. These require full complex calibration to remove background contributions that vary dramatically over the instrument FOV. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the precise radiometric accuracy and noise characteristics.

  15. FTS (Fog To Snow) Conversion Process During the SNOW-V10 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Zhou, B.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this work is to understand how winter fog which occurred on Whistler Mountain on 3-4 March 2010 developed into a snow event by the means of the FTS (Fog To Snow) process. This event was documented using data collected during the Science of Nowcasting Winter Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10) project that was supported by the Fog Remote Sensing and Modelling (FRAM) project. The FTS resulted in a snow event at about 1,850 m altitude where the RND (Roundhouse) meteorological station was located. For both days, there was no large scale system that affected local fog formation and its development into snow. Patchy fog occurred in the early hours of both days and was based below 1,500 m. Clear skies at night likely resulted in cooling, the valley temperature (T) was about -1°C in the early morning, and snow was on the ground. Winds were relatively calm (<1 m s-1). At the RND site, T was about -3°C. Weather at RND was clear and sunny till noon. When fog moved over the mountain peak/near RND, light snow started and lasted for about 4-5 h and was not detected by precipitation sensors except the Ground Cloud Imaging Probe (GCIP) and Laser Precipitation Sensor (LPM). In this work, the FTS process is conceptually summarized. Because clear weather conditions over the high mountain tops can become hazardous with low visibilities and significant snow amounts (<1.0 mm h-1), such events are important and need to be predicted.

  16. FTS (Fog To Snow) Conversion Process During The SNOW-V10 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Isaac, G. A.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work is to understand how winter fog which occurred on Whistler Mountain on 3-4 March 2010 developed into a snow event by the means of the FTS (Fog_To_Snow) process. This event was documented using data collected during the Science of Nowcasting Winter Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10) project that was supported by the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) project. The FTS resulted in a snow event at about 1850 m height where the RND (Roundhouse) meteorological station was located. For both days, there was no large scale system that affected local fog formation and its development into snow. The patchy fog occurred in the early hours of both days and was based below 1500 m. Clear skies at night likely resulted in cooling, the valley temperature (T) was about +3C in the early morning, and snow was on the ground. Winds were relatively calm (<1 m/s). At the RND site, T was about -3C. Weather at RND was clear and sunny till noon. When shortwave (SW) radiation provided additional heat at the low levels and sloping surfaces, fog started to lift up over a 3-4 hr time period gaining additional moisture from melting snow. Then, the fog layers were eventually converted to cumulus/altocumulus. Afternoon, at about 01:30 PM, the entire valley was filled up with a fog/cloud mixture. When fog moved over the mountain peak/near RND, light snow started and lasted for about 4-5 hrs and was not detected by precipitation sensors except the Ground Cloud Imaging Probe (GCIP) and Laser Precipitation Sensor (LPM). In the presentation, observations collected during the FTS process will be summarized, and it will be proposed as an important winter and forecasting event over high elevations.

  17. XerD-mediated FtsK-independent integration of TLCϕ into the Vibrio cholerae genome.

    PubMed

    Midonet, Caroline; Das, Bhabatosh; Paly, Evelyne; Barre, Francois-Xavier

    2014-11-25

    As in most bacteria, topological problems arising from the circularity of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes, chrI and chrII, are resolved by the addition of a crossover at a specific site of each chromosome, dif, by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD. The reaction is under the control of a cell division protein, FtsK, which activates the formation of a Holliday Junction (HJ) intermediate by XerD catalysis that is resolved into product by XerC catalysis. Many plasmids and phages exploit Xer recombination for dimer resolution and for integration, respectively. In all cases so far described, they rely on an alternative recombination pathway in which XerC catalyzes the formation of a HJ independently of FtsK. This is notably the case for CTXϕ, the cholera toxin phage. Here, we show that in contrast, integration of TLCϕ, a toxin-linked cryptic satellite phage that is almost always found integrated at the chrI dif site before CTXϕ, depends on the formation of a HJ by XerD catalysis, which is then resolved by XerC catalysis. The reaction nevertheless escapes the normal cellular control exerted by FtsK on XerD. In addition, we show that the same reaction promotes the excision of TLCϕ, along with any CTXϕ copy present between dif and its left attachment site, providing a plausible mechanism for how chrI CTXϕ copies can be eliminated, as occurred in the second wave of the current cholera pandemic. PMID:25385643

  18. Simulated Atmospheric Composition Retrievals for the Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natraj, V.; Neu, J. L.; Kulawik, S. S.; Luo, M.; Kurosu, T. P.; Bowman, K. W.; Eldering, A.; Sander, S. P.; Worden, J.; Key, R.

    2012-12-01

    The US National Research Council Earth Science Decadal Survey recommended the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission to make unprecedented measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of trace gases and aerosols that influence air quality. The current baseline plan for the atmospheric science component of GEO-CAPE calls for hourly measurements over North America from 10° N to 60° N latitude. The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) is a candidate instrument for the GEO-CAPE mission. With sensitivity from 0.28 to 11 micron and high spectral resolution, PanFTS combines the functionality of separate UV, visible and IR instruments in a single package designed to measure all of the trace species required to accomplish the GEO-CAPE atmospheric science objectives. This presentation summarizes study results that demonstrate the capability of PanFTS to meet or exceed GEO-CAPE atmospheric science requirements, with particular emphasis on three trace gases of importance to air quality and climate science: O3, CO and CH4. The WRF-Chem model at 4 km resolution was used to obtain vertical profiles of the species of interest and all interfering trace gases. This was then combined with stratospheric profiles from several models. An offline aerosol model was used to calculate species-specific aerosol profiles from the WRF-Chem output. Simulations were performed for a wide variety of locations, including core urban areas such as Los Angeles, downwind urban areas such as Essex (downwind of Baltimore) and remote rural locations such as southeast Oregon. Day- and night-time, as well as weekday and weekend, scenarios were considered. With the model profiles representing the "true state", a multispectral retrieval approach was used to obtain estimates of the sensitivity, precision and systematic errors for species of relevance to GEO-CAPE, including O3, CO, CH4, NO2, SO2 and NH3, using simulated PanFTS measurements over the continental

  19. Role of SufI (FtsP) in cell division of Escherichia coli: evidence for its involvement in stabilizing the assembly of the divisome.

    PubMed

    Samaluru, Harish; SaiSree, L; Reddy, Manjula

    2007-11-01

    The function of SufI, a well-studied substrate of the TatABC translocase in Escherichia coli, is not known. It was earlier implicated in cell division, based on the finding that multiple copies of sufI suppressed the phenotypes of cells with mutations in ftsI (ftsI23), which encodes a divisomal transpeptidase. Recently, sufI was identified as both a multicopy suppressor gene and a synthetic lethal mutant of ftsEX, which codes for a division-specific putative ABC transporter. In this study, we show that sufI is essential for the viability of E. coli cells subjected to various forms of stress, including oxidative stress and DNA damage. The sufI mutant also exhibits sulA-independent filamentation, indicating a role in cell division. The phenotypes of the sufI mutant are suppressed by factors that stabilize FtsZ ring assembly, such as increased expression of cell division proteins FtsQAZ or FtsN or the presence of the gain-of-function ftsA* (FtsA R286W) mutation, suggesting that SufI is a divisomal protein required during stress conditions. In support of this, multicopy sufI suppressed the divisional defects of mutants carrying the ftsA12, ftsQ1, or ftsK44 allele but not those of mutants carrying ftsZ84. Most of the division-defective mutants, in particular those carrying a DeltaftsEX or ftsI23 allele, exhibited sensitivity to oxidative stress or DNA damage, and this sensitivity was also abolished by multiple copies of SufI. All of these data suggest that SufI is a division component involved in protecting or stabilizing the divisomal assembly under conditions of stress. Since sufI fulfils the requirements to be designated an fts gene, we propose that it be renamed ftsP. PMID:17766410

  20. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  1. New palladium–oxazoline complexes: Synthesis and evaluation of the optical properties and the catalytic power during the oxidation of textile dyes

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Rym; Jabli, Mahjoub; Kacem, Yakdhane; Marrot, Jérôme; Prim, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Summary The present paper describes the synthesis of new palladium–oxazoline complexes in one step with good to high yields (68–95%). The oxazolines were prepared from enantiomerically pure α-aminoalcohols. The structures of the synthesized palladium complexes were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TOFMS, UV–visible spectroscopic analysis and X–ray diffraction. The optical properties of the complexes were evaluated by the determination of the gap energy values (E g) ranging between 2.34 and 3.21 eV. Their catalytic activities were tested for the degradation of Eriochrome Blue Black B (a model of azo dyes) in the presence of an ecological oxidant (H2O2). The efficiency of the decolorization has been confirmed via UV–visible spectroscopic analysis and the factors affecting the degradation phenomenon have been studied. The removal of the Eriochrome reached high yields. We have found that the complex 9 promoted 84% of color elimination within 5 min (C 0 = 30 mg/L, T = 22 °C, pH 7, H2O2 = 0.5 mL) and the energetic parameters have been also determined. PMID:26425176

  2. Production of versatile peroxidase from Pleurotus eryngii by solid-state fermentation using agricultural residues and evaluation of its catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Palma, C; Lloret, L; Sepúlveda, L; Contreras, E

    2016-01-01

    Interest in production of ligninolytic enzymes has been growing over recent years for their use in various applications such as recalcitrant pollutants bioremediation; specifically, versatile peroxidase (VP) presents a great potential due to its catalytic versatility. The proper selection of the fermentation mode and the culture medium should be an imperative to ensure a successful production by an economic and available medium that favors the process viability. VP was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Pleurotus eryngii, using the agricultural residue banana peel as growth medium; an enzymatic activity of 10,800 U L(-1) (36 U g(-1) of substrate) was detected after 18 days, whereas only 1800 U L(-1) was reached by conventional submerged fermentation (SF) with glucose-based medium. The kinetic parameters were determined by evaluating the H2O2 and Mn(2+) concentration effects on the Mn(3+)-tartrate complex formation. The results indicated that although the H2O2 inhibitory effect was observed for the enzyme produced by both media, the reaction rates for VP obtained by SSF were less impacted. This outcome suggests the presence of substances released from banana peel during the fermentation, which might exhibit a protective effect resulting in an improved kinetic behavior of the enzyme. PMID:26444982

  3. New palladium-oxazoline complexes: Synthesis and evaluation of the optical properties and the catalytic power during the oxidation of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Rym; Jabli, Mahjoub; Kacem, Yakdhane; Marrot, Jérôme; Prim, Damien; Ben Hassine, Béchir

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis of new palladium-oxazoline complexes in one step with good to high yields (68-95%). The oxazolines were prepared from enantiomerically pure α-aminoalcohols. The structures of the synthesized palladium complexes were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TOFMS, UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of the complexes were evaluated by the determination of the gap energy values (E g) ranging between 2.34 and 3.21 eV. Their catalytic activities were tested for the degradation of Eriochrome Blue Black B (a model of azo dyes) in the presence of an ecological oxidant (H2O2). The efficiency of the decolorization has been confirmed via UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and the factors affecting the degradation phenomenon have been studied. The removal of the Eriochrome reached high yields. We have found that the complex 9 promoted 84% of color elimination within 5 min (C 0 = 30 mg/L, T = 22 °C, pH 7, H2O2 = 0.5 mL) and the energetic parameters have been also determined. PMID:26425176

  4. The plastid metalloprotease FtsH6 and small heat shock protein HSP21 jointly regulate thermomemory in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghatmehr, Mastoureh; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to heat stress is an increased resistance to elevated temperature following a prior exposure to heat. The maintenance of acquired thermotolerance in the absence of intervening stress is called ‘thermomemory' but the mechanistic basis for this memory is not well defined. Here we show that Arabidopsis HSP21, a plastidial small heat shock protein that rapidly accumulates after heat stress and remains abundant during the thermomemory phase, is a crucial component of thermomemory. Sustained memory requires that HSP21 levels remain high. Through pharmacological interrogation and transcriptome profiling, we show that the plastid-localized metalloprotease FtsH6 regulates HSP21 abundance. Lack of a functional FtsH6 protein promotes HSP21 accumulation during the later stages of thermomemory and increases thermomemory capacity. Our results thus reveal the presence of a plastidial FtsH6–HSP21 control module for thermomemory in plants. PMID:27561243

  5. FtsK translocation permits discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex

    PubMed Central

    Fournes, Florian; Crozat, Estelles; Pages, Carine; Tardin, Catherine; Salomé, Laurence; Cornet, François

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the FtsK/Xer/dif (chromosome dimer resolution site) system is essential for faithful vertical genetic transmission, ensuring the resolution of chromosome dimers during their segregation to daughter cells. This system is also targeted by mobile genetic elements that integrate into chromosomal dif sites. A central question is thus how Xer/dif recombination is tuned to both act in chromosome segregation and stably maintain mobile elements. To explore this question, we focused on pathogenic Neisseria species harboring a genomic island in their dif sites. We show that the FtsK DNA translocase acts differentially at the recombination sites flanking the genomic island. It stops at one Xer/dif complex, activating recombination, but it does not stop on the other site, thus dismantling it. FtsK translocation thus permits cis discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex. PMID:27317749

  6. Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Beer, R.; Blavier, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Eldering, A.; Rider, D.; Toon, G. C.; Traub, W. A.; Worden, J.

    2010-12-01

    The NRC decadal survey of earth science from space proposed the GEO-CAPE and GACM missions to study changes in atmospheric composition, global climate and the coastal oceans. To properly address air quality, the decadal survey highlighted the need for vertical profile measurements with sensitivity into the atmospheric boundary layer. The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS), a new project within the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, will measure all of the trace species called out in the decadal survey for GEO-CAPE and GACM. With continuous sensitivity from 0.26 to 15 micron and high spectral resolution, PanFTS combines the functionality of separate UV, visible and IR instruments in a single package. This presentation will discuss the design approach and technology development challenges for PanFTS including high speed, high resolution focal plane arrays, and wide spectral coverage optical design.

  7. The plastid metalloprotease FtsH6 and small heat shock protein HSP21 jointly regulate thermomemory in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sedaghatmehr, Mastoureh; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to heat stress is an increased resistance to elevated temperature following a prior exposure to heat. The maintenance of acquired thermotolerance in the absence of intervening stress is called 'thermomemory' but the mechanistic basis for this memory is not well defined. Here we show that Arabidopsis HSP21, a plastidial small heat shock protein that rapidly accumulates after heat stress and remains abundant during the thermomemory phase, is a crucial component of thermomemory. Sustained memory requires that HSP21 levels remain high. Through pharmacological interrogation and transcriptome profiling, we show that the plastid-localized metalloprotease FtsH6 regulates HSP21 abundance. Lack of a functional FtsH6 protein promotes HSP21 accumulation during the later stages of thermomemory and increases thermomemory capacity. Our results thus reveal the presence of a plastidial FtsH6-HSP21 control module for thermomemory in plants. PMID:27561243

  8. FtsK translocation permits discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex.

    PubMed

    Fournes, Florian; Crozat, Estelles; Pages, Carine; Tardin, Catherine; Salomé, Laurence; Cornet, François; Rousseau, Philippe

    2016-07-12

    In bacteria, the FtsK/Xer/dif (chromosome dimer resolution site) system is essential for faithful vertical genetic transmission, ensuring the resolution of chromosome dimers during their segregation to daughter cells. This system is also targeted by mobile genetic elements that integrate into chromosomal dif sites. A central question is thus how Xer/dif recombination is tuned to both act in chromosome segregation and stably maintain mobile elements. To explore this question, we focused on pathogenic Neisseria species harboring a genomic island in their dif sites. We show that the FtsK DNA translocase acts differentially at the recombination sites flanking the genomic island. It stops at one Xer/dif complex, activating recombination, but it does not stop on the other site, thus dismantling it. FtsK translocation thus permits cis discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex. PMID:27317749

  9. Hosting a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on CubeSat Spacecraft Platforms for Global Measurements of Three-Dimensional Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. K.; Neilsen, T. L.; Weston, C.; Frazier, C.; Smith, T.; Shumway, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global measurements of vertically-resolved atmospheric wind profiles offer the potential for improved weather forecasts and superior predictions of atmospheric wind patterns. A small-satellite constellation that uses a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instrument onboard 12U CubeSats can provide measurements of global tropospheric wind profiles from space at a very low cost. These small satellites are called FTS CubeSats. This presentation will describe a spacecraft concept that provides a stable, robust platform to host the FTS payload. Of importance to the payload are power, data, station keeping, thermal, and accommodations that enable high spectral measurements to be made from a LEO orbit. The spacecraft concept draws on Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) heritage and the recent success of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) and HyperAngular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP) missions. Working with team members, SDL built a prototype observatory (spacecraft and payload) for testing and proof of concept.

  10. Evaluation of the role of Au in improving catalytic activity of Ni nanoparticles for the formation of one-dimensional carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Chee, See-Wee; Herzing, Andrew; Miranda, Ryan; Rez, Peter

    2011-06-01

    In situ dynamic imaging, using an environmental transmission electron microscope, was employed to evaluate the catalytic activity of Au/SiO(2), Ni/SiO(2), and Au-Ni/SiO(2) nanoparticles for the formation of one-dimensional (1-D) carbon nanostructures such as carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and nanotubes (CNTs). While pure-Au thin-film samples were inactive for carbon deposition at 520 °C in 0.4 Pa of C(2)H(2), multiwalled CNTs formed from Ni thin films samples under these conditions. The number of nanoparticles active for CNF and CNT formation increased for thin films containing 0.1 mol fraction and 0.2 mol fraction of Au but decreased as the overall Au content in thin films was increased above 0.5 mol fraction. Multiwalled CNTs formed with a root growth mechanism for pure Ni samples, while with the addition of 0.1 mol fraction or 0.2 mol fraction of Au, CNFs were formed via a tip growth mechanism at 520 °C. Single-walled CNTs formed at temperatures above 600 °C in samples doped with less than 0.2 mol fraction of Au. Ex situ analysis via high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that catalytically active particles exhibit a heterogeneous distribution of Au and Ni, where only a small fraction of the overall Au content was found in the portion of each particle actively involved in the nucleation of graphitic layers. Instead, the majority of the Au was found to be segregated to an inactive capping structure at one the end of the particles. Using density-functional theory calculations, we show that the activation energy for bulk diffusion of carbon in Ni reduces from ≈1.62 eV for pure Ni to 0.07 eV with the addition of small amounts (≈0.06 mol fraction) of Au. This suggests that the enhancement of C diffusion through the bulk of the particles may be responsible for improving the number of particles active for nucleating the 1-D carbon nanostructures and thereby the yield. PMID:21604794

  11. Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegglin, M. I.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Daffer, W. H.; Hoor, P.; Manney, G. L.; Schiller, C.; Strong, K.; Walker, K. A.

    2007-09-01

    CO, O3, and H2O data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) measured by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on Canada's SCISAT-1 satellite are validated using aircraft measurements. In the UTLS, validation of chemical trace gas measurements is a challenging task due to small-scale variability in the tracer fields, strong gradients of the tracers across the tropopause, and scarcity of measurements suitable for validation purposes. Two alternative methods for the validation of the satellite data are introduced, which avoid the usual need for coincident measurements: tracer-tracer correlations, and vertical profiles relative to the tropopause height. Both largely reduce geophysical variability and thereby provide an "instantaneous climatology", allowing measurement comparison with non-coincident data which yields information about the precision, and a statistically meaningful error-assessment of the ACE-FTS satellite data. We found that the ACE-FTS CO and lower stratospheric O3 agree with the aircraft measurements within ±10% and ±5%, respectively. The ACE-FTS O3 in the UT exhibits a high bias of up to 40%. H2O indicates a low bias with relative differences of around 20% in the LS and 40% in the UT, respectively. When taking into account the smearing effect of the vertically limited spacing between measurements of the ACE-FTS instrument, the errors decrease by 5-15% around the tropopause. The ACE-FTS instrument hence offers unprecedented precision and vertical resolution in the UTLS, that will allow a new global perspective on UTLS tracer distributions.

  12. Role of an FtsK-like protein in genetic stability in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Yanfei; He, Xinyi; Zhou, Xiufen; Deng, Zixin; Chater, Keith F; Tao, Meifeng

    2007-03-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) does not have a canonical cell division cycle during most of its complex life cycle, yet it contains a gene (ftsK(SC)) encoding a protein similar to FtsK, which couples the completion of cell division and chromosome segregation in unicellular bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we show that various constructed ftsK(SC) mutants all grew apparently normally and sporulated but upon restreaking gave rise to many aberrant colonies and to high frequencies of chloramphenicol-sensitive mutants, a phenotype previously associated with large terminal deletions from the linear chromosome. Indeed, most of the aberrant colonies had lost large fragments near one or both chromosomal termini, as if chromosome ends had failed to reach their prespore destination before the closure of sporulation septa. A constructed FtsK(SC)-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein was particularly abundant in aerial hyphae, forming distinctive complexes before localizing to each sporulation septum, suggesting a role for FtsK(SC) in chromosome segregation during sporulation. Use of a fluorescent reporter showed that when ftsK(SC) was deleted, several spore compartments in most spore chains failed to express the late-sporulation-specific sigma factor gene sigF, even though they contained chromosomal DNA. This suggested that sigF expression is autonomously activated in each spore compartment in response to completion of chromosome transfer, which would be a previously unknown checkpoint for late-sporulation-specific gene expression. These results provide new insight into the genetic instability prevalent among streptomycetes, including those used in the industrial production of antibiotics. PMID:17209017

  13. The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) FTS: Results From the 2012/13 Alaska Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, Thomas P.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Stephen J.

    2014-05-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is an aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and the northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight path. Science operations started in May 2012 and are currently envisaged to continue until 2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements, in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, their interfering species (e.g., H2O), and O2. The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1, 5,800-6,400 cm-1, and 12,900-13,200 cm-1, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions, particularly with respect to vibration damping. Outstanding challenges include the need for improved spectral and radiometric calibration, as well as compensating for low signal-to-noise spectra acquired under Alaskan flight conditions. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, observed during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns, including preliminary comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of CO2 from TANSO/GOSAT and CO from MOPITT.

  14. Switchable catalytic DNA catenanes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianzhe; Lu, Chun-Hua; Willner, Itamar

    2015-03-11

    Two-ring interlocked DNA catenanes are synthesized and characterized. The supramolecular catenanes show switchable cyclic catalytic properties. In one system, the catenane structure is switched between a hemin/G-quadruplex catalytic structure and a catalytically inactive state. In the second catenane structure the catenane is switched between a catalytically active Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzyme-containing catenane and an inactive catenane state. In the third system, the interlocked catenane structure is switched between two distinct catalytic structures that include the Mg(2+)- and the Zn(2+)-dependent DNAzymes. PMID:25642796

  15. Seasonal comparisons of retrieved temperature and water vapour between ACE-FTS and COSMIC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kevin; Toon, Geoff; Boone, Chris; Strong, Kim

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the selection of a high-resolution solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to fly to Mars, we developed new algorithms for retrieving vertical profiles of temperature and pressure from spectra. We present temperature retrieval results from remote sensing spectra collected by the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), which recently celebrated its tenth year in orbit. ACE utilizes a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating between 750-4400 cm-1 in limb-scanning mode using the sun as a light source (solar occultation). We compare our retrieved profiles to those of the ACE Science Team and the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC). COSMIC is a group of six small satellites that use signals from GPS satellites to measure water vapour pressure an temperature via radio occultation. We have collected five sets of zonal and seasonal coincidences with a tight criteria of 150 km and 1 hour. Retrieved H2O profiles from both satellites will also be presented for these data sets. Compared to ACE, we can achieve T differences between 1 and 5 K below 50 km, perform less well between 50 and 100 km. Compared to COSMIC, available below 40 km, we perform similarly, while the ACE retrievals are in close agreement.

  16. Testing of FTS fingers and interface using a passive compliant robot manipulator. [flight telerobot servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with testing of a pair of robot fingers designed for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) to grasp a cylinder type of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface. The report first describes the objectives of the study and then the testbed consisting of a Stewart Platform-based manipulator equipped with a passive compliant platform which also serves as a force/torque sensor. Kinematic analysis is then performed to provide a closed-form solution for the force inverse kinematics and iterative solution for the force forward kinematics using the Newton's Raphson Method. Mathematical expressions are then derived to compute force/torques applied to the FTS fingers during the mating/demating with the interface. The report then presents the three parts of the experimental study on the feasibility and characteristics of the fingers. The first part obtains data of forces applied by the fingers to the interface under various misalignments, the second part determines the maximum allowable capture angles for mating, and the third part processes and interprets the obtained force/torque data.

  17. Differential Regulation of ftsZ Transcription during Septation of Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jangyul; Dharmatilake, Amitha J.; Jiang, Hao; Kendrick, Kathleen E.

    2001-01-01

    Streptomyces has been known to form two types of septa. The data in this research demonstrated that Streptomyces griseus forms another type of septum near the base of sporogenic hyphae (basal septum). To understand the regulation of the septation machinery in S. griseus, we investigated the expression of the ftsZ gene. S1 nuclease protection assays revealed that four ftsZ transcripts were differentially expressed during morphological differentiation. The vegetative transcript (emanating from Pveg) is present at a moderate level during vegetative growth, but is switched off within the first 2 h of sporulation. Two sporulation-specific transcripts predominantly accumulated, and the levels increased by approximately fivefold together shortly before sporulation septa begin to form. Consistently, the sporulation-specific transcripts were expressed much earlier and more abundantly in a group of nonsporulating mutants that form their sporulation septa prematurely. Promoter-probe studies with two different reporter systems confirmed the activities of the putative promoters identified from the 5′ end point of the transcripts. The levels and expression timing of promoter activities were consistent with the results of nuclease protection assays. The aseptate phenotype of the Pspo mutant indicated that the increased transcription from Pspo is required for sporulation septation, but not for vegetative or basal septum formation. PMID:11489862

  18. Instrument Status and Level 1 Data Processing of TANSO-FTS and CAI on GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) globally from space. It was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Cen-ter. Since February 7, 2009, the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) have been continuously operated. They acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The brief summary of instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan (grid and sun glint observation and special target mode), onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances are presented. TANSO-FTS Level 1A and 1B data processing algorithm and its updates on the ground are also presented. In addition we will show recent on-orbit instrument status such as pointing accuracy, interferogram quality, and radiometric accuracy and vicarious calibration results.

  19. An Essential Component in Chloroplast Development and Maintenance at Moderate High Temperature in Higher Plants: Chloroplast-targeted FtsH11 Proteases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the 12 predicted FtsH proteases in Arabidopsis, AtFtsH11 is the only metalloprotease targeting to both chloroplast and mitochondria and the only one essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress at all developmental stages. Under optimal conditions, atftsh11 mutants were...

  20. Relationship between a spleen-derived immunosuppressive peptide 'SDIP' and the 'Facteur thymique sérique' (FTS): biochemical and biological comparison of the two factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lenfant, M; Millerioux, L; Blazsek, I; Duchange, N

    1983-01-01

    A spleen-derived immunosuppressive peptide (SDIP) has been purified to homogeneity. Its physicochemical properties (electrophoretic mobility, u.v. spectra, absence of dansyl derivative) and its enzymatic susceptibilities (proteolytic enzymes, RNase, and DNase) were similar to those of the thymic hormone 'FTS'. SDIP and FTS were eluted with identical retention times in high performance liquid chromatography analysis in three different systems. When tested in sheep cell rosettes, and in the FTS radioimmunoassay in J.F. Bach's laboratory, SDIP presented an activity similar to FTS. In order to compare the thymic hormone to SDIP the biological activity of FTS was determined in in vivo and in in vitro humoral immunity reactions to a T-dependent antigen. As SDIP, FTS inhibited in vivo and in vitro the 19S-bearing cell formation during the last step of the differentiation of the lymphocytes, in the same range of concentration. The two factors appeared to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into the DNA of short-term cultures of thymocytes. The similarity of biological properties of SDIP and FTS together with the similarity observed in the physico-chemical and biochemical properties led to the conclusion that bovine spleen contains a factor similar to FTS. PMID:6682089

  1. Sub‐cellular location of FtsH proteases in the cyanobacterium S ynechocystis sp. PCC 6803 suggests localised PSII repair zones in the thylakoid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Sacharz, Joanna; Bryan, Samantha J.; Yu, Jianfeng; Burroughs, Nigel J.; Spence, Edward M.; Nixon, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, exposure to HL damages the photosynthetic apparatus, especially the D1 subunit of Photosystem II. To avoid chronic photoinhibition, a PSII repair cycle operates to replace damaged PSII subunits with newly synthesised versions. To determine the sub‐cellular location of this process, we examined the localisation of FtsH metalloproteases, some of which are directly involved in degrading damaged D1. We generated transformants of the cyanobacterium S ynechocystis sp. PCC6803 expressing GFP‐tagged versions of its four FtsH proteases. The ftsH2–gfp strain was functional for PSII repair under our conditions. Confocal microscopy shows that FtsH1 is mainly in the cytoplasmic membrane, while the remaining FtsH proteins are in patches either in the thylakoid or at the interface between the thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. HL exposure which increases the activity of the Photosystem II repair cycle led to no detectable changes in FtsH distribution, with the FtsH2 protease involved in D1 degradation retaining its patchy distribution in the thylakoid membrane. We discuss the possibility that the FtsH2–GFP patches represent Photosystem II ‘repair zones’ within the thylakoid membranes, and the possible advantages of such functionally specialised membrane zones. Anti‐GFP affinity pull‐downs provide the first indication of the composition of the putative repair zones. PMID:25601560

  2. Evaluating the uncertainties of thermal catalytic conversion in measuring atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at four differently polluted sites in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Tao; Xue, L. K.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Luk, Connie W. Y.; Gao, J.; Wang, S. L.; Chai, F. H.; Wang, W. X.

    2013-09-01

    A widely used method for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere is the conversion of NO2 to nitric oxide (NO) on the hot surface of a molybdenum oxide (MoO) catalyst followed by the chemiluminescence detection of NO. Although it has long been recognized that this type of conversion may suffer from the positive interference of other oxidized nitrogen compounds, evaluations of such interference in the atmosphere are scarce, thus rendering it difficult to make use of a large portion of the NO2 or NOx data obtained via this method (often denoted as NO2* or NOx*). In the present study, we compared the MoO converter with a selective, more accurate photolytic approach at four differently polluted sites in China. The converter worked well at the urban site, which was greatly affected by fresh emissions, but, on average, overestimated NO2 by 30%-50% at the two suburban sites and by more than 130% at the mountain-top site during afternoon hours, with a much larger positive bias seen during the top 10% of ozone events. The degree of overestimation depended on both air-parcel age and the composition of the oxidation products/intermediates of NOx (NOz). We attempted to derive an empirical formula to correct for this overestimation using concurrently measured O3, NO, and NO2* at the two suburban sites. Although the formula worked well at each individual site, the different NOz partitions at the sites made it difficult to obtain a universal formula. In view of the difficulty of assessing the uncertainties of the conventional conversion method, thus limiting the usability of data obtained via this method in atmospheric research, we suggest that, in areas away from fresh NOx emission sources, either a more selective NO2 measurement method or a NOy (NOx and its reaction products and intermediates) instrument should be adopted.

  3. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen/oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Zurawski, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a unique monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant inlet temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of a catalytic igniter. The test results showed that the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using both the granular and monolithic catalysts are presented. The capabilities of a facility constructed to conduct the igniter testing and the advantages of a catalytic igniter over other ignition systems for gaseous hydrogen and oxygen are also discussed.

  4. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalysts are presented.

  5. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalyst are presented.

  6. Algorithm update of the GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared CO2 product (version 1) and validation of the UTLS CO2 data using CONTRAIL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Kimoto, Shuhei; Sugimura, Ryo; Imasu, Ryoichi; Kawakami, Shuji; Shiomi, Kei; Kuze, Akihiko; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu

    2016-05-01

    The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in several atmospheric layers in the thermal infrared (TIR) band since its launch. This study compared TANSO-FTS TIR version 1 (V1) CO2 data and CO2 data obtained in the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), where the TIR band of TANSO-FTS is most sensitive to CO2 concentrations, to validate the quality of the TIR V1 UTLS CO2 data from 287 to 162 hPa. We first evaluated the impact of considering TIR CO2 averaging kernel functions on CO2 concentrations using CO2 profile data obtained by the CONTRAIL Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME), and found that the impact at around the CME level flight altitudes (˜ 11 km) was on average less than 0.5 ppm at low latitudes and less than 1 ppm at middle and high latitudes. From a comparison made during flights between Tokyo and Sydney, the averages of the TIR upper-atmospheric CO2 data were within 0.1 % of the averages of the CONTRAIL CME CO2 data with and without TIR CO2 averaging kernels for all seasons in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of comparisons for all of the eight airline routes showed that the agreements of TIR and CME CO2 data were worse in spring and summer than in fall and winter in the Northern Hemisphere in the upper troposphere. While the differences between TIR and CME CO2 data were on average within 1 ppm in fall and winter, TIR CO2 data had a negative bias up to 2.4 ppm against CME CO2 data with TIR CO2 averaging kernels at the northern low and middle latitudes in spring and summer. The negative bias at the northern middle latitudes resulted in the maximum of TIR CO2 concentrations being lower than that of CME CO2 concentrations, which led to an underestimate of the amplitude of CO2

  7. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4-10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species. PMID:27088231

  8. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4–10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species. PMID:27088231

  9. Assessment of Malawi’s success in child mortality reduction through the lens of the Catalytic Initiative Integrated Health Systems Strengthening programme: Retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Wanga; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Kinney, Mary; Manda, Samuel; Besada, Donela; Jackson, Debra; Daniels, Karen; Rohde, Sarah; van Damme, Wim; Kerber, Kate; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Rudan, Igor; Muniz, Maria; Oliphant, Nicholas P; Zamasiya, Texas; Rohde, Jon; Sanders, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. Methods We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI) programme of support (2007–2013). We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. Results The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI) 189 to 249) in the period 1991–1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132) in the period 2006–2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24%) and increased household coverage of insecticide–treated bednets (19%). These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Conclusions Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub–Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community–based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality. PMID:26649176

  10. Satellite observation of atmospheric methane: intercomparison between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, M.; Xiong, X.; Saitoh, N.; Warner, J.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, L.; Weng, F.

    2015-10-01

    Space-borne observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) have been made using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite since August 2002 and the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) since April 2009. This study compared the GOSAT TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) version 1.0 CH4 product with the collocated AIRS version 6 CH4 product using data from 1 August 2010 to 30 June 2012, including the CH4 mixing ratios and the total column amounts. The results show that at 300-600 hPa, where both AIRS and GOSAT-TIR CH4 have peak sensitivities, they agree very well, but GOSAT-TIR retrievals tend to be higher than AIRS in layer 200-300 hPa. At 300 hPa the CH4 mixing ratio from GOSAT-TIR is, on average, 10.3 ± 31.8 ppbv higher than that from AIRS, and at 600 hPa GOSAT-TIR retrieved CH4 is -16.2 ± 25.7 ppbv lower than AIRS CH4. Comparison of the total column amount of CH4 shows that GOSAT-TIR agrees with AIRS to within 1 % in the mid-latitude regions of Southern Hemisphere and in tropics. In the mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, GOSAT-TIR is ~ 1-2 % lower than AIRS, and in the high-latitude regions of Southern Hemisphere the difference of GOSAT from AIRS varies from -3 % in October to +2 % in July. The difference between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals is mainly due to the difference in retrieval algorithms and instruments itself, and the larger difference in the high latitude regions is associated with the low information content and small degree of freedoms of the retrieval. The degree of freedom of GOSAT-TIR retrievals is lower than that of AIRS also indicates that the constraint in GOSAT-TIR retrieval may be too strong. From the good correlation between AIRS and GOSAT-TIR retrievals and the seasonal variation they observed we are confident that the thermal infrared measurements from AIRS and GOSAT-TIR can provide

  11. Satellite observation of atmospheric methane: intercomparison between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Mingmin; Xiong, Xiaozhen; Saitoh, Naoko; Warner, Juying; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Liangfu; Weng, Fuzhong; Fan, Meng

    2016-08-01

    Space-borne observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) have been made using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite since August 2002 and the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) since April 2009. This study compared the GOSAT TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) version 1.0 CH4 product with the collocated AIRS version 6 CH4 product using data from 1 August 2010 to 30 June 2012, including the CH4 mixing ratios and the total column amounts. The results show that at 300-600 hPa, where both AIRS and GOSAT-TIR CH4 have peak sensitivities, they agree very well, but GOSAT-TIR retrievals tend to be higher than AIRS in layer 200-300 hPa. At 300 hPa the CH4 mixing ratio from GOSAT-TIR is, on average, 10.3 ± 31.8 ppbv higher than that from AIRS, and at 600 hPa GOSAT-TIR retrieved CH4 is -16.2 ± 25.7 ppbv lower than AIRS CH4. Comparison of the total column amount of CH4 shows that GOSAT-TIR agrees with AIRS to within 1 % in the mid-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in the tropics. In the mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, comparison shows that GOSAT-TIR is ˜ 1-2 % lower than AIRS, and in the high-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere the difference of GOSAT from AIRS varies from -3 % in October to +2 % in July. The difference between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals is mainly due to the difference in retrieval algorithms and instruments themselves, and the larger difference in the high-latitude regions is associated with the low information content and small degrees of freedom of the retrieval. The degrees of freedom of GOSAT-TIR retrievals are lower than that of AIRS, which also indicates that the constraint in GOSAT-TIR retrievals may be too strong. From the good correlation between AIRS and GOSAT-TIR retrievals and the seasonal variation they observed, we are confident that the thermal infrared

  12. Screening for FtsZ Dimerization Inhibitors Using Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy and Surface Resonance Plasmon Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mikuni, Shintaro; Kodama, Kota; Sasaki, Akira; Kohira, Naoki; Maki, Hideki; Munetomo, Masaharu; Maenaka, Katsumi; Kinjo, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ is an attractive target for antibiotic research because it is an essential bacterial cell division protein that polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner. To find the seed chemical structure, we established a high-throughput, quantitative screening method combining fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). As a new concept for the application of FCCS to polymerization-prone protein, Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ was fragmented into the N-terminal and C-terminal, which were fused with GFP and mCherry (red fluorescent protein), respectively. By this fragmentation, the GTP-dependent head-to-tail dimerization of each fluorescent labeled fragment of FtsZ could be observed, and the inhibitory processes of chemicals could be monitored by FCCS. In the first round of screening by FCCS, 28 candidates were quantitatively and statistically selected from 495 chemicals determined by in silico screening. Subsequently, in the second round of screening by FCCS, 71 candidates were also chosen from 888 chemicals selected via an in silico structural similarity search of the chemicals screened in the first round of screening. Moreover, the dissociation constants between the highest inhibitory chemicals and Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ were determined by SPR. Finally, by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration, it was confirmed that the screened chemical had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:26154290

  13. Atmospheric pseudo-retrievals for averaging kernel and total uncertainty characterization for ACE-FTS level 2 (PRAKTICAL) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick; Walker, Kaley; Boone, Chris

    2016-04-01

    For over the past decade, the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SciSat satellite has been observing the Earth's limb via solar occultation in the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region with 0.02 cm-1 spectral resolution. The most recent version of the level 2 data, version 3.5 (v3.5), which starts in February of 2004 and is currently ongoing, is comprised of volume mixing ratio profiles of over 30 atmospheric trace species and over 20 subsidiary isotopologues. This study will use ACE-FTS level 1 spectra and the v3.5 forward model in pseudo-retrievals that use a Levenberg-Marquardt optimal estimation technique in order to produce representative ACE-FTS averaging kernels and to characterize the systematic and random uncertainties inherent in the level 2 profiles. In order to ensure that the derived error statistics are consistent with the v3.5 data, the results will be compared to random and systematic uncertainties propagated through the standard v3.5 retrieval algorithm. The ACE-FTS uncertainties will also be compared to the reported uncertainties of data sets from other atmospheric limb sounders.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of a quinuclidine-based FtsZ inhibitor and its synergistic potential with β-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Fung-Yi; Sun, Ning; Leung, Yun-Chung; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2015-04-01

    Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) is an essential cell division protein that cooperates in the formation of the cytokinetic Z-ring in most bacteria and has thus been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target. We have recently used a structure-based virtual screening approach to identify pyrimidine-linked quinuclidines as a novel class of FtsZ inhibitors. In this study, we further investigated the antibacterial properties of one of the most potent compounds (quinuclidine 1) and its synergistic activity with β-lactam antibiotics. Susceptibility results showed that quinuclidine 1 was active against multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 24 μg ml(-1). When quinuclidine 1 was combined with β-lactam antibiotics, synergistic antimicrobial activities against antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus were found. Further in vitro studies suggest that prevention of FtsZ protofilament formation by quinuclidine 1 impairs the formation of Z-ring, and thus inhibits bacterial division. These findings open a new approach for development of quinuclidine-based FtsZ inhibitors into potent antimicrobial agents. PMID:25293977

  15. Roles of FtsH protease in choloroplast biogensis and protection of photosystems from high temperatures stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AtFtsH11 protease gene is essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress. Under high and normal light at 21ºC, ftsh11 mutants were indistinguishable from wild type plants in photosynthesis capability and in overall growth. However, mutant plants display a host of dramatic change...

  16. Observations of XCO2 and XCH4 with ground-based high-resolution FTS at Saga, Japan and comparisons with GOSAT products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, H.; Kawakami, S.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Inoue, M.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Uchiyama, A.; Fukamachi, T.; Sakashita, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Akaho, T.; Arai, K.; Okumura, H.

    2015-08-01

    Solar absorption spectra in the near-infrared region have been continuously acquired with a ground-based (g-b) high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Saga, Japan since July 2011. Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of greenhouse gases were retrieved from the measured spectra for the period from July 2011 to December 2014. Aircraft measurements of CO2 and CH4 for calibrating the g-b FTS data were performed in January 2012 and 2013, and it is found that the g-b FTS and aircraft data agree to within ±0.2 %. The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) show increasing trends, with average growth rates of 2.3 ppm yr-1 and 9.5 ppb yr-1, respectively, during the ~ 3.5 yr of observation. We compared the g-b FTS XCO2 and XCH4 data with those derived from backscattered solar spectra in the short-wavelength infrared region measured with Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Average differences between TANSO-FTS and g-b FTS data (TANSO-FTS minus g-b FTS) are 0.40 ± 2.51 ppm and -7.6 ± 13.7 ppb for XCO2 and XCH4, respectively. Using aerosol information measured with a sky radiometer at Saga, we found that the differences between the TANSO-FTS and g-b FTS data are moderately negatively correlated with aerosol optical thickness and do not depend explicitly on aerosol size. In addition, from aerosol profiles measured with lidar located right by the g-b FTS, we were able to show that cirrus clouds and tropospheric aerosols accumulated in the lower layers of the atmosphere tend to overestimate or underestimate the TANSO-FTS data.

  17. Observations of XCO2 and XCH4 with ground-based high-resolution FTS at Saga, Japan, and comparisons with GOSAT products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, H.; Kawakami, S.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Inoue, M.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Uchiyama, A.; Fukamachi, T.; Sakashita, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Akaho, T.; Arai, K.; Okumura, H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar absorption spectra in the near-infrared region have been continuously acquired with a ground-based (g-b) high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Saga, Japan, since July 2011. Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of greenhouse gases were retrieved from the measured spectra for the period from July 2011 to December 2014. Aircraft measurements of CO2 and CH4 for calibrating the g-b FTS data were performed in January 2012 and 2013, and it is found that the g-b FTS and aircraft data agree to within ± 0.2 %. The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) show increasing trends, with average growth rates of 2.3 and 9.5 ppb yr-1, respectively, during the ∼ 3.5 yr of observation. We compared the g-b FTS XCO2 and XCH4 data with those derived from backscattered solar spectra in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region measured with Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT): NIES SWIR Level 2 products (versions 02.xx). Average differences between TANSO-FTS and g-b FTS data (TANSO-FTS minus g-b FTS) are 0.40 ± 2.51 and -7.6 ± 13.7 ppb for XCO2 and XCH4, respectively. Using aerosol information measured with a sky radiometer at Saga, we found that the differences between the TANSO-FTS and g-b FTS XCO2 data are moderately negatively correlated with aerosol optical thickness and do not depend explicitly on aerosol size. In addition, from several aerosol profiles measured with lidar located right by the g-b FTS, we were able to show that the presence of cirrus clouds tends to cause an overestimation in the TANSO-FTS XCO2 retrieval, while high aerosol loading in the lower troposphere tends to cause an underestimation.

  18. Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegglin, M. I.; Boone, C. D.; Manney, G. L.; Shepherd, T. G.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Daffer, W. H.; Hoor, P.; Schiller, C.

    2008-03-01

    CO, O3, and H2O data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) measured by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on Canada's SCISAT-1 satellite are validated using aircraft and ozonesonde measurements. In the UTLS, validation of chemical trace gas measurements is a challenging task due to small-scale variability in the tracer fields, strong gradients of the tracers across the tropopause, and scarcity of measurements suitable for validation purposes. Validation based on coincidences therefore suffers from geophysical noise. Two alternative methods for the validation of satellite data are introduced, which avoid the usual need for coincident measurements: tracer-tracer correlations, and vertical tracer profiles relative to tropopause height. Both are increasingly being used for model validation as they strongly suppress geophysical variability and thereby provide an "instantaneous climatology". This allows comparison of measurements between non-coincident data sets which yields information about the precision and a statistically meaningful error-assessment of the ACE-FTS satellite data in the UTLS. By defining a trade-off factor, we show that the measurement errors can be reduced by including more measurements obtained over a wider longitude range into the comparison, despite the increased geophysical variability. Applying the methods then yields the following upper bounds to the relative differences in the mean found between the ACE-FTS and SPURT aircraft measurements in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS), respectively: for CO ±9% and ±12%, for H2O ±30% and ±18%, and for O3 ±25% and ±19%. The relative differences for O3 can be narrowed down by using a larger dataset obtained from ozonesondes, yielding a high bias in the ACE-FTS measurements of 18% in the UT and relative differences of ±8% for measurements in the LS. When taking into account the smearing effect of the vertically limited

  19. ZipA-Induced Bundling of FtsZ Polymers Mediated by an Interaction between C-Terminal Domains†

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Cynthia A.; Rhee, Amy C.; de Boer, Piet A. J.

    2000-01-01

    FtsZ and ZipA are essential components of the septal ring apparatus, which mediates cell division in Escherichia coli. FtsZ is a cytoplasmic tubulin-like GTPase that forms protofilament-like homopolymers in vitro. In the cell, the protein assembles into a ring structure at the prospective division site early in the division cycle, and this marks the first recognized event in the assembly of the septal ring. ZipA is an inner membrane protein which is recruited to the nascent septal ring at a very early stage through a direct interaction with FtsZ. Using affinity blotting and protein localization techniques, we have determined which domain on each protein is both sufficient and required for the interaction between the two proteins in vitro as well as in vivo. The results show that ZipA binds to residues confined to the 20 C-terminal amino acids of FtsZ. The FtsZ binding (FZB) domain of ZipA is significantly larger and encompasses the C-terminal 143 residues of ZipA. Significantly, we find that the FZB domain of ZipA is also required and sufficient to induce dramatic bundling of FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. Consistent with the notion that the ability to bind and bundle FtsZ polymers is essential to the function of ZipA, we find that ZipA derivatives lacking an intact FZB domain fail to support cell division in cells depleted for the native protein. Interestingly, ZipA derivatives which do contain an intact FZB domain but which lack the N-terminal membrane anchor or in which this anchor is replaced with the heterologous anchor of the DjlA protein also fail to rescue ZipA− cells. Thus, in addition to the C-terminal FZB domain, the N-terminal domain of ZipA is required for ZipA function. Furthermore, the essential properties of the N domain may be more specific than merely acting as a membrane anchor. PMID:10960100

  20. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  1. Domain rearrangement of SRP protein Ffh upon binding 4.5S RNA and the SRP receptor FtsY

    PubMed Central

    BUSKIEWICZ, IWONA; KUBARENKO, ANDRIY; PESKE, FRANK; RODNINA, MARINA V.; WINTERMEYER, WOLFGANG

    2005-01-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) mediates membrane targeting of translating ribosomes displaying a signal-anchor sequence. In Escherichia coli, SRP consists of 4.5S RNA and a protein, Ffh, that recognizes the signal peptide emerging from the ribosome and the SRP receptor at the membrane, FtsY. In the present work, we studied the interactions between the NG and M domains in Ffh and their rearrangements upon complex formation with 4.5S RNA and/or FtsY. In free Ffh, the NG and M domains are facing one another in an orientation that allows cross-linking between positions 231 in the G domain and 377 in the M domain. There are binding interactions between the two domains, as the isolated domains form a strong complex. The interdomain contacts are disrupted upon binding of Ffh to 4.5S RNA, consuming a part of the total binding energy of 4.5S RNA-Ffh association that is roughly equivalent to the free energy of domain binding to each other. In the SRP particle, the NG domain binds to 4.5S RNA in a region adjacent to the binding site of the M domain. Ffh binding to FtsY also requires a reorientation of NG and M domains. These results suggest that in free Ffh, the binding sites for 4.5S RNA and FtsY are occluded by strong domain–domain interactions which must be disrupted for the formation of SRP or the Ffh-FtsY complex. PMID:15923378

  2. Domain rearrangement of SRP protein Ffh upon binding 4.5S RNA and the SRP receptor FtsY.

    PubMed

    Buskiewicz, Iwona; Kubarenko, Andriy; Peske, Frank; Rodnina, Marina V; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) mediates membrane targeting of translating ribosomes displaying a signal-anchor sequence. In Escherichia coli, SRP consists of 4.5S RNA and a protein, Ffh, that recognizes the signal peptide emerging from the ribosome and the SRP receptor at the membrane, FtsY. In the present work, we studied the interactions between the NG and M domains in Ffh and their rearrangements upon complex formation with 4.5S RNA and/or FtsY. In free Ffh, the NG and M domains are facing one another in an orientation that allows cross-linking between positions 231 in the G domain and 377 in the M domain. There are binding interactions between the two domains, as the isolated domains form a strong complex. The interdomain contacts are disrupted upon binding of Ffh to 4.5S RNA, consuming a part of the total binding energy of 4.5S RNA-Ffh association that is roughly equivalent to the free energy of domain binding to each other. In the SRP particle, the NG domain binds to 4.5S RNA in a region adjacent to the binding site of the M domain. Ffh binding to FtsY also requires a reorientation of NG and M domains. These results suggest that in free Ffh, the binding sites for 4.5S RNA and FtsY are occluded by strong domain-domain interactions which must be disrupted for the formation of SRP or the Ffh-FtsY complex. PMID:15923378

  3. An FtsZ-Targeting Prodrug with Oral Antistaphylococcal Efficacy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Malvika; Mark, Lilly; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit K.; LaVoie, Edmond J.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ represents a novel antibiotic target that has yet to be exploited clinically. The benzamide PC190723 was among the first FtsZ-targeting compounds to exhibit in vivo efficacy in a murine infection model system. Despite its initial promise, the poor formulation properties of the compound have limited its potential for clinical development. We describe here the development of an N-Mannich base derivative of PC190723 with enhanced drug-like properties and oral in vivo efficacy. The N-Mannich base derivative (TXY436) is ∼100-fold more soluble than PC190723 in an acidic aqueous vehicle (10 mM citrate, pH 2.6) suitable for oral in vivo administration. At physiological pH (7.4), TXY436 acts as a prodrug, converting to PC190723 with a conversion half-life of 18.2 ± 1.6 min. Pharmacokinetic analysis following intravenous administration of TXY436 into mice yielded elimination half-lives of 0.26 and 0.96 h for the TXY436 prodrug and its PC190723 product, respectively. In addition, TXY436 was found to be orally bioavailable and associated with significant extravascular distribution. Using a mouse model of systemic infection with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant S. aureus, we show that TXY436 is efficacious in vivo upon oral administration. In contrast, the oral administration of PC190723 was not efficacious. Mammalian cytotoxicity studies of TXY436 using Vero cells revealed an absence of toxicity up to compound concentrations at least 64 times greater than those associated with antistaphylococcal activity. These collective properties make TXY436 a worthy candidate for further investigation as a clinically useful agent for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. PMID:24041882

  4. A gLite FTS based solution for managing user output in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquilli, M.; Riahi, H.; Spiga, D.; Grandi, C.; Mancinelli, V.; Mascheroni, M.; Pepe, F.; Vaandering, E.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS distributed data analysis workflow assumes that jobs run in a different location from where their results are finally stored. Typically the user output must be transferred across the network from one site to another, possibly on a different continent or over links not necessarily validated for high bandwidth/high reliability transfer. This step is named stage-out and in CMS was originally implemented as a synchronous step of the analysis job execution. However, our experience showed the weakness of this approach both in terms of low total job execution efficiency and failure rates, wasting precious CPU resources. The nature of analysis data makes it inappropriate to use PhEDEx, the core data placement system for CMS. As part of the new generation of CMS Workload Management tools, the Asynchronous Stage-Out system (AsyncStageOut) has been developed to enable third party copy of the user output. The AsyncStageOut component manages glite FTS transfers of data from the temporary store at the site where the job ran to the final location of the data on behalf of that data owner. The tool uses python daemons, built using the WMCore framework, and CouchDB, to manage the queue of work and FTS transfers. CouchDB also provides the platform for a dedicated operations monitoring system. In this paper, we present the motivations of the asynchronous stage-out system. We give an insight into the design and the implementation of key features, describing how it is coupled with the CMS workload management system. Finally, we show the results and the commissioning experience.

  5. Structure-based identification of catalytic residues

    PubMed Central

    Yahalom, Ran; Reshef, Dan; Wiener, Ayana; Frankel, Sagiv; Kalisman, Nir; Lerner, Boaz; Keasar, Chen

    2011-01-01

    The identification of catalytic residues is an essential step in functional characterization of enzymes. We present a purely structural approach to this problem, which is motivated by the difficulty of evolution-based methods to annotate structural genomics targets that have few or no homologs in the databases. Our approach combines a state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier with novel structural features that augment structural clues by spatial averaging and Z-scoring. Special attention is paid to the class imbalance problem that stems from the overwhelming number of non-catalytic residues in enzymes compared to catalytic residues. This problem is tackled by: 1) optimizing the classifier to maximize a performance criterion that considers both type I and type II errors in the classification of catalytic and non-catalytic residues; 2) under-sampling non-catalytic residues before SVM training; and 3) during SVM training, penalizing errors in learning catalytic residues more than errors in learning non-catalytic residues. Tested on four enzyme datasets – one specifically designed by us to mimic the structural genomics scenario and three previously-evaluated datasets – our structure-based classifier is never inferior to similar structure-based classifiers and comparable to classifiers that use both structural and evolutionary features. In addition to evaluation of the performance of catalytic residue identification, we also present detailed case studies on three proteins. This analysis suggests that many false positive predictions may correspond to binding sites and other functional residues. A web server that implements the method, our own-designed database, and the source code of the programs are publicly available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/~meshi/functionPrediction. PMID:21491495

  6. Structure-based identification of catalytic residues.

    PubMed

    Yahalom, Ran; Reshef, Dan; Wiener, Ayana; Frankel, Sagiv; Kalisman, Nir; Lerner, Boaz; Keasar, Chen

    2011-06-01

    The identification of catalytic residues is an essential step in functional characterization of enzymes. We present a purely structural approach to this problem, which is motivated by the difficulty of evolution-based methods to annotate structural genomics targets that have few or no homologs in the databases. Our approach combines a state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier with novel structural features that augment structural clues by spatial averaging and Z scoring. Special attention is paid to the class imbalance problem that stems from the overwhelming number of non-catalytic residues in enzymes compared to catalytic residues. This problem is tackled by: (1) optimizing the classifier to maximize a performance criterion that considers both Type I and Type II errors in the classification of catalytic and non-catalytic residues; (2) under-sampling non-catalytic residues before SVM training; and (3) during SVM training, penalizing errors in learning catalytic residues more than errors in learning non-catalytic residues. Tested on four enzyme datasets, one specifically designed by us to mimic the structural genomics scenario and three previously evaluated datasets, our structure-based classifier is never inferior to similar structure-based classifiers and comparable to classifiers that use both structural and evolutionary features. In addition to the evaluation of the performance of catalytic residue identification, we also present detailed case studies on three proteins. This analysis suggests that many false positive predictions may correspond to binding sites and other functional residues. A web server that implements the method, our own-designed database, and the source code of the programs are publicly available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/∼meshi/functionPrediction. PMID:21491495

  7. Escherichia coli FtsH is a membrane-bound, ATP-dependent protease which degrades the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32.

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyasu, T; Gamer, J; Bukau, B; Kanemori, M; Mori, H; Rutman, A J; Oppenheim, A B; Yura, T; Yamanaka, K; Niki, H

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsH is an essential integral membrane protein that has an AAA-type ATPase domain at its C-terminal cytoplasmic part, which is homologous to at least three ATPase subunits of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome. We report here that FtsH is involved in degradation of the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32, a key element in the regulation of the E. coli heat-shock response. In the temperature-sensitive ftsH1 mutant, the amount of sigma 32 at a non-permissive temperature was higher than in the wild-type under certain conditions due to a reduced rate of degradation. In an in vitro system with purified components, FtsH catalyzed ATP-dependent degradation of biologically active histidine-tagged sigma 32. FtsH has a zinc-binding motif similar to the active site of zinc-metalloproteases. Protease activity of FtsH for histidine-tagged sigma 32 was stimulated by Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by the heavy metal chelating agent o-phenanthroline. We conclude that FtsH is a novel membrane-bound, ATP-dependent metalloprotease with activity for sigma 32. These findings indicate a new mechanism of gene regulation in E. coli. Images PMID:7781608

  8. Influence of FtsZ GTPase activity and concentration on nanoscale Z-ring structure in vivo revealed by three-dimensional Superresolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhixin; Coltharp, Carla; Yang, Xinxing; Xiao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    FtsZ is an essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein that assembles into a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at midcell to carry out cytokinesis. In vitro, FtsZ exhibits polymorphism in polymerizing into different forms of filaments based on its GTPase activity, concentration, and buffer condition. In vivo, the Z-ring appeared to be punctate and heterogeneously organized, although continuous, homogenous Z-ring structures have also been observed. Understanding how the Z-ring is organized in vivo is important because it provides a structural basis for the functional role of the Z-ring in cytokinesis. Here, we assess the effects of both GTPase activity and FtsZ concentration on the organization of the Z-ring in vivo using three-dimensional (3D) superresolution microscopy. We found that the Z-ring became more homogenous when assembled in the presence of a GTPase-deficient mutant, and upon overexpression of either wt or mutant FtsZ. These results suggest that the in vivo organization of the Z-ring is largely dependent on the intrinsic polymerization properties of FtsZ, which are significantly influenced by the GTPase activity and concentration of FtsZ. Our work provides a unifying theme to reconcile previous observations of different Z-ring structures, and supports a model in which the wt Z-ring comprises loosely associated, heterogeneously distributed FtsZ clusters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 725-734, 2016. PMID:27310678

  9. Backbone and side chain NMR assignments of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA allow identification of residues that mediate the interaction of ZapA with FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Maria Luiza C; Sforça, Mauricio Luis; Chin, Yanni K-Y; Mobli, Mehdi; Handler, Aaron; Gorbatyuk, Vitaliy Y; Robson, Scott A; King, Glenn F; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial division begins with the formation of a contractile protein ring at midcell, which constricts the bacterial envelope to generate two daughter cells. The central component of the division ring is FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein capable of self-assembling into filaments which further associate into a higher order structure known as the Z ring. Proteins that bind to FtsZ play a crucial role in the formation and regulation of the Z ring. One such protein is ZapA, a widely conserved 21 kDa homodimeric protein that associates with FtsZ filaments and promotes their bundling. Although ZapA was discovered more than a decade ago, the structural details of its interaction with FtsZ remain unknown. In this work, backbone and side chain NMR assignments for the Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA homodimer are described. We titrated FtsZ into (15)N(2)H-ZapA and mapped ZapA residues whose resonances are perturbed upon FtsZ binding. This information provides a structural understanding of the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA. PMID:25967379

  10. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  11. Catalytic cracking process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Baker, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

  12. Observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereszchuk, K. A.; Moore, D. P.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Park, M.; Remedios, J. J.; Randel, W. J.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3CO·O2NO2, abbreviated as PAN) is a trace molecular species present in the troposphere and lower stratosphere due primarily to pollution from fuel combustion and the pyrogenic outflows from biomass burning. In the lower troposphere, PAN has a relatively short life-time and is principally destroyed within a few hours through thermolysis, but it can act as a reservoir and carrier of NOx in the colder temperatures of the upper troposphere where UV photolysis becomes the dominant loss mechanism. Pyroconvective updrafts from large biomass burning events can inject PAN into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), providing a means for the long-range transport of NOx. Given the extended lifetimes at these higher altitudes, PAN is readily detectable via satellite remote sensing. A new PAN data product is now available for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) Version 3.0 data set. We report measurements of PAN in Boreal biomass burning plumes recorded during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) campaign. The retrieval method employed and errors analysis are described in full detail. The retrieved volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles are compared to coincident measurements made by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on the European Space Agency (ESA) ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT). Three ACE-FTS occultations containing measurements of Boreal biomass burning outflows, recorded during BORTAS, were identified as having coincident measurements with MIPAS. In each case, the MIPAS measurements demonstrated good agreement with the ACE-FTS VMR profiles for PAN. The ACE-FTS PAN data set is used to obtain zonal mean distributions of seasonal averages from ~5 to 20 km. A strong seasonality is clearly observed for PAN concentrations in the global UTLS. Since the

  13. New insights into FtsZ rearrangements during the cell division of Escherichia coli from single-molecule localization microscopy of fixed cells.

    PubMed

    Vedyaykin, Alexey D; Vishnyakov, Innokentii E; Polinovskaya, Vasilisa S; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail A; Sabantsev, Anton V

    2016-06-01

    FtsZ - a prokaryotic tubulin homolog - is one of the central components of bacterial division machinery. At the early stage of cytokinesis FtsZ forms the so-called Z-ring at mid-cell that guides septum formation. Many approaches were used to resolve the structure of the Z-ring, however, researchers are still far from consensus on this question. We utilized single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) in combination with immunofluorescence staining to visualize FtsZ in Esherichia coli fixed cells that were grown under slow and fast growth conditions. This approach allowed us to obtain images of FtsZ structures at different stages of cell division and accurately measure Z-ring dimensions. Analysis of these images demonstrated that Z-ring thickness increases during constriction, starting at about 70 nm at the beginning of division and increasing by approximately 25% half-way through constriction. PMID:26840800

  14. Spectrophotometric evaluation of surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of biosynthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using UV-vis spectra: A comparative kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Kamble, Vaishali; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Santra, Chittaranjan

    2016-03-01

    The development of eco-friendly and cost-effective synthetic protocol for the preparation of nanomaterials, especially metal nanoparticles is an emerging area of research in nanotechnology. These metal nanoparticles, especially silver can play a crucial role in various catalytic reactions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles described here was very stable up to 6 months and can be further exploited as an effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The silver nanoparticles were utilized as an efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate using Rhodamine 6G as Raman probe molecule. We have also carried out systematic comparative studies on the catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles using UV-vis spectra to monitor the above reaction spectrophotometrically. We find that the reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and the catalytic activity can be explained by a simple model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism for heterogeneous catalysis. We also find that silver nanoparticles are more efficient as a catalyst compare to gold nanoparticles in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, which can be explained by the morphology of the nanoparticles as determined by transmission electron microscopy.

  15. In-vitro evaluation of copper nanoparticles cytotoxicity on prostate cancer cell lines and their antioxidant, sensing and catalytic activity: One-pot green approach.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P Reddy; Kanchi, S; Naidoo, E B

    2016-08-01

    In this study, Broccoli green extract was reported as a green and environmental friendly precursor for the one-pot biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, TEM, DLS, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The TEM and DLS results showed that the NPs are in spherical and monodispersed with an average particle size of ~4.8nm. The FTIR results confirmed the occurrence of bioactive functional groups that are responsible for reducing cupric sulphate to copper ions. The UV-vis spectrophotometry was used for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol and its dynamic reaction in Britton-Robinson buffer solution. This catalytic activity was further supported with methylene blue and methyl red dyes degradation. The nanocatalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused many times with none vital loss of catalytic activity. The Broccoli green extract modified copper nanoparticles coated on screen printing electrode laid a new sensing platform and has an excellent electrocatalytic activity. Furthermore, surface modified CuNPs with Broccoli green extract exhibited no cytotoxicity at the concentration ranging from 0.5 to 1.5μM on the prostate cancer (PC-3) cell lines. The maximum scavenging % of Broccoli green extract modified CuNPs was found to be >70.50% at the concentration of 0.25mM against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. PMID:27318296

  16. Review of the ACE-FTS measurements and recent results for the troposphere and UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, Peter

    The ACE satellite mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; and (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1 ) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1 ) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO was added to the mission to extend the wavelength coverage to the 280-1000 nm spectral region. The principal investigator for MAESTRO is T. McElroy of the Meteorological Service of Canada. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE was selected in the Canadian Space Agency's SCISAT-1 program, and was successfully launched by NASA on August 12, 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics by K

  17. The FTS atomic spectrum tool (FAST) for rapid analysis of line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    The FTS Atomic Spectrum Tool (FAST) is an interactive graphical program designed to simplify the analysis of atomic emission line spectra obtained from Fourier transform spectrometers. Calculated, predicted and/or known experimental line parameters are loaded alongside experimentally observed spectral line profiles for easy comparison between new experimental data and existing results. Many such line profiles, which could span numerous spectra, may be viewed simultaneously to help the user detect problems from line blending or self-absorption. Once the user has determined that their experimental line profile fits are good, a key feature of FAST is the ability to calculate atomic branching fractions, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths-and their uncertainties-which is not provided by existing analysis packages. Program SummaryProgram title: FAST: The FTS Atomic Spectrum Tool Catalogue identifier: AEOW_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 293058 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13809509 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Intel x86-based systems. Operating system: Linux/Unix/Windows. RAM: 8 MB minimum. About 50-200 MB for a typical analysis. Classification: 2.2, 2.3, 21.2. Nature of problem: Visualisation of atomic line spectra including the comparison of theoretical line parameters with experimental atomic line profiles. Accurate intensity calibration of experimental spectra, and the determination of observed relative line intensities that are needed for calculating atomic branching fractions and oscillator strengths. Solution method: FAST is centred around a graphical interface, where a user may view sets of experimental line profiles and compare

  18. CO2 Profile from Thermal Infrared Spectra of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Imasu, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan on 23 January 2009. It has finished its initial checkout, and is now in regular operation, making global observations of approximately 56,000 ground points every three days. We adopt a non-linear MAP method [Rodgers, 2000] to retrieve CO2 vertical profiles from the spectra at 700-800 cm-1 (“CO2 15-μm band”) of Band 4 of GOSAT/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS. Prior to GOSAT data analysis, we performed CO2 retrieval simulations for the atmosphere for the year 2001 to assess the retrieval errors and sensitivities. The results showed that CO2 concentrations were retrieved with an accuracy of 1% above 800 hPa when there was no uncertainty in the estimates of atmospheric conditions such as surface temperature, surface emissivity, and profiles of temperature, water vapor, and ozone. More realistic simulations with possible errors in the atmospheric conditions showed the following: CO2 profiles were retrieved with an accuracy of 1% at 600-100 hPa in every latitude region; retrieved CO2 concentrations included a positive bias up to approximately 4% at 30S-30N above 100 hPa; and up to approximately 4% negative bias was seen at mid- and high latitudes below 600 hPa. Then, we applied the developted algorithm to GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Band 4 data. For the operational data processing, outputs from the NIES transport model [Maksyutov et al., 2008] were used as a priori CO2 profiles. The a priori error covariance matrix was determined from er-rors in the NIES transport model [Eguchi et al., 2008]. Although the Band 4 spectra are not well calibrated at this time, a reasonable latitudinal gradient in CO2 concentrations can be seen in the middle troposphere; CO2 concentrations over the land in the Northern Hemisphere are higher than those over the ocean and in the Southern Hemisphere.

  19. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  20. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  1. Evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    An RNA-based evolution system was constructed in the laboratory and used to develop RNA enzymes with novel catalytic function. By controlling the nature of the catalytic task that the molecules must perform in order to survive, it is possible to direct the evolving population toward the expression of some desired catalytic behavior. More recently, this system has been coupled to an in vitro translation procedure, raising the possibility of evolving protein enzymes in the laboratory to produce novel proteins with desired catalytic properties. The aim of this line of research is to reduce darwinian evolution, the fundamental process of biology, to a laboratory procedure that can be made to operate in the service of organic synthesis.

  2. Domain folding and flexibility of Escherichia coli FtsZ determined by tryptophan site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Garcés, Andrea P.; Arbildua, José J.; Montecinos, Felipe; Brunet, Juan E.; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio

    2007-01-01

    FtsZ has two domains, the amino GTPase domain with a Rossmann fold, and the carboxyl domain that resembles the chorismate mutase fold. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the interdomain interaction is stronger than the interaction of the protofilament longitudinal interfaces. Crystal B factor analysis of FtsZ and detected conformational changes suggest a connection between these domains. The unfolding/folding characteristics of each domain of FtsZ were tested by introducing tryptophans into the flexible region of the amino (F135W) and the carboxyl (F275W and I294W) domains. As a control, the mutation F40W was introduced in a more rigid part of the amino domain. These mutants showed a native-like structure with denaturation and renaturation curves similar to wild type. However, the I294W mutant showed a strong loss of functionality, both in vivo and in vitro when compared to the other mutants. The functionality was recovered with the double mutant I294W/F275A, which showed full in vivo complementation with a slight increment of in vitro GTPase activity with respect to the single mutant. The formation of a stabilizing aromatic interaction involving a stacking between the tryptophan introduced at position 294 and phenylalanine 275 could account for these results. Folding/unfolding of these mutants induced by guanidinium chloride was compatible with a mechanism in which both domains within the protein show the same stability during FtsZ denaturation and renaturation, probably because of strong interface interactions. PMID:17656575

  3. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  4. Function of the Borrelia burgdorferi FtsH Homolog Is Essential for Viability both In Vitro and In Vivo and Independent of HflK/C

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chen-Yi; Bestor, Aaron; Hansen, Bryan; Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In many bacteria, the FtsH protease and its modulators, HflK and HflC, form a large protein complex that contributes to both membrane protein quality control and regulation of the cellular response to environmental stress. Both activities are crucial to the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, which depends on membrane functions, such as motility, protein transport, and cell signaling, to respond to rapid changes in its environment. Using an inducible system, we demonstrate that FtsH production is essential for both mouse and tick infectivity and for in vitro growth of B. burgdorferi. FtsH depletion in B. burgdorferi cells resulted in membrane deformation and cell death. Overproduction of the protease did not have any detectable adverse effects on B. burgdorferi growth in vitro, suggesting that excess FtsH does not proteolytically overwhelm its substrates. In contrast, we did not observe any phenotype for cells lacking the protease modulators HflK and HflC (ΔHflK/C), although we examined morphology, growth rate, growth under stress conditions, and the complete mouse-tick infectious cycle. Our results demonstrate that FtsH provides an essential function in the life cycle of the obligate pathogen B. burgdorferi but that HflK and HflC do not detectably affect FtsH function. PMID:27094329

  5. Comparison of Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ and Identification of a Reliable Cross-Species Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David E.; Kim, Michelle B.; Moore, Jared T.; O’Brien, Terrence E.; Sorto, Nohemy A.; Grove, Charles I.; Lackner, Laura L.; Ames, James B.; Shaw, Jared T.

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that mediates cytokinesis in bacteria. FtsZ is homologous in structure to eukaryotic tubulin and polymerizes in a similar head-to-tail fashion. The study of tubulin’s function in eukaryotic cells has benefited greatly from specific and potent small molecule inhibitors, including colchicine and taxol. Although many small molecule inhibitors of FtsZ have been reported, none has emerged as a generally useful probe for modulating bacterial cell division. With the goal of establishing a useful and reliable small molecule inhibitor of FtsZ, a broad biochemical cross-comparison of reported FtsZ inhibitors was undertaken. Several of these molecules, including phenolic natural products, are unselective inhibitors that seem to derive their activity from the formation of microscopic colloids or aggregates. Other compounds, including the natural product viriditoxin and the drug development candidate PC190723, exhibit no inhibition of GTPase activity using protocols in this work or under published conditions. Of the compounds studied, only zantrin Z3 exhibits good levels of inhibition, maintains activity under conditions that disrupt small molecule aggregates, and provides a platform for exploration of structure-activity relationships (SAR). Preliminary SAR studies have identified slight modifications to the two sidechains of this structure that modulate the inhibitory activity of zantrin Z3. Collectively these studies will help focus future investigations toward the establishment of probes for FtsZ that fill the roles of colchicine and taxol in studies of tubulin. PMID:22958099

  6. Validation of first chemistry mode retrieval results from new limb-imaging FTS GLORIA with correlative MIPAS-STR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Oelhaf, H.; Höpfner, M.; Belyaev, G. V.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Grooß, J.-U.; Gulde, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Kulessa, T.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.; Rongen, H.; Sartorius, C.; Schardt, G.; Schönfeld, A.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Sha, M. K.; Stroh, F.; Ungermann, J.; Volk, C. M.; Orphal, J.

    2014-12-01

    We report first chemistry mode retrieval results from the new airborne limb-imaging infrared FTS (Fourier transform spectrometer) GLORIA and comparisons with observations by the conventional airborne limb-scanning infrared FTS MIPAS-STR. For GLORIA, the flights aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica during the ESSenCe campaign (ESa Sounder Campaign 2011) were the very first in field deployment after several years of development. The simultaneous observations of GLORIA and MIPAS-STR during the flight on 16 December 2011 inside the polar vortex and under the conditions of optically partially transparent polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) provided us the unique opportunity to compare the observations by two different infrared FTS generations directly. The retrieval results of temperature, HNO3, O3, H2O, CFC-11 and CFC-12 show reasonable agreement of GLORIA with MIPAS-STR and collocated in-situ observations. For the horizontally binned hyperspectral limb-images, the GLORIA sampling outnumbered the horizontal cross-track sampling of MIPAS-STR by up to one order of magnitude. Depending on the target parameter, typical vertical resolutions of 0.5 to 2.0 km were obtained for GLORIA and are typically by factors of 2 to 4 better compared to MIPAS-STR. While the improvement of the performance, characterisation and data processing of GLORIA are subject of ongoing work, the presented first results already demonstrate the considerable gain in sampling and vertical resolution achieved with GLORIA.

  7. The structure of Aquifex aeolicus FtsH in the ADP-bound state reveals a C2-symmetric hexamer.

    PubMed

    Vostrukhina, Marina; Popov, Alexander; Brunstein, Elena; Lanz, Martin A; Baumgartner, Renato; Bieniossek, Christoph; Schacherl, Magdalena; Baumann, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The crystal structure of a truncated, soluble quadruple mutant of FtsH from Aquifex aeolicus comprising the AAA and protease domains has been determined at 2.96 Å resolution in space group I222. The protein crystallizes as a hexamer, with the protease domain forming layers in the ab plane. Contacts between these layers are mediated by the AAA domains. These are highly disordered in one crystal form, but are clearly visible in a related form with a shorter c axis. Here, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is bound to each subunit and the AAA ring exhibits twofold symmetry. The arrangement is different from the ADP-bound state of an analogously truncated, soluble FtsH construct from Thermotoga maritima. The pore is completely closed and the phenylalanine residues in the pore line a contiguous path. The protease hexamer is very similar to those described for other FtsH structures. To resolve certain open issues regarding a conserved glycine in the linker between the AAA and protease domains, as well as the active-site switch β-strand, mutations have been introduced in the full-length membrane-bound protein. Activity analysis of these point mutants reveals the crucial importance of these residues for proteolytic activity and is in accord with previous interpretation of the active-site switch and the importance of the linker glycine residue. PMID:26057670

  8. An intercomparison study of isotopic ozone profiles from the ACE-FTS, JEM-SMILES, and Odin-SMR instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Walker, K. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kasai, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Urban, J.; Bernath, P. F.; Manney, G. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of various atmospheric isotopologue species are a valuable source of information, as they can improve our current understanding of the atmosphere. For example, isotopic signatures in atmospheric profiles can be used to investigate atmospheric dynamical processes, while differences in the isotopic composition of atmospheric trace gases can be traced to effects due to their sources and sinks. This study focuses on the intercomparison of three satellite missions that provide measurements of isotopic species. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) aboard the Canadian satellite SCISAT (launched in August 2003) was designed to investigate the composition of the upper troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. ACE-FTS utilizes solar occultation to measure temperature, pressure, and vertical profiles of over thirty chemical species, including isotopologue profiles for; O3, H2O, CH4, N2O, CO, CO2 and NO. Global coverage for each species is obtained approximately over one year and with a vertical resolution of typically 3-4 km. ACE-FTS O3 isotopologue volume mixing ratio profiles are firstly compared to data measured by the Superconducting Sub-Millimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES), onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS), and the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) aboard the Swedish Odin satellite. Secondly, we intercompare the isotopic fractionation profiles for each ozone isotopologue product measured by the three instruments to further ascertain a level of confidence in the measurements.

  9. Identification of FtsW as a transporter of lipid-linked cell wall precursors across the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; van Dam, Vincent; Sijbrandi, Robert; Vernet, Thierry; Zapun, André; Bouhss, Ahmed; Diepeveen-de Bruin, Marlies; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cell growth necessitates synthesis of peptidoglycan. Assembly of this major constituent of the bacterial cell wall is a multistep process starting in the cytoplasm and ending in the exterior cell surface. The intracellular part of the pathway results in the production of the membrane-anchored cell wall precursor, Lipid II. After synthesis this lipid intermediate is translocated across the cell membrane. The translocation (flipping) step of Lipid II was demonstrated to require a specific protein (flippase). Here, we show that the integral membrane protein FtsW, an essential protein of the bacterial division machinery, is a transporter of the lipid-linked peptidoglycan precursors across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using Escherichia coli membrane vesicles we found that transport of Lipid II requires the presence of FtsW, and purified FtsW induced the transbilayer movement of Lipid II in model membranes. This study provides the first biochemical evidence for the involvement of an essential protein in the transport of lipid-linked cell wall precursors across biogenic membranes. PMID:21386816

  10. Identification of FtsW as a transporter of lipid-linked cell wall precursors across the membrane.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; van Dam, Vincent; Sijbrandi, Robert; Vernet, Thierry; Zapun, André; Bouhss, Ahmed; Diepeveen-de Bruin, Marlies; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2011-04-20

    Bacterial cell growth necessitates synthesis of peptidoglycan. Assembly of this major constituent of the bacterial cell wall is a multistep process starting in the cytoplasm and ending in the exterior cell surface. The intracellular part of the pathway results in the production of the membrane-anchored cell wall precursor, Lipid II. After synthesis this lipid intermediate is translocated across the cell membrane. The translocation (flipping) step of Lipid II was demonstrated to require a specific protein (flippase). Here, we show that the integral membrane protein FtsW, an essential protein of the bacterial division machinery, is a transporter of the lipid-linked peptidoglycan precursors across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using Escherichia coli membrane vesicles we found that transport of Lipid II requires the presence of FtsW, and purified FtsW induced the transbilayer movement of Lipid II in model membranes. This study provides the first biochemical evidence for the involvement of an essential protein in the transport of lipid-linked cell wall precursors across biogenic membranes. PMID:21386816

  11. ACE-FTS measurements of trace species in the characterization of biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereszchuk, K. A.; González Abad, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Bernath, P. F.

    2011-12-01

    To further our understanding of the effects of biomass burning emissions on atmospheric composition, we report measurements of trace species in biomass burning plumes made by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument on the SCISAT-1 satellite. An extensive set of 15 molecules, C2H2, C2H6, CH3OH, CH4, CO, H2CO, HCN, HCOOH, HNO3, NO, NO2, N2O5, O3, OCS and SF6 are used in our analysis. Even though most biomass burning smoke is typically confined to the boundary layer, some of these emissions are injected directly into the free troposphere via fire-related convective processes and transported away from the emission source. Further knowledge of the aging of biomass burning emissions in the free troposphere is needed. Tracer-tracer correlations are made between known pyrogenic species in these plumes in an effort to characterize them and follow their chemical evolution. Criteria such as age and type of biomass material burned are considered.

  12. MLS and ACE-FTS measurements of UTLS Trace Gases in the Presence of Multiple Tropopauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Walker, K. A.; Hegglin, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    The extra-tropical tropopause region is dynamically complex, with frequent occurrence of multiple tropopauses and of a "tropopause inversion layer" of enhanced static stability just above the tropopause. The tropopause structure is zonally-asymmetric and time-varying and, along with the UT jets and the stratospheric polar night jet, it defines the barriers and pathways that control UTLS transport. Averages of trace gases that do not account for the tropopause structure (such as zonal or equivalent latitude means) can obscure features of trace gas distributions that are important for understanding the role of the extra-tropical tropopause region in determining UTLS composition and hence its significance to climate processes. In this work we examine MLS and ACE-FTS UTLS trace gas profiles (using the recently reprocessed version 3 data from both instruments), including H2O, O3, CO and HNO3, in the context of extra-tropical tropopause structure seen in the GEOS-5 temperature fields, to help define differences in trace gas distributions related to differing UTLS thermal structures.

  13. Catalytic coherence transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.

  14. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  15. Transient catalytic combustor model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-steady gas phase and thermally thin substrate model is used to analyze the transient behavior of catalytic monolith combustors in fuel lean operation. The combustor response delay is due to the substrate thermal inertia. Fast response is favored by thin substrate, short catalytic bed length, high combustor inlet and final temperatures, and small gas channel diameters. The calculated gas and substrate temperature time history at different axial positions provides an understanding of how the catalytic combustor responds to an upstream condition change. The computed results also suggest that the gas residence times in the catalytic bed in the after bed space are correlatable with the nondimensional combustor response time. The model also performs steady state combustion calculations; and the computed steady state emission characteristics show agreement with available experimental data in the range of parameters covered. A catalytic combustor design for automotive gas turbine engine which has reasonably fast response ( 1 second) and can satisfy the emission goals in an acceptable total combustor length is possible.

  16. Catalytic hydrotreating process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence; McCaskill, Kenneth B.

    1978-01-01

    Carbonaceous liquids boiling above about 300.degree. C such as tars, petroleum residuals, shale oils and coal-derived liquids are catalytically hydrotreated by introducing the carbonaceous liquid into a reaction zone at a temperature in the range of 300.degree. to 450.degree. C and a pressure in the range of 300 to 4000 psig for effecting contact between the carbonaceous liquid and a catalytic transition metal sulfide in the reaction zone as a layer on a hydrogen permeable transition metal substrate and then introducing hydrogen into the reaction zone by diffusing the hydrogen through the substrate to effect the hydrogenation of the carbonaceous liquid in the presence of the catalytic sulfide layer.

  17. Catalytic membranes beckon

    SciTech Connect

    Caruana, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Chemical engineers here and abroad are finding that the marriage of catalysts and membranes holds promise for faster and more specific reactions, although commercialization of this technology is several years away. Catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) combine a heterogeneous catalyst and a permselective membrane. Reactions performed by CMRs provide higher yields--sometimes as much as 50% higher--because of better reaction selectivity--as opposed to separation selectivity. CMRs also can work at very high temperatures, using ceramic materials that would not be possible with organic membranes. Although the use of CMRs is not widespread presently, the development of new membranes--particularly porous ceramic and zeolite membranes--will increase the potential to improve yields of many catalytic processes. The paper discusses ongoing studies, metal and advanced materials for membranes, the need for continued research, hydrogen recovery from coal-derived gases, catalytic oxidation of sulfides, CMRs for water purification, and oxidative coupling of methane.

  18. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  19. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  20. High-J CO Intensity Measurements for Galaxies Observed by the Herschel FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Philip; Conley, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Molecular gas is the raw material for star formation and is commonly traced by the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule. The atmosphere blocks all but the lowest-J transitions of CO for observatories on the ground, but the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the CO emission of nearby galaxies from J=4-3 to J=13-12. Herschel showed that mid- and high-J CO lines in nearby galaxies are emitted from warm gas, accounting for approximately 10% of the molecular mass, but the majority of the CO luminosity. The energy budget of this warm, highly-excited gas is a significant window into the feedback interactions among molecular gas, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Likely, mechanical heating is required to explain the excitation. Such gas has also been observed in star forming regions within our galaxy.We have examined all ~ 300 spectra of galaxies from the Herschel Fourier Transform Spectrometer and measured line fluxes or upper limits for the CO J=4-3 to J=13-12, [CI], and [NII] 205 micron lines in ~ 200 galaxies, taking systematic effects of the FTS into account. We will present our line fitting method, illustrate trends available so far in this large sample, and preview the full 2-component radiative transfer likelihood modeling of the CO emission using an illustrative sample of 20 galaxies, including comparisons to well-resolved galactic regions. This work is a comprehensive study of mid- and high-J CO emission among a variety of galaxy types, and can be used as a resource for future (sub)millimeter studies of galaxies with ground-based instruments.

  1. ACE-FTS observations of pyrogenic trace species in boreal biomass burning plumes during BORTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereszchuk, K. A.; González Abad, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-12-01

    To further our understanding of the effects of biomass burning emissions on atmospheric composition, the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) campaign was conducted on 12 July to 3 August 2011 during the Boreal forest fire season in Canada. The simultaneous aerial, ground and satellite measurement campaign sought to record instances of Boreal biomass burning to measure the tropospheric volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of short- and long-lived trace molecular species from biomass burning emissions. The goal was to investigate the connection between the composition and the distribution of these pyrogenic outflows and their resulting perturbation to atmospheric chemistry, with particular focus on oxidant species to determine the overall impact on the oxidizing capacity of the free troposphere. Measurements of pyrogenic trace species in Boreal biomass burning plumes were made by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) onboard the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) SCISAT-1 satellite during the BORTAS campaign. Even though most biomass burning smoke is typically confined to the boundary layer, emissions are often injected directly into the upper troposphere via fire-related convective processes, thus allowing space-borne instruments to measure these pyrogenic outflows. An extensive set of 15 molecules, CH3OH, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, C3H6O, CO, HCN, HCOOH, HNO3, H2CO, NO, NO2, OCS, O3 and PAN have been analyzed. Included in this analysis is the calculation of age-dependent sets of enhancement ratios for each of the species.

  2. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnerty, Caine; Tompsett, Geoff. A.; Kendall, Kevin; Ormerod, R. Mark

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm -2 at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H 2/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack.

  3. Simultaneous trace gas measurements using two Fourier transform spectrometers at Eureka, Canada during spring 2006, and comparisons with the ACE-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Walker, K. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Strong, K.; Sung, K.; Fast, H.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Daffer, W. H.; Fogal, P.; Kolonjari, F.; Loewen, P.; Manney, G. L.; Mikhailov, O.; Drummond, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    The 2006 Canadian Arctic ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) Validation Campaign collected measurements at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, 86.42° W, 80.05° N, 610 m a.s.l.) at Eureka, Canada from 17 February to 31 March 2006. Two of the ten instruments involved in the campaign, both Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs), were operated simultaneously, recording atmospheric solar absorption spectra. The first instrument was an ABB Bomem DA8 high-resolution infrared FTS. The second instrument was the Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the Infrared (PARIS-IR), the ground-based version of the satellite-borne FTS on the ACE satellite (ACE-FTS). From the measurements collected by these two ground-based instruments, total column densities of seven stratospheric trace gases (O3, HCl, ClONO2, HF, HNO3, NO2, and NO) were retrieved using the optimal estimation method and these results were compared. Since the two instruments sampled the same portions of atmosphere by synchronizing observations during the campaign and used consistent retrieval parameters, the biases in retrieved columns from the two spectrometers represent the instrumental differences. Mean differences in total column densities of O3, HCl, ClONO2, HF, HNO3, and NO2 from the observations between PARIS-IR and the DA8 FTS are 2.8 %, -3.2 %, -4.3 %, -1.5 %, -1.9 %, and -0.1 %, respectively. Partial column results from the ground-based spectrometers were also compared with partial columns derived from ACE-FTS version 2.2 (including updates for O3) profiles. Mean differences in partial column densities of O3, HCl, ClONO2, HF, HNO3, NO2, and NO from the measurements between ACE-FTS and the DA8 FTS are -5.9 %, -8.5 %, -11.8 %, -0.9 %, -6.6 %, -21.6 % and -7.6 % respectively. Mean differences in partial column densities of O3, HCl, ClONO2, HF, HNO3, NO2 from the measurements between ACE-FTS and the PARIS-IR are -5.2 %, -4.6 %, -2.3 %, -4.7 %, 5.7 % and -11

  4. Hollow fiber catalytic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yi Hua; Moser, W.; Shelekhin, A.; Pien, Shyhing

    1993-09-01

    The objective of the present research is to investigate the possibility of the enhancement of the H{sub 2}S thermal decomposition in the IGCC system by employing the hollow fiber catalytic membrane reactor. To accomplish the objective, the following major components in the analysis of the high temperature membrane reactor must be investigated: high-temperature stability of the porous glass membrane; catalytic properties of MoS{sub 2} and of the porous glass membrane; catalytic decomposition of H{sub 2}S in a packed bed reactor; catalytic decomposition of 100%, 8.6%, and 1.1% H{sub 2}S gas mixtures in the membrane reactor. The study has been shown that the conversion of the H{sub 2}S can be increased in the packed bed membrane reactor compared to the equilibrium conversion on the shell side. The development of a mathematical model for the proposed process is in progress. The model will enable optimization of the H{sub 2}S decomposition. These conditions include selectivity factors and pressure drop across the membrane.

  5. Monolithic catalytic igniters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Ferla, R.; Tuffias, R. H.; Jang, Q.

    1993-01-01

    Catalytic igniters offer the potential for excellent reliability and simplicity for use with the diergolic bipropellant oxygen/hydrogen as well as with the monopropellant hydrazine. State-of-the-art catalyst beds - noble metal/granular pellet carriers - currently used in hydrazine engines are limited by carrier stability, which limits the hot-fire temperature, and by poor thermal response due to the large thermal mass. Moreover, questions remain with regard to longevity and reliability of these catalysts. In this work, Ultramet investigated the feasibility of fabricating monolithic catalyst beds that overcome the limitations of current catalytic igniters via a combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) iridium coatings and chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) refractory ceramic foams. It was found that under all flow conditions and O2:H2 mass ratios tested, a high surface area monolithic bed outperformed a Shell 405 bed. Additionally, it was found that monolithic catalytic igniters, specifically porous ceramic foams fabricated by CVD/CVI processing, can be fabricated whose catalytic performance is better than Shell 405 and with significantly lower flow restriction, from materials that can operate at 2000 C or higher.

  6. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  7. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Sunder, Swaminathan

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  8. Important role of the tetraloop region of 4.5S RNA in SRP binding to its receptor FtsY.

    PubMed Central

    Jagath, J R; Matassova, N B; de Leeuw, E; Warnecke, J M; Lentzen, G; Rodnina, M V; Luirink, J; Wintermeyer, W

    2001-01-01

    Binding of Escherichia coli signal recognition particle (SRP) to its receptor, FtsY, requires the presence of 4.5S RNA, although FtsY alone does not interact with 4.5S RNA. In this study, we report that the exchange of the GGAA tetraloop sequence in domain IV of 4.5S RNA for UUCG abolishes SRP-FtsY interaction, as determined by gel retardation and membrane targeting experiments, whereas replacements with other GNRA-type tetraloops have no effect. A number of other base exchanges in the tetraloop sequence have minor or intermediate inhibitory effects. Base pair disruptions in the stem adjacent to the tetraloop or replacement of the closing C-G base pair with G-C partially restored function of the otherwise inactive UUCG mutant. Chemical probing by hydroxyl radical cleavage of 4.5S RNA variants show that replacing GGAA with UUCG in the tetraloop sequence leads to structural changes both within the tetraloop and in the adjacent stem; the latter change is reversed upon reverting the C-G closing base pair to G-C. These results show that the SRP-FtsY interaction is strongly influenced by the structure of the tetraloop region of SRP RNA, in particular the tetraloop stem, and suggest that both SRP RNA and Ffh undergo mutual structural adaptation to form SRP that is functional in the interaction with the receptor, FtsY. PMID:11233986

  9. In Escherichia coli, MreB and FtsZ direct the synthesis of lateral cell wall via independent pathways that require PBP 2.

    PubMed

    Varma, Archana; Young, Kevin D

    2009-06-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cytoplasmic proteins MreB and FtsZ play crucial roles in ensuring that new muropeptide subunits are inserted into the cell wall in a spatially correct way during elongation and division. In particular, to retain a constant diameter and overall shape, new material must be inserted into the wall uniformly around the cell's perimeter. Current thinking is that MreB accomplishes this feat through intermediary proteins that tether peptidoglycan synthases to the outer face of the inner membrane. We tested this idea in E. coli by using a DD-carboxypeptidase mutant that accumulates pentapeptides in its peptidoglycan, allowing us to visualize new muropeptide incorporation. Surprisingly, inhibiting MreB with the antibiotic A22 did not result in uneven insertion of new wall, although the cells bulged and lost their rod shapes. Instead, uneven (clustered) incorporation occurred only if MreB and FtsZ were inactivated simultaneously, providing the first evidence in E. coli that FtsZ can direct murein incorporation into the lateral cell wall independently of MreB. Inhibiting penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP 2) alone produced the same clustered phenotype, implying that MreB and FtsZ tether peptidoglycan synthases via a common mechanism that includes PBP 2. However, cell shape was determined only by the presence or absence of MreB and not by the even distribution of new wall material as directed by FtsZ. PMID:19346310

  10. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  11. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  12. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 – Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  13. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

    2006-03-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  14. Validation of ACE-FTS measurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 using ground-based FTIR spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Mahieu, E.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Conway, S. A.; Dan, L.; Griffin, D.; Harrett, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kagawa, A.; Lindenmaier, R.; Strong, K.; Whaley, C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite datasets can be an effective global monitoring tool for long-lived compounds in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT-1. The primary instrument on SCISAT-1 is a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) which is capable of measuring a range of gases including key chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) species. These families of species are of interest because of their significant contribution to anthropogenic ozone depletion and to global warming. To assess the quality of data derived from satellite measurements, validation using other data sources is essential. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are particularly useful for this purpose. In this study, five FTIR spectrometers located at four sites around the world are used to validate the CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), and HCFC-22 (CHClF2) retrieved profiles from ACE-FTS measurements. These species are related because HCFC-22 was the primary replacement for CFC-11 and CFC-12 in refrigerant and propellant applications. The FTIR spectrometers used in this study record solar absorption spectra at Eureka (Canada), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Poker Flat (USA), and Toronto (Canada). The retrieval of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 are not standard products for many of these instruments, and as such, a harmonization of retrieval parameters between the sites has been conducted. The retrievals of these species from the FTIR spectra are sensitive from the surface to approximately 20 km, while the ACE-FTS profiles extend from approximately 6 to 30 km. For each site, partial column comparisons between coincident measurements of the three species and a validation of the observed trends will be discussed.

  15. Comparison of nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Sinnhuber, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Urban, J.; Pérot, K.; Walker, K. A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    We compare the nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60 to 150 km) from four instruments: the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), and the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR). We use the daily zonal mean data in that altitude range for the years 2004-2010 (ACE-FTS), 2005-2012 (MIPAS), 2008-2012 (SCIAMACHY), and 2003-2012 (SMR). We first compare the data qualitatively with respect to the morphology, focussing on the major features, and then compare the time series directly and quantitatively. In three geographical regions, we compare the vertical density profiles on coincident measurement days. Since none of the instruments delivers continuous daily measurements in this altitude region, we carried out a multi-linear regression analysis. This regression analysis considers annual and semi-annual variability in the form of harmonic terms and inter-annual variability by responding linearly to the solar Lyman-α radiation index and the geomagnetic Kp index. This analysis helps to find similarities and differences in the individual data sets with respect to the inter-annual variations caused by geomagnetic and solar variability. We find that the data sets are consistent and that they only disagree on minor aspects. SMR and ACE-FTS deliver the longest time series in the mesosphere, and they agree with each other remarkably well. The shorter time series from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY also agree with them where they overlap. The data agree within 30 % when the number densities are large, but they can differ by 50 to 100 % in some cases.

  16. Update on GOSAT TANSO-FTS performance, operations, and data products after more than 6 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Tanaka, Makoto; Ueda, Yoko; Deguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Jun; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Kataoka, Fumie; Taylor, Thomas E.; Buijs, Henry L.

    2016-06-01

    A data set containing more than 6 years (February 2009 to present) of radiance spectra for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) observations has been acquired by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, available at http://data.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatUserInterfaceGateway/guig/GuigPage/open.do), nicknamed "Ibuki", Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). This paper provides updates on the performance of the satellite and TANSO-FTS sensor and describes important changes to the data product, which has recently been made available to users. With these changes the typical accuracy of retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively) are 2 ppm or 0.5 % and 13 ppb or 0.7 %, respectively. Three major anomalies of the satellite system affecting TANSO-FTS are reported: a failure of one of the two solar paddles in May 2014, a switch to the secondary pointing system in January 2015, and most recently a cryocooler shutdown and restart in August 2015. The Level 1A (L1A) (raw interferogram) and the Level 1B (L1B) (radiance spectra) of version V201 described here have long-term uniform quality and provide consistent retrieval accuracy even after the satellite system anomalies. In addition, we discuss the unique observation abilities of GOSAT made possible by an agile pointing mechanism, which allows for optimization of global sampling patterns.

  17. Upper troposphere and stratosphere distribution of hydrocarbon species in ACE-FTS measurements and GEOS-Chem simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Walker, Kaley A.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Jones, Ashley; Sheese, Patrick E.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of carbon-containing species, referred to herein as "hydrocarbons", are important components needed for describing and understanding the influence of natural and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric chemistry. Analysis of the global pattern of hydrocarbons contributes to our understanding of the influence of regional and seasonal variation in air pollution and natural fire events. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) has monitored trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere based on solar occultation measurements for more than ten years. In this study, we investigate the global pattern of seven "hydrocarbon" species (CO, C2H6, C2H2, HCN, H2CO, CH3OH, and HCOOH) and OCS using the ACE-FTS version 3.5 dataset from 2004 to 2013. All hydrocarbons show strong seasonal variation and regional differences, but the detailed pattern differs according to the speciation of the hydrocarbons. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, CO, C2H6, and C2H2 show the highest mixing ratios in winter, but high CH3OH and HCOOH appear in summer. In the Southern hemisphere, H2CO, HCN, and HCOOH show high mixing ratios in springtime. These patterns indicate the impact of different emission sources including fuel combustion, wildfire emission, and chemical production. By calculating correlations with CO, these results can provide useful information to characterize each hydrocarbon emission. The ACE-FTS measurements have also been compared with GEOS-Chem output to examine the model performance and spatiotemporal patterns in the simulations.

  18. Validation of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR UTLS CO2 data (Version 1.0) using CONTRAIL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Kimoto, S.; Sugimura, R.; Imasu, R.; Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsueda, H.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal infrared (TIR) band of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in several atmospheric layers since its launch. This study compared TANSO-FTS TIR V1.0 CO2 data and CO2 data obtained in the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), where the TIR band of TANSO-FTS is most sensitive to CO2 concentrations, to validate the quality of the TIR V1.0 UTLS CO2 data from 287 to 162 hPa. From a comparison made during flights between Tokyo and Sydney, the averages of the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 data agreed well with the averages of the data obtained by the CONTRAIL Continuous CO2 Measuring Experiment (CME) within 0.1 % for all of the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of a comparison for all of the eight airline routes showed that the agreement between the TIR and CONTRAIL CO2 data was within 0.5 % on average in the Northern Hemisphere, which was better than the agreement between a priori and CONTRAIL CO2 data. The quality of TIR lower stratospheric CO2 data depends largely on the information content, and therefore has a seasonal dependence. In high latitudes, TIR V1.0 lower stratospheric CO2 data are only valid in the summer. The magnitude of bias in the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 data did not have a clear longitudinal dependence. The comparison results for flights in northern low and middle latitudes showed that the agreement between TIR and CONTRAIL CO2 data in the upper troposphere was worse in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter. This could be attributed to a larger negative bias in the upper atmospheric a priori CO2 data in the spring and summer and a seasonal dependence of spectral bias in TANSO-FTS TIR Level 1B (L1B) radiance data. The negative bias in northern

  19. Characterization and correction of non-linearity effect on oxygen spectra of TANSO-FTS onboard GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, H.; Frankenberg, C.; Crisp, D.; kuze, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) collects high spectral resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band near 760 nm, the carbon dioxide (CO2) bands near 1600 and 2060 nm, and the methane (CH4) band near 1660 nm. The O2 measurements are used to estimate the surface pressure and the dry air column, which are used to define the column-averaged CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions, XCO2 and XCH4. O2 measurements are ideal for this application because the O2 dry air mole fraction is almost constant and well known. However, systematic errors in the O2 measurements can introduce biases in the XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals from TANSO-FTS. For example, 1% overestimate of the O2 column retrievals introduced a 10 hPa high bias in surface pressure and a 4 hPa low bias in XCO2 in early retrievals. This near-global bias has been traced to uncertainties in the O2 A-band absorption cross sections. Other spatially-varying O2 errors have been traced to uncertainties in the calibration of the TANSO-FTS A-band channel. For example, non-linearity in the A-band channel response introduces errors in the depths of both O2 lines and solar Fraunhofer lines. There are three possible sources of non-linearity: detector, analogue circuit (amplifier and electric filters), and analogue to digital converter (ADC). Observations acquired with the flight instrument and laboratory experiments with TANSO-FTS engineering model (EM) is being used to discriminate and correct these errors. The EM tests have largely vindicated the silicon photo-diode detector, but show that the non-linearity of the analogue circuit and ADC is almost identical to that seen in data acquired by the on-orbit flight model. We have developed and applied a correction to the measured interferograms from the flight instrument and confirmed it validity by showing that the Fraunhofer

  20. Testing forward model against OCO-2 and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT observed spectra in near infrared range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadvornykh, Ilya V.; Gribanov, Konstantin G.

    2015-11-01

    An existing software package FIRE-ARMS (Fine InfraRed Explorer for Atmospheric Remote MeasurementS) was modified by embedding vector radiative transfer model VLIDORT. Thus the program tool includes both thermal (TIR) and near infrared (NIR) regions. We performed forward simulation of near infrared spectra on the top of the atmosphere for outgoing radiation accounting multiple scattering in cloudless atmosphere. Simulated spectra are compared with spectra measured by TANSO-FTS/GOSAT and OCO-2 in the condition of cloudless atmosphere over Western Siberia. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data were used to complete model atmosphere.

  1. Mitsunobu Reactions Catalytic in Phosphine and a Fully Catalytic System

    PubMed Central

    Buonomo, Joseph A; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-01-01

    The Mitsunobu reaction is renowned for its mild reaction conditions and broad substrate tolerance, but has limited utility in process chemistry and industrial applications due to poor atom economy and the generation of stoichiometric phosphine oxide and hydrazine by-products that complicate purification. A catalytic Mitsunobu reaction using innocuous reagents to recycle these by-products would overcome both of these shortcomings. Herein we report a protocol that is catalytic in phosphine (1-phenylphospholane) employing phenylsilane to recycle the catalyst. Integration of this phosphine catalytic cycle with Taniguchi’s azocarboxylate catalytic system provided the first fully catalytic Mitsunobu reaction. PMID:26347115

  2. Mitsunobu Reactions Catalytic in Phosphine and a Fully Catalytic System.

    PubMed

    Buonomo, Joseph A; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-10-26

    The Mitsunobu reaction is renowned for its mild reaction conditions and broad substrate tolerance, but has limited utility in process chemistry and industrial applications due to poor atom economy and the generation of stoichiometric phosphine oxide and hydrazine by-products that complicate purification. A catalytic Mitsunobu reaction using innocuous reagents to recycle these by-products would overcome both of these shortcomings. Herein we report a protocol that is catalytic in phosphine (1-phenylphospholane) employing phenylsilane to recycle the catalyst. Integration of this phosphine catalytic cycle with Taniguchi's azocarboxylate catalytic system provided the first fully catalytic Mitsunobu reaction. PMID:26347115

  3. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. PMID:18434141

  4. GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Measurement of Volcanic and Geothermal CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    2010-05-01

    volcanic CO2 anomalies using GOSAT and correlation with Aura/OMI, AIRS, and ASTER determined SO2 fluxes and ground based monitoring of CO2 and other geophysical and geochemical parameters. This will provide the ground work for future higher spatial resolution satellite missions. This is a joint effort from two GOSAT-IBUKI data application projects: "Satellite-Borne Quantification of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Volcanoes and Geothermal Areas" (PI Schwandner), and "Application of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS to the Measurement of Volcanic CO2 Emissions" (PI Carn).

  5. Three Years of CARVE-FTS Observations of CO2, CH4, and CO in the Alaskan Arctic: Status Quo and Comparison with Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, T. P.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is an aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and the northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight path. Science operations started in 05/2012 and are currently envisaged to continue until 2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements, in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, their interfering species (e.g., H2O), and O2. The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1 (CH4, CO), 5,800-6,400 cm-1 (CO2), and 12,900-13,200 cm-1 (O2), with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions, particularly with respect to vibration damping. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, observed during the 2012, 2013, and 2014 campaigns, including comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of CO2 from TANSO/GOSAT retrieved by JPL/ACOS, and MOPITT CO.

  6. Catalytic Antioxidants and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Tamara R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Oxidative stress, resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, or neuroinflammation, is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative conditions. Damage due to superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and peroxynitrite has been observed in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as in acute conditions that lead to neuronal death, such as stroke and epilepsy. Antioxidant therapies to remove these toxic compounds have been of great interest in treating these disorders. Catalytic antioxidants mimic the activities of superoxide dismutase or catalase or both, detoxifying superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and in some cases, peroxynitrite and other toxic species as well. Several compounds have demonstrated efficacy in in vitro and in animal models of neurodegeneration, leading to optimism that catalytic antioxidants may prove to be useful therapies in human disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 555–569. PMID:18754709

  7. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  8. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  9. FTS Studies of the 17O Enriched Isotopologues of CO_2 Toward Creating a Complete and Highly Accurate Reference Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Ben; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda; Miller, Charles

    2014-06-01

    The proliferation and increased abilities of remote sensing missions for the monitoring of planetary atmospheric gas species has spurred the need for complete and accurate spectroscopic reference standards. As a part of our ongoing effort toward creating a global carbon dioxide (CO2) frequency reference standard, we report new FTS measurements of the 17O enriched isotopologues of CO2. The first measurements were taken in the ν3 region (2200 - 2450 cm-1, 65 - 75 THz), have absolute calibration accuracies of 100 kHz (3E-6 cm-1), comparable to the uncertainties for typical sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopy. Such high absolute calibration accuracy has become regular procedure for the cases of linear molecules such as CO2 and CO for FTS measurements at JPL, and enables us to produce measured transition frequencies for entire bands with accuracies that rival those of early heterodyne measurements for individual beat notes. Additionally, by acquiring spectra of multiple carbon dioxide isotopologues simultaneously, we have begun to construct a self-consistent frequency grid based on CO2 that extends from 20 - 200 THz. These new spectroscopic reference standards are a significant step towards minimizing CO2 retrieval errors from remote sensing applications, especially those involving targets with predominantly CO2 atmospheres such as Mars, Venus and candidate terrestrial exoplanets where minor isotopologues will make significant contributions to the radiance signals.

  10. Radiometric calibration of GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR bands: comparison of vicarious to on-orbit results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, T. E.; O'Dell, C.; O'Brien, D. M.; Kataoka, F.; Kuze, A.; Bruegge, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global, space-based measurements of solar reflected radiances since early 2009. Several operational or semi-operational algorithms exist to invert the measured radiances, producing column-averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2). The resulting XCO2 are used as inputs to flux inversion models to determine sources and sinks of CO2. An accurate radiometric calibration of the TANSO-FTS short wave infrared (SWIR) channels is required in order to yield results with high accuracy. In this work we summarize the latest estimation of ground-based vicarious calibration coefficients (VCC) from four separate field campaigns conducted at the Railroad Valley playa in June of 2009-2012. We then provide a comparison of the time-dependent VCC with the results from the radiometric calibration performed using on-orbit solar observations. While both approaches indicate some radiometric degradation in the SWIR bands, with the strongest decay in the Oxygen-A band, the magnitude of the changes disagree.

  11. On-orbit performance and level 1 data processing of TANSO-FTS and CAI on GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Hamazaki, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) monitors carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT is placed in a sun-synchronous orbit of 666km and 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. It was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center. There are two instruments on GOSAT. The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier- Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the Short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 μm) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 μm) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. For three months after the launch, the on-orbit function and performance have been checked out. Now level 1A (raw interferogram) and level 2B (spectra) are now being processed and provided regularly with calibration data.

  12. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  13. Catalytic combustion nears application

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This article is a brief review of efforts to develope a catalytic combustion system with emissions levels less than 10 ppm. Two efforts are discussed: (1) tests by General Electric using a GE Frame 7E/9E and 7F/9F gas turbine, and (2) tests by AES using a Kawasaki M1A-13A industrial gas turbine. The latter also employs a heat recovery steam generator and produces 3 MWe and 28,000 lbm/hr of steam.

  14. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Hryn, John N.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrB Sensor Kinase Interactions with FtsI and Wag31 Proteins Reveal a Role for MtrB Distinct from That Regulating MtrA Activities

    PubMed Central

    Plocinska, Renata; Martinez, Luis; Gorla, Purushotham; Pandeeti, Emmanuel; Sarva, Krishna; Blaszczyk, Ewelina; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The septal association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrB, the kinase partner of the MtrAB two-component signal transduction system, is necessary for the optimal expression of the MtrA regulon targets, including ripA, fbpB, and ftsI, which are involved in cell division and cell wall synthesis. Here, we show that MtrB, irrespective of its phosphorylation status, interacts with Wag31, whereas only phosphorylation-competent MtrB interacts with FtsI. We provide evidence that FtsI depletion compromises the MtrB septal assembly and MtrA regulon expression; likewise, the absence of MtrB compromises FtsI localization and, possibly, FtsI activity. We conclude from these results that FtsI and MtrB are codependent for their activities and that FtsI functions as a positive modulator of MtrB activation and MtrA regulon expression. In contrast to FtsI, Wag31 depletion does not affect MtrB septal assembly and MtrA regulon expression, whereas the loss of MtrB increased Wag31 localization and the levels of PknA/PknB (PknA/B) serine-threonine protein kinase-mediated Wag31 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we found that FtsI decreased levels of phosphorylated Wag31 (Wag31∼P) and that MtrB interacted with PknA/B. Overall, our results indicate that MtrB interactions with FtsI, Wag31, and PknA/B are required for its optimal localization, MtrA regulon expression, and phosphorylation of Wag31. Our results emphasize a new role for MtrB in cell division and cell wall synthesis distinct from that regulating the MtrA phosphorylation activities. PMID:25225272

  16. Catalytic processes for space station waste conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, M. W.; Madsen, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Catalytic techniques for processing waste products onboard space vehicles were evaluated. The goal of the study was the conversion of waste to carbon, wash water, oxygen and nitrogen. However, the ultimate goal is conversion to plant nutrients and other materials useful in closure of an ecological life support system for extended planetary missions. The resulting process studied involves hydrolysis at 250 C and 600 psia to break down and compact cellulose material, distillation at 100 C to remove water, coking at 450 C and atmospheric pressure, and catalytic oxidation at 450 to 600 C and atmospheric pressure. Tests were conducted with a model waste to characterize the hydrolysis and coking processes. An oxidizer reactor was sized based on automotive catalytic conversion experience. Products obtained from the hydrolysis and coking steps included a solid residue, gases, water condensate streams, and a volatile coker oil. Based on the data obtained, sufficient component sizing was performed to make a preliminary comparison of the catalytic technique with oxidation for processing waste for a six-man spacecraft. Wet oxidation seems to be the preferred technique from the standpoint of both component simplicity and power consumption.

  17. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  18. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near-infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space- and time-resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high-sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer-tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39 ± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-61% larger than the

  19. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-06-01

    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space and time resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer : tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-6% larger than the

  20. GOSAT CO2 and CH4 validation activity with a portable FTS at Pasadena, Chino, and Railroad Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kataoka, F.; Hedelius, J.; Viatte, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Roehl, C. M.; Leifer, I.; Tanaka, T.; Iraci, L. T.; Bruegge, C. J.; Schwandner, F. M.; Crisp, D.

    2015-12-01

    The column-average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) were measured with a portable Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), EM27/SUN, using direct sunlight at 1) Caltech, in Pasadena, a northern Los Angeles suburb, 2) Chino, a dairy region east of Los Angeles, and 3) Railroad Valley (RRV), a desert playa in Nevada. They were conducted during the GOSAT/OCO-2 joint campaign for vicarious calibration and validation (cal/val) and its preparatory experiments in June-July 2015. JAXA's GOSAT has been operating since 2009 to monitor the greenhouse gases XCO2 and XCH4 using surface-reflected sunlight from space. GOSAT carries a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and a Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). NASA's OCO-2 has been operating since 2014, carries a grating spectrometer to make precise XCO2 observations with a-few-kilometer resolution. Their polar orbits have 12:46 pm (GOSAT) and 1:30 pm (OCO-2) observing times. For cal/val, these sites were targeted with coincident , near simultaneous ground-based and vertical profiling measurements. These sites are different types of suburban, dairy, and desert areas. Before the campaign, measurements from the JAXA EM27/SUN were compared with those from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and from the Caltech EM27/SUN at Pasadena. We compared the retrieved values and simultaneously observed diurnal enhancements by advection from the Los Angeles basin. Then, we observed a diurnal cycle at Chino dairy area, an area of concentrated husbandry, producing a CH4 point source. Finally, we conducted the cal/val campaign at RRV coincident with GOSAT and OCO-2 overpass observations. Over RRV, vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as a part of the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) . We will compare experimental results from the cal/val campaign for XCO2 and XCH4 with a portable FTS.

  1. Dissection of the roles of FtsH protease in chloroplast biogenesis and stability at moderately high temperature: a quantitative proteomics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chloroplast-targeted FtsH11 protease has been identified as essential for Arabidopsis survival at moderately high temperatures. The ftsh11 plants display a host of dramatic changes in photosynthetic parameters, cessation of growth and development, and eventual death if temperature exceeds 30ºC a...

  2. Resveratrol antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli is mediated by Z-ring formation inhibition via suppression of FtsZ expression

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dahyun; Lim, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol exhibits a potent antimicrobial activity. However, the mechanism underlying its antibacterial activity has not been shown. In this study, the antibacterial mechanism of resveratrol was investigated. To investigate induction of the SOS response, a strain containing the lacZ+gene under the control of an SOS-inducible sulA promoter was constructed. DNA damage was measured by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). After resveratrol treatment, the cells were observed by confocal microscopy. For the RNA silencing assay, ftsZ-specific antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was used. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increased in Escherichia coli after resveratrol treatment; however, cell growth was not recovered by ROS quenching, indicating that, in this experiment, ROS formation and cell death following resveratrol treatment were not directly correlated. Resveratrol treatment increased DNA fragmentation in cells, while SOS response-related gene expression levels increased in a dose-dependent manner. Cell elongation was observed after resveratrol treatment. Elongation was induced by inhibiting FtsZ, an essential cell-division protein in prokaryotes, and resulted in significant inhibition of Z-ring the formation in E. coli. The expression of ftsZ mRNA was suppressed by resveratrol. Our results indicate that resveratrol inhibits bacterial cell growth by suppressing FtsZ expression and Z-ring formation. PMID:25942564

  3. 78 FR 25132 - Enercorp, Inc., FTS Group, Inc., Games, Inc. (n/k/a InQBate Corporation), Hartmarx Corporation (n...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Enercorp, Inc., FTS Group, Inc., Games, Inc. (n/k/a InQBate Corporation), Hartmarx Corporation (n... Games, Inc. (n/k/a InQBate Corporation) because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  4. The conserved role of FtsH11 protease in protection of photosynthetic system from high temperature stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As sessile organisms, plants employ multiple mechanisms to cope with seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations associated with their habitats. AtFtsH11 protease gene was identified via map-based cloning as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures. There are 12 predi...

  5. Catalytic considerations in temperature measurement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Crossman, G. R.; Chitnis, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Literature discussing catalytic activity in platinum group temperature sensors is surveyed. Methods for the determination and/or elimination of catalytic activity are reported. A particular application of the literature is discussed in which it is possible to infer that a shielded platinum total temperature probe does not experience significant catalytic activity in the wake of a supersonic hydrogen burner, while a bare iridium plus rhodium, iridium thermocouple does. It is concluded that catalytic data corrections are restricted and that it is preferable to coat the temperature sensor with a noncatalytic coating. Furthermore, the desirability of transparent coatings is discussed.

  6. Four Years of CARVE-FTS Observations of CO2, CH4, and CO in the Alaskan Arctic: Status Quo and Comparison with Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, T. P.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The end of 2015 marks the conclusion of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), a four-year aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and the northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight path. Science operations started in 05/2012 and will conclude in 11/2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements, in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, their interfering species (e.g., H2O), and O2. The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1 (CH4, CO), 5,800-6,400 cm-1 (CO2), and 12,900-13,200 cm-1 (O2), with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions. A recent overhaul of the retrieval algorithm has led to improvements in FTS data quality. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, obtained over the entire CARVE observation record from 2012 to 2015, including comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of GOSAT CO2 and CH4 retrieved by NIES, GOSAT CO2 from JPL/ACOS, MOPITT CO, and CO2 from OCO-2. The comparisons emphasize coincident CARVE/OCO-2 observations over Alaska during the 2015

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Enrique Iglesia; Akio Ishikawa; Manual Ojeda; Nan Yao

    2007-09-30

    A detailed study of the catalyst composition, preparation and activation protocol of Fe-based catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) have been carried out in this project. We have studied the effects of different promoters on the catalytic performance of Fe-based catalysts. Specifically, we have focused on how their sequence of addition dramatically influences the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The resulting procedures have been optimized to improve further upon the already unprecedented rates and C{sub 5+} selectivities of the Fe-based catalysts that we have developed as part of this project. Selectivity to C{sub 5+} hydrocarbon was close to 90 % (CO{sub 2}-free basis) and CO conversion rate was about 6.7 mol h{sup -1} g-at Fe{sup -1} at 2.14 MPa, 508 K and with substoichiometric synthesis gas; these rates were larger than any reported previously for Fe-based FTS catalysts at these conditions. We also tested the stability of Fe-based catalysts during FTS reaction (10 days); as a result, the high hydrocarbon formation rates were maintained during 10 days, though the gradual deactivation was observed. Our investigation has also focused on the evaluation of Fe-based catalysts with hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams (H{sub 2}/CO=1). We have observed that the Fe-based catalysts prepared in this project display also a high hydrocarbon synthesis rate with substoichiometric synthesis gas (H{sub 2}/CO=1) stream, which is a less desirable reactant mixture than stoichiometric synthesis gas (H{sub 2}/CO=2). We have improved the catalyst preparation protocols and achieved the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported at the low temperatures required for selectivity and stability. Also, we have characterized the catalyst structural change and active phases formed, and their catalytic behavior during the activation process to evaluate their influences on FTS reaction. The efforts of this project led to (i

  8. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  9. Catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Gladrow, E.M.; Winter, W.E.

    1980-04-29

    The octane number of a cracked naphtha can be significantly improved in a catalytic cracking unit, without significant decrease in naphtha yield, by maintaining certain critical concentrations of metals on the catalyst, suitably by blending or adding a heavy metals-containing component to the gas oil feed. Suitably, in a catalytic cracking process unit wherein a gas oil feed is cracked in a cracking reactor (Zone) at an elevated temperature in the presence of a cracking catalyst, the cracking catalyst is regenerated in a regenerator (Regeneration zone) by burning coke off the catalyst, and catalyst is circulated between the reactor and regenerator, sufficient of a metals-containing heavy feedstock is admixed, intermittantly or continuously, with the gas oil feed to deposit metals on said catalyst and raise the metals-content of said catalyst to a level of from about 1500 to about 6000 parts per million, preferably from about 2500 to about 4000 parts per million expressed as equivalent nickel, base the weight of the catalyst, and said metals level is maintained on the catalyst throughout the operation by withdrawing high metals-containing catalyst and adding low metals-containing catalyst to the regenerator.

  10. Penicillin-binding protein 2 inactivation in Escherichia coli results in cell division inhibition, which is relieved by FtsZ overexpression.

    PubMed Central

    Vinella, D; Joseleau-Petit, D; Thévenet, D; Bouloc, P; D'Ari, R

    1993-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutants of Escherichia coli are resistant to amdinocillin (mecillinam), a beta-lactam antibiotic which specifically binds penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) and prevents cell wall elongation with concomitant cell death. The leuS(Ts) strain, in which leucyl-tRNA synthetase is temperature sensitive, was resistant to amdinocillin at 37 degrees C because of an increased guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) pool resulting from partial induction of the stringent response, but it was sensitive to amdinocillin at 25 degrees C. We constructed a leuS(Ts) delta (rodA-pbpA)::Kmr strain, in which the PBP2 structural gene is deleted. This strain grew as spherical cells at 37 degrees C but was not viable at 25 degrees C. After a shift from 37 to 25 degrees C, the ppGpp pool decreased and cell division was inhibited; the cells slowly carried out a single division, increased considerably in volume, and gradually lost viability. The cell division inhibition was reversible when the ppGpp pool increased at high temperature, but reversion required de novo protein synthesis, possibly of septation proteins. The multicopy plasmid pZAQ, overproducing the septation proteins FtsZ, FtsA, and FtsQ, conferred amdinocillin resistance on a wild-type strain and suppressed the cell division inhibition in the leuS(Ts) delta (rodA-pbpA)::Kmr strain at 25 degrees C. The plasmid pAQ, in which the ftsZ gene is inactivated, did not confer amdinocillin resistance. These results lead us to hypothesize that the nucleotide ppGpp activates ftsZ expression and thus couples cell division to protein synthesis. PMID:8407846

  11. Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Manney, G. L.; Hegglin, M. I.; Livesey, N. J.; Santee, M. L.; Daffer, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Aura High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) are used to present the first global climatological comparison of extratropical, nonpolar trace gas distributions in double-tropopause (DT) and single-tropopause (ST) regions. Stratospheric tracers, O3, HNO3, and HCl, have lower mixing ratios ˜2-8 km above the primary (lowermost) tropopause in DT than in ST regions in all seasons, with maximum Northern Hemisphere (NH) differences near 50% in winter and 30% in summer. Southern Hemisphere winter differences are somewhat smaller, but summer differences are similar in the two hemispheres. H2O in DT regions of both hemispheres shows strong negative anomalies in November through February and positive anomalies in July through October, reflecting the strong seasonal cycle in H2O near the tropical tropopause. CO and other tropospheric tracers examined have higher DT than ST values 2-7 km above the primary tropopause, with the largest differences in winter. Large DT-ST differences extend to high NH latitudes in fall and winter, with longitudinal maxima in regions associated with enhanced wave activity and subtropical jet variations. Results for O3 and HNO3 agree closely between MLS and HIRDLS, and differences from ACE-FTS are consistent with its sparse and irregular midlatitude sampling. Consistent signatures in climatological trace gas fields provide strong evidence that transport from the tropical upper troposphere into the layer between double tropopauses is an important pathway for stratosphere-troposphere exchange.

  12. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Makoto T.; Kojo, Kei H.; Kazama, Yusuke; Sasaki, Shun; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D.

    2015-01-01

    Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids. PMID:26500667

  13. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  14. Assembly, translocation, and activation of XerCD-dif recombination by FtsK translocase analyzed in real-time by FRET and two-color tethered fluorophore motion

    PubMed Central

    May, Peter F. J.; Zawadzki, Pawel; Sherratt, David J.; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.; Arciszewska, Lidia K.

    2015-01-01

    The FtsK dsDNA translocase functions in bacterial chromosome unlinking by activating XerCD-dif recombination in the replication terminus region. To analyze FtsK assembly and translocation, and the subsequent activation of XerCD-dif recombination, we extended the tethered fluorophore motion technique, using two spectrally distinct fluorophores to monitor two effective lengths along the same tethered DNA molecule. We observed that FtsK assembled stepwise on DNA into a single hexamer, and began translocation rapidly (∼0.25 s). Without extruding DNA loops, single FtsK hexamers approached XerCD-dif and resided there for ∼0.5 s irrespective of whether XerCD-dif was synapsed or unsynapsed. FtsK then dissociated, rather than reversing. Infrequently, FtsK activated XerCD-dif recombination when it encountered a preformed synaptic complex, and dissociated before the completion of recombination, consistent with each FtsK–XerCD-dif encounter activating only one round of recombination. PMID:26324908

  15. Nanocrystalline Ferrihydrite-Based Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Part II. Effects of Activation Gases on the Catalytic Performance.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Geun Bae; Hong, Seok Yong; Park, Ji Chan; Jung, Heon; Rhee, Young Woo; Chun, Dong Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was carried out over nanocrystalline ferrihydrite-based (Fe9O2(OH)23) catalysts activated by different reducing agents: syngas (H2+CO), CO, and H2. The syngas activation successfully changed the ferrihydrite-based catalysts into an active and stable catalytic structure with chi-carbide (Fe2.5 C) and epsilon'-carbide (Fe2.2 C). The crystal structure of the catalysts obtained by syngas activation was similar to the structure obtained by CO activation; this similarity was probably due to the peculiar reduction behavior of the ferrihydrite-based catalysts, which exhibit much greater reducibility in CO atmosphere than in H2 atmosphere. The performance of the catalysts activated by syngas was much higher than the performance of the catalysts activated by H2 and was comparable to the performance of the catalysts activated by CO. This strongly demonstrates that the ferrihydrite-based catalysts are advantageous for industrial FTS processes because syngas can be commonly used for both activation pre-treatment and subsequent reaction. PMID:27433672

  16. Catalytic reactor with disposable cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Catalytic reactor, disposable cartridge enclosing iron catalyst, acts as container for solid carbon formed by decomposition of carbon monoxide. Deposition of carbon in other parts of oxygen recovery system does not occur because of lack of catalytic activity; filters trap carbon particles and prevent their being transported outside reaction zone.

  17. Catalytic conversions of chlorodecalin

    SciTech Connect

    Takhistov, U.V.; Kovyazin, V.E.

    1985-10-01

    This paper studies catalytic conversions of chlorinated decahydronaphthalene (chlorodecalin), since the introduction of chlorine into the hydrocarbon molecule would facilitate formation of the original carbonium ion required for conversion to adamantane. Analysis of the fractions obtained showed that two main products are formed: the tricyclic hydrocarbon C/sub 10/H/sub 16/ and the bicyclic hydrocarbon C/sub 10/H/sub 16/. Therefore, the C/sub 10/H/sub 17/ cation formed by removal of chlorine from chlorodecalin, C/sub 10/H/sub 17/CI, undergoes changes in two directions: addition of hydride ions from other chlorodecalin molecules to form Decalin, and loss of a proton to give a tricyclic system of the adamantane weries and its isomer. Introduction of a substituent (chlorine) into the Decalin molecule made it possible to conduct the process at low temperatures.

  18. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  19. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  20. ``OPTICAL Catalytic Nanomotors''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory

    D. Kagan, et.al, 2009:'' a motion-based chemical sensing involving fuel-driven nanomotors is demonstrated. The new protocol relies on the use of an optical microscope for tracking charge in the speed of nanowire motors in the presence of target analyte''. Synthetic nanomotors are propelled by catalytic decomposition of .. they do not require external electric, magnetic or optical fields as energy... Accompanying Fig 2.6(a) of optical micrograph of a partial monolayer of silica microbeads [J.Gibbs, 2011 ] retrieves WF Paxton:''rods were characterized by transmission electron & dark-field optical microscopy..'' & LF Valadares:''dimer due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy, however the result..'. Acknowledged to HE. Mr. Prof. SEDIONO M.P. TJONDRONEGORO.

  1. Bifunctional catalytic electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an oxygen electrode for a unitized regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell and the unitized regenerative fuel cell having the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode contains components electrocatalytically active for the evolution of oxygen from water and the reduction of oxygen to water, and has a structure that supports the flow of both water and gases between the catalytically active surface and a flow field or electrode chamber for bulk flow of the fluids. The electrode has an electrocatalyst layer and a diffusion backing layer interspersed with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The diffusion backing layer consists of a metal core having gas diffusion structures bonded to the metal core.

  2. Filamentation temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) of Wolbachia, endosymbiont of Wuchereria bancrofti: a potential target for anti-filarial chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Hoti, S L; Vasuki, V; Sankari, T; Meena, R L; Das, P K

    2013-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a leading cause of morbidity in the tropical world. It is caused by the filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori and transmitted by vector mosquitoes. Currently a programme for the elimination of LF, Global programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), is underway with the strategy of mass administration of single dose of diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin, in combination with an anthelmintic drug, albendazole. However, antifilarial drugs used in the programme are only microfilaricidal but not or only partially macrofilaricidal. Hence, there is a need to identify new targets for developing antifilarial drugs. Filarial parasites harbor rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia sp., which play an important role in their biology and hence are considered as potential targets for antifilarial chemotherapy development. In this study, one of the cell division proteins of Wolbachia of the major lymphatic filarial parasite, W. bancrofti, viz., filamentation temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), was explored as a drug target. The gene coding for FtsZ protein was amplified from the genomic DNA of W. bancrofti, cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence of the gene revealed that FtsZ protein is 396 amino acids long and contained the tubulin motif (GGGTGTG) involved in GTP binding and the GTP hydrolyzing motif (NLDFAD). The FtsZ gene of endosymbiont showed limited sequence homology, but exhibited functional homology with β-tubulin of its host, W. bancrofti, as it had both the functional motifs and conserved amino acids that are critical for enzymatic activity. β-tubulin is the target for the anti-helminthic activity of albendazole and since FtsZ shares functional homology with, β-tubulin it may also be sensitive to albendazole. Therefore, the effect of albendazole was tested against Wolbachia occurring in mosquitoes instead of filarial parasites as the drug has lethal effect on the latter. Third

  3. Unsteady catalytic processes and sorption-catalytic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagoruiko, A. N.

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic processes that occur under conditions of the targeted unsteady state of the catalyst are considered. The highest efficiency of catalytic processes was found to be ensured by a controlled combination of thermal non-stationarity and unsteady composition of the catalyst surface. The processes based on this principle are analysed, in particular, catalytic selective reduction of nitrogen oxides, deep oxidation of volatile organic impurities, production of sulfur by the Claus process and by hydrogen sulfide decomposition, oxidation of sulfur dioxide, methane steam reforming and anaerobic combustion, selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, etc.

  4. The preparation of well-defined dendrimer-encapsulated palladium and platinum nanoparticles and their catalytic evaluation in the oxidation of morin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ncube, Phendukani; Hlabathe, Thaane; Meijboom, Reinout

    2015-12-01

    The preparation of dendrimer-encapsulated platinum (Pt-DENs) and palladium (Pd-DENs) nanoparticles using generation 6-hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as a templating agent is described. These nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The UV-vis spectra of palladium and platinum dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles gave a clear proof that nanoparticles were formed. It was found from FTIR spectra that there are shifts of peaks from higher wave numbers to lower wave numbers after reduction with sodium borohydride and these confirm the encapsulation of nanoparticles inside the voids of the dendrimer. The particle diameters were found to be 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.2 nm in diameter for palladium and platinum respectively from HRTEM. These nanoparticles were evaluated as catalysts in the oxidation of morin by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetic data was modeled to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation. The model allows relating apparent rate constant to the total surface area (S) of the nanoparticle. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model also allows a direct relationship between the kinetic constant (k) and Kmorin and KH2O2 . The Arrhenius and Eyring equations were used to determine thermodynamic parameters for the oxidation of morin.

  5. Observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereszchuk, K. A.; Moore, D. P.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Park, M.; Remedios, J. J.; Randel, W. J.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3CO·O2NO2, abbreviated as PAN) is a trace molecular species present in the troposphere and lower stratosphere due primarily to pollution from fuel combustion and the pyrogenic outflows from biomass burning. In the lower troposphere, PAN has a relatively short lifetime and is principally destroyed within a few hours through thermolysis, but it can act as a reservoir and carrier of NOx in the colder temperatures of the upper troposphere, where UV photolysis becomes the dominant loss mechanism. Pyroconvective updrafts from large biomass burning events can inject PAN into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), providing a means for the long-range transport of NOx. Given the extended lifetimes at these higher altitudes, PAN is readily detectable via satellite remote sensing. A new PAN data product is now available for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) version 3.0 data set. We report observations of PAN in boreal biomass burning plumes recorded during the BORTAS (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) campaign (12 July to 3 August 2011). The retrieval method employed by incorporating laboratory-recorded absorption cross sections into version 3.0 of the ACE-FTS forward model and retrieval software is described in full detail. The estimated detection limit for ACE-FTS PAN is 5 pptv, and the total systematic error contribution to the ACE-FTS PAN retrieval is ~ 16%. The retrieved volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles are compared to coincident measurements made by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on the European Space Agency (ESA) Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT). The MIPAS measurements demonstrated good agreement with the ACE-FTS VMR profiles for PAN, where the measured VMR values are well within the associated measurement errors for both instruments and comparative

  6. Multilocus sequence typing and ftsI sequencing: a powerful tool for surveillance of penicillin-binding protein 3-mediated beta-lactam resistance in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Beta-lactam resistance in Haemophilus influenzae due to ftsI mutations causing altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) is increasing worldwide. Low-level resistant isolates with the N526K substitution (group II low-rPBP3) predominate in most geographical regions, while high-level resistant isolates with the additional S385T substitution (group III high-rPBP3) are common in Japan and South Korea. Knowledge about the molecular epidemiology of rPBP3 strains is limited. We combined multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ftsI/PBP3 typing to study the emergence and spread of rPBP3 in nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) in Norway. Results The prevalence of rPBP3 in a population of 795 eye, ear and respiratory isolates (99% NTHi) from 2007 was 15%. The prevalence of clinical PBP3-mediated resistance to ampicillin was 9%, compared to 2.5% three years earlier. Group II low-rPBP3 predominated (96%), with significant proportions of isolates non-susceptible to cefotaxime (6%) and meropenem (20%). Group III high-rPBP3 was identified for the first time in Northern Europe. Four MLST sequence types (ST) with characteristic, highly diverging ftsI alleles accounted for 61% of the rPBP3 isolates. The most prevalent substitution pattern (PBP3 type A) was present in 41% of rPBP3 isolates, mainly carried by ST367 and ST14. Several unrelated STs possessed identical copies of the ftsI allele encoding PBP3 type A. Infection sites, age groups, hospitalization rates and rPBP3 frequencies differed between STs and phylogenetic groups. Conclusions This study is the first to link ftsI alleles to STs in H. influenzae. The results indicate that horizontal gene transfer contributes to the emergence of rPBP3 by phylogeny restricted transformation. Clonally related virulent rPBP3 strains are widely disseminated and high-level resistant isolates emerge in new geographical regions, threatening current empiric antibiotic treatment. The need of continuous monitoring of beta

  7. Catalytic activities of zeolite compounds for decomposing aqueous ozone.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Ai; Kitayama, Mikito; Ohta, Yoshio

    2013-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP), chemical oxidation using aqueous ozone in the presence of appropriate catalysts to generate highly reactive oxygen species, offers an attractive option for removing poorly biodegradable pollutants. Using the commercial zeolite powders with various Si/Al ratios and crystal structures, their catalytic activities for decomposing aqueous ozone were evaluated by continuously flowing ozone to water containing the zeolite powders. The hydrophilic zeolites (low Si/Al ratio) with alkali cations in the crystal structures were found to possess high catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. The hydrophobic zeolite compounds (high Si/Al ratio) were found to absorb ozone very well, but to have no catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Their catalytic activities were also evaluated by using the fixed bed column method. When alkali cations were removed by acid rinsing or substituted by alkali-earth cations, the catalytic activities was significantly deteriorated. These results suggest that the metal cations on the crystal surface of the hydrophilic zeolite would play a key role for catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. PMID:25078817

  8. Catalytic Microtube Rocket Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Devices that generate both high energy and high temperature are required to ignite reliably the propellant mixtures in combustion chambers like those present in rockets and other combustion systems. This catalytic microtube rocket igniter generates these conditions with a small, catalysis-based torch. While traditional spark plug systems can require anywhere from 50 W to multiple kW of power in different applications, this system has demonstrated ignition at less than 25 W. Reactants are fed to the igniter from the same tanks that feed the reactants to the rest of the rocket or combustion system. While this specific igniter was originally designed for liquid methane and liquid oxygen rockets, it can be easily operated with gaseous propellants or modified for hydrogen use in commercial combustion devices. For the present cryogenic propellant rocket case, the main propellant tanks liquid oxygen and liquid methane, respectively are regulated and split into different systems for the individual stages of the rocket and igniter. As the catalyst requires a gas phase for reaction, either the stored boil-off of the tanks can be used directly or one stream each of fuel and oxidizer can go through a heat exchanger/vaporizer that turns the liquid propellants into a gaseous form. For commercial applications, where the reactants are stored as gases, the system is simplified. The resulting gas-phase streams of fuel and oxidizer are then further divided for the individual components of the igniter. One stream each of the fuel and oxidizer is introduced to a mixing bottle/apparatus where they are mixed to a fuel-rich composition with an O/F mass-based mixture ratio of under 1.0. This premixed flow then feeds into the catalytic microtube device. The total flow is on the order of 0.01 g/s. The microtube device is composed of a pair of sub-millimeter diameter platinum tubes connected only at the outlet so that the two outlet flows are parallel to each other. The tubes are each

  9. Catalytic Mechanisms for Phosphotriesterases

    PubMed Central

    Bigley, Andrew N.; Raushel, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphotriesters are one class of highly toxic synthetic compounds known as organophosphates. Wide spread usage of organophosphates as insecticides as well as nerve agents has lead to numerous efforts to identify enzymes capable of detoxifying them. A wide array of enzymes has been found to have phosphotriesterase activity including phosphotriesterase (PTE), methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH), organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA), diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFP), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1). These enzymes differ widely in protein sequence and three-dimensional structure, as well as in catalytic mechanism, but they also share several common features. All of the enzymes identified as phosphotriesterases are metal-dependent hydrolases that contain a hydrophobic active site with three discrete binding pockets to accommodate the substrate ester groups. Activation of the substrate phosphorus center is achieved by a direct interaction between the phosphoryl oxygen and a divalent metal in the active site. The mechanistic details of the hydrolytic reaction differ among the various enzymes with both direct attack of a hydroxide as well as covalent catalysis being found. PMID:22561533

  10. Catalytic Membrane Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Brinker, C.J.; Gardner, T.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Sault, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    The proposed "catalytic membrane sensor" (CMS) was developed to generate a device which would selectively identify a specific reagent in a complex mixture of gases. This was to be accomplished by modifying an existing Hz sensor with a series of thin films. Through selectively sieving the desired component from a complex mixture and identifying it by decomposing it into Hz (and other by-products), a Hz sensor could then be used to detect the presence of the select component. The proposed "sandwich-type" modifications involved the deposition of a catalyst layered between two size selective sol-gel layers on a Pd/Ni resistive Hz sensor. The role of the catalyst was to convert organic materials to Hz and organic by-products. The role of the membraneo was to impart both chemical specificity by molecukir sieving of the analyte and converted product streams, as well as controlling access to the underlying Pd/Ni sensor. Ultimately, an array of these CMS elements encompassing different catalysts and membranes were to be developed which would enable improved selectivity and specificity from a compiex mixture of organic gases via pattern recognition methodologies. We have successfully generated a CMS device by a series of spin-coat deposited methods; however, it was determined that the high temperature required to activate the catalyst, destroys the sensor.

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  12. Probing catalytic rate enhancement during intramembrane proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Arutyunova, Elena; Smithers, Cameron C; Corradi, Valentina; Espiritu, Adam C; Young, Howard S; Tieleman, D Peter; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2016-09-01

    Rhomboids are ubiquitous intramembrane serine proteases involved in various signaling pathways. While the high-resolution structures of the Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG with various inhibitors revealed an active site comprised of a serine-histidine dyad and an extensive oxyanion hole, the molecular details of rhomboid catalysis were unclear because substrates are unknown for most of the family members. Here we used the only known physiological pair of AarA rhomboid with its psTatA substrate to decipher the contribution of catalytically important residues to the reaction rate enhancement. An MD-refined homology model of AarA was used to identify residues important for catalysis. We demonstrated that the AarA active site geometry is strict and intolerant to alterations. We probed the roles of H83 and N87 oxyanion hole residues and determined that substitution of H83 either abolished AarA activity or reduced the transition state stabilization energy (ΔΔG‡) by 3.1 kcal/mol; substitution of N87 decreased ΔΔG‡ by 1.6-3.9 kcal/mol. Substitution M154, a residue conserved in most rhomboids that stabilizes the catalytic general base, to tyrosine, provided insight into the mechanism of nucleophile generation for the catalytic dyad. This study provides a quantitative evaluation of the role of several residues important for hydrolytic efficiency and oxyanion stabilization during intramembrane proteolysis. PMID:27071148

  13. Comparisons between ACE-FTS and ground-based measurements of stratospheric HCl and ClONO2 loadings at northern latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahieu, E.; Zander, R.; Duchatelet, P.; Hannigan, J. W.; Coffey, M. T.; Mikuteit, S.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Wiacek, A.; Strong, K.; Taylor, J. R.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Fast, H.; Boone, C. D.; McLeod, S. D.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Rinsland, C. P.

    2005-06-01

    We report first comparisons of stratospheric column abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) derived from infrared solar spectra recorded in 2004 at selected northern latitudes by the spaceborne Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments at the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change)-affiliated sites of Thule (Greenland), Kiruna (Sweden), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), and Egbert and Toronto (Canada). Overall, and within the respective uncertainties of the independent measurement approaches, the comparisons show that the ACE-FTS measurements produce very good stratospheric volume mixing ratio profiles. Their internal precision allows to identify characteristic distribution features associated with latitudinal, dynamical, seasonal and chemical changes occurring in the atmosphere.

  14. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Halocyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Pons, Amandine; Ivashkin, Pavel; Poisson, Thomas; Charette, André B; Pannecoucke, Xavier; Jubault, Philippe

    2016-04-25

    A catalytic asymmetric synthesis of halocyclopropanes is described. The developed method is based on a carbenoid cyclopropanation of 2-haloalkenes with tert-butyl α-cyano-α-diazoacetate using a chiral rhodium catalyst that permits access to a broad range of highly functionalized chiral halocyclopropanes (F, Cl, Br, and I) in good yields, moderate diastereoselectivity, and excellent enantiomeric ratios. The reported methodology represents the first general catalytic enantioselective approach to halocyclopropanes. PMID:26945553

  15. Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Tatsuya; Oguma, Hiroyuki; Morino, Isamu; Higurashi, Akiko; Aoki, Tadao; Inoue, Gen

    2004-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese satellite to monitor column density of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. GOSAT will be launched in 2008. The data measured by a GOSAT sensor and ground-based monitoring station data will be used into an atmospheric transport inverse model to identify source/sink amount of CO2 in a sub-continental scale. One of the main GOSAT sensors is a nadir-looking Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which covers Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) region to measure column density of CO2. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is promoting researches on CO2 and CH4 sensitivity analysis, error analysis, data retrieval algorithm study, ground-based/air-borne validation strategy, and a plan of inverse model study for the SWIR FTS. A Bread-board model (BBM) of the SWIR FTS was built and tested by ground-based and airborne measurements. Several sets of the CO2 and CH4 radiance spectra over rice fields were obtained by the test measurements, and it was confirmed that the airborne measurements with a vibration insulator are effective for onboard measurements. Moreover, several improvement items of BBM have become clear.

  16. YeeV is an Escherichia coli Toxin that Inhibits Cell Division by Targeting the Cytoskeleton Proteins, FtsZ and MreB

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qian; Awano, Naoki; Inouye, Masayori

    2010-01-01

    Summary Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) systems of free-living bacteria have recently, demonstrated that these toxins inhibit cell growth by targeting essential functions of cellular metabolism. Here we show that YeeV toxin inhibits cell division, leads to a change in morphology and lysis of E. coli cells. YeeV interacts with two essential cytoskeleton proteins, FtsZ and MreB. Purified YeeV inhibits both the GTPase activity and the GTP-dependent polymerization of FtsZ. YeeV also inhibits ATP-dependent polymerization of MreB. Truncated C-terminal deletions of YeeV result in elongation of cells, and a deletion of the first 15 amino acids from the N-terminus of YeeV caused lemon shaped cell formation. The YeeV toxin is distinct from other well studied toxins: it directs the binding of two cytoskeletal proteins and inhibits FtsZ and MreB simultaneously. PMID:21166897

  17. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Koprowski, Piotr; Grajkowski, Wojciech; Balcerzak, Marcin; Filipiuk, Iwona; Fabczak, Hanna; Kubalski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS) channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS) family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:25996836

  18. Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-28

    The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Methanol production and heterogeneous catalysis utilizing transition elements supported on metal oxides with spinel structure are discussed. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste rice husk over mesoporous materials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of waste rice husk was carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [Py-GC/MS]. Meso-MFI zeolite [Meso-MFI] was used as the catalyst. In addition, a 0.5-wt.% platinum [Pt] was ion-exchanged into Meso-MFI to examine the effect of Pt addition. Using a catalytic upgrading method, the activities of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of product composition and deoxygenation. The structure and acid site characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption analysis. Catalytic upgrading reduced the amount of oxygenates in the product vapor due to the cracking reaction of the catalysts. Levoglucosan, a polymeric oxygenate species, was completely decomposed without being detected. While the amount of heavy phenols was reduced by catalytic upgrading, the amount of light phenols was increased because of the catalytic cracking of heavy phenols into light phenols and aromatics. The amount of aromatics increased remarkably as a result of catalytic upgrading, which is attributed to the strong Brönsted acid sites and the shape selectivity of the Meso-MFI catalyst. The addition of Pt made the Meso-MFI catalyst even more active in deoxygenation and in the production of aromatics. PMID:22221540

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste rice husk over mesoporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Mi-Jin; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Man; Sohn, Jung Min; Lee, See-Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of waste rice husk was carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [Py-GC/MS]. Meso-MFI zeolite [Meso-MFI] was used as the catalyst. In addition, a 0.5-wt.% platinum [Pt] was ion-exchanged into Meso-MFI to examine the effect of Pt addition. Using a catalytic upgrading method, the activities of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of product composition and deoxygenation. The structure and acid site characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption analysis. Catalytic upgrading reduced the amount of oxygenates in the product vapor due to the cracking reaction of the catalysts. Levoglucosan, a polymeric oxygenate species, was completely decomposed without being detected. While the amount of heavy phenols was reduced by catalytic upgrading, the amount of light phenols was increased because of the catalytic cracking of heavy phenols into light phenols and aromatics. The amount of aromatics increased remarkably as a result of catalytic upgrading, which is attributed to the strong Brönsted acid sites and the shape selectivity of the Meso-MFI catalyst. The addition of Pt made the Meso-MFI catalyst even more active in deoxygenation and in the production of aromatics.

  1. Recommended fine positioning test for the Development Test Flight (DTF-1) of the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagalakis, N.; Wavering, A. J.; Spidaliere, P.

    1991-01-01

    Test procedures are proposed for the NASA DTF (Development Test Flight)-1 positioning tests of the FTS (Flight Telerobotic Servicer). The unique problems associated with the DTF-1 mission are discussed, standard robot performance tests and terminology are reviewed and a very detailed description of flight-like testing and analysis is presented. The major technical problem associated with DTF-1 is that only one position sensor can be used, which will be fixed at one location, with a working volume which is probably smaller than some of the robot errors to be measured. Radiation heating of the arm and the sensor could also cause distortions that would interfere with the test. Two robot performance testing committees have established standard testing procedures relevant to the DTF-1. Due to the technical problems associated with DTF-1, these procedures cannot be applied directly. These standard tests call for the use of several test positions at specific locations. Only one position, that of the position sensor, can be used by DTF-1. Off-line programming accuracy might be impossible to measure and in that case it will have to be replaced by forward kinetics accuracy.

  2. Degradation of carboxy-terminal-tagged cytoplasmic proteins by the Escherichia coli protease HflB (FtsH)

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Christophe; Thévenet, Danielle; Bouloc, Philippe; Walker, Graham C.; D’Ari, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Proteins with short nonpolar carboxyl termini are unstable in Escherichia coli. This proteolytic pathway is used to dispose of polypeptides synthesized from truncated mRNA molecules. Such proteins are tagged with an 11-amino-acid nonpolar destabilizing tail via a mechanism involving the 10Sa (SsrA) stable RNA and then degraded. We show here that the ATP-dependent zinc protease HflB (FtsH) is involved in the degradation of four unstable derivatives of the amino-terminal domain of the λcI repressor: three with nonpolar pentapeptide tails (cI104, cI105, cI108) and one with the SsrA tag (cI–SsrA). cI105 and cI-SsrA are also degraded by the ClpP-dependent proteases. Loss of ClpP can be compensated for by overproducing HflB. In an in vitro system, cI108 and cI–SsrA are degraded by HflB in an energy-dependent reaction, indicating that HflB itself recognizes the carboxyl terminus. These results establish a tail-specific pathway for removing abnormal cytoplasmic proteins via the HflB and Clp proteases. PMID:9573051

  3. MLS and ACE-FTS measurements of UTLS Trace Gases in Relation to Multiple Tropopauses and Upper-Tropospheric Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Hegglin, M. I.; Walker, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    The extra-tropical tropopause region is dynamically complex, with frequent occurrence of multiple tropopauses and of a "tropopause inversion layer" of enhanced static stability just above the tropopause. The tropopause structure is zonally-asymmetric and time-varying and, along with the UT jets and the stratospheric polar night jet, it defines the barriers and pathways that control UTLS transport. Averages of trace gases that do not account for the tropopause structure (such as zonal or equivalent latitude means) can obscure features of trace gas distributions that are important for understanding the role of the extra-tropical tropopause region in determining UTLS composition and hence its significance to climate processes. In this work we examine MLS and ACE-FTS UTLS trace gas profiles, including H2O, O3, CO and HNO3, in the context of extra-tropical tropopause and UT jet structure seen in the GEOS-5 temperature fields, to gain understanding of UTLS trace gas distributions and transport barriers.

  4. Advanced low emissions catalytic combustor program at General Electric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The Advanced Low Emissions Catalytic Combustors Program (ALECC) is being undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of employing catalytic combustion technology in aircraft gas turbine engines as a means to control emission of oxides of nitrogen during subsonic stratospheric cruise operation. The ALECC Program is being conducted in three phases. The first phase, which was completed in November, 1978, consisted of a design study to identify catalytic combustor designs having the greatest potential to meet the emissions and performance goals specified. The primary emissions goal of this program was to obtain cruise NO emissions of less than 1g/kg (compared with levels of 15 to 20 g/x obtained with current designs)/ However, good overall performance and feasibility for engine development were heavily weighted in the evaluation of combustor designs.

  5. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  6. Advanced catalytic combustors for low pollutant emissions, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of employing the known attractive and distinguishing features of catalytic combustion technology to reduce nitric oxide emissions from gas turbine engines during subsonic, stratospheric cruise operation was investigated. Six conceptual combustor designs employing catalytic combustion were defined and evaluated for their potential to meet specific emissions and performance goals. Based on these evaluations, two parallel-staged, fixed-geometry designs were identified as the most promising concepts. Additional design studies were conducted to produce detailed preliminary designs of these two combustors. Results indicate that cruise nitric oxide emissions can be reduced by an order of magnitude relative to current technology levels by the use of catalytic combustion. Also, these combustors have the potential for operating over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle and at cruise with a low pressure drop, high combustion efficiency and with a very low overall level of emission pollutants. The use of catalytic combustion, however, requires advanced technology generation in order to obtain the time-temperature catalytic reactor performance and durability required for practical aircraft engine combustors.

  7. Focal-plane optimization for detector noise limited performance in cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer /FTS/ sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, M.; Logan, L.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the optimum focal plane configuration including optics, filters and detector-preamplifier selection. The configuration was optimized particularly with respect to minimizing the noise level, but fabrication considerations for a cryogenic environment were also taken into account. The noise terms from source, background, detector electronics and charged particle radiation were quantitatively evaluated. It appears that noise equivalent spectral radiance less than 10 to the -11th W/sq cm per sr per kayser can be achieved between 2.5 and 20 microns.

  8. Catalytic distillation water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Rasouli, F.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated engineering breadboard subsystem for the recovery of potable water from untreated urine based on the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal was designed, fabricated and tested. Unlike other evaporative methods, this process catalytically oxidizes ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons vaporizing with water to innocuous products; therefore, no pretreatment of urine is required. Since the subsystem is fabricated from commercially available components, its volume, weight and power requirements are not optimized; however, it is suitable for zero-g operation. The testing program consists of parametric tests, one month of daily tests and a continuous test of 168 hours duration. The recovered water is clear, odorless, low in ammonia and organic carbon, and requires only an adjustment of its pH to meet potable water standards. The obtained data indicate that the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal process, if further developed, would also be competitive with other water recovery systems in weight, volume and power requirements.

  9. MicroMIMA FTS: design of spectrometer for Mars atmosphere investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatalina, Irina; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Panzeri, Roberto; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    2013-10-01

    This paper is devoted to the miniaturized Fourier Transform Spectrometer "MicroMIMA" (Micro Mars Infrared MApper) design. The instrument has been designed for the spectral characterization and monitoring of the Martian atmosphere, bound to investigate its composition, minor species abundances and evolution during time. The spectral resolution of MicroMIMA is of 2 cm-1 (with the option to be extended up to 1 cm-1) that allows to recognize the spectral features of the main elements of interest in the atmosphere and in particular to assess methane abundance with ppb resolution. The instrument configuration has been optimized in order to achieve the highest sensitivity in the 2 to 5 μm spectral range, along with the reduction of noise, i.e. the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) has been used as figure of merit. The optimization has been carried-out under the constraints of instrument mass, volume, power consumption and spectral resolution. For the proposed optical layout evaluation of the theoretical SNR for different measurements was performed accounting both for laboratory observations on Earth and acquisition of Martian atmosphere spectrum during the mission. Moreover, the instrument trace gas detection capability was evaluated.

  10. Catalytic Enantioselective Carboannulation with Allylsilanes

    PubMed Central

    Ball-Jones, Nicolas R.; Badillo, Joseph J.; Tran, Ngon T.; Franz, Annaliese K.

    2015-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric carboannulation with allylsilanes is presented. The enantioselective [3+2] annulation is catalyzed using a Sc(III)-indapybox complex with tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-borate (BArF) to enhance catalytic activity and control stereoselectivity. Functionalized cyclopentanes containing a quaternary carbon are derived from alkylidene oxindole, coumarin, and malonate substrates with high stereoselectivity. The enantioselective 1,4-conjugate addition and enantioselective lactone formation (via trapping of the β-silyl carbocation) is also described. PMID:25045133

  11. Catalytic enantioselective carboannulation with allylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Ball-Jones, Nicolas R; Badillo, Joseph J; Tran, Ngon T; Franz, Annaliese K

    2014-09-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric carboannulation with allylsilanes is presented. The enantioselective [3+2] annulation is catalyzed using a scandium(III)/indapybox complex with tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-borate (BArF) to enhance catalytic activity and control stereoselectivity. Functionalized cyclopentanes containing a quaternary carbon center are derived from alkylidene oxindole, coumarin, and malonate substrates with high stereoselectivity. The enantioselective 1,4-conjugate addition and enantioselective lactone formation (by trapping of the β-silyl carbocation) is also described. PMID:25045133

  12. Perfluoropolyalkylether decomposition on catalytic aluminas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo

    1994-01-01

    The decomposition of Fomblin Z25, a commercial perfluoropolyalkylether liquid lubricant, was studied using the Penn State Micro-oxidation Test, and a thermal gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry unit. The micro-oxidation test was conducted using 440C stainless steel and pure iron metal catalyst specimens, whereas the thermal gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry tests were conducted using catalytic alumina pellets. Analysis of the thermal data, high pressure liquid chromatography data, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data support evidence that there are two different decomposition mechanisms for Fomblin Z25, and that reductive sites on the catalytic surfaces are responsible for the decomposition of Fomblin Z25.

  13. New products of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR CO2 and CH4 profiles: Algorithm and initial validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Imasu, R.; Sugita, T.; Hayashida, S.; Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsueda, H.; Terao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GO-SAT) simultaneously observes column abundances and profiles of CO2 and CH4 in the same field of view, from the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands, respectively. The latest version of the GOSAT Level 1B (L1B) radiance spectra, the version 160.160, is improved compared to the previous versions, but still has a bias judging from comparisons with spectral data of other coincident instruments. The bias is largest at around 14-15 micron band that includes carbon dioxide strong absorption lines [Kataoka et al., 2013]; it probably causes a high bias in mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide concentration of the current released V00.01 TIR products. Besides, relatively low sig-nal-to-noise ratio (SNR) less than 100 at around 7-8 micron band makes CH4 retrieval unstable. We have improved an algorithm for retrieving CO2 and CH4 profiles in order to overcome the spectral bias and low SNR problems. In our new algorithm, we treated surface temperature and surface emissivity as correction parameters for radi-ance-independent and radiance-dependent spectral biases, respectively, and retrieved them simultaneously with gas retrieval. We used 7-8 micron band (1140-1370 wave-number) for methane retrieval and 10 and 14-15 micron bands (930-990, 1040-1090, 690-750, and 790-795 wavenumber) for carbon dioxide retrieval. Temperature, water vapor, ozone, and nitrous oxide were retrieved simultaneously other than CO2 and CH4. CO2 profiles retrieved using our new algorithm have no clear bias in mid-troposphere compared to the previous V00.01 CO2 product. New retrieved CH4 profiles show better agreement with aircraft CH4 profiles than the a priori profiles.

  14. Development of a high-temperature durable catalyst for use in catalytic combustors for advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, H.; Snow, G. C.; Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L. S.; Angwin, M. J.; Pessagno, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    Durable catalytic reactors for advanced gas turbine engines were developed. Objectives were: to evaluate furnace aging as a cost effective catalytic reactor screening test, measure reactor degradation as a function of furnace aging, demonstrate 1,000 hours of combustion durability, and define a catalytic reactor system with a high probability of successful integration into an automotive gas turbine engine. Fourteen different catalytic reactor concepts were evaluated, leading to the selection of one for a durability combustion test with diesel fuel for combustion conditions. Eight additional catalytic reactors were evaluated and one of these was successfully combustion tested on propane fuel. This durability reactor used graded cell honeycombs and a combination of noble metal and metal oxide catalysts. The reactor was catalytically active and structurally sound at the end of the durability test.

  15. Catalytic oxidation of waste materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Aqueous stream of human waste is mixed with soluble ruthenium salts and is introduced into reactor at temperature where ruthenium black catalyst forms on internal surfaces of reactor. This provides catalytically active surface to convert oxidizable wastes into breakdown products such as water and carbon dioxide.

  16. Social Entrepreneurs and Catalytic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddock, Sandra A.; Post, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Social entrepreneurs are private citizens who play critical roles in bringing about catalytic changes in the public sector agenda and the perception of social issues. Factors that make their projects--such as the Partnership for a Drug-Free America and Earth Day--successful include problem complexity, credibility, and a commitment to a collective…

  17. Catalytically enhanced packed tower scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Stitt, E.H.; Taylor, F.J.; Kelly, K.

    1996-12-31

    An enhanced wet scrubbing process for the treatment of gas streams containing odours and low level VOC`s is presented. It comprises essentially a single scrubbing column and a fixed bed catalytic reactor through which the dilute alkaline bleach scrubbing liquor is recirculated. The process has significant cost advantages over conventional chemical scrubbing technology, and copes well with peaks in odour levels. Traditional bleach scrubbing, and the improvements in process chemistry and the flowsheet afforded by inclusion of the catalyst, are discussed. The catalyst enables many of the well known problems associated with bleach scrubbing to be overcome, and facilitates odour removal efficiencies of greater than 99% in a single column. Pilot plant data from trials on sewage treatment works are presented. These show clearly the ability of the catalytically enhanced process to achieve sulphide and odour removals in excess of 99% in the single column. Case studies of some of the existing commercial installations are given, indicating the wide range of applications, industries and scale of the installed units. Comparative data are presented, measured on a commercial unit for the conventional operation of a bleach scrubber, and with the retrofitted catalyst in use. These data show clearly the benefits of the catalytic process in terms of removal efficiencies; and hence by inference also in equipment size and costs. The catalytic process is also shown to achieve very high removal efficiencies of organo-sulphides in a single column. 8 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Gundelia tournefortii and evaluation of their catalytic activity for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas and reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Maham, Mehdi; Sajadi, S Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    A facile, efficient and environmentally-friendly protocol has been developed for the green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) by aqueous extract of Gundelia tournefortii as a mild, renewable and non-toxic reducing agent. CuO NPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. More importantly, the green synthesized CuO NPs presented excellent catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol and synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas via hydration of cyanamides with the aid of acetaldoxime as an effective water surrogate in ethanol as a green solvent. The catalyst was easily separated and the recovered catalyst was reused many times without any significant loss of the catalytic activity. PMID:26073846

  19. Validation of first chemistry mode retrieval results from the new limb-imaging FTS GLORIA with correlative MIPAS-STR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Sumińska-Ebersoldt, O.; Oelhaf, H.; Höpfner, M.; Belyaev, G. V.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Grooß, J.-U.; Gulde, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Kulessa, T.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.; Rongen, H.; Sartorius, C.; Schardt, G.; Schönfeld, A.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Sha, M. K.; Stroh, F.; Ungermann, J.; Volk, C. M.; Orphal, J.

    2015-06-01

    We report first chemistry mode retrieval results from the new airborne limb-imaging infrared FTS (Fourier transform spectrometer) GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere) and comparisons with observations by the conventional airborne limb-scanning infrared FTS MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft). For GLORIA, the flights aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica during the ESSenCe campaign (ESa Sounder Campaign 2011) were the very first in field deployment after several years of development. The simultaneous observations of GLORIA and MIPAS-STR during the flight on 16 December 2011 inside the polar vortex and under conditions of optically partially transparent polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) provided us the first opportunity to compare the observations by two different infrared FTS generations directly. We validate the GLORIA results with MIPAS-STR based on the lower vertical resolution of MIPAS-STR and compare the vertical resolutions of the instruments derived from their averaging kernels. The retrieval results of temperature, HNO3, O3, H2O, CFC-11 and CFC-12 show reasonable agreement of GLORIA with MIPAS-STR and collocated in situ observations. For the horizontally binned hyperspectral limb images, the GLORIA sampling outnumbered the horizontal cross-track sampling of MIPAS-STR by up to 1 order of magnitude. Depending on the target parameter, typical vertical resolutions of 0.5 to 2.0 km were obtained for GLORIA and are typically a factor of 2 to 4 better compared to MIPAS-STR. While the improvement of the performance, characterization and data processing of GLORIA are the subject of ongoing work, the presented first results already demonstrate the considerable gain in sampling and vertical resolution achieved with GLORIA.

  20. Four Fourier transform spectrometers and the Arctic polar vortex: instrument intercomparison and ACE-FTS validation at Eureka during the IPY springs of 2007 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, R. L.; Kolonjari, F.; Lindenmaier, R.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Daffer, W.; Fast, H.; Manney, G.; Strong, K.; Walker, K. A.

    2009-11-01

    The Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Validation Campaigns have been carried out at Eureka, Nunavut (80.05° N, 86.42° W) during the polar sunrise period since 2004. During the International Polar Year (IPY) springs of 2007 and 2008, three ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were operated simultaneously. This paper presents a comparison of trace gas measurements of stratospherically important species involved in ozone depletion, namely O3, HCl, ClONO2, HNO3 and HF, recorded with these three spectrometers. Total column densities of the gases measured with the new Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) Bruker 125HR are shown to agree to within 3.5% with the existing Environment Canada Bomem DA8 measurements. After smoothing both of these sets of measurements to account for the lower spectral resolution of the University of Waterloo Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the Infrared (PARIS-IR), the measurements were likewise shown to agree with PARIS-IR to within 7%. Concurrent measurements of these gases were also made with the satellite-based Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) during overpasses of Eureka during these time periods. While one of the mandates of the ACE satellite mission is to study ozone depletion in the polar spring, previous validation exercises have identified the highly variable polar vortex conditions of the spring period to be a challenge for validation efforts. In this work, comparisons between the CANDAC Bruker 125HR and ACE-FTS have been used to develop strict criteria that allow the ground- and satellite-based instruments to be confidently compared. When these criteria are taken into consideration, there is shown to be no significant bias between the ACE-FTS and ground-based FTIR spectrometer for any of these gases.

  1. HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, T.; Kasai, Y.; Terao, Y.; Hayashida, S.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Sagawa, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shiotani, M.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-07-01

    We present vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine monoxide (ClO) as observed by the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) inside the Antarctic vortex on 19-24 November 2009. The SMILES HCl value reveals 2.8-3.1 ppbv between 450 and 500 K levels in potential temperature (PT). The high value of HCl is highlighted since it is suggested that HCl was a main component of the total inorganic chlorine (Cly), defined as Cly ≃ HCl + ClO + chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) inside the Antarctic vortex in spring, owing to low ozone values. To confirm the quality of two SMILES Level 2 (L2) data products provided by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) from a view point of the partitioning of Cly, comparisons are made using other satellite data, from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). HCl values from the SMILES NICT L2 product agree to within 10% with the MLS HCl data between 425 and 650 K levels in PT and with the ACE-FTS HCl data between 425 and 575 K, respectively. The SMILES JAXA L2 product is 10 to 20% smaller than that from MLS (ACE-FTS) between 400 (500 K) and 700 K. For ClO in daytime, the difference between SMILES (JAXA and NICT) and MLS was less than ±0.05 ppbv between 500 and 650 K with the ClO values less than 0.2 ppbv. ClONO2 values as measured by ACE-FTS also reveal 0.2 ppbv at 475-500 K level, resulting in the HCl/Cly ratios of 0.91-0.95. The high HCl value and HCl/Cly ratio found from the three satellite instruments agree with the past observations inside the Antarctic vortex at this time (October to November) of year in the lower stratosphere.

  2. HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, T.; Kasai, Y.; Terao, Y.; Hayashida, S.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Sagawa, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shiotani, M.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-11-01

    We present vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine monoxide (ClO) as observed by the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the International Space Station (ISS) inside the Antarctic vortex on 19-24 November 2009. The SMILES HCl value reveals 2.8-3.1 ppbv between 450 K and 500 K levels in potential temperature (PT). The high value of HCl is highlighted since it is suggested that HCl is a main component of the total inorganic chlorine (Cly), defined as Cly ≃ HCl + ClO + chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), inside the Antarctic vortex in spring, owing to low ozone values. To confirm the quality of two SMILES level 2 (L2) data products provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Japan's National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), vis-à-vis the partitioning of Cly, comparisons are made using other satellite data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). HCl values from the SMILES NICT L2 product agree to within 10% (0.3 ppbv) with the MLS HCl data between 450 and 575 K levels in PT and with the ACE-FTS HCl data between 425 and 575 K. The SMILES JAXA L2 product is 10 to 20% (0.2-0.5 ppbv) lower than that from MLS between 400 and 700 K and from ACE-FTS between 500 and 700 K. For ClO in daytime, the difference between SMILES (JAXA and NICT) and MLS is less than ±0.05 ppbv (100 %) between 500 K and 650 K with the ClO values less than 0.2 ppbv. ClONO2 values as measured by ACE-FTS also reveal 0.2 ppbv at 475-500 K level, resulting in the HCl / Cly ratios of 0.91-0.95. The HCl / Cly ratios derived from each retrieval agree to within -5 to 8 % with regard to their averages. The high HCl values and HCl / Cly ratios observed by the three instruments in the lower stratospheric Antarctic vortex are consistent with previous observations in late Austral spring.

  3. Hydrogen Cyanide in the Upper Troposphere: GEM-AQ Simulation and Comparison with ACE-FTS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupu, A.; Kaminski, J. W.; Neary, L.; McConnell, J. C.; Toyota, K.; Rinsland, C. P.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Nagahama, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the upper troposphere through numerical simulations and comparison with observations from a space-based instrument. To perform the simulations, we used the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality model (GEM-AQ), which is based on the threedimensional Gobal multiscale model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting. The model was run for the period 2004-2006 on a 1.5deg x 1.5deg global grid with 28 hybrid vertical levels from the surface up to 10 hPa. Objective analysis data from the Canadian Meteorological Centre were used to update the meteorological fields every 24 h. Fire emission fluxes of gas species were generated by using year-specific inventories of carbon emissions with 8-day temporal resolution from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) version 2. The model output is compared with HCN profiles measured by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument onboard the Canadian SCISAT-1 satellite. High values of up to a few ppbv are observed in the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere; the enhancement in HCN volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere is most prominent in October. Low upper-tropospheric mixing ratios of less than 100 pptv are mostly recorded at middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere in May-July. Mixing ratios in Northern Hemisphere peak in the boreal summer. The amplitude of the seasonal variation is less pronounced than in the Southern Hemisphere. The comparison with the satellite data shows that in the upper troposphere GEM-AQ perform7s well globally for all seasons, except at northern hi gh and middle latitudes in surnmer, where the model has a large negative bias, and in the tropics in winter and spring, where it exhibits large positive bias. This may reflect inaccurate emissions or possible inaccuracies in the emission profile. The model is able to

  4. Global stratospheric fluorine inventories for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. T.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Richards, N. A. D.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-06-01

    Fluorine-containing species can be extremely effective atmospheric greenhouse gases. We present fluorine budgets using organic and inorganic species retrieved by the ACE-FTS satellite instrument supplemented with output from the SLIMCAT 3D chemical transport model. The budgets are calculated between 2004 and 2009 for a number of latitude bands: 70-30° N, 30-0° N, 0-30° S, and 30-70° S. At lower altitudes total fluorine profiles are dominated by the contribution from CFC-12, up to an altitude of 20 km in the extra-tropics and 29 km in the tropics, above these altitudes the profiles are dominated by HF. Our data show that total fluorine profiles at all locations have a negative slope with altitude, providing evidence that overall fluorine emissions (measured by their F content) have been increasing with time. Total stratospheric fluorine is increasing at a similar rate in the tropics; 32.5 ± 4.9 ppt yr-1 (1.31 ± 0.20% per year) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 29.8 ± 5.3 ppt yr-1 (1.21 ± 0.22% per year) in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Extra-tropical total stratospheric fluorine is also increasing at a similar rate in both the NH and SH; 28.3 ± 2.7 ppt per year (1.12 ± 0.11% per year) in the NH and 24.3 ± 3.1 ppt per year (0.96 ± 0.12% per year) in the SH. The volume mixing ratio of each species used in this study was weighted by its global warming potential (GWP), relative molecular mass and the atmospheric pressure to produce a GWP-weighted total fluorine trend. These trends show mean changes of 0.02 ± 0.08% per year in the NH, and 0.07 ± 0.05% per year in the SH. Overall, GWP-weighted fluorine remains roughly constant globally. However, the decreasing trends in the mixing ratios of halons and CFCs, due to their prohibition under the Montreal Protocol, have suppressed an increase in total fluorine caused by increasing mixing ratios of HFCs. This has reduced the impact of fluorine containing species on global warming.

  5. Global stratospheric chlorine inventories for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. T.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-09-01

    We present chlorine budgets calculated between 2004 and 2009 for four latitude bands (70° N-30° N, 30° N-0° N, 0° N-30° S, and 30° S-70° S). The budgets were calculated using ACE-FTS version 3.0 retrievals of the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of 9 chlorine-containing species: CCl4, CFC-12 (CCl2F2), CFC-11 (CCl3F), COCl2, COClF, HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl), CH3Cl, HCl and ClONO2. These data were supplemented with calculated VMRs from the SLIMCAT 3-D chemical transport model (CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, ClO and HOCl). The total chlorine profiles are dominated by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons up to 24 km in the tropics and 19 km in the extra-tropics. In this altitude range CFCs and halons account for 58% of the total chlorine VMR. Above this altitude HCl increasingly dominates the total chlorine profile, reaching a maximum of 95% of total chlorine at 54 km. All total chlorine profiles exhibit a positive slope with altitude, suggesting that the total chlorine VMR is now decreasing with time. This conclusion is supported by the time series of the mean stratospheric total chlorine budgets which show mean decreases in total stratospheric chlorine of 0.38 ± 0.03% per year in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, 0.35 ± 0.07% per year in the Northern Hemisphere tropical stratosphere, 0.54 ± 0.16% per year in the Southern Hemisphere tropics and 0.53 ± 0.12% per year in the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical stratosphere for 2004-2009. Globally stratospheric chlorine is decreasing by 0.46 ± 0.02% per year. Both global warming potential-weighted chlorine and ozone depletion potential-weighted chlorine are decreasing at all latitudes. These results show that the Montreal Protocol has had a significant effect in reducing emissions of both ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

  6. Retrievals of carbonyl fluoride (COF2) from ACE-FTS and MIPAS spectra and their comparison with SLIMCAT CTM calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Cai, Shaomin; Dudhia, Anu; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), onboard the SCISAT-1 satellite, which has been recording atmospheric spectra since 2004, and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument onboard the ENVIronmental SATellite (Envisat), which has recorded thermal emission atmospheric spectra between 2002 and 2012. The observations are compared with the output of SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM). The model aids in the interpretation of the COF2 satellite observations, and the comparison provides a validation of emission inventories and the atmospheric degradation reaction schemes used in the model.

  7. Validation of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR V01.00 CO2 and CH4 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Kimoto, S.; Sugimura, R.; Imasu, R.; Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsuda, H.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been making observations continuously for more than five years since its launch on 23 January 2009. Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the GOSAT simultaneously observes column abundances and profiles of CO2 and CH4 in the same field of view, from the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands, respectively. We have just released the latest TIR CO2 and CH4 products, V01.00, to registered researchers. To validate the data quality of the V01.00 TIR CO2 product, we compared the TIR data with CO2 data obtained by Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME) on board JAL aircraft in Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project. The aircraft CO2 data obtained during the level flights were compared with the V01.00 TIR upper tropospheric CO2 data. The CONTRAIL CO2 "profile" data obtained during the ascending and descending flights over several airports were compared with the TIR CO2 profiles. In the profile comparisons, we applied the TIR averaging kernel functions to the coincident CONTRAIL CO2 profiles. The V01.00 upper atmospheric CO2 data agreed to the CONTRAIL level flight CO2 data on average within 0.5-1%. Some TIR CO2 data showed relatively large differences from the nearest aircraft data, which suggests the existence of several problems such as L1B spectral calibration and nighttime cloud detection issues. The TIR V01.00 CO2 profile data from 9 to 13 km showed better agreement to CONTRAIL CO2 data than the a priori. However, the TIR CO2 data at around and below 5 km had low bias of 1-1.5%. The TIR V01.00 CH4 data generally showed reasonable latitudinal distributions as the previous version. In the Antarctic, unexpected high amounts of CH4 were seen in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in autumn. This is probably because of the problem of simultaneously retrieved ozone concentration.

  8. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  9. Catalytic asymmetric alkylation of acylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jiawei; Oost, Rik; Desmarchelier, Alaric; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R

    2015-03-01

    The highly enantioselective addition of Grignard reagents to acylsilanes is catalyzed by copper diphosphine complexes. This transformation affords α-silylated tertiary alcohols in up to 97% yield and 98:2 enantiomeric ratio. The competing Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction is suppressed by the use of a mixture of Lewis acid additives. The chiral catalyst can be recovered as a copper complex and used repeatedly without any loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25403641

  10. Thermodynamics of catalytic nanoparticle morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Michael; Sharma, Renu; Lin, Pin Ann

    Metallic nanoparticles are an important class of industrial catalysts. The variability of their properties and the environment in which they act, from their chemical nature & surface modification to their dispersion and support, allows their performance to be optimized for many chemical processes useful in, e.g., energy applications and other areas. Their large surface area to volume ratio, as well as varying sizes and faceting, in particular, makes them an efficient source for catalytically active sites. These characteristics of nanoparticles - i.e., their morphology - can often display intriguing behavior as a catalytic process progresses. We develop a thermodynamic model of nanoparticle morphology, one that captures the competition of surface energy with other interactions, to predict structural changes during catalytic processes. Comparing the model to environmental transmission electron microscope images of nickel nanoparticles during carbon nanotube (and other product) growth demonstrates that nickel deformation in response to the nanotube growth is due to a favorable interaction with carbon. Moreover, this deformation is halted due to insufficient volume of the particles. We will discuss the factors that influence morphology and also how the model can be used to extract interaction strengths from experimental observations.

  11. Catalytic nanomotors: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, John; Zhao, Yiping

    2011-06-01

    The fabrication of integrated nanomachinary systems can enable break-through applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, bioengineering, and drug delivery or disease treatment. Naturally occurring nanomotors are biological motor proteins powered by catalytic reactions, which convert the chemical energy from the environment into mechanical energy directly. It has been demonstrated recently that using a simple catalytic reaction and an asymmetric bimetallic nanorod, one can produce catalytic nanomotors that mimic the autonomous motions of bionanomotors. Yet the construction of artificial nanomachines remains a major contemporary challenge due to the lack of a flexible fabrication technique that can design the desired dynamic components. We use a design technique called dynamic shadowing growth that allows for the fabrication of a wide range of various geometries and the asymmetric placement of the catalyst is easily accomplished as well which is necessary for directed propulsion. Programming nanomotor behavior is possible through geometrically-focused design and by incorporating different materials into the nanomotor structure is a simple process as well. A propulsion mechanism based upon bubble ejection from the catalyst surface is introduced to explain the driving force, and the comparison of this driving mechanism with the self-electrophoresis mechanism is also studied. We have also successfully incorporated multiple parts to form complex nanomotor assemblies which exhibit motions not observed from individual parts by using magnetic interactions.

  12. Conditional Proteolysis of the Membrane Protein YfgM by the FtsH Protease Depends on a Novel N-terminal Degron.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Lisa-Marie; Westphal, Kai; Narberhaus, Franz

    2015-07-31

    Regulated proteolysis efficiently and rapidly adapts the bacterial proteome to changing environmental conditions. Many protease substrates contain recognition motifs, so-called degrons, that direct them to the appropriate protease. Here we describe an entirely new degron identified in the cytoplasmic N-terminal end of the membrane-anchored protein YfgM of Escherichia coli. YfgM is stable during exponential growth and degraded in stationary phase by the essential FtsH protease. The alarmone (p)ppGpp, but not the previously described YfgM interactors RcsB and PpiD, influence YfgM degradation. By scanning mutagenesis, we define individual amino acids responsible for turnover of YfgM and find that the degron does not at all comply with the known N-end rule pathway. The YfgM degron is a distinct module that facilitates FtsH-mediated degradation when fused to the N terminus of another monotopic membrane protein but not to that of a cytoplasmic protein. Several lines of evidence suggest that stress-induced degradation of YfgM relieves the response regulator RcsB and thereby permits cellular protection by the Rcs phosphorelay system. On the basis of these and other results in the literature, we propose a model for how the membrane-spanning YfgM protein serves as connector between the stress responses in the periplasm and cytoplasm. PMID:26092727

  13. Using SCIAMACHY and Ground-based FTS Measurements to Test the OCO X(sub CO2) Retrieval and Validation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesch, Hartmut; Toon, G.; Sen, B; Li, Q. B.; Salawitch, R.; Miller, C.; Crisp, D.; Washenfelder, R.; Wennberg, P.; Natraj, V.; Yung, Y.; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J.; DeBeek, R.; Connor, B.; Christi, M; Spurr, R.

    2006-01-01

    Global, space-based observations of atmospheric CO2 with precision, resolution, and coverage needed to monitor sources and sinks: a) Spectra of reflected/scattered sunlight in NIR CO2 and O2 bands used to estimate X(sub CO2) with large sensitivity to surface; b) A-train orbit (1:15 PM polar sun sync); c) 16 day repeat cycle samples seasonal cycle on semi-monthly intervals; and d) NASA ESSP (Earth Space System Pathfinder) scheduled for Sept 2008 launch; 2 yrs lifetime. Initial comparison of SCIAMACHY and FTS retrievals for Park Falls: a) Positive bias in X(sub CO2) of approx. 10 ppm; and b) Negative bias in surface pressure After correction of spectral artifacts in O2A band: a) Largely improved agreement between SCIAMACHY and FTS X(sub CO2) (without clear bias) and in surface pressure; and b) Standard deviation of SCIAMACHY X(sub CO2 approx. 6 ppm. Good qualitative agreement with GEOS-CHEM, with GEOS-CHEM underestimating seasonal cycle. OCO is a dedicated CO2 instrument and will achieve much higher accuracy and precision: a) much higher spectral resolution (by factor of 20); and b) smaller ground pixels (by factor of 600).

  14. N terminus determinants of MinC from Neisseria gonorrhoeae mediate interaction with FtsZ but do not affect interaction with MinD or homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Greco-Stewart, V; Ramirez-Arcos, S; Liao, M; Dillon, J R

    2007-06-01

    While bacterial cell division has been widely studied in rod-shaped bacteria, the mechanism of cell division in round (coccal) bacteria remains largely enigmatic. In the present study, interaction between the cell division inhibitor MinC from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MinC(Ng)) and the gonococcal cell division proteins MinD(Ng) and FtsZ(Ng) are demonstrated. Protein truncation and site-directed mutagenic approaches determined which N-terminal residues were essential for cell division inhibition by MinC(Ng) using cell morphology as an indicator of protein functionality. Truncation from or mutation at the 13th amino acid of the N terminus of MinC(Ng) resulted in loss of protein function. Bioinformatic analyses predicted that point mutations of L35P and L68P would affect the alpha-helical conformation of the protein and we experimentally showed that these mutations alter the functionality of MinC(Ng). The bacterial two-hybrid system showed that interaction of MinC(Ng) with FtsZ(Ng) is abrogated upon truncation of 13 N-terminal residues while MinC(Ng)-MinD(Ng) interaction or MinC(Ng) homodimerization is unaffected. These data confirm interactions among gonococcal cell division proteins and determine the necessity of the 13th amino acid for MinC(Ng) function. PMID:17287984

  15. TXA709, an FtsZ-Targeting Benzamide Prodrug with Improved Pharmacokinetics and Enhanced In Vivo Efficacy against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Malvika; Mark, Lilly; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit K.; Lyu, Yi Lisa; Pawlak, Joan; Saravolatz, Stephanie; Saravolatz, Louis D.; Weinstein, Melvin P.; LaVoie, Edmond J.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical development of FtsZ-targeting benzamide compounds like PC190723 has been limited by poor drug-like and pharmacokinetic properties. Development of prodrugs of PC190723 (e.g., TXY541) resulted in enhanced pharmaceutical properties, which, in turn, led to improved intravenous efficacy as well as the first demonstration of oral efficacy in vivo against both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Despite being efficacious in vivo, TXY541 still suffered from suboptimal pharmacokinetics and the requirement of high efficacious doses. We describe here the design of a new prodrug (TXA709) in which the Cl group on the pyridyl ring has been replaced with a CF3 functionality that is resistant to metabolic attack. As a result of this enhanced metabolic stability, the product of the TXA709 prodrug (TXA707) is associated with improved pharmacokinetic properties (a 6.5-fold-longer half-life and a 3-fold-greater oral bioavailability) and superior in vivo antistaphylococcal efficacy relative to PC190723. We validate FtsZ as the antibacterial target of TXA707 and demonstrate that the compound retains potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus strains resistant to the current standard-of-care drugs vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid. These collective properties, coupled with minimal observed toxicity to mammalian cells, establish the prodrug TXA709 as an antistaphylococcal agent worthy of clinical development. PMID:26033735

  16. TXA709, an FtsZ-Targeting Benzamide Prodrug with Improved Pharmacokinetics and Enhanced In Vivo Efficacy against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Malvika; Mark, Lilly; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit K; Lyu, Yi Lisa; Pawlak, Joan; Saravolatz, Stephanie; Saravolatz, Louis D; Weinstein, Melvin P; LaVoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S

    2015-08-01

    The clinical development of FtsZ-targeting benzamide compounds like PC190723 has been limited by poor drug-like and pharmacokinetic properties. Development of prodrugs of PC190723 (e.g., TXY541) resulted in enhanced pharmaceutical properties, which, in turn, led to improved intravenous efficacy as well as the first demonstration of oral efficacy in vivo against both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Despite being efficacious in vivo, TXY541 still suffered from suboptimal pharmacokinetics and the requirement of high efficacious doses. We describe here the design of a new prodrug (TXA709) in which the Cl group on the pyridyl ring has been replaced with a CF3 functionality that is resistant to metabolic attack. As a result of this enhanced metabolic stability, the product of the TXA709 prodrug (TXA707) is associated with improved pharmacokinetic properties (a 6.5-fold-longer half-life and a 3-fold-greater oral bioavailability) and superior in vivo antistaphylococcal efficacy relative to PC190723. We validate FtsZ as the antibacterial target of TXA707 and demonstrate that the compound retains potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus strains resistant to the current standard-of-care drugs vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid. These collective properties, coupled with minimal observed toxicity to mammalian cells, establish the prodrug TXA709 as an antistaphylococcal agent worthy of clinical development. PMID:26033735

  17. ZapE Is a Novel Cell Division Protein Interacting with FtsZ and Modulating the Z-Ring Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marteyn, Benoit S.; Karimova, Gouzel; Fenton, Andrew K.; Gazi, Anastasia D.; West, Nicholas; Touqui, Lhousseine; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Betton, Jean-Michel; Poyraz, Oemer; Ladant, Daniel; Gerdes, Kenn; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Tang, Christoph M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial cell division requires the formation of a mature divisome complex positioned at the midcell. The localization of the divisome complex is determined by the correct positioning, assembly, and constriction of the FtsZ ring (Z-ring). Z-ring constriction control remains poorly understood and (to some extent) controversial, probably due to the fact that this phenomenon is transient and controlled by numerous factors. Here, we characterize ZapE, a novel ATPase found in Gram-negative bacteria, which is required for growth under conditions of low oxygen, while loss of zapE results in temperature-dependent elongation of cell shape. We found that ZapE is recruited to the Z-ring during late stages of the cell division process and correlates with constriction of the Z-ring. Overexpression or inactivation of zapE leads to elongation of Escherichia coli and affects the dynamics of the Z-ring during division. In vitro, ZapE destabilizes FtsZ polymers in an ATP-dependent manner. PMID:24595368

  18. OT1_ppapadop_1: Strong AGN feedback onto the ISM and its effects: A SPIRE FTS view of the molecular gas in 3C293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, P.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to use the SPIRE FTS to study the large molecular gas reservoir of the powerful radio galaxy 3C293, the scene of a very strong AGN jet-gas interaction, and the first known case of shock-powered luminous mid-J/high-J CO lines. These were discovered during our large ground-based CO line survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and AGN hosts, and set this object apart as that with the most excited molecular gas of the entire survey, yet with its large gas reservoir (~2x10^9Msol) surprisingly idle in terms of star formation rate (SFR~4Msol/yr). A deep SPIRE FTS spectrum will complete our ground-based CO Spectral Line Energy Distribution (SLED) of this remarkable system and allow excellent constraints to be placed on the thermal state of its molecular gas reservoir and possible suppressing effects of the AGN on star formation in the host galaxy. It will also be the first opportunity to study, locally, powerful AGN mechanical feedback onto the interstellar medium of host galaxies, which will occur frequently in the Early Universe during galaxy formation in the deep gravitational wells of proto-clusters marked by such powerful radio galaxies.

  19. Singlet oxygen- and EXECUTER1-mediated signaling is initiated in grana margins and depends on the protease FtsH2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangsheng; Kim, Chanhong; Xu, Xia; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Dogra, Vivek; Singh, Somesh; Mahler, Hanno; Apel, Klaus

    2016-06-28

    Formation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) has been implicated with damaging photosystem II (PSII) that needs to undergo continuous repair to maintain photosynthetic electron transport. In addition to its damaging effect, (1)O2 has also been shown to act as a signal that triggers stress acclimation and an enhanced stress resistance. A signaling role of (1)O2 was first documented in the fluorescent (flu) mutant of Arabidopsis It strictly depends on the chloroplast protein EXECUTER1 (EX1) and happens under nonphotoinhibitory light conditions. Under severe light stress, signaling is initiated independently of EX1 by (1)O2 that is thought to be generated at the acceptor side of active PSII within the core of grana stacks. The results of the present study suggest a second source of (1)O2 formation in grana margins close to the site of chlorophyll synthesis where EX1 is localized and the disassembly of damaged and reassembly of active PSII take place. The initiation of (1)O2 signaling in grana margins depends on EX1 and the ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease FtsH. As FtsH cleaves also the D1 protein during the disassembly of damaged PSII, EX1- and (1)O2-mediated signaling seems to be not only spatially but also functionally associated with the repair of PSII. PMID:27303039

  20. Distributions and Seasonal Variations of Tropospheric Ethene (C2H4) from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS) Solar Occultation Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbin, H.; Hurtmans, D.; Clarisse, L.; Turquety, S.; Clerbaux, C.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports the first measurements of ethene (C2H4) distributions in the upper troposphere. These are obtained by retrieving vertical profiles from 5 to 20 km from infrared solar occultation spectra recorded in 2005 and 2006 by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). Background volume mixin^ ratios (vmrs) ranging from a few to about 50 pptv (10(exp -1) are measured at the different altitudes, while for certain occultations, vmrs as high as 200 pptv are observed. Zonal distributions and vertically resolved latitudinal distributions are derived for the two year period analyzed, highlighting spatial - including a North-South gradient - as well as seasonal variations. We show the latter to be more pronounced at the highest latitudes, presumably as a result of less active photochemistry during winter. The observation of C2H4 enhancements in remote Arctic regions at high latitudes is consistent with the occurrence of fast transport processes of gaseous pollution from the continents leading to Arctic haze. Citation: Herbin, H., D. Hurtmans, L. Clarisse, S. Turquety, C. Clerbaux, C. P. Rinsland, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, and P.-F. Colieur (2009), Distributions and seasonal variations of tropospheric ethene (C2H4) from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS) solar occultation spectra,

  1. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  2. Catalytic reforming of heart cut fcc naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, L.A.

    1985-03-01

    The anticipated lead phasedown in the USA and the growing demand for unleaded gasoline will require a higher gasoline pool octane number. One of the possibilities to achieve this increase of pool octane will be catalytic reforming of FCC naphtha. In this paper we evaluate the effects of FCC naphtha reforming on the reformer operation and gasoline pool volume for various lead phasedown scenarios. High-stability reforming catalysts, like TPR-8/CK-522 TRILOBE catalyst, will be required to maintain acceptable cycle lengths at the more severe reformer operating conditions. The properties and octane distribution of FCC naphtha are discussed, as well as its hydrotreating with high-active NiMo catalysts.

  3. Chlorine activation in the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 analyzed by combined use of JEM/SMILES and ACE-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuji, T.; Saitoh, N.; Sugita, T.; Kasai, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) equipped in the Japanese Experiment Module "KIBO" on board the International Space Station (ISS) had observed atmospheric minor constituents including ClO in the stratosphere and mesosphere from October 12, 2009 to April 21, 2010 with more than ten times the precision of other existing sensors due to its unprecedented high sensitivity with superconducting technology. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), which is on board SCISAT-1, has been observing atmospheric minor constituents in the upper troposphere and stratosphere since March 11, 2004 by solar occultation technique. We have analyzed the SMILES Level 2 (L2) V2.1.5 research products and the ACE-FTS L2 V3.0 products to discuss the relationship between temperature and stratospheric minor gases related to ozone depletion and the time variation of 'Cl partitioning' in the Arctic winter of 2009/2010. The correlation between the SMILES L2r ClO concentration and temperature on 475 K and 525 K from mid-January to early February showed that the ClO concentrations were higher than 0.5 ppbv at equivalent latitudes higher than 70° and solar zenith angles lower than 96°, where the temperatures were well lower than 200 K; the ClO concentrations and the solar zenith angles had a positive correlation in the region where the ClO concentrations were higher than 0.5 ppbv. However, some data with high ClO concentration also occurred under relatively warmer conditions where PSCs were not expected to exist. The temperature histories of those data showed that they had experienced near ice frost point of ~187 K at 2-4 days before the observations, and then the temperatures drastically increased as much as 20 degrees just before the observations. We have analyzed a time-series of 'Cl partitioning' by using ClO, HOCl, and HCl observed by SMILES and HCl and ClONO2 observed by ACE-FTS inside the polar vortex in 2009/2010. HCl

  4. Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition for Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.; Portzer, J.W.; Turk, B.S.; Krishnan, G.N.; Hung, S.L.; Ayala, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop and demonstrate catalytic approaches for decomposing a significant percentage (up to 90 percent) of the NH{sub 3} present in fuel gas to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at elevated temperatures (550 to 900{degrees}C). The NH{sub 3} concentration considered in this study was {similar_to}1,800 to 2,000 ppmv, which is typical of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifiers such as the Texaco coal gasifier being employed at the TECO Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant. Catalysts containing Ni, Co, Mo, and W were candidates for the study. Before undertaking any experiments, a detailed thermodynamic evaluation was conducted to determine the concentration of NH{sub 3} in equilibrium with the Texaco gasifier coal gas. Thermodynamic evaluations were also performed to evaluate the stability of the catalytic phases (for the various catalysts under consideration) under NH3 decomposition conditions to be used in this study. Two catalytic approaches for decomposing NH{sub 3} have been experimentally evaluated. The first approach evaluated during the early phases of this project involved the screening of catalysts that could be combined with the hot-gas desulfurization sorbents (e.g., zinc titanate) for simultaneous NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S removal. In a commercial system, this approach would reduce capital costs by eliminating a process step. The second approach evaluated was high-temperature catalytic decomposition at 800 to 900{degrees} C. In a commercial hot-gas cleanup system this could be carried out after radiative cooling of the gas to 800 to 900{degrees}C but up stream of the convective cooler, the hot particulate filter, and the hot-gas desulfurization reactor. Both approaches were tested in the presence of up to 7,500 ppmv H{sub 2}S in simulated fuel gas or actual fuel gas from a coal gasifier.

  5. The facile fabrication of magnetite nanoparticles and their enhanced catalytic performance in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shenke; Sun, Jiaqiang; Song, Dechen; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-07-14

    Uniform and crystalline magnetite nanoparticles are facilely fabricated and utilized as an efficient catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The catalyst exhibits a high and stable activity with low methane selectivity, attributed to its remarkable structural and chemical stability at the realistic conditions of FTS. PMID:26074335

  6. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yang-Chuang; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2009-06-15

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by the simple adsorption-reduction of Au(III) ions on chitosan-coated iron oxide magnetic nanocarrier. Au nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 3.14 nm were well loaded on the surface of magnetic nanocarrier because chitosan layer provided an effective driving force in the formation and stabilization of Au nanoparticles. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity to the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increasing the amount of Au nanocatalyst, decreasing the initial 4-NP concentration, and increasing the temperature. Also, the kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion controlled owing to the presence of chitosan layer. In addition, catalyst reuse showed no trace of deactivation or poisoning during the catalytic and separation processes, revealing the stable nature and good catalytic ability of this nanocatalyst. PMID:19022566

  7. A sustainable catalytic pyrrole synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2013-02-01

    The pyrrole heterocycle is a prominent chemical motif and is found widely in natural products, drugs, catalysts and advanced materials. Here we introduce a sustainable iridium-catalysed pyrrole synthesis in which secondary alcohols and amino alcohols are deoxygenated and linked selectively via the formation of C-N and C-C bonds. Two equivalents of hydrogen gas are eliminated in the course of the reaction, and alcohols based entirely on renewable resources can be used as starting materials. The catalytic synthesis protocol tolerates a large variety of functional groups, which includes olefins, chlorides, bromides, organometallic moieties, amines and hydroxyl groups. We have developed a catalyst that operates efficiently under mild conditions.

  8. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  9. Catalytic Organometallic Reactions of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, ammonia had rarely succumbed to catalytic transformations with homogeneous catalysts, and the development of such reactions that are selective for the formation of single products under mild conditions has encountered numerous challenges. However, recently developed catalysts have allowed several classes of reactions to create products with nitrogen-containing functional groups from ammonia. These reactions include hydroaminomethylation, reductive amination, alkylation, allylic substitution, hydroamination, and cross-coupling. This Minireview describes examples of these processes and the factors that control catalyst activity and selectivity. PMID:20857466

  10. Modeling a Transient Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Transient model of monolith catalytic combustor presented in report done under NASA/DOE contract. Model assumes quasi-steady gas phase and thermally "thin" solid. In gas-phase treatment, several quasi-global chemical reactions assumed capable of describing CO and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions in fuel-lean operations. In steady-state computation presented, influence of selected operating and design parameters on minimum combustor length studied. When fast transient responses required, both steady and unsteady studies made to achieve meaningful compromise in design.

  11. Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.E.; Mills, T.K.; Rogers, M.L.

    1980-09-30

    Starting from an effort to control airborne emissions, the Mound tritium containment program has evolved to include development of the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process. This process separates tritiated aqueous streams into detritiated water and an enriched hydrogen stream that is suitable for use by other tritium recovery processes. Experimentation has shown that the process performs as predicted by bench-scale measurements, and that available process components exhibit acceptable resistance to damage by radiation from tritium exposure. Planned future efforts are concentrated on finalizing automatic control of the process and on developing feed treatment methods for the protection of process components.

  12. Estimating Top-down Emissions (2011-2014) of CH4 and CO2 From Los Angeles by an FTS Atop Mount Wilson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R. M.; Hsu, Y.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Megacities, such as Los Angeles, emit significant amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). As the world's population in urban regions is expected to increase from over 50% now to 70% by 2050, monitoring the temporal trends of urban GHG emissions are necessary to verify regulation policy. Since megacities tend to have large spatially and temporally varying GHG emission characteristics, it is important to perform measurements which provide continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the domain. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to track major greenhouse gases, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) using ground-based remote sensing technique from Mount Wilson. Since 2010, in Los Angeles, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) has been deployed on Mount Wilson to measure CO2, CH4, carbon monoxide (CO), the combustion tracer, and other tracer gases using reflected sunlight in the near-infrared spectral regions. Combining the unique vista from Mount Wilson and high-precision measurements from the FTS, the slant column abundances of these trace gases above and within the urban dome of Los Angeles are acquired. Within the urban dome, continuous daytime temporal and spatial measurements are recorded for 28 reflection points which are strategically located across the basin. Here we analyze the path-averaged dry air mixing ratios XCH4, XCO2 and XCO acquired by the FTS during a three-year period from 2011 to 2014. Using tracer-to-tracer correlation analysis, we investigate the ratios of XCH4:XCO2, XCH4:XCO and XCO:XCO2 in excess of the background values. Significant spatio-temporal variability in all three ratios is observed across the Los Angeles megacity during this measurement period. We then derive the top-down estimates of basin total CH4 and CO2 emissions between 2011 and 2014 using the existing bottom-up emission database of CO2and CO, and compare our estimates to the emissions reported by the state government and previous studies. Copyright 2014. California

  13. Four Fourier transform spectrometers and the Arctic polar vortex: instrument intercomparison and ACE-FTS validation at Eureka during the IPY springs of 2007 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, R. L.; Kolonjari, F.; Lindenmaier, R.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Daffer, W.; Fast, H.; Manney, G.; Strong, K.; Walker, K. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Validation Campaigns have been carried out at Eureka, Nunavut (80.05° N, 86.42° W) during the polar sunrise period since 2004. During the International Polar Year (IPY) springs of 2007 and 2008, three ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were operated simultaneously. This paper presents a comparison of trace gas measurements of stratospherically important species involved in ozone depletion, namely O3, HCl, ClONO2, HNO3 and HF, recorded with these three spectrometers. Total column densities of the gases measured with the new Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) Bruker 125HR are shown to agree to within 3.5% with the existing Environment Canada Bomem DA8 measurements. After smoothing both of these sets of measurements to account for the lower spectral resolution of the University of Waterloo Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the Infrared (PARIS-IR), the measurements were likewise shown to agree with PARIS-IR to within 7%. Concurrent measurements of these gases were also made with the satellite-based Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) during overpasses of Eureka during these time periods. While one of the mandates of the ACE satellite mission is to study ozone depletion in the polar spring, previous validation exercises have identified the highly variable polar vortex conditions of the spring period to be a challenge for validation efforts. In this work, comparisons between the CANDAC Bruker 125HR and ACE-FTS have been used to develop strict criteria that allow the ground- and satellite-based instruments to be confidently compared. When these criteria are taken into consideration, the observed biases between the ACE-FTS and ground-based FTIR spectrometer are not persistent for both years and are generally insignificant, though small positive biases of ~5%, comparable in magnitude to those seen

  14. Seasonal variations of acetone in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes as observed by ACE-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, G.; Szopa, S.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2016-05-01

    This study reports on the climatological acetone distribution and seasonal variations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes, derived from observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) onboard SCISAT. The acetone profiles retrieved from 5 to ∼20 km cover the period from January 2004 to September 2010. The 1σ statistical fitting errors are typically ∼5-20% within the upper troposphere (UT), increasing in the lower stratosphere (LS) with decreasing acetone. The systematic errors range between 15% and 20%. The largest UT acetone mixing ratios (∼1200 ppt on average in July over Siberia) are observed in summer in the northern mid- and high latitudes. Mixing ratios are larger over continental regions than over the ocean. Comparisons with airborne measurements available in the literature point toward a possible underestimation in acetone retrieved from ACE-FTS. The largest differences occur primarily in winter and for the background values. This underestimation is attributed to the complexity of the spectral region used for the retrieval. The annual cycle of acetone for the 30-70°N midlatitude band shows a maximum during summer, reflecting the annual cycle of the primary terrestrial biogenic source of acetone. By comparison with ACE-FTS, the LMDz-INCA global climate-chemistry model systematically overestimates acetone mixing ratios lower than 400 ppt. This overestimation is thus generalized for the lower stratosphere, the Tropics and beyond 70°N for the upper troposphere. In contrast, in the upper troposphere of the 30-70°N region, where the acetone levels are the highest (>450 ppt on average), the model-observation differences are in the range of the observation uncertainty. However, in this region, the model fails to capture the annual cycle of acetone, culminating in July. A seasonal cycle can only be obtained by considering high biogenic emissions but this cycle is shifted

  15. CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC CHEMICALS: CATALYTIC HYDRODECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED PESTICIDES AND RELATED SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study has been undertaken of the catalytic conversion of chlorinated pesticides and other environmentally undesirable chlorinated materials into acceptable compounds. The results of this study show that chlorine can be catalytically removed and replaced by hydrogen to produce r...

  16. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of this coordinated research program is optimization of the Rockwell/Cities Service Short Residence Time Hydrogasification (SRTH) and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) processes in the acid gas removal and cryogenic areas. Progress reports of eight subtasks are presented along with process flowsheets, heat and material balances and economic evaluation, summarized in tables. Each subtask studied the effect of variation of a key design parameter on the treatment cost of the SNG produced.

  17. Catalytic behavior of graphene oxide for cement hydration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Changqing; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yun Hang

    2016-02-01

    Hydration is a critical step that determines the performance of cement-based materials. In this paper, the effect of GO on the hydration of cement was evaluated by XRD and FTIR. It was found that GO can remarkably accelerate the hydration rate of cement due to its catalytic behavior. This happened because the oxygen-containing functional groups of GO provide adsorption sites for both water molecules and cement components.

  18. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  19. Evolution of a Catalytic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rauwerdink, Alissa; Lunzer, Mark; Devamani, Titu; Jones, Bryan; Mooney, Joanna; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Jian-He; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Dean, Antony M

    2016-04-01

    The means by which superfamilies of specialized enzymes arise by gene duplication and functional divergence are poorly understood. The escape from adaptive conflict hypothesis, which posits multiple copies of a gene encoding a primitive inefficient and highly promiscuous generalist ancestor, receives support from experiments showing that resurrected ancestral enzymes are indeed more substrate-promiscuous than their modern descendants. Here, we provide evidence in support of an alternative model, the innovation-amplification-divergence hypothesis, which posits a single-copied ancestor as efficient and specific as any modern enzyme. We argue that the catalytic mechanisms of plant esterases and descendent acetone cyanohydrin lyases are incompatible with each other (e.g., the reactive substrate carbonyl must bind in opposite orientations in the active site). We then show that resurrected ancestral plant esterases are as catalytically specific as modern esterases, that the ancestor of modern acetone cyanohydrin lyases was itself only very weakly promiscuous, and that improvements in lyase activity came at the expense of esterase activity. These observations support the innovation-amplification-divergence hypothesis, in which an ancestor gains a weak promiscuous activity that is improved by selection at the expense of the ancestral activity, and not the escape from adaptive conflict in which an inefficient generalist ancestral enzyme steadily loses promiscuity throughout the transition to a highly active specialized modern enzyme. PMID:26681154

  20. Validation of TANSO-FTS/GOSAT XCO2 and XCH4 glint mode retrievals using TCCON data from near-ocean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minqiang; Dils, Bart; Wang, Pucai; Detmers, Rob; Yoshida, Yukio; O'Dell, Christopher W.; Feist, Dietrich G.; Almario Velazco, Voltaire; Schneider, Matthias; De Mazière, Martine

    2016-04-01

    The thermal And near infrared sensor for carbon observations Fourier transform spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) applies the normal nadir mode above the land ("land data") and sun glint mode over the ocean ("ocean data") to provide global distributions of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, or XCO2 and XCH4. Several algorithms have been developed to obtain highly accurate greenhouse gas concentrations from TANSO-FTS/GOSAT spectra. So far, all the retrieval algorithms have been validated with the measurements from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), but limited to the land data. In this paper, the ocean data of the SRPR, SRFP (the proxy and full-physics versions 2.3.5 of SRON/KIT's RemoTeC algorithm), NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies operational algorithm version 02.21) and ACOS (NASA's Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space version 3.5) are compared with FTIR measurements from five TCCON sites and nearby GOSAT land data.For XCO2, both land and ocean data of NIES, SRFP and ACOS show good agreement with TCCON measurements. Averaged over all TCCON sites, the relative biases of ocean data and land data are -0.33 and -0.13 % for NIES, 0.03 and 0.04 % for SRFP, 0.06 and -0.03 % for ACOS, respectively. The relative scatter ranges between 0.31 and 0.49 %. For XCH4, the relative bias of ocean data is even less than that of the land data for the NIES (0.02 vs. -0.35 %), SRFP (0.04 vs. 0.20 %) and SRPR (-0.02 vs. 0.06 %) algorithms. Compared to the results for XCO2, the XCH4 retrievals show larger relative scatter (0.65-0.81 %).

  1. Validation of TANSO-FTS/GOSAT XCO2 and XCH4 glint mode retrievals using TCCON data from near-ocean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Dils, B.; Wang, P.; Detmers, R. G.; Yoshida, Y.; O'Dell, C. W.; Feist, D. G.; Velazco, V.; Schneider, M.; De Mazière, M.

    2015-10-01

    Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) applies the normal nadir mode above the land ("land data") and sun glint mode over the ocean ("ocean data") to provide global distributions of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, or XCO2 and XCH4. Several algorithms have been developed to obtain highly accurate greenhouse gas concentrations from TANSO-FTS/GOSAT spectra. So far, all the retrieval algorithms have been validated with the measurements from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), but limited to the land data. In this paper, the ocean data of the SRPR, SRFP (the proxy and full-physics versions 2.3.5 of SRON/KIT's RemoTeC algorithm), NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies operational algorithm version 02.21) and ACOS (NASA's Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space version 3.5) are compared with FTIR measurements from five TCCON sites and near-by GOSAT land data. For XCO2, both land and ocean data of NIES, SRFP and ACOS show good agreement with TCCON measurements. Averaged over all TCCON sites, the relative biases of ocean data and land data are 0.33 and 0.13 % for NIES, -0.03 and -0.04 % for SRFP, -0.06 and 0.03 % for ACOS, respectively. The relative scatter ranges between 0.31 and 0.49 %. For XCH4, the relative bias of ocean data is even less than that of the land data for the NIES (-0.02 vs. 0.35 %), SRFP (&minus,0.04 vs. -0.20 %) and SRPR (0.02 vs. -0.06 %) algorithms. Compared to the results for XCO2, the XCH4 retrievals show larger relative scatter (0.65-0.81 %).

  2. Sunset-sunrise difference in solar occultation ozone measurements (SAGE II, HALOE, and ACE-FTS) and its relationship to tidal vertical winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakazaki, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; Kinnison, D.; Zawodny, J. M.; McHugh, M.; Walker, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive investigation of the sunset-sunrise difference (SSD; i.e., the sunset-minus-sunrise value) of the ozone mixing ratio in the latitude range of 10° S-10° N. SSD values were determined from solar occultation measurements based on data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The SSD was negative at altitudes of 20-30 km (-0.1 ppmv at 25 km) and positive at 30-50 km (+0.2 ppmv at 40-45 km) for HALOE and ACE-FTS data. SAGE II data also showed a qualitatively similar result, although the SSD in the upper stratosphere was two times larger than those derived from the other datasets. On the basis of an analysis of data from the Superconducting Submillimeter Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES), and a nudged chemical-transport model (the Specified Dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model: SD-WACCM), we conclude that the SSD can be explained by diurnal variations in the ozone concentration, particularly those caused by vertical transport by the atmospheric tidal winds. All datasets showed significant seasonal variations in the SSD; the SSD in the upper stratosphere is greatest from December through February, while that in the lower stratosphere reaches a maximum twice: during the periods March-April and September-October. Based on an analysis of SD-WACCM results, we found that these seasonal variations follow those associated with the tidal vertical winds.

  3. Sunset-sunrise difference in solar occultation ozone measurements (SAGE II, HALOE, and ACE-FTS) and its relationship to tidal vertical winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakazaki, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; Kinnison, D.; Zawodny, J. M.; McHugh, M.; Walker, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive investigation of the sunset-sunrise difference (SSD, i.e., the sunset-minus-sunrise value) of the ozone mixing ratio in the latitude range of 10° S-10° N. SSD values were determined from solar occultation measurements based on data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The SSD was negative at altitudes of 20-30 km (-0.1 ppmv at 25 km) and positive at 30-50 km (+0.2 ppmv at 40-45 km) for HALOE and ACE-FTS data. SAGE II data also showed a qualitatively similar result, although the SSD in the upper stratosphere was 2 times larger than those derived from the other data sets. On the basis of an analysis of data from the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and a nudged chemical transport model (the specified dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model: SD-WACCM), we conclude that the SSD can be explained by diurnal variations in the ozone concentration, particularly those caused by vertical transport by the atmospheric tidal winds. All data sets showed significant seasonal variations in the SSD; the SSD in the upper stratosphere is greatest from December through February, while that in the lower stratosphere reaches a maximum twice: during the periods March-April and September-October. Based on an analysis of SD-WACCM results, we found that these seasonal variations follow those associated with the tidal vertical winds.

  4. Acoustics of automotive catalytic converter assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, Nolan S.; Selamet, Ahmet; Parks, Steve J.; Tallio, Kevin V.; Miazgowicz, Keith D.; Radavich, Paul M.

    2003-10-01

    In an automotive exhaust system, the purpose of the catalytic converter is to reduce pollutant emissions. However, catalytic converters also affect the engine and exhaust system breathing characteristics; they increase backpressure, affect exhaust system acoustic characteristics, and contribute to exhaust manifold tuning. Thus, radiated sound models should include catalytic converters since they can affect both the source characteristics and the exhaust system acoustic behavior. A typical catalytic converter assembly employs a ceramic substrate to carry the catalytically active noble metals. The substrate has numerous parallel tubes and is mounted in a housing with swelling mat or wire mesh around its periphery. Seals at the ends of the substrate can be used to help force flow through the substrate and/or protect the mat material. Typically, catalytic converter studies only consider sound propagation in the small capillary tubes of the substrate. Investigations of the acoustic characteristics of entire catalytic converter assemblies (housing, substrate, seals, and mat) do not appear to be available. This work experimentally investigates the acoustic behavior of catalytic converter assemblies and the contributions of the separate components to sound attenuation. Experimental findings are interpreted with respect to available techniques for modeling sound propagation in ceramic substrates.

  5. FEASIBILITY OF BURNING COAL IN CATALYTIC COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, showing that pulverized coal can be burned in a catalytic combustor. Pulverized coal combustion in catalytic beds is markedly different from gaseous fuel combustion. Gas combustion gives uniform bed temperatures and reaction rates over the ent...

  6. Contrasting intra- and extracellular distribution of catalytic ferrous iron in ovalbumin-induced peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fumiya; Nishiyama, Takahiro; Shi, Lei; Mori, Masahiko; Hirayama, Tasuku; Nagasawa, Hideko; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-08-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for every type of life on earth. However, excess iron is cytotoxic and can lead to an increased cancer risk in humans. Catalytic ferrous iron [Fe(II)] is an initiator of the Fenton reaction, which causes oxidative stress by generating hydroxyl radicals. Recently, it became possible to localize catalytic Fe(II) in situ with a turn-on fluorescent probe, RhoNox-1. Here, we screened each organ/cell of rats to globally evaluate the distribution of catalytic Fe(II) and found that eosinophils showed the highest abundance. In various cells, lysosomes were the major organelle, sharing ∼40-80% of RhoNox-1 fluorescence. We then used an ovalbumin-induced allergic peritonitis model to study the dynamics of catalytic Fe(II). Peritoneal lavage revealed that the total iron contents per cell were significantly decreased, whereas an increase in the number of inflammatory cells (macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes) resulted in an increased total iron content of the peritoneal inflammatory cells. Notably, macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils exhibited significantly increased catalytic Fe(II) with increased DMT1 expression and decreased ferritin expression, though catalytic Fe(II) was significantly decreased in the peritoneal lavage fluid. In conclusion, catalytic Fe(II) in situ more directly reflects cellular activity and the accompanying pathology than total iron does. PMID:27262439

  7. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    DOEpatents

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  8. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  9. Silver nanocluster catalytic microreactors for water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, B.; Habibi, M.; Ognier, S.; Schelcher, G.; Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Khalesifard, H. R. M.; Tatoulian, M.; Bonn, D.

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the elaboration of a novel type of catalytic microsystem with a high specific area catalyst is developed. A silver nanocluster catalytic microreactor was elaborated by doping a soda-lime glass with a silver salt. By applying a high power laser beam to the glass, silver nanoclusters are obtained at one of the surfaces which were characterized by BET measurements and AFM. A microfluidic chip was obtained by sealing the silver coated glass with a NOA 81 microchannel. The catalytic activity of the silver nanoclusters was then tested for the efficiency of water purification by using catalytic ozonation to oxidize an organic pollutant. The silver nanoclusters were found to be very stable in the microreactor and efficiently oxidized the pollutant, in spite of the very short residence times in the microchannel. This opens the way to study catalytic reactions in microchannels without the need of introducing the catalyst as a powder or manufacturing complex packed bed microreactors.

  10. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOEpatents

    Faitani, Joseph J.; Austin, George W.; Chase, Terry J.; Suljak, George T.; Misage, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  11. Catalytic, enantioselective, vinylogous aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R; Beutner, Gregory L

    2005-07-25

    In 1935, R. C. Fuson formulated the principle of vinylogy to explain how the influence of a functional group may be felt at a distant point in the molecule when this position is connected by conjugated double-bond linkages to the group. In polar reactions, this concept allows the extension of the electrophilic or nucleophilic character of a functional group through the pi system of a carbon-carbon double bond. This vinylogous extension has been applied to the aldol reaction by employing "extended" dienol ethers derived from gamma-enolizable alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Since 1994, several methods for the catalytic, enantioselective, vinylogous aldol reaction have appeared, with which varying degrees of regio- (site), enantio-, and diastereoselectivity can be attained. In this Review, the current scope and limitations of this transformation, as well as its application in natural product synthesis, are discussed. PMID:15940727

  12. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbihl, R.

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  13. Catalytic decarbonylation of biosourced substrates.

    PubMed

    Ternel, Jérémy; Lebarbé, Thomas; Monflier, Eric; Hapiot, Frédéric

    2015-05-11

    Linear α-olefins (LAO) are one of the main targets in the field of surfactants, lubricants, and polymers. With the depletion of petroleum resources, the production of LAO from renewable feedstocks has gained increasing interest in recent years. In the present study, we demonstrated that Ir catalysts were suitable to decarbonylate a wide range of biosourced substrates under rather mild conditions (160 °C, 5 h reaction time) in the presence of potassium iodide and acetic anhydride. The resulting LAO were obtained with good conversion and selectivity provided that the purity of the substrate, the nature of the ligand, and the amounts of the additives were controlled accurately. The catalytic system could be recovered efficiently by using a Kugelrohr distillation apparatus and recycled. PMID:25855489

  14. APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  15. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  16. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  17. COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip E. Savage

    1999-10-18

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2}, and CuO supported on Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}. We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO{sub 2} yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation rates during SCWO. MnO{sub 2} does not affect the selectivity to CO{sub 2}, or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO{sub 2} are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO{sub 2} , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of

  18. Coal conversion wastewater treatment by catalytic oxidation in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip E. Savage

    1999-10-20

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, the authors examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2}, and CuO supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. They used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which they can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO{sub 2} yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that the authors could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, they performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation rates during SCWO. MnO{sub 2} does not affect the selectivity to CO{sub 2}, or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO{sub 2} are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO{sub 2}, which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the

  19. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  20. Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-12-01

    This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure by combusting the

  1. Experimental study of humic acid degradation and theoretical modelling of catalytic ozonation.

    PubMed

    Turkay, Ozge; Inan, Hatice; Dimoglo, Anatoli

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of TiO2 as a catalyst in the ozonation of humic acid (HA) was evaluated in a comprehensive manner. Ozonation, catalytic ozonation and adsorption experiments were conducted using both synthetic HA solution and natural water. HA degradation was evaluated in terms of DOC, VIS400 and UV254. It was shown that the addition of catalyst positively affects the mechanism of ozonation. An increase in HA degradation was observed for all these parameters. The impact of catalyst dose and initial pH value of HA on the efficacy of catalytic ozonation was investigated. The highest removal efficiencies were achieved with the dose of 1 g l(-1) of TiO2 (Degussa P-25) and in the acidic pH region. The catalytic ozonation process was efficient also on natural water component although not at the same level as it was on synthetic water. The adsorptive feature of P-25 was considered to have a clear evidence of the catalytic ozonation mechanism. The mechanism of catalysis on the surface of metal oxides was elucidated with the help of quantum-chemical calculations. In the framework of Density Function Theory (DFT), the O3 decomposition was calculated in the catalytic and non-catalytic processes. Donor-acceptor properties of the frontier (highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, HOMO/LUMO) orbitals are discussed. Electron density distribution and reaction mechanism of superoxide particles formation, which participate in the process of HA ozonation are analyzed. PMID:25056748

  2. Topological entropy of catalytic sets: Hypercycles revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of catalytic networks have been widely studied over the last decades because of their implications in several fields like prebiotic evolution, virology, neural networks, immunology or ecology. One of the most studied mathematical bodies for catalytic networks was initially formulated in the context of prebiotic evolution, by means of the hypercycle theory. The hypercycle is a set of self-replicating species able to catalyze other replicator species within a cyclic architecture. Hypercyclic organization might arise from a quasispecies as a way to increase the informational containt surpassing the so-called error threshold. The catalytic coupling between replicators makes all the species to behave like a single and coherent evolutionary multimolecular unit. The inherent nonlinearities of catalytic interactions are responsible for the emergence of several types of dynamics, among them, chaos. In this article we begin with a brief review of the hypercycle theory focusing on its evolutionary implications as well as on different dynamics associated to different types of small catalytic networks. Then we study the properties of chaotic hypercycles with error-prone replication with symbolic dynamics theory, characterizing, by means of the theory of topological Markov chains, the topological entropy and the periods of the orbits of unimodal-like iterated maps obtained from the strange attractor. We will focus our study on some key parameters responsible for the structure of the catalytic network: mutation rates, autocatalytic and cross-catalytic interactions.

  3. Effect of Porosity on Surface Catalytic Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Pallix, Joan; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of surface porosity of thermal protection materials on surface catalytic efficiency using test data taken from both arc-jet and side-arm reactor facilities. Relative surface porosity of the samples varied from 6% to 50%. Surface porosity was measured using a flow apparatus and Bernoulli equation. The surface catalytic efficiency of the materials was calculated using aerothermodynamic, and kinetic theories. The catalytic efficiency of the materials are compared at surface temperatures between room temperature and 2500 F. The data are presented in the form of graphs and tables.

  4. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    DOEpatents

    Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2016-03-29

    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  5. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

    2010-12-22

    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  6. Dynamical contribution into enzyme catalytic efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnitsky, A. E.

    2006-11-01

    A realistic physical model for the so-called rate-promoting vibration (RPV) at enzyme action is constructed. The origin of the RPV is assumed to be an oscillating electric field produced by long-lived localized vibrational modes in protein dynamics, namely, by the so-called discrete breather (DB) in secondary structure. The strength of interaction of the RPV with the reaction coordinate is evaluated and its effect on the reaction acceleration is assessed within the framework of modern theory for thermally activated escape rate at periodic driving. We reveal the phenomenon of resonant activation in our model elucidating why the frequency of the RPV in the range 100÷200 cm-1 was chosen by the evolution of enzymes as an optimal one. The effect of the RPV on the reaction acceleration is shown to vary from moderate one (up to 103÷104) in the case of three-site DB to enormous (up to 106÷108) in the case of five-site DB and thus can significantly contribute into enzyme catalytic efficiency. Also the model is shown to be compatible with the known functional dependence of enzymatic reaction rates on solvent viscosity.

  7. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  8. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  9. Halogen Chemistry on Catalytic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moser, Maximilian; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Halogens are key building blocks for the manufacture of high-value products such as chemicals, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. The catalytic oxidation of HCl and HBr is an attractive route to recover chlorine and bromine in order to ensure the sustainability of the production processes. Very few materials withstand the high corrosiveness and the strong exothermicity of the reactions and among them RuO2 and CeO2-based catalysts have been successfully applied in HCl oxidation. The search for efficient systems for HBr oxidation was initiated by extrapolating the results of HCl oxidation based on the chemical similarity of these reactions. Interestingly, despite its inactivity in HCl oxidation, TiO2 was found to be an outstanding HBr oxidation catalyst, which highlighted that the latter reaction is more complex than previously assumed. Herein, we discuss the results of recent comparative studies of HCl and HBr oxidation on both rutile-type (RuO2, IrO2, and TiO2) and ceria-based catalysts using a combination of advanced experimental and theoretical methods to provide deeper molecular-level understanding of the reactions. This knowledge aids the design of the next-generation catalysts for halogen recycling. PMID:27131113

  10. Catalytic reactions in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, R

    2001-12-01

    The chemical industry is under considerable pressure to replace many of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are currently used as solvents in organic synthesis. The toxic and/or hazardous properties of many solvents, notably chlorinated hydrocarbons, combined with serious environmental issues, such as atmospheric emissions and contamination of aqueous effluents is making their use prohibitive. This is an important driving force in the quest for novel reaction media. Curzons and coworkers, for example, recently noted that rigorous management of solvent use is likely to result in the greatest improvement towards greener processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical intermediates. The current emphasis on novel reaction media is also motivated by the need for efficient methods for recycling homogeneous catalysts. The key to waste minimisation in chemicals manufacture is the widespread substitution of classical 'stoichiometric' syntheses by atom efficient, catalytic alternatives. In the context of homogeneous catalysis, efficient recycling of the catalyst is a conditio sine qua non for economically and environmentally attractive processes. Motivated by one or both of the above issues much attention has been devoted to homogeneous catalysis in aqueous biphasic and fluorous biphasic systems as well as in supercritical carbon dioxide. Similarly, the use of ionic liquids as novel reaction media may offer a convenient solution to both the solvent emission and the catalyst recycling problem. PMID:12239988

  11. Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  12. A review of tin oxide-based catalytic systems: Preparation, characterization and catalytic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflund, Gar B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the important aspects of the preparation, characterization and catalytic behavior of tin oxide-based catalytic systems including doped tin oxide, mixed oxides which contain tin oxide, Pt supported on tin oxide and Pt/Sn supported on alumina. These systems have a broad range of applications and are continually increasing in importance. However, due to their complex nature, much remains to be understood concerning how they function catalytically.

  13. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  14. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: Comparison of vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Kiefer, M.; Boone, C. D.; Leblanc, T.; Marshall, B. T.; Schwartz, M. J.; Sheese, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the middle-atmosphere, upper-atmosphere and noctilucent-cloud modes during its lifetime, i.e., from January 2005 to April 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11) are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement in important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy). Additionally, an updated version of ESA-calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06) is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they provide on average a 1-2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6-10 K colder mesopause (except in high-latitude summers) and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement in MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, which, with a few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50-80 km in spring, autumn and winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to midlatitudes. Differences in the high-latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50-65 km and 5 K at 65-80 km. Differences between MIPAS and the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high-latitude summers, when it is within 5-10 K, being warmer there than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, when MIPAS usually exhibits larger vertical gradients.

  15. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: comparison of version vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Kiefer, M.; Boone, C. D.; Leblanc, T.; Marshall, B. T.; Schwartz, M. J.; Sheese, P. E.

    2014-07-01

    We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the Middle Atmosphere, Upper Atmosphere and NoctiLucent Cloud modes during its lifetime. i.e., from January 2005 to March 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11) are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement of important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy). Additionally, an updated version of ESA calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06) is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they on average provide a 1-2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6-10 K colder mesopause (except in high latitude summers) and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement of MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, that, with few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50-80 km in spring, autumn, winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to mid-latitudes. Differences in the high latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50-65 km and 5 K at 65-80 km. Differences with the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high latitude summers, where it is within 5-10 K of the other instruments, being warmer than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, where MIPAS usually exhibits larger vertical gradients.

  16. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities for the Chi(sup 1)Sigma(sup +) v=3 <-- 0 Band of (12)C(16)O Obtained with Kitt Peak and BOMEM FTS Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This work was initiated to compare absolute line intensities retrieved with the Kitt Peak FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and Ames BOMEM FTS. Since thermal contaminations can be a problem using the BOMEM instrument if proper precautions are not taken it was thought that measurements done at 6300 per cm would more easily result in satisfactory intercomparisons. Very recent measurements of the CO 3 <-- 0 band fine intensities confirms results reported here that the intensities listed in HITRAN (High Resolution Molecular Absorption Database) for this band are on the order of six to seven percent too low. All of the infrared intensities in the current HITRAN tabulation are based on the electric dipole moment function reported fifteen years ago. The latter in turn was partly based on intensities for the 3 <-- 0 band reported thirty years ago. We have, therefore, redetermined the electric dipole moment function of ground electronic state CO.

  17. Catalytic Aminohalogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Chemler, Sherry R.; Bovino, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic aminohalogenation methods enable the regio- and stereoselective vicinal difunctionalization of alkynes, allenes and alkenes with amine and halogen moieties. A range of protocols and reaction mechanisms including organometallic, Lewis base, Lewis acid and Brønsted acid catalysis have been disclosed, enabling the regio- and stereoselective synthesis of halogen-functionalized acyclic amines and nitrogen heterocycles. Recent advances including aminofluorination and catalytic enantioselective aminohalogenation reactions are summarized in this review. PMID:23828735

  18. An Iron Reservoir to the Catalytic Metal

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fange; Geng, Jiafeng; Gumpper, Ryan H.; Barman, Arghya; Davis, Ian; Ozarowski, Andrew; Hamelberg, Donald; Liu, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    The rubredoxin motif is present in over 74,000 protein sequences and 2,000 structures, but few have known functions. A secondary, non-catalytic, rubredoxin-like iron site is conserved in 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAO), from single cellular sources but not multicellular sources. Through the population of the two metal binding sites with various metals in bacterial HAO, the structural and functional relationship of the rubredoxin-like site was investigated using kinetic, spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational approaches. It is shown that the first metal presented preferentially binds to the catalytic site rather than the rubredoxin-like site, which selectively binds iron when the catalytic site is occupied. Furthermore, an iron ion bound to the rubredoxin-like site is readily delivered to an empty catalytic site of metal-free HAO via an intermolecular transfer mechanism. Through the use of metal analysis and catalytic activity measurements, we show that a downstream metabolic intermediate can selectively remove the catalytic iron. As the prokaryotic HAO is often crucial for cell survival, there is a need for ensuring its activity. These results suggest that the rubredoxin-like site is a possible auxiliary iron source to the catalytic center when it is lost during catalysis in a pathway with metabolic intermediates of metal-chelating properties. A spare tire concept is proposed based on this biochemical study, and this concept opens up a potentially new functional paradigm for iron-sulfur centers in iron-dependent enzymes as transient iron binding and shuttling sites to ensure full metal loading of the catalytic site. PMID:25918158

  19. Chemical and catalytic properties of elemental carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.G.; Brodzinsky, R.; Gundel, L.A.; Novakov, T.

    1980-10-01

    Elemental carbon particles resulting from incomplete combustion of fossil fuel are one of the major constituents of airborne particulate matter. These particles are a chemically and catalytically active material and can be an effective carrier for other toxic air pollutants through their adsorptive capability. The chemical, adsorptive, and catalytic behaviors of carbon particles depend very much on their crystalline structure, surface composition, and electronic properties. This paper discusses these properties and examines their relevance to atmospheric chemistry.

  20. Catalytic Radical Domino Reactions in Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sebren, Leanne J.; Devery, James J.; Stephenson, Corey R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic radical-based domino reactions represent important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. Their development benefits synthesis by providing atom- and step-economical methods to complex molecules. Intricate combinations of radical, cationic, anionic, oxidative/reductive, and transition metal mechanistic steps result in cyclizations, additions, fragmentations, ring-expansions, and rearrangements. This Perspective summarizes recent developments in the field of catalytic domino processes. PMID:24587964

  1. Correlation of Catalytic Rates With Solubility Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; England, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Catalyst maximizes activity when its solubility parameter equals that of reactive species. Catalytic activities of some binary metal alloys at maximum when alloy compositions correspond to Hildebrand solubility parameters equal to those of reactive atomic species on catalyst. If this suggestive correlation proves to be general, applied to formulation of other mixed-metal catalysts. Also used to identify reactive species in certain catalytic reactions.

  2. CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 4. CATALYTIC INCINERATOR PERFORMANCE AT INDUSTRIAL SITE C-2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radian Corporation is conducting a testing program for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the performance of catalytic incinerators that are applied to industrial processes for volatile organic compound (VOC) control. This report documents the results of the per...

  3. Methane Cross-Validation Between Spaceborne Solar Occultation Observations from ACE-FTS, Spaceborne Nadir Sounding from Gosat, and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Measurements, at a High Arctic Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S. A.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing observations of methane profiles in the Canadian High Arctic. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas on Earth, and second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to anthropogenic global warming. Accurate and precise observations of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. The Arctic is a particular region of concern, as melting permafrost and disappearing sea ice might lead to accelerated release of methane into the atmosphere. Global observations require spaceborne instruments, in particular in the Arctic, where surface measurements are sparse and expensive to perform. Satellite-based remote sensing is an underconstrained problem, and specific validation under Arctic circumstances is required. Here, we show a cross-validation between two spaceborne instruments and ground-based measurements, all Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS). We consider the Canadian SCISAT ACE-FTS, a solar occultation spectrometer operating since 2004, and the Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS, a nadir-pointing FTS operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) since 2006. Measurements are collocated considering temporal, spatial, and geophysical criteria and regridded to a common vertical grid. We perform smoothing on the higher-resolution instrument results to account for different vertical resolutions. Then, profiles of differences for each pair of instruments are examined. Any bias between instruments, or any accuracy that is worse than expected, needs to be understood prior to using the data. The results of the study will serve as a guideline on how to use the vertically resolved methane products from ACE and

  4. Field evaluation of a flow-through sampler for measuring pesticides and brominated flame retardants in the arctic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Hung, Hayley; Wania, Frank; Lao, Randy; Sabljic, Edwin; Sverko, Ed; Lei, Ying Duan; Fellin, Phil; Barresi, Enzo

    2012-07-17

    A flow-through sampler (FTS) was codeployed with a super high volume active sampler (SHV) between October 2007 and November 2008 to evaluate its ability to determine the ambient concentrations of pesticides and brominated flame retardants in the Canadian High Arctic atmosphere. Nine pesticides and eight flame retardants, including three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) replacement chemicals, were frequently detected. Atmospheric concentrations determined by the two systems showed good agreement when compared on monthly and annually integrated time scales. Pesticide concentrations were normally within a factor of 3 of each other. The FTS tended to generate higher PBDE concentrations than the SHV presumably because of the entrainment of blowing snow/ice crystals or large particles. Taking into account uncertainties in analytical bias, sample volume, and breakthrough estimations, the FTS is shown to be a reliable and cost-effective method, which derives seasonally variable concentrations of semivolatile organic trace compounds at extremely remote locations that are comparable to those obtained by conventional high volume air sampling. Moreover, the large sampling volumes captured by the FTS make it suitable for the screening of new and emerging chemicals in the remote atmosphere where concentrations are usually low. PMID:22702375

  5. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  6. The effect of catalyst length and downstream reactor distance on catalytic combustor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effects on catalytic combustor performance which resulted from independently varying the length of a catalytic reactor and the length available for gas-phase reactions downstream of the catalyst. Monolithic combustion catalysts from three manufacturers were tested in a combustion test rig with no. 2 diesel fuel. Catalytic reactor lengths of 2.5 and 5.4 cm, and downstream gas-phase reaction distances of 7.3, 12.4, 17.5, and 22.5 cm were evaluated. Measurements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and pressure drop were made. The catalytic-reactor pressure drop was less than 1 percent of the upstream total pressure for all test configurations and test conditions. Nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbons emissions were less than 0.25 g NO2/kg fuel and 0.6 g HC/kg fuel, respectively. The minimum operating temperature (defined as the adiabatic combustion temperature required to obtain carbon monoxide emissions below a reference level of 13.6 g CO/kg fuel) ranged from 1230 K to 1500 K for the various conditions and configurations tested. The minimum operating temperature decreased with increasing total (catalytic-reactor-plus-downstream-gas-phase-reactor-zone) residence time but was independent of the relative times spent in each region when the catalytic-reactor residence time was greater than or equal to 1.4 ms.

  7. Advanced Low-Emissions Catalytic-Combustor Program, phase 1. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgess, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Six catalytic combustor concepts were defined, analyzed, and evaluated. Major design considerations included low emissions, performance, safety, durability, installations, operations and development. On the basis of these considerations the two most promising concepts were selected. Refined analysis and preliminary design work was conducted on these two concepts. The selected concepts were required to fit within the combustor chamber dimensions of the reference engine. This is achieved by using a dump diffuser discharging into a plenum chamber between the compressor discharge and the turbine inlet, with the combustors overlaying the prediffuser and the rear of the compressor. To enhance maintainability, the outer combustor case for each concept is designed to translate forward for accessibility to the catalytic reactor, liners and high pressure turbine area. The catalytic reactor is self-contained with air-cooled canning on a resilient mounting. Both selected concepts employed integrated engine-starting approaches to raise the catalytic reactor up to operating conditions. Advanced liner schemes are used to minimize required cooling air. The two selected concepts respectively employ fuel-rich initial thermal reaction followed by rapid quench and subsequent fuel-lean catalytic reaction of carbon monoxide, and, fuel-lean thermal reaction of some fuel in a continuously operating pilot combustor with fuel-lean catalytic reaction of remaining fuel in a radially-staged main combustor.

  8. Escherichia coli HflK and HflC can individually inhibit the HflB (FtsH)-mediated proteolysis of lambdaCII in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Parua, Pabitra Kumar; Datta, Ajit Bikram; Parrack, Pradeep

    2010-09-15

    LambdaCII is the key protein that influences the lysis/lysogeny decision of lambda by activating several phage promoters. The effect of CII is modulated by a number of phage and host proteins including Escherichia coli HflK and HflC. These membrane proteins copurify as a tightly bound complex 'HflKC' that inhibits the HflB (FtsH)-mediated proteolysis of CII both in vitro and in vivo. Individual purification of HflK and HflC has not been possible so far, since each requires the presence of the other for proper folding. We report the first purification of HflK and HflC separately as active and functional proteins and show that each can interact with HflB on its own and each inhibits the proteolysis of CII. They also inhibit the proteolysis of E. coli sigma(32) by HflB. We show that at low concentrations each protein is dimeric, based on which we propose a scheme for the mutual interactions of HflB, HflK and HflC in a supramolecular HflBKC protease complex. PMID:20599668

  9. Preliminary assignments of 2 ν 3 - ν 4 hot band of 12 CH 4 in the 2 μm transparency window from long-path FTS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. V.; Daumont, L.; Thomas, X.; Régalia, L.; Rey, M.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Brown, L. R.

    2011-07-01

    New measurements and assignments for the rovibrational transitions of the hot band 2 v3- v4 of 12CH 4 are reported from 4600 to 4880 cm -1 and refer to lower part of the 2 μm methane transparency window. Three long-path spectra were recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in Reims using an L = 1603 m absorption path length at 1, 7, 34 h Pa for the natural samples of CH 4; a spectrum of enriched 13CH 4 was also used. Assignments were made for 196 lines of 2 v3(F 2,E)- v4. These transitions had an integrated intensity of 5 × 10 -24 cm/molecule at 296 K and improved the overall description of absorption in the 2.1 μm region. The empirical upper state levels of these assignments belong to Tetradecad (4800-6200 cm -1). The new analysis provided much better accuracies of badly blended positions of 2 v3(F 2)-ground state manifolds at 1.66 μm.

  10. Combining the FtsZ-Targeting Prodrug TXA709 and the Cephalosporin Cefdinir Confers Synergy and Reduces the Frequency of Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Malvika; Mark, Lilly; Parhi, Ajit K; LaVoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Combination therapy of bacterial infections with synergistic drug partners offers distinct advantages over monotherapy. Among these advantages are (i) a reduction of the drug dose required for efficacy, (ii) a reduced potential for drug-induced toxicity, and (iii) a reduced potential for the emergence of resistance. Here, we describe the synergistic actions of the third-generation oral cephalosporin cefdinir and TXA709, a new, FtsZ-targeting prodrug that we have developed with improved pharmacokinetics and enhanced in vivo efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) relative to earlier agents. We show that the active product of TXA709 (TXA707) acts synergistically with cefdinir in vitro against clinical isolates of MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), and linezolid-resistant S. aureus (LRSA). In addition, relative to TXA707 alone, the combination of TXA707 and cefdinir significantly reduces or eliminates the detectable emergence of resistance. We also demonstrate synergy in vivo with oral administration of the prodrug TXA709 and cefdinir in mouse models of both systemic and tissue (thigh) infections with MRSA. This synergy reduces the dose of TXA709 required for efficacy 3-fold. Viewed as a whole, our results highlight the potential of TXA709 and cefdinir as a promising combination for the treatment of drug-resistant staphylococcal infections. PMID:27161635

  11. Sodium chloride-induced filamentation and alternative gene expression of fts, murZ, and gnd in Listeria monocytogenes 08-5923 on vacuum-packaged ham.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoji; Miller, Petr; Basu, Urmila; McMullen, Lynn M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the filament formation and differential gene expression of Listeria monocytogenes 08-5923 grown on refrigerated vacuum-packaged ham products with various NaCl concentrations. Filament formation of L. monocytogenes was observed on ham products with 1.35% and 2.35% NaCl, which was monitored using flow cytometry by measuring forward light scatter. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to study the differential expression of genes in filamented cells of L. monocytogenes grown on hams following 2 or 3 months of storage at 4 °C. The genes involved in cell division (ftsX/lmo2506), cell wall synthesis (murZ/lmo2552), and NADPH production (gnd/lmo1376) were significantly downregulated in filamented cells of L. monocytogenes grown on ham with 2.35% NaCl stored at 4 °C. To our knowledge, this study reports the first evidence of filament formation of Listeria grown on meat products, which could impact the food safety risk and tolerance levels of L. monocytogenes set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25227637

  12. Long-term Trends in Mesospheric Temperatures at high and low latitudes derived from OH airglow spectra of Kiruna FTS and Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongha; Kim, Jeong-Han; Kim, Gawon; Lee, Youngsun

    2016-07-01

    We have analyzed mesospheric temperatures from OH airglow measurements with Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) in the period of 2003 - 2012 at Kiruna (67.9°N, 21.1°E). We also derived mesospheric temperatures from rotational emission lines of the OH airglow (8-3) band in the sky spectra of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the period of 2000 - 2014. The main objective of SDSS is to make a detailed 3-dimensional map of the universe by observing images and spectra of various celestial objects at Apache Point Observatory (APO, 32°N 105°W). From both temperature sets we first estimated the solar responses of mesospheric temperatures to F10.7 variation and the seasonal variation of mesospheric temperatures. After removing the solar response, we found the long-term mesospheric temperature trends of -4 ˜-6.6 K/decade at Kiruna and -0.02 ± 0.7 K/decade at Apache Point. Our results indicate significant cooling trend at the high latitude but very little or no cooling at the low latitude. Although both trends are comparable and consistent with other studies, the temperature trend from SDSS spectra should be regarded as unique contribution to global monitoring of climate change because the SDSS project is completely independent of climate studies.

  13. Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  14. VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-10

    This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of

  15. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, S W

    1981-01-01

    Monolith catalysts of MoO/sub 3/-CoO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were prepared and tested for coal liquefaction in a stirred autoclave. In general, the monolith catalysts were not as good as particulate catalysts prepared on Corning alumina supports. Measurement of O/sub 2/ chemisorption and BET surface area has been made on a series of Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts obtained from PETC. The catalysts were derived from Cyanamid 1442A and had been tested for coal liquefaction in batch autoclaves and continuous flow units. MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts over the loading range 3.9 to 14.9 wt % MoO/sub 3/ have been studied with respect to BET surface (before and after reduction), O/sub 2/ chemisorption at -78/sup 0/C, redox behavior at 500/sup 0/C, and activity for cyclohexane dehydrogenation at 500/sup 0/C. In connection with the fate of tin catalysts during coal liquefaction, calculations have been made of the relative thermodynamic stability of SnCl/sub 2/, Sn, SnO/sub 2/, and SnS in the presence of H/sub 2/, HCl, H/sub 2/S and H/sub 2/O. Ferrous sulfate dispersed in methylnaphthalene has been shown to be reduced to ferrous sulfide under typical coal hydroliquefaction conditions (1 hour, 450/sup 0/C, 1000 psi initial p/sub H/sub 2//). This suggests that ferrous sulfide may be the common catalytic ingredient when either (a) ferrous sulfate impregnated on powdered coal, or (b) finely divided iron pyrite is used as the catalyst. Old research on impregnated ferrous sulfate, impregnated ferrous halides, and pyrite is consistent with this assumption. Eight Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts from commercial suppliers, along with SnCl/sub 2/, have been studied for the hydrotreating of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) in a stirred autoclave at 450 and 500/sup 0/C.

  16. Materials for high-temperature catalytic combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, K.S.; Cox, J.L.; Parks, W.P. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    Catalytic combustion systems for gas turbines must operate at temperatures of at least 1200{degrees}C. Support structure material must retain its integrity under prolonged exposure to high temperature, thermal cycling, and severe chemical conditions; and the material must be capable of being formed into thin sections. The performance requirements of a high-temperature stable ceramic support must be balanced with reasonable costs of preparation. An increasing number of materials have potential for successful exposure to high-temperature conditions. Two major problems of high-temperature catalyst systems are loss of surface area and catalytic activity. Incorporation of the catalytic component into the host lattice can circumvent this problem. Use of supporting active metal oxides on carrier materials with high thermal resistance appears to be a very promising way to make stable catalysts. The challenge will be to provide sufficient low-temperature activity and high-temperature stability; therefore, there exists a need to engineer catalytic materials for high-temperature combustion environments. Developments in catalytic materials and preparation procedures are reviewed. Future areas of research are discussed.

  17. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  18. Olefin fractionation and catalytic conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, H.; Hsia, C.H.; Wright, B.S.

    1989-05-23

    A continuous catalytic system is described for converting a fraction of olefinic feedstock comprising ethylene and C/sub 3/+ olefins to heavier liquid hydrocarbon product comprising: (a) means for prefractionating the olefinic feedstock to obtain a gaseous stream rich in ethylene and a liquid stream containing C/sub 3/+ olefin; (b) means for vaporizing and contacting the liquid stream from the prefractionating step with hydrocarbon conversion oligomerization catalyst in a catalytic reactor system to provide a heavier hydrocarbon effluent stream comprising distillate, gasoline and lighter hydrocarbons; (c) means for fractionating the effluent stream to recover distillate, gasoline and lighter hydrocarbon separately; (d) means for recycling at least a portion of the recovered gasoline as a liquid sorption stream to prefractionating step (a); and (e) means for further reacting the recycled gasoline together with sorbed C/sub 3/+ olefin in the catalytic reactor system of step (b).

  19. Xylan-Degrading Catalytic Flagellar Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ágnes; Szabó, Veronika; Kovács, Mátyás; Patkó, Dániel; Tóth, Balázs; Vonderviszt, Ferenc

    2015-09-01

    Flagellin, the main component of flagellar filaments, is a protein possessing polymerization ability. In this work, a novel fusion construct of xylanase A from B. subtilis and Salmonella flagellin was created which is applicable to build xylan-degrading catalytic nanorods of high stability. The FliC-XynA chimera when overexpressed in a flagellin deficient Salmonella host strain was secreted into the culture medium by the flagellum-specific export machinery allowing easy purification. Filamentous assemblies displaying high surface density of catalytic sites were produced by ammonium sulfate-induced polymerization. FliC-XynA nanorods were resistant to proteolytic degradation and preserved their enzymatic activity for a long period of time. Furnishing enzymes with self-assembling ability to build catalytic nanorods offers a promising alternative approach to enzyme immobilization onto nanostructured synthetic scaffolds. PMID:25966869

  20. The catalytic core of RNase P.

    PubMed Central

    Green, C J; Rivera-León, R; Vold, B S

    1996-01-01

    A deletion mutant of the catalytic RNA component of Escherichia coli RNase P missing residues 87-241 retains the ability to interact with the protein component to form a functional catalyst. The deletion of this phylogenetically conserved region significantly increases the Km, indicating that the deleted structures may be important for binding to the precursor tRNA substrate but not for the cleavage reaction. Under some reaction conditions, this RNase P deletion mutant can become a relatively non-specific nuclease, indicating that this RNA's catalytic center may be more exposed. The catalytic core of the RNase P is formed by less than one third of the 377 residues of the RNase P RNA. PMID:8628683

  1. Asymmetric catalytic transformations in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Shaoguang; Tumas, W.; Gross, M.F.; Burk, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Supercritical carbon dioxide can be a useful environmentally benign solvent for a wide range of catalytic reactions. We have been exploring the utility of supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction medium for catalytic asymmetric transformations. We will present results on the asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral olefins, ketones, and unsaturated acids by Rh and Ru catalysts containing chiral phosphine ligands using hydrogen or hydrogen transfer agents. We have found that asymmetric catalytic hydrogenation reactions of enamide esters work as well or better in CO{sub 2} than in conventional solvents. We have been able to effect high conversions and ee`s using hydrogen transfer systems such as HCOOH/NEt{sub 3}, We will discuss temperature, pressure and solvent density effects on selectivity and reactivity. Kinetic studies will also be presented in order to understand the enhanced enantioselectivity that we observed in SC CO{sub 2}.

  2. ADAR proteins: structure and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Rena A; Macbeth, Mark R; Beal, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) acting on RNA (ADAR) family of proteins in 1988 (Bass and Weintraub, Cell 55:1089-1098, 1988) (Wagner et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:2647-2651, 1989), we have learned much about their structure and catalytic mechanism. However, much about these enzymes is still unknown, particularly regarding the selective recognition and processing of specific adenosines within substrate RNAs. While a crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human ADAR2 has been solved, we still lack structural data for an ADAR catalytic domain bound to RNA, and we lack any structural data for other ADARs. However, by analyzing the structural data that is available along with similarities to other deaminases, mutagenesis and other biochemical experiments, we have been able to advance the understanding of how these fascinating enzymes function. PMID:21769729

  3. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Brauns, Eike; Morsbach, Eva; Kunz, Sebastian; Baeumer, Marcus; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (<150 ms) was developed. Operation with modulated temperature allows analysis of the signal spectrum with advanced information content, based on the Arrhenius approach. Therefore, a high-precise electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal. PMID:25356643

  4. Mass transfer in composite catalytic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Langhendries, G.; Claessens, R.; Baron, G.V.

    1996-12-31

    The partial oxidation of cyclohexane was studied in a composite polymer-zeolite catalytic membrane reactor. In a first step the equilibrium and mass transfer properties (swelling, diffusion and sorption) of dense composite membranes were examined. The swelling behavior of the crosslinked poly(dimethylsiloxane) network was determined for several solvents and related to the differences between the Hildebrand solubility parameters of solvent and polymer. Time lag experiments, which enable us to measure simultaneously diffusion and partition coefficients, were carried out on a dense poly(dimethylsiloxane) membrane. A mathematical model describing the mass transfer behavior of these catalytic membranes was derived and validated with experimental data. Mass transfer through composite catalytic membranes can be predicted using the properties of pure catalyst and polymer material, and a single tortuosity factor. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Catalytic nanomotors: fabrication, mechanism, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, John; Zhao, Yiping

    2011-03-01

    Catalytic nanomotors are nano-to-micrometer-sized actuators that carry an on-board catalyst and convert local chemical fuel in solution into mechanical work. The location of this catalyst as well as the geometry of the structure dictate the swimming behaviors exhibited. The nanomotors can occur naturally in organic molecules, combine natural and artificial parts to form hybrid nanomotors or be purely artificial. Fabrication techniques consist of template directed electroplating, lithography, physical vapor deposition, and other advanced growth methods. Various physical and chemical propulsion mechanisms have been proposed to explain the motion behaviors including diffusiophoresis, bubble propulsion, interfacial tension gradients, and self-electrophoresis. The control and manipulation based upon external fields, catalytic alloys, and motion control through thermal modulation are discussed as well. Catalytic nanomotors represent an exciting technological challenge with the end goal being practical functional nanomachines that can perform a variety of tasks at the nanoscale.

  6. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and

  7. Porous media for catalytic renewable energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotz, Nico

    2012-05-01

    A novel flow-based method is presented to place catalytic nanoparticles into a reactor by sol-gelation of a porous ceramic consisting of copper-based nanoparticles, silica sand, ceramic binder, and a gelation agent. This method allows for the placement of a liquid precursor containing the catalyst into the final reactor geometry without the need of impregnating or coating of a substrate with the catalytic material. The so generated foam-like porous ceramic shows properties highly appropriate for use as catalytic reactor material, e.g., reasonable pressure drop due to its porosity, high thermal and catalytic stability, and excellent catalytic behavior. The catalytic activity of micro-reactors containing this foam-like ceramic is tested in terms of their ability to convert alcoholic biofuel (e.g. methanol) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture with low concentrations of carbon monoxide (up to 75% hydrogen content and less than 0.2% CO, for the case of methanol). This gas mixture is subsequently used in a low-temperature fuel cell, converting the hydrogen directly to electricity. A low concentration of CO is crucial to avoid poisoning of the fuel cell catalyst. Since conventional Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells require CO concentrations far below 100 ppm and since most methods to reduce the mole fraction of CO (such as Preferential Oxidation or PROX) have CO conversions of up to 99%, the alcohol fuel reformer has to achieve initial CO mole fractions significantly below 1%. The catalyst and the porous ceramic reactor of the present study can successfully fulfill this requirement.

  8. How to conceptualize catalytic cycles? The energetic span model.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, Sebastian; Shaik, Sason

    2011-02-15

    A computational study of a catalytic cycle generates state energies (the E-representation), whereas experiments lead to rate constants (the k-representation). Based on transition state theory (TST), these are equivalent representations. Nevertheless, until recently, there has been no simple way to calculate the efficiency of a catalytic cycle, that is, its turnover frequency (TOF), from a theoretically obtained energy profile. In this Account, we introduce the energetic span model that enables one to evaluate TOFs in a straightforward manner and in affinity with the Curtin-Hammett principle. As shown herein, the model implies a change in our kinetic concepts. Analogous to Ohm's law, the catalytic chemical current (the TOF) can be defined by a chemical potential (independent of the mechanism) divided by a chemical resistance (dependent on the mechanism and the nature of the catalyst). This formulation is based on Eyring's TST and corresponds to a steady-state regime. In many catalytic cycles, only one transition state and one intermediate determine the TOF. We call them the TOF-determining transition state (TDTS) and the TOF-determining intermediate (TDI). These key states can be located, from among the many states available to a catalytic cycle, by assessing the degree of TOF control (X(TOF)); this last term resembles the structure-reactivity coefficient in classical physical organic chemistry. The TDTS-TDI energy difference and the reaction driving force define the energetic span (δE) of the cycle. Whenever the TDTS appears after the TDI, δE is the energy difference between these two states; when the opposite is true, we must also add the driving force to this difference. Having δE, the TOF is expressed simply in the Arrhenius-Eyring fashion, wherein δE serves as the apparent activation energy of the cycle. An important lesson from this model is that neither one transition state nor one reaction step possess all the kinetic information that determines the

  9. A premixed hydrogen/oxygen catalytic igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.

    1989-01-01

    The catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants was studied using a premixing hydrogen/oxygen injector. The premixed injector was designed to eliminate problems associated with catalytic ignition caused by poor propellant mixing in the catalyst bed. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, and propellant inlet temperature were varied parametrically in testing, and a pulse mode life test of the igniter was conducted. The results of the tests showed that the premixed injector eliminated flame flashback in the reactor and increased the life of the igniter significantly. The results of the experimental program and a comparison with data collected in a previous program are given.

  10. Catalytic Enantioselective Functionalization of Unactivated Terminal Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Coombs, John R; Morken, James P

    2016-02-18

    Terminal alkenes are readily available functional groups which appear in α-olefins produced by the chemical industry, and they appear in the products of many contemporary synthetic reactions. While the organic transformations that apply to alkenes are amongst the most studied reactions in all of chemical synthesis, the number of reactions that apply to nonactivated terminal alkenes in a catalytic enantioselective fashion is small in number. This Minireview highlights the cases where stereocontrol in catalytic reactions of 1-alkenes is high enough to be useful for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:26764019

  11. Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function.

    PubMed

    Wright, M C; Joyce, G F

    1997-04-25

    A population of RNA molecules that catalyze the template-directed ligation of RNA substrates was made to evolve in a continuous manner in the test tube. A simple serial transfer procedure was used to achieve approximately 300 successive rounds of catalysis and selective amplification in 52 hours. During this time, the population size was maintained against an overall dilution of 3 x 10(298). Both the catalytic rate and amplification rate of the RNAs improved substantially as a consequence of mutations that accumulated during the evolution process. Continuous in vitro evolution makes it possible to maintain laboratory "cultures" of catalytic molecules that can be perpetuated indefinitely. PMID:9110984

  12. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  13. Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. C.; Joyce, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    A population of RNA molecules that catalyze the template-directed ligation of RNA substrates was made to evolve in a continuous manner in the test tube. A simple serial transfer procedure was used to achieve approximately 300 successive rounds of catalysis and selective amplification in 52 hours. During this time, the population size was maintained against an overall dilution of 3 x 10(298). Both the catalytic rate and amplification rate of the RNAs improved substantially as a consequence of mutations that accumulated during the evolution process. Continuous in vitro evolution makes it possible to maintain laboratory "cultures" of catalytic molecules that can be perpetuated indefinitely.

  14. Janus droplet as a catalytic micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklyaev, Sergey

    2015-06-01

    Self-propulsion of a Janus droplet in a solution of surfactant, which reacts on a half of a drop surface, is studied theoretically. The droplet acts as a catalytic motor creating a concentration gradient, which generates its surface-tension-driven motion; the self-propulsion speed is rather high, 60 μ \\text{m/s} and more. This catalytic motor has several advantages over other micromotors: simple manufacturing, easily attained neutral buoyancy. In contrast to a single-fluid droplet, which demonstrates a self-propulsion as a result of symmetry breaking instability, for the Janus one no stability threshold exists; hence, the droplet radius can be scaled down to micrometers.

  15. Retrofit catalytic converter for wood-burning stoves

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The major purpose of this project was to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate a retrofit catalytic converter for woodburning stoves. In the interim between our date of application March 5, 1981 and the beginning of the grant period December 1, 1981, several such devices became commercially available. Therefore, we decided to modify the purpose and direction of our project. In summary, we designed and constructed a calorimeter room in a building located on the campus of Northern Kentucky University. We equipped this room with a woodburning stove and a metal chimney extending through the roof. We designed and constructed the appropriate instrumentation for monitoring the heat output of the stove. We observed and recorded the operating characteristics of this stove over a period of several days. We then equipped the stove with a barometric damper and repeated the experiment. We are now in the process of equipping the stove with a catalytic converter. Thus the major emphasis of the project currently is to test and evaluate several commercial retrofit devices which are purported to reduce creosote and/or increase the efficiency of a woodburning stove.

  16. Long life catalytic membrane reactors for spontaneous conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M., White, J., Deych, S., Millard, J., Myers, M., Sammells, A.

    1997-10-01

    This program is focusing on the development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials based on the brown millerite structure for use in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs). These CMRs are being evaluated for promoting the spontaneous and highly selective oxidative reforming of carbon dioxide / natural gas mixtures to synthesis gas.

  17. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) life stages to flameless catalytic infrared radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility of various life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), a pest of stored wheat, to flameless catalytic infrared radiation in the 3 to 7 µm range was evaluated in the laboratory. Immature stages were collected from flour infested with T. castaneum adults only ...

  18. EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION ON MERCURY, 2002 FIELD STUDIES UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the 2002 "Selective Catalytic Reduction Mercury Field Sampling Project." An overall evaluation of the results from both 2001 and 2002 testing is also provided. The project was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of...

  19. Effects of flameless catalytic infrared radiation on Sitophilus oryzae (L.) life stages