Science.gov

Sample records for fuel combustion waste

  1. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

  2. Combustion of waste fuels in a fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Zylkowski, J.; Ehrlich, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a project whose objectives are to determine the impact of the waste fuels on Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) operating procedures, boiler performance, and emissions and to assess the potential for fuel-specific operating problems. The low-grade waste fuels investigated are hogged railroad ties, shredded rubber tires, peat, refuse-derived fuel, and one or more agricultiral wastes. The Northern States Power (NSP) Company converted their French Island Unit No. 2 stoker-fired boiler to a fluidized-bed combustor designed to burn wood waste. NSP and EPRI are investigating cofiring other waste fuels with wood waste. Topics considered include fluidized-bed boiler conversion, fuel resources, economic justification, environmental considerations, the wood-handling system, an auxiliary fuel system, the air quality control system, ash handling and disposal, and the alternate fuels test program.

  3. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  4. Corrosion of experimental superheater alloys in waste fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Nyloef, L.; Haeggblom, E.

    1997-08-01

    A number of experimental nickel base alloys have been evaluated regarding their resistance against high temperature corrosion in waste fuel combustion. Specimens were produced by hot extrusion of 50 kg ingots and exposed at 450 C and 490 C on cooled testing probes in the superheater section of a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant. The effect on corrosion by different chromium, molybdenum and niobium concentrations were studied in terms of wall thickness reduction during test periods of up to 2,160 hours. Comparison was made with reference materials such as low alloyed pressure vessel steel (ASME SA213 T12), Alloy 28 (UNS N08028) and Alloy 625 (UNS N06625). The results indicated a positive effect in nickel base alloys on corrosion resistance especially of molybdenum but to some extent also of chromium. Nickel, niobium and iron showed no significant effect on corrosion resistance.

  5. Characteristics of soot emitted from combustion of municipal waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Shemwell, B.E.

    2000-07-01

    This manuscript reports on particulate emissions (mainly soot) from laboratory combustion of typical municipal waste plastics, such as poly(styrene)(PS), poly(propylene)(PP), poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA), and poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC). In this experimental study combustion took place in a laboratory-scale, electrically-heated, drop-tube furnace at a gas temperature of 1,500 K, in air. The bulk (global) equivalence ratio, {phi}, was varied in the range of 0.5--1.5 and the gas residence time in the nearly-isothermal radiation zone of the furnace was {approximately}1 sec. The particle emissions were size-classified at the exit of the furnace, using a multi-stage inertial particle impactor. Combustion of PS yielded the highest amounts of soot (most highly agglomerated), several times more than the rest of the polymers. Substantial amounts of soot agglomerates were larger than 10 {micro}m. At this temperature <35% of the soot mass was PM{sub 2.5} (2.5 {micro}m or smaller). Soot yields increased with increasing bulk equivalence ratio in the furnace. The emissions from PE and PP were remarkably similar to each other, but strikingly different than those from PS. These polymers produced very low emissions at {phi} {le} 0.5, but emissions increased drastically with {phi}, and most of the soot was very fine (70--97% of the mass was PM{sub 2.5} depending on {phi}). Emissions from the combustion of PMMA were comparatively low and were the least influenced by the bulk {phi}; 80--95% of the emissions were PM{sub 2.5}. Combustion of PVC yielded relatively low amounts of soot; moreover, only 13--34% of the mass was PM{sub 2.5}. Hence, comparatively, PS produced the highest amounts of fine particulates followed by PP, PE, and PMMA, and then PVC. Burning these materials with excess oxygen drastically reduced the particulate emissions from PE and PP, substantially reduced those from PS, and mildly reduced those from PMMA and PVC.

  6. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: WASTE CO- FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of waste co-firing and auxiliary fuel fired technology and identifies the extent to which co-firing and auxiliary fuel firing are practised. Waste co-firing is defined as the combustion of wastes (e. g., sewage sludge, medical waste, wood waste, and agri...

  7. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FOSSIL FUEL CO-FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; ...

  8. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  10. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

  11. Gaseous emissions from waste combustion.

    PubMed

    Werther, Joachim

    2007-06-18

    An overview is given on methods and technologies for limiting the gaseous emissions from waste combustion. With the guideline 2000/76/EC recent European legislation has set stringent limits not only for the mono-combustion of waste in specialized incineration plants but also for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants. With increased awareness of environmental issues and stepwise decrease of emission limits and inclusion of more and more substances into the network of regulations a multitude of emission abatement methods and technologies have been developed over the last decades. The result is the state-of-the-art waste incinerator with a number of specialized process steps for the individual components in the flue gas. The present work highlights some new developments which can be summarized under the common goal of reducing the costs of flue gas treatment by applying systems which combine the treatment of several noxious substances in one reactor or by taking new, simpler routes instead of the previously used complicated ones or - in the case of flue gas desulphurisation - by reducing the amount of limestone consumption. Cost reduction is also the driving force for new processes of conditioning of nonhomogenous waste before combustion. Pyrolysis or gasification is used for chemical conditioning whereas physical conditioning means comminution, classification and sorting processes. Conditioning yields a fuel which can be used in power plants either as a co-fuel or a mono-fuel and which will burn there under much better controlled conditions and therefore with less emissions than the nonhomogeneous waste in a conventional waste incinerator. Also for cost reasons, co-combustion of wastes in coal-fired power stations is strongly pressing into the market. Recent investigations reveal that the co-firing of waste can also have beneficial effects on the operating behavior of the boiler and on the gaseous emissions. PMID:17339077

  12. Fluidized bed combustion of pelletized biomass and waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Solimene, R.; Salatino, P.; Urciuolo, M.

    2008-10-15

    The fluidized bed combustion of three pelletized biogenic fuels (sewage sludge, wood, and straw) has been investigated with a combination of experimental techniques. The fuels have been characterized from the standpoints of patterns and rates of fuel devolatilization and char burnout, extent of attrition and fragmentation, and their relevance to the fuel particle size distribution and the amount and size distribution of primary ash particles. Results highlight differences and similarities among the three fuels tested. The fuels were all characterized by limited primary fragmentation and relatively long devolatilization times, as compared with the time scale of particle dispersion away from the fuel feeding ports in practical FBC. Both features are favorable to effective lateral distribution of volatile matter across the combustor cross section. The three fuels exhibited distinctively different char conversion patterns. The high-ash pelletized sludge burned according to the shrinking core conversion pattern with negligible occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The low-ash pelletized wood burned according to the shrinking particle conversion pattern with extensive occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The medium-ash pelletized straw yielded char particles with a hollow structure, resembling big cenospheres, characterized by a coherent inorganic outer layer strong enough to prevent particle fragmentation. Inert bed particles were permanently attached to the hollow pellets as they were incorporated into ash melts. Carbon elutriation rates were very small for all the fuels tested. For pelletized sludge and straw, this was mostly due to the shielding effect of the coherent ash skeleton. For the wood pellet, carbon attrition was extensive, but was largely counterbalanced by effective afterburning due to the large intrinsic reactivity of attrited char fines. The impact of carbon attrition on combustion efficiency was negligible for all the fuels tested. The size

  13. Fuels research: Combustion effects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of broadened property fuels on gas turbine combustors were assessed. Those physical and chemical properties of fuels that affect aviation gas turbine combustion were isolated and identified. Combustion sensitivity to variations in particular fuel properties were determined. Advanced combustion concepts and subcomponents that could lessen the effect of using broadened property fuels were also identified.

  14. Dry additives-reduction catalysts for flue waste gases originating from the combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Hard coal is the basic energy generating raw material in Poland. In 1990, 60% of electricity and thermal energy was totally obtained from it. It means that 100 million tons of coal were burned. The second position is held by lignite - generating 38% of electricity and heat (67.3 million tons). It is to be underlined that coal combustion is particularly noxious to the environment. The coal composition appreciably influences the volume of pollution emitted in the air. The contents of incombustible mineral parts - ashes - oscillates from 2 to 30%; only 0.02 comes from plants that had once originated coal and cannot be separated in any way. All the rest, viz. the so-called external mineral substance enters the fuel while being won. The most indesirable hard coal ingredient is sulfur whose level depends on coal sorts and its origin. The worse the fuel quality, the more sulfur it contains. In the utilization process of this fuel, its combustible part is burnt: therefore, sulfur dioxide is produced. At the present coal consumption, the SO{sub 2} emission reaches the level of 3.2 million per year. The intensifies the pressure on working out new coal utilization technologies, improving old and developing of pollution limiting methods. Research is also directed towards such an adaptation of technologies in order that individual users may also make use thereof (household furnaces) as their share in the pollution emission is considerable.

  15. Impact of oxy-fuel combustion gases on mercury retention in activated carbons from a macroalgae waste: effect of water.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Anton, M A; Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Díaz-Somoano, M; Suarez-Ruíz, I; Martínez-Tarazona, M R; Ruiz, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the different sorption behaviors of mercury species on activated carbons in the oxy-fuel combustion of coal and the effect of high quantities of water vapor on the retention process. The work evaluates the interactions between the mercury species and a series of activated carbons prepared from a macroalgae waste (algae meal) from the agar-agar industry in oxy-combustion atmospheres, focussing on the role that the high concentration of water in the flue gases plays in mercury retention. Two novel aspects are considered in this work (i) the impact of oxy-combustion gases on the retention of mercury by activated carbons and (ii) the performance of activated carbons prepared from biomass algae wastes for this application. The results obtained at laboratory scale indicate that the effect of the chemical and textural characteristics of the activated carbons on mercury capture is not as important as that of reactive gases, such as the SOx and water vapor present in the flue gas. Mercury retention was found to be much lower in the oxy-combustion atmosphere than in the O2+N2 (12.6% O2) atmosphere. However, the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to form oxidized mercury (Hg2+) amounted to 60%, resulting in an enhancement of mercury retention in the flue gas desulfurization units and a reduction in the amalgamation of Hg0 in the CO2 compression unit. This result is of considerable importance for the development of technologies based on activated carbon sorbents for mercury control in oxy-combustion processes. PMID:25585865

  16. Burning waste with FBC. [Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Salaff, S.

    1991-11-01

    This article examines fluidized bed combustion as a method of choice for disposing for waste economically and within the bounds of rigid environmental standards. The topics discussed in the article include technology scaleup, wood and fossil wastes, municipal and hospital wastes, fuel flexibility, and a sidebar on the fluidized bed combustion technology. The waste fuels of major interest are various low grade liquid and solid residues from the coal, oil, forest products and automotive industries, as well as post-harvest biomass and municipal refuse.

  17. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  18. Study of combustion and emission characteristics of fuel derived from waste plastics by various waste to energy (W-t-E) conversion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazrat, M. A.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of plastic wastes by means of producing energy can be treated as a good investment in the waste management and recycling sectors. In this article, conversion of plastics into liquid fuel by two thermo-chemical processes, pyrolysis and gasification, are reviewed. The study showed that the catalytic pyrolysis of homogenous waste plastics produces better quality and higher quantity of liquefied fuel than that of non-catalytic pyrolysis process at a lower operating temperature. The syngas produced from gasification process, which occurs at higher temperature than the pyrolysis process, can be converted into diesel by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction process. Conducive bed material like Olivine in the gasification conversion process can remarkably reduce the production of tar. The waste plastics pyrolysis oil showed brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of about 27.75%, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 0.292 kg/kWh, unburned hydrocarbon emission (uHC) of 91 ppm and NOx emission of 904 ppm in comparison with the diesel for BTE of 28%, BSFC of 0.276 kg/kWh, uHC of 57 ppm and NOx of 855 ppm. Dissolution of Polystyrene (PS) into biodiesel also showed the potential of producing alternative transport fuel. It has been found from the literature that at higher engine speed, increased EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) quantity based biodiesel blends reduces CO, CO2, NOx and smoke emission. EPS-biodiesel fuel blend increases the brake thermal efficiency by 7.8%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) by 7.2% and reduces brake power (Pb) by 3.2%. More study using PS and EPS with other thermoplastics is needed to produce liquid fuel by dissolving them into biodiesel and to assess their suitability as a transport fuel. Furthermore, investigation to find out most suitable W-t-E process for effective recycling of the waste plastics as fuel for internal combustion engines is necessary to reduce environmental pollution and generate revenue which will be addressed in this article.

  19. Biosolids - a fuel or a waste? An integrated appraisal of five co-combustion scenarios with policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Elise Cartmell; Peter Gostelow; Drusilla Riddell-Black; Nigel Simms; John Oakey; Joe Morris; Paul Jeffrey; Peter Howsam; Simon J. Pollard

    2006-02-01

    An integrated appraisal of five technology scenarios for the co-combustion of biosolids in the UK energy and waste management policy context is presented. Co-combustion scenarios with coal, municipal solid waste, wood, and for cement manufacture were subject to thermodynamic and materials flow modeling and evaluated by 19 stakeholder representatives. All scenarios provided a net energy gain (0.58-5.0 kWh/kg dry solids), having accounted for the energy required for transportation and sludge drying. Co-combustion within the power generation and industrial (e.g., cement) sectors is most readily implemented but provides poor water utility control, and it suffers from poor public perception. Co-combustion with wastes or biomass appears more sustainable but requires greater investment and presents significant risks to water utilities. Incongruities within current energy and waste management policy are discussed and conclusions for improved understanding are drawn. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  1. Combustion process with waste gas purification

    SciTech Connect

    Almlof, G.; Hagqvist, P.

    1983-07-12

    The invention relates to a combustion process with cleansing of the waste gases by compressing, cooling and expanding said gases. The invention provides a continuous process in which highly contaminated low-grade fuels having a high water content can be effectively burned and the waste gases efficiently cleansed, by subjecting the cooled waste gases, together with residual non-desired substances, to a rapid drop in pressure in one or more stages by means of an expansion means, whereat the input drive power of the compressor, required for compressing said gases, is so high that the temperature downstream of the expansion means is sufficiently low for the condensation and precipitation of frozen contaminants in the waste gases, together with ice crystals. The invention can be applied to all forms of combustion plants, primarily combined power and heating plants fired with fuel having a high sulphur and water content.

  2. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  7. Fuel quality combustion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, D. W.; Moses, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    A high pressure research combustor operating over a wide range of burner inlet conditions was used to determine the effects of fuel molecular structure on soot formation. Six test fuels with equal hydrogen content (12.8%) were blended to stress different molecular components and final boiling points. The fuels containing high concentrations (20%) of polycyclic aromatics and partially saturated polycyclic structures such as tetralin, produced more soot than would be expected from a hydrogen content correlation for typical petroleum based fuels. Fuels containing naphthenes such as decalin agreed with the hydrogen content correlation. The contribution of polycyclic aromatics to soot formation was equivalent to a reduction in fuel hydrogen content of about one percent. The fuel sensitivity to soot formation due to the polycyclic aromatic contribution decreased as burner inlet pressure and fuel/air ratio increased.

  8. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman

    2008-05-15

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  9. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION, MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY, EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  10. LOW NOX STRATEGY FOR COMBUSTING HIGH NITROGEN CONTENT FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a multistaged combustion urner (designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficieiicy) for [high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 1.0 MW package boiler. simulator. A low NOx precombustion cham...

  11. Effects of Fuel to Synthesis of CaTiO3 by Solution Combustion Synthesis for High-Level Nuclear Waste Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Choong-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Ku; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2016-02-01

    A solution combustion process for the synthesis of perovskite (CaTiO3) powders is described. Perovskite is one of the crystalline host matrics for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) because it immobilizes Sr and Lns elements by forming solid solutions. Solution combustion synthesis, which is a self-sustaining oxi-reduction reaction between nitrate and organic fuel, the exothermic reaction, and the heat evolved convert the precursors into their corresponding oxide products above 1100 degrees C in air. To investigate the effects of amino acid on the combustion reaction, various types of fuels were used; a glycine, amine and carboxylic ligand mixture. Sr, La and Gd-nitrate with equivalent amounts of up to 20% of CaTiO3 were mixed with Ca and Ti nitrate and amino acid. X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM and TEM were conducted to confirm the formed phases and morphologies. While powders with an uncontrolled shape are obtained through a general oxide-route process, Ca(Sr, Lns)TiO3 powders with micro-sized soft agglomerates consisting of nano-sized primary particles can be prepared using this method. PMID:27433645

  12. Combustion device for liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Y.; Ohmukai, Y.; Tomisawa, T.

    1980-10-21

    A device is described which includes a porous burner head capable of containing a liquid fuel in a liquid state and in which air is supplied to the surface of the burner head to vaporize and burn the fuel contained therein. The burner head is made of a heat resistant porous material having extending therethrough minute channels which are predominantly up to 100 mu M in diameter and give the burner head a porosity of at least 25%. The burner head is capable of raising the liquid fuel at a rate of at least 0.001 g/cm/sub 2/ min to a height of up to 70 mm. The use of the burner head assures clean combustion and high combustion efficiency.

  13. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  18. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  19. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  20. Optimization of hydrocarbon fuels combustion variable composition in thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifullin, E. R.; Larionov, V. M.; Busarov, A. V.; Busarov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that associated petroleum gas and refinery waste can be used as fuel in thermal power plants. However, random changes in the composition of such fuels cause instability of the combustion process. This article explores the burning of hydrocarbon fuel in the case of long continuous change of its specific heat of combustion. The results of analysis were used to develop a technique of optimizing the combustion process, ensuring complete combustion of the fuel and its minimum flow.

  1. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Joel Meier; Mosbacher, David Matthew; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  2. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  3. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  4. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  5. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants. PMID:21284885

  6. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  7. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the results of an assessment of fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) to minimize air emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Objectives of the assessment were to identify the population of existing and planned refuse fired FBC facilities in the U.S., exa...

  8. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  9. Oscillating combustion from a premix fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    Stringent emissions requirements for stationary gas turbines have produced new challenges in combustor design. In the past, very low NOx pollutant emissions have been achieved through various combustion modifications, such as steam or water injection, or post-combustion cleanup methods such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). An emerging approach to NOx abatement is lean premix combustion. Lean premix combustion avoids the cost and operational problems associated with other NOx control methods. By premixing fuel and air at very low equivalence ratios, the high temperatures which produce NOx are avoided. The challenges of premix combustion include avoiding flashback, and ensuring adequate fuel/air premixing. In addition, the combustion must be stable. The combustor should not operate so close to extinction that a momentary upset will extinguish the flame (static stability), and the flame should not oscillate (dynamic stability). Oscillations are undesirable because the associated pressure fluctuations can shorten component lifetime. Unfortunately, experience has shown that premix fuel nozzles burning natural gas are susceptible to oscillations. Eliminating these oscillations can be a costly and time consuming part of new engine development. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is investigating the issue of combustion oscillations produced by lean premix fuel nozzles. METC is evaluating various techniques to stabilize oscillating combustion in gas turbines. Tests results from a premix fuel nozzle using swirl stabilization and a pilot flame are reported here.

  10. Combustion behavior of solid fuel ramjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, D. W.; Binn, B. A.; Scott, W. E.; Metochianakis, M.

    1980-01-01

    Nonreacting flowfield characteristics and fundamental fuel properties are considered with respect to their use in estimating the obtainable combustion efficiency for fuels and/or combustor geometries. It is shown that near wall turbulence intensity in nonreacting flow appears to correlate reasonably well with the fuel regression pattern in identical geometries. The HTPB based fuels exhibit solid phase exothermic reactions in contrast to purely endothermic reactions for plexiglas. It is further shown that combustion pressure oscillations appear to be related to physically induced disturbances to the fluctuating shear layers at the fuel grain and aft mixing chamber inlets.

  11. Biomass fuel combustion and health*

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, H. W.; Smith, K. R.; Last, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Biomass fuels (wood, agricultural waste, and dung) are used by about half the world's population as a major, often the only, source of domestic energy for cooking and heating. The smoke emissions from these fuels are an important source of indoor air pollution, especially in rural communities in developing countries. These emissions contain important pollutants that adversely affect health—such as suspended particulate matter and polycyclic organic matter which includes a number of known carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene, as well as gaseous pollutants like carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Exposure to large amounts of smoke may present a health risk that is of a similar order of magnitude to the risk from tobacco smoke. The effects on health arising from exposure to air pollution are reviewed, based on what has been reported in the literature so far. Further and more detailed information on exposures and on the epidemiological aspects is urgently required. The persons most frequently affected are women who do the cooking for households in rural villages; they suffer from impaired health due to prolonged and repeated contact with these harmful pollutants. When they are pregnant, the developing fetus may also be exposed and this leads to the risk of excess deaths. In the developing countries, exposure to biomass fuel emissions is probably one of the most important occupational health hazards for women. A conservatively estimated 300-400 million people worldwide, mostly in the rural areas of developing countries, are affected by these problems. PMID:3872729

  12. Combustion of oil palm solid wastes in fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    1995-12-31

    The palm oil industry of Malaysia is the largest in the world producing about 55% of the world production. The industry has approximately 270 mills throughout the country with processing sizes ranging from 10 tonnes/hour to 120 tonnes/hour. All mills produce solid wastes, about 50% of the fresh fruit bunches in terms of weight. The solid wastes produced are in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibers and shells. These wastes have high energy value, ranging from 14 to 18 MJ/kg. The industry is currently self-sufficient in terms of energy. Fibers and shell wastes are being used as boiler fuel to raise steam for electrical power production and process steam. However, the combustion technology currently being employed is obsolete with low efficiency and polluting. A fluidized bed combustor pilot plant is designed and constructed at Combustion Research Laboratory, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The combustor is made up of 600 mm {times} 900 mm rectangular bed filled with sand up to 400 mm height, static. A bank of heat transfer tubes is imbedded in the bed, designed to absorb 50% of heat released by the fuel in the bed. The remaining heat is transferred in tubes placed on the wall of the freeboard area. Experimental studies were carried out in the pilot plant using palm oil solid wastes. The combustion temperatures were maintained in the range 800--900 C. The performance of the combustor was evaluated in terms of combustion and boiler efficiencies and flue gas emissions monitored.

  13. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  14. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, T.S.

    1995-06-01

    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.

  15. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  16. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  17. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2016-06-28

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  18. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Oda, H.; Tokushima, T.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a combustion chamber, the system comprising (a) an intake passage for introducing an intake gas into the combustion chamber and provided with an intake valve; (b) a fuel injection valve for injecting fuel into the intake passage in the vicinity of the combustion chamber; (c) operating condition detecting means for detecting the operating condition of the engine and outputting a signal corresponding to the thus detected operating condition; (d) fuel injection amount determining means which receives an output signal of the operating conditions detecting means, thereby determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber, and outputs a signal corresponding to thus determined amount; (e) crankshaft angle detecting means for detecting the rotation angle of the crankshaft; (f) injection timing control means which receives signals from the fuel injection amount determining means and crankshaft angle detecting means, outputs a start signal for actuating the fuel injection valve and a termination signal for terminating the actuation of the fuel injection valve, and actuates the fuel injection valve for the duration between the start and termination signals, thereby supplying an amount of fuel determined by the fuel injection amount determining means; (g) the start and termination signals being set against the crankshaft angle so that the whole fuel injection from the injection valve to the intake passage under light load operation of the engine reaches the combustion chamber substantially in the latter half of the intake stroke before the intake valve is closed.

  19. Pollutant Formation in Monodisperse Fuel Spray Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cernansky, N. P.; Sarv, H.

    1983-01-01

    The combustion of liquid sprays represents an extremely important class of combustion processes. In the transition region, encompassing droplet sizes in the range of 25-80 micron diameter, the mixing and evaporation processes are both incomplete at the flame front and burning occurs in a combined diffusive and premixed fashion. Under these conditions, the relative importance of heterogeneous and homogeneous effects in dominating the combustion process is switched and gives rise to a number of interesting phenomena. NO (sub x) formation in monodisperse spray combustion was investigated with the following specific objectives: (1) to quantitatively determine the effect of droplet size, number density, etc. on NO sub x formation in monodisperse fuel spray combustion; and (2) to isolate the important physical and chemical phenomena in NO sub x formation in these combustion systems.

  20. Combustion characteristics of gas turbine alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance values for specific heavyend, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. A flame tube combustor modified to duplicate an advanced gas turbine engine combustor was used for the tests. Each fuel was tested at steady-state operating conditions over a range of mass flow rates, fuel-to-air mass ratio, and inlet air temperatures. The combustion pressure, as well as the hardware, were kept nearly constant over the program test phase. Test results were obtained in regards to geometric temperature pattern factors as a function of combustor wall temperatures, the combustion gas temperature, and the combustion emissions, both as affected by the mass flow rate and fuel-to-air ratio. The synthetic fuels were reacted in the combustor such that for most tests their performance was as good, if not better, than the baseline gasoline or diesel fuel tests. The only detrimental effects were that at high inlet air temperature conditions, fuel decomposition occurred in the fuel atomizing nozzle passages resulting in blockage. And the nitrogen oxide emissions were above EPA limits at low flow rate and high operating temperature conditions.

  1. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  2. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Merritt, Sylvia A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot. Increasing

  3. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  4. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2006-03-15

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  5. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R. |

    1997-08-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data.

  6. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  11. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  12. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  13. Thermal effect of hydrocarbon fuels combustion after a sudden change in the specific calorific value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifullin, E. R.; Larionov, V. M.; Busarov, A. V.; Busarov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Using associated gas and waste oil refineries in thermal power plants, a complex problem due to the variability in fuel composition. This article explores the burning of hydrocarbon fuel in the case of an abrupt change in its specific combustion heat. Results of the analysis allowed developing a technique of stabilizing the rate of heat release, ensuring complete combustion of the fuel and its minimum flow.

  14. Hybrid combustion with metallized fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Jianwen; Wygle, Brian S.; Bates, Ronald W.; Jones, Michael D.; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method of adding certain catalysts to improve the degradation process of a solid fuel is discussed. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis used to study the fundamental degradation behavior of a typical hybrid fuel (HTPB) shows that high surface temperatures increase the degradation rate. Fuels were tested in a laboratory-scale experimental hybrid rocket and their behavior was compared to a baseline behavior of HTPB fuel regression rates. It was found that a small amount of metal powder added to the fuel can significantly increase the regression rates.

  15. Combustion engine for solid and liquid fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, W.

    1986-01-01

    A combustion engine having no piston, a single cylinder, and a dual-action, that is applicable for solid and liquid fuels and propellants, and that functions according to the principle of annealing point ignition is presented. The invention uses environmentally benign amounts of fuel and propellants to produce gas and steam pressure, and to use a simple assembly with the lowest possible consumption and constant readiness for mixing and burning. The advantage over conventional combustion engines lies in lower consumption of high quality igniting fluid in the most cost effective manner.

  16. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: MEDICAL WASTE COMBUSTION PRACTICES AT MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines and characterizes types of medical waste, discusses the impacts of burning medical waste on combustor emissions, and outlines important handling and operating considerations. Facility-specific design, handling, and operating practiced are also discussed for mun...

  17. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  18. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

  19. Comparison of fuel value and combustion characteristics of two different RDF samples.

    PubMed

    Sever Akdağ, A; Atımtay, A; Sanin, F D

    2016-01-01

    Generation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) tends to increase with the growing population and economic development of the society; therefore, establishing environmentally sustainable waste management strategies is crucial. In this sense, waste to energy strategies have come into prominence since they increase the resource efficiency and replace the fossil fuels with renewable energy sources by enabling material and energy recovery instead of landfill disposal of the wastes. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), which is an alternative fuel produced from energy-rich Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials diverted from landfills, is one of the waste to energy strategies gaining more and more attention. This study aims to investigate the thermal characteristics and co-combustion efficiency of two RDF samples in Turkey. Proximate, ultimate and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted on these samples. Furthermore, elemental compositions of ash from RDF samples were determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The RDF samples were combusted alone and co-combusted in mixtures with coal and petroleum coke in a lab scale reactor at certain percentages on energy basis (3%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30%) where co-combustion processes and efficiencies were investigated. It was found that the calorific values of RDF samples on dry basis were close to that of coal and a little lower compared to petroleum coke used in this study. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that when RDF in the mixture was higher than 10%, the CO concentration in the flue gas increased and so the combustion efficiency decreased; furthermore, the combustion characteristics changed from char combustion to volatile combustion. However, RDF addition to the fuel mixtures decreased the SO2 emission and did not change the NOx profiles. Also, XRF analysis showed that the slagging and fouling potential of RDF combustion was a function of RDF portion in fuel blend. When the RDF was combusted alone, the slagging and fouling

  20. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  1. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  2. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, RE- FUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I: SUMMARY OF RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  3. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION, MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY, EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  4. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  5. COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes basic incineration technology. Terminology is defined and EPA's regulations stated. The universe of incinerated and incinerable waste is described. Technology descriptions are provided for liquid injection incineration, rotary kiln incineration, at-sea incin...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  9. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines....

  15. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines....

  16. Santilli's new fuels as sources of clean combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Indrani B. Das

    2013-10-01

    Molecular combustion or nuclear fission is the conventional source of energy, which are not clean as they generate large amount of green house gas or nuclear waste. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. However, each of these sources has their own limitations and is dependent on geographical locations. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review on such novel fuels like Hadronic energy of non-nuclear type (combustion of MagneGas) and nuclear type (intermediate controlled nuclear fusion and particle type like stimulated neutron decay) has been presented.

  17. Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alt, Otto

    1924-01-01

    Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.

  18. Study of PAH emission from the solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces.

    PubMed

    Kakareka, Sergey V; Kukharchyk, Tamara I; Khomich, Valery S

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for and results of a test study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a few types of solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces of various designs typical for Belarus are discussed. Greatest levels of PAH emission were detected from domestic wastes and wood waste combustion. Lowest levels of PAH emission are from peat briquette combustion. It was found that PAH concentration in off-gases from firewood combustion also varies significantly depending on the type of wood: the highest values of PAH are typical for waste gases from birch firewood combustion in comparison with pine firewood combustion. Draft PAH emission factors are proposed with intended application for emission inventory of such installations. PMID:15519469

  19. Evaporation and Combustion Characteristics of Multicomponent Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Pavan; Stagni, Alessandro; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Current generation fuels are mixtures of hundreds of complicated organic compounds and accurate modeling of their combustion characteristics provides fundamental physical insights which also help in the design of efficient combustors. This however requires accurate simulation of both evaporation and combustion processes, which, in case of such fuels, demands an approach based on calculating properties using only the information of functional groups present in the mixture. The presentation will elaborate on the assumptions and the framework utilized for evaporation and chemical mechanisms. We also present a comparison between various fuels used in the aviation industry as test cases while highlighting on their pros and cons. The focus of the talk will however be on the physical aspects captured using 1D simulations, i.e., preferential evaporation of each species, ignition parameters and emissions while justifying the numerical calculations with experimental data at each stage. Further work involving the coupling of flow with evaporation and combustion can be performed and we briefly discuss why a DNS is necessary to characterize the various combustion regimes. Federal Aviation Administration.

  20. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

  1. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, O. O.

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  2. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  3. Small scale combustion testing of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, G.A.; Ekmann, J.M.; Navadauskas, R.J.; White, C.M.

    1982-03-01

    In order to assess any changes in the environmental impact of industrial or utility boiler exhaust gases upon changing from petroleum-based fuels to synthetic fuels, detailed characterizations of the exhaust emissions from both types of fuels burned under identical combustion conditions are required. A 20-hp (approximately 5 gallons of liquid fuel feed per hour) firetube boiler has been installed in the Combustion Technology Division of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) so such experiments can be performed. The boiler is fully instrumented for heat and material balance measurements, including analysis of the major and minor components of the combustion gases and the total hydrocarbons and particulates present in the gases. In addition, the exhaust duct of the boiler has a sampling port adjacent to the one used for major and minor components; this port is used to sample exhaust gases for the analysis of the trace organic compounds present in the gases. The Analytical Chemistry Division of PETC is developing the sampling and analytical methodologies for the trace organics. The effort to date has been focused on the problems involved in sampling the hot (ca. 350/sup 0/F) exhaust gases and on the analysis of the gases for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

  4. Disposal of Liquid Combustible Wastes using Flameless Burners with Porous Carbon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Sergei; Savchenko, Evgenii; Khaustov, Sergei; Tabakaev, Roman; Zavorin, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Two modifications of flameless burners with a carbon porous media in the combustion area were investigated. Kerosene TS-1 and mixtures of highly flammable liquids wastes (HIL) were used as fuel. Experimental data are presented in a graphical form as plot of the burner thermal capacity. Results show capacity for of the developed devices and prove the prospects of disposal of liquid combustible wastes using flameless burners with porous carbon matrix.

  5. Apparatus for the premixed gas phase combustion of liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Roffe, G.A.; Trucco, H.A.

    1981-04-21

    This invention relates to improvements in the art of liquid fuel combustion and, more particularly, concerns a method and apparatus for the controlled gasification of liquid fuels, the thorough premixing of the then gasified fuel with air and the subsequent gas-phase combustion of the mixture to produce a flame substantially free of soot, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and unburned fuel.

  6. Fuel Droplet Burning During Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.4MB, 13-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300168.html.

  7. Plasma-aided solid fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    E.I. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko

    2007-07-01

    Plasma supported solid fuel combustion is promising technology for use in thermal power plants (TPP). The realisation of this technology comprises two main steps. The first is the execution of a numerical simulation and the second involves full-scale trials of plasma supported coal combustion through plasma-fuel systems (PFS) mounted on a TPP boiler. For both the numerical simulation and the full-scale trials, the boiler of 200 MW power of Gusinoozersk TPP (Russia) was selected. The optimization of the combustion of low-rank coals using plasma technology is described, together with the potential of this technology for the general optimization of the coal burning process. Numerical simulation and full-scale trials have enabled technological recommendations for improvement of existing conventional TPP to be made. PFS have been tested for boilers plasma start-up and flame stabilization in different countries at 27 power boilers steam productivity of 75-670 tons per hour (TPH) equipped with different type of pulverised coal burners. At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were used. Volatile content of them varied from 4 to 50%, ash from 15 to 48% and calorific values from 6700 to 25,100 KJ/kg. In summary, it is concluded that the developed and industrially tested PFS improve coal combustion efficiency and decrease harmful emission from pulverised coal-fired TPP. 9 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. PEER REVIEW SUPPORTING THE STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF COAL COMBUSTION WASTES PART 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been working on developing risk assessments to assist regulators, industry, and the public in evaluating the environmental risks associated with Fossil Fuel Combustion Waste(s) (FFCW) management/disposal in landfills, surface impoundments, other disposal procedures and b...

  9. Fuel NOx production during the combustion of low caloric value fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Colaluca, M.A.; Caraway, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this investigation is to identify and qualify physical mechanisms and parameters that affect the combustion of low caloric value gases (LCVG) and the formation of NOx pollutants produced form fuel bound nitrogen. Average physical properties of a low caloric value gas were determined from the products of several industrial coal gasifiers. A computer model was developed, utilizing the PHOENICS computational fluid dynamics software to model the combustion of LCVG. The model incorporates a 3-dimensional physical design and is based on typical industrial combustors. Feed stock to the gasifier can be wood, feed stock manure, cotton gin trash, coal, lignite and numerous forms of organic industrial wastes.

  10. Studies of oscillatory combustion and fuel vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borman, G. L.; Myers, P. S.; Uyehara, O. A.

    1972-01-01

    Research projects involving oscillatory combustion and fuel vaporization are reported. Comparisons of experimental and theoretical droplet vaporization histories under ambient conditions such that the droplet may approach its thermodynamic critical point are presented. Experimental data on instantaneous heat transfer from a gas to a solid surface under conditions of oscillatory pressure with comparisons to an unsteady one-dimensional model are analyzed. Droplet size and velocity distribution in a spray as obtained by use of a double flash fluorescent method were investigated.

  11. Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D.

    1997-04-01

    A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle.combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14 percent control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {minus}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

  12. Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D.

    1995-04-01

    A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

  13. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  18. Nanocluster initiation of combustion of off-grade hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, S. V.; Pashchenko, S. É.; Salomatov, V. V.

    2010-09-01

    We have performed large-scale experiments on burning, in the regime of nanocluster pulsating combustion, such off-grade fuels as straw oil, hydrocarbon fuel, exhaust crankcase waste, crude oil, and others on the laboratory prototype of the self-contained burner of the Institute of Thermal Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The application of modern diagnostics has made it possible to obtain a large body of information on the features of the physicochemical processes of such combustion in the presence of superheated steam. The experimental and theoretical studies have shown that as a result of the heterogeneouscatalytic decomposition of water molecules on soot nanoclusters in the mixing zone, high concentrations of the OH radical are formed and that this decomposition can be effective on carbon particles of size 1-5 nm at temperatures characteristic of traditional flares. The generation of an active OH radical leads to a significant increase in the rates of chemical reactions and a stable high-temperature combustion of "heavy" fuels with the observance of ecological norms.

  19. Comparison of waste combustion and waste electrolysis - A systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Little, Frank E.

    1989-01-01

    A steady state model of a closed environmental system has been developed which includes higher plant growth for food production, and is designed to allow wastes to be combusted or electrolyzed. The stoichiometric equations have been developed to evaluate various trash compositions, food items (both stored and produced), metabolic rates, and crew sizes. The advantages of waste electrolysis versus combustion are: (1) oxygen is not required (which reduces the load on the oxygen producing system); (2) the CO2 and H2 products are produced in pure form (reducing the load on the separators); and (3) nitrogen is converted to nitrate (which is directly usable by plants). Weight tradeoff studies performed using this model have shown that waste electrolysis reduces the life support weight of a 4-person crew by 1000 to 2000 kg.

  20. Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

  1. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  2. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  3. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  4. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts.

    PubMed

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilä, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-01

    Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO(2)-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved. PMID:22079250

  5. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  6. Fluidized bed combustion of low-grade coal and wastes: Research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Borodulya, V.A.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.; Vinogradov, L.M.; Dobkin, S.M.; Telegin, E.M.

    1994-12-31

    Experimental studies were carried out to investigate devolatilization of fuel as single spherical particles of wood, hydrolytic lignin, leather sewage sludge and Belarussian brown coals in a fluidized bed of sand. It is found that the devolatilization process depends on moisture and ash contents in fuel and on the external heat and mass transfer rate. The char combustion occurs largely in the intermediate region. Kinetic parameters of the devolatilization and char combustion are obtained. A low-capacity fluidized bed boiler suitable for combustion of coal and different wastes is described.

  7. Synthetic fuel aromaticity and staged combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Longanbach, J. R.; Chan, L. K.; Levy, A.

    1982-11-15

    Samples of middle and heavy SRC-II distillates were distilled into 50 C boiling point range fractions. These were characterized by measurements of their molecular weight, elemental analysis and basic nitrogen content and calculation of average molecular structures. The structures typically consisted of 1 to 3 aromatic rings fused to alicyclic rings with short, 1 to 3 carbon aliphatic side chains. The lower boiling fractions contained significant amounts (1 atom/molecule) of oxygen while the heavier fractions contained so few heteroatoms that they were essentially hydrocarbons. Laboratory scale oxidative-pyrolysis experiments were carried out at pyrolysis temperatures of 500 to 1100 C and oxygen concentrations from 0 to 100 percent of stoichiometry. Analysis of liquid products, collected in condensers cooled with liquid nitrogen showed that aromatization is a major reaction in the absence of oxygen. The oxygen-containing materials (phenolics) seem to be more resistant to thermal pyrolysis than unsubstituted aromatics. Nitrogen converts from basic to nonbasic forms at about 500 C. The nonbasic nitrogen is more stable and survives up to 700 C after which it is slowly removed. A recently constructed 50,000 Btu/hr staged combustor was used to study the chemistry of the nitrogen and aromatics. SRC II combustion was studied under fuel-rich, first-stage conditions at air/fuel ratios from 0.6 to 1.0 times stoichiometric. The chemistry of the fuel during combustion calls for further investigation in order to examine the mechanism by which HCN is evolved as a common intermediate for the formation of the nitrogen-containing gaseous combustion products. 25 references, 45 figures, 25 tables.

  8. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Shen, Ming-shing

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. The iron oxide present in the spent limestone is found to catalyze the regeneration rate of the spent limestone in a reducing environment. Thus both the calcium and iron components may be recycled.

  9. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combusts homogeneous waste (excluding refuse-derived fuel) to produce electricity. (3) You notify the... (excluding refuse-derived fuel) to produce electricity and steam or other forms of energy used for industrial... of the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (f) Materials recovery units. Your unit is exempt from this...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combusts homogeneous waste (excluding refuse-derived fuel) to produce electricity. (3) You notify the... (excluding refuse-derived fuel) to produce electricity and steam or other forms of energy used for industrial... of the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (f) Materials recovery units. Your unit is exempt from this...

  11. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, H.R.; Gralton, G.W.; Gronauer, T.W.; Liljedahl, G.N.; Love, B.F.

    1987-06-01

    Activities conducted under this contract include studies on the combustion and fireside behavior of numerous coal-water fuels (CWFs). The work has been broken down into the following areas: Task 1 -- Selection of Candidate Fuels; Task 2 -- Bench Scale Tests; Task 3 -- CWF Preparation and Supply; Task 4 -- Combustion Characterization; Task 5 -- Ash Deposition and Performance Testing; Task 6 -- Commercial Applications. This report covers Task 6, the study of commercial applications of CWFs as related to the technical and economic aspects of the conversion of existing boilers and heaters to CWF firing. This work involves the analysis of seven units of various sizes and configurations firing several selected CWFs. Three utility boilers, two industrial boilers, and two process heater designs are included. Each of the units was considered with four primary selected CWFs. A fifth fuel was considered for one of the utility units. A sixth fuel, a microfine grind CWF, was evaluated on two utility units and one industrial unit. The particular fuels were chosen with the objective of examining the effects of coal source, ash level, ash properties, and beneficiation on the CWF performance and economics of the seven units. 10 refs., 81 figs., 80 tabs.

  12. Designing the microturbine engine for waste-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Seljak, Tine; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper deals with adaptation procedure of a microturbine (MGT) for exploitation of refuse derived fuels (RDF). RDF often possess significantly different properties than conventional fuels and usually require at least some adaptations of internal combustion systems to obtain full functionality. With the methodology, developed in the paper it is possible to evaluate the extent of required adaptations by performing a thorough analysis of fuel combustion properties in a dedicated experimental rig suitable for testing of wide-variety of waste and biomass derived fuels. In the first part key turbine components are analyzed followed by cause and effect analysis of interaction between different fuel properties and design parameters of the components. The data are then used to build a dedicated test system where two fuels with diametric physical and chemical properties are tested - liquefied biomass waste (LW) and waste tire pyrolysis oil (TPO). The analysis suggests that exploitation of LW requires higher complexity of target MGT system as stable combustion can be achieved only with regenerative thermodynamic cycle, high fuel preheat temperatures and optimized fuel injection nozzle. Contrary, TPO requires less complex MGT design and sufficient operational stability is achieved already with simple cycle MGT and conventional fuel system. The presented approach of testing can significantly reduce the extent and cost of required adaptations of commercial system as pre-selection procedure of suitable MGT is done in developed test system. The obtained data can at the same time serve as an input for fine-tuning the processes for RDF production. PMID:26116004

  13. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information in the document is based on presentations at the EPA-sponsored seminar series on Operational Parameters for Hazardous Waste Combustion Devices. This series consisted of five seminars held in 1992. Hazardous waste combustion devices are regulated under the Resource...

  14. Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R.

    2008-12-15

    The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

  15. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  16. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lachowicz, Y.V.; LaFlesh, R.C.

    1987-07-01

    This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. This report summarizes studies conducted under Task 4. The objective was to quantify CWF atomization and combustion properties utilizing industrial/utility scale equipment. Burners were evaluated and combustion performance differences identified for various CWF formulations. 12 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1957-01-01

    Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.

  18. Analysis of options for coal combustion waste management in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

    1993-10-01

    Many Pacific Basin countries rely on oil for electricity production. Alternative fuel sources such as coal, which is available in the Pacific Basin, can help mitigate adverse impacts of sudden price increases or supply disruptions. Coal combustion produces solid and potentially hazardous wastes of concern to environmental regulators and utility managers. This paper identifies issues associated with managing coal combustion wastes in the Pacific Basin, using the state of Hawaii as a case study. Hawaii is typical of many Pacific Basin locations in that it depends on oil, has limited sites, for waste management operations, and is subject to domestic and international waste management regulations. The paper discusses coal-fired utility wastes, environmental impacts of coal combustion waste disposal, and regulatory requirements that impact coal waste management. From this baseline, potential on- and off-island options for coal waste management are identified. Waste management costs are estimated and non-quantifiable issues are addressed for each option. Many options are applicable across the Pacific Rim and may serve as a basis for future fuel-use decisions.

  19. Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high temperature air combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kunio

    1999-07-01

    High temperature air combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high temperature air gasification of coal/wastes and high temperature air combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high temperature air of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high temperature air for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.

  20. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-09-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, with 30 wt.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture.

  1. LIEKKI and JALO: Combustion and fuel conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Thomas M.; Renz, Ulrich; Sarofim, Adel F.

    LIEKKI and JALO are well conceived and structured programs designed to strengthen Finland's special needs in combustion and gasification to utilize a diversity of fuels, increase the ratio of electrical to heat output, and to support the export market. Started in 1988, these two programs provide models of how universities, Technical research center's laboratories (VTT's), and industry can collaborate successfully in order to achieve national goals. The research is focused on long term goals in certain targeted niche areas. This is an effective way to use limited resources. The niche areas were chosen in a rational manner and appear to be appropriate for Finland. The LIEKKl and JALO programs have helped pull together research efforts that were previously more fragmented. For example, the combustion modeling area still appears fragmented. Individual project objectives should be tied to program goals at a very early stage to provide sharper focusing to the research. Both the LIEKKl and JALO programs appear to be strongly endorsed by industry. Industrial members of the Executive Committees were very supportive of these programs. There are good mechanisms for technology transfer in place, and the programs provide opportunities to establish good interfaces between industrial people and the individual researchers. The interest of industry is shown by the large number of applied projects that are supported by industry. This demonstrates the relevancy of the programs. There is a strong interaction between the JALO program and industry in black liquor gasification.

  2. Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO₂ allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011. PMID:22143900

  3. APPLICATION OF STAGED COMBUSTION AND REBURNING TO THE CO-FIRING OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 MW precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-furnace NOx control, high combustion efficiency, and retrofit applications, for use with high nitrogen content fuel/waste mixtures. he 250- to 750- ms residence time precombustion c...

  4. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  5. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  6. Pressurized cyclonic combustion method and burner for particulate solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, F.D.; Milligan, J.D.; Morrison, J.A.

    1989-07-25

    This paper describes an apparatus for burning particulate combustible fuel to produce a pressurized gas for operating a gas turbine. It comprises: a housing having side wall means forming a generally cylindrically shaped primary combustion chamber, a secondary chamber and a choke opening of reduced size between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary chamber; a fuel opening formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber near the end wall means for introducing a particulate fuel under pressure therein generally tangentially to the inner wall of the primary combustion chamber and transverse to its axis; a plurality of spaced apart tuyere openings formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber; at least one quench gas opening formed through side wall means of the choke opening intermediate its ends for introducing a quench gas into the choke opening for cooling the hot gas flowing.

  7. Characteristics and combustion of future hydrocarbon fuels. [aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    As the world supply of petroleum crude oil is being depleted, the supply of high-quality crude oil is also dwindling. This dwindling supply is beginning to manifest itself in the form of crude oils containing higher percentages of aromatic compounds, sulphur, nitrogen, and trace constituents. The result of this trend is described and the change in important crude oil characteristics, as related to aircraft fuels, is discussed. As available petroleum is further depleted, the use of synthetic crude oils (those derived from coal and oil shale) may be required. The principal properties of these syncrudes and the fuels that can be derived from them are described. In addition to the changes in the supply of crude oil, increasing competition for middle-distillate fuels may require that specifications be broadened in future fuels. The impact that the resultant potential changes in fuel properties may have on combustion and thermal stability characteristics is illustrated and discussed in terms of ignition, soot formation, carbon deposition flame radiation, and emissions.

  8. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II

  9. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  10. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the Department of Energy initiated a comprehensive effort in 1982 to develop the necessary performance and cost data and to assess the commercial viability of coal water fuels (CWFs) as applied to representative utility and industrial units. The effort comprised six tasks beginning with coal resource evaluation and culminating in the assessment of the technical and economic consequences of switching representative commercial units from oil to state-of-the-art CWF firing. Extensive bench, pilot and commercial-scale tests were performed to develop necessary CWF combustion and fireside performance data for the subsequent boiler performance analyses and retrofit cost estimates. This report (Volume 2) provides a review of the fuel selection and procurement activities. Included is a discussion on coal washability, transport of the slurry, and characterization. 20 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOEpatents

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  12. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    PubMed

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  13. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced. PMID:25947054

  14. Converting a fuel to combustible gas

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, G.

    1985-04-02

    A sulfur-containing fuel is passed into a first fluidized bed containing CaSO/sub 4/ and CaO and an oxygen-transfer mediator (e.g. H/sub 2/) whereby the fuel is converted to combustible gas, some CaSO/sub 4/ being reduced to CaS and sulfur being fixed as CaS by reaction with CaO. Bed particles pass from the bottom layer of the first bed into the bottom layer of the second bed which is fluidized by air at conditions such that some, but not all of the CaS is selectively oxidized to CaSO/sub 4/ with no liberation of sulfur moieties. Bed particles pass from the bottom layer of second bed to the bottom layer of a third bed optionally after passage via a fourth bed between the second and third beds. In the third bed particles are fluidized with air to convert CaS selectively to CaSO/sub 4/ with no liberation of sulfur moiety whereby to raise the particles' temperature sufficiently above that of the first bed that particles passing from the bottom layer of the third bed into the bottom layer of the first bed provide sufficient sensible heat to maintain the fuel conversion temperature of the first bed. In the fourth bed particles are fluidized with air under such conditions that sulfur moiety is liberated, preferably at a rate which approximately equals the rate of sulfur-capture in the first bed whereby to maintain approximately a constant amount of reactive CaO in the beds for sulfur-capture in the first bed.

  15. Pressurized cyclonic combustion method and burner for particulate solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, F.D.; Milligan, J.D.; Morrison, J.A.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a method of operating a burner for burning particulate combustible fuel for producing a hot gas under pressure for operating a gas turbine, the burner comprising a housing having side wall means forming a cylindrical shape primary combustion chamber, a secondary chamber, and a choke opening of reduced size between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary chamber, the secondary chamber being in fluid communication with the primary combustion chamber through the choke opening, the end of the primary combustion chamber opposite the choke opening being closed by end wall means, the end of the secondary chamber opposite the choke opening having an outlet opening for the passage of hot gas for use of operating a gas turbine, a particulate fuel opening formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber near the end wall means.

  16. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  17. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. otary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. he pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln ...

  18. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

  19. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Gralton, G.W.; Lachowicz, Y.V.; Laflesh, R.C.; Levasseur, A.A.; Liljedahl, G.N.

    1989-02-01

    This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. Unit performance analyses showed significantly better load capacity for utility and industrial boilers as the CWF feed coal ash content is reduced to 5% or 2.6%. In general, utility units had more attractive capacity limits and retrofit costs than the industrial boilers and process heaters studied. Economic analyses indicated that conversion to CWF firing generally becomes feasible when differential fuel costs are above $1.00/10{sup 6}Btu. 60 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Pressurized cyclonic combustion method and burner for particulate solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, F.D.; Milligan, J.D.; Morrison, J.A.

    1988-02-16

    A system for burning particulate combustible fuel to produce a pressurized gas for operating a gas turbine is described comprising: a housing having side wall means forming a primary combustion chamber, a secondary chamber and a choke opening for reduced size between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary chamber. The secondary chamber is in fluid communication with the primary combustion chamber through the choke opening. The end of the primary combustion chamber opposite the choke opening is closed by end wall means. The end of the secondary chamber opposite the choke opening has an outlet opening for the passage of hot gas therethrough. A gas turbine is coupled to the outlet opening of the secondary chamber for operation by the gas passing through the outlet opening. A fuel opening is formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber near the end wall means for introducing a particulate fuel under pressure therein generally tangentially to the inner wall of the primary combustion chamber and transverse to its axis such that the particulate fuel travels toward the choke opening in a helical path around the inner wall of the primary combustion chamber for burning therein for the production of hot gas under pressure for flow through the choke opening to the secondary chamber.

  1. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  2. Fuel Vapor Pressures and the Relation of Vapor Pressure to the Preparation of Fuel for Combustion in Fuel Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.

  3. Fish oil as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Blythe, N.X.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of combustion studies performed with fish oil and fish oil/diesel fuel blends in a medium speed, two cycle, opposed piston engine. Performance and emissions results with blends from 10% to 100% fish oil in diesel fuel are presented. Combustion cycle analysis data comparisons are made between fish oil and diesel fuel operation. Component inspection results and analysis of deposits found in the engine after the tests are also presented. Finally, comparisons between fish oil and other biodiesel fuels are made.

  4. Production of new biomass/waste-containing solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.; Shirey, G.; Zitron, Z.; Nowak, M.

    2000-07-01

    The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and waste byproducts as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. One method of addressing these issues is to produce composite fuels composed of a pelletized mixture of biomass and other constituents. However, for composite fuels to be extensively used in the US, especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed. Also, standard formulations of biomass and coal (possibly including waste) with broad application to US boilers must be identified. In addition to acceptable cost, these standard formulations can provide environmental benefits relative to coal. The Department of Energy along with the Electric Power Research Institute and various industry partners has funded CQ Inc. to develop both a dewatering/pelletizing die and three standard formulations of biomass, coal, and waste byproducts. Six biomass/waste sources were initially selected for study: petroleum coke, mixed waste plastic, switchgrass, waxed cardboard, poultry manure, and sewage sludge. A sample representative of each source was collected and analyzed. Also, two sources of coal, recovered from waste ponds, were collected for use in the project.

  5. Combustion technology overview. [the use of broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of combustor technology developments required for use of broadened property fuels in jet aircraft is presented. The intent of current investigations is to determine the extent to which fuel properties can be varied, to obtain a data base of combustion - fuel quality effects, and to determine the trade-offs associated with broadened property fuels. Subcomponents of in-service combustors such as fuel injectors and liners, as well as air distributions and stoichiometry, are being altered to determine the extent to which fuel flexibility can be extended. Finally, very advanced technology consisting of new combustor concepts is being evolved to optimize the fuel flexibility of gas turbine combustors.

  6. Hydrocarbon-fuel/combustion-chamber-liner materials compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of material compatibility experiments using hydrocarbon fuels in contact with copper-based combustion chamber liner materials are presented. Mil-Spec RP-1, n- dodecane, propane, and methane fuels were tested in contact with OFHC, NASA-Z, and ZrCu coppers. Two distinct test methods were employed. Static tests, in which copper coupons were exposed to fuel for long durations at constant temperature and pressure, provided compatibility data in a precisely controlled environment. Dynamic tests, using the Aerojet Carbothermal Test Facility, provided fuel and copper compatibility data under realistic booster engine service conditions. Tests were conducted using very pure grades of each fuel and fuels to which a contaminant, e.g., ethylene or methyl mercaptan, was added to define the role played by fuel impurities. Conclusions are reached as to degradation mechanisms and effects, methods for the elimination of these mechanisms, selection of copper alloy combustion chamber liners, and hydrocarbon fuel purchase specifications.

  7. Fuels from biomass and wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klass, D. L.; Emert, G. H.

    The production, use, and effects of fuels from biomass and waste energy sources are discussed. Biomass procurement from silviculture, including hybrid poplar and sycamore farms, in addition to the growth of mass algal culture and Jerusalem artichokes for fuels are considered. The conversion of biomass and solid waste materials through biological and thermal gasification, hydrolysis and extraction, and fermentation to produce ethanol, along with natural and thermal liquefaction processes involving euphorbia lathyris and cellulosic materials are elaborated. Environmental and health aspects of biomass and waste conversion systems are outlined, noting the large land surface areas needed for significant contributions to total demands from biomass, specific instances and case studies are reviewed for biomass use in Indiana, the Dominican Republic, the southeast U.S., and in small wood stoves.

  8. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-06-01

    The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and missions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects test; and full-scale combustion tests.

  9. Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, B.I.

    1987-01-13

    An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means, operable to release heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means, including the expansion chamber, in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; carburetor means in fluid communication with the converter means for metering and mixing vaporized alcohol with air for proper combustion and for feeding the mixture to an internal combustion engine; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the fuel storage means to the heat exchanger means, converter means, carburetor means, and to the engine.

  10. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  11. Gas turbine fuels and their influence on combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Odgers, J.; Kretschmer, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the general fuel situation and the occurrence and origin of fuels as both raw materials or synthesized products, and considers possible future research requirements necessary to ensure sufficient knowledge to the designer. After establishing the properties of fuels, the remainder of the book is devoted to assessing their effects upon gas turbine combustors. The fuels are considered in three groups - solids, liquids, and gases. For solid fuels, notes are included on direct firing, the use of slurries, indirect firing, and fluidized bed combustion. Liquid fuels include considerations of fuels derived from oil shales, tar sands, coal derivatives, and alcohols. Gaseous fuels run the gamut of very wide fuel compositions, ranging from high calorific fuels (above 20 MJ/m/sup 3/) to very low calorific fuels (less than 5 MJ/m/sup 3/). For all of these fuels, data are cited to enable changes in combustion behaviour to be assessed with respect to flame temperatures, flame stability and extinction, combustion efficiency and the occurrence of pollutants within the exhaust, heat transfer within the combustor and possible effects upon chamber life. Where the effects are serious, possible changes to the equipment are indicated.

  12. A Nonlinear Model for Fuel Atomization in Spray Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor); Ibrahim, Essam A.; Sree, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Most gas turbine combustion codes rely on ad-hoc statistical assumptions regarding the outcome of fuel atomization processes. The modeling effort proposed in this project is aimed at developing a realistic model to produce accurate predictions of fuel atomization parameters. The model involves application of the nonlinear stability theory to analyze the instability and subsequent disintegration of the liquid fuel sheet that is produced by fuel injection nozzles in gas turbine combustors. The fuel sheet is atomized into a multiplicity of small drops of large surface area to volume ratio to enhance the evaporation rate and combustion performance. The proposed model will effect predictions of fuel sheet atomization parameters such as drop size, velocity, and orientation as well as sheet penetration depth, breakup time and thickness. These parameters are essential for combustion simulation codes to perform a controlled and optimized design of gas turbine fuel injectors. Optimizing fuel injection processes is crucial to improving combustion efficiency and hence reducing fuel consumption and pollutants emissions.

  13. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion unit? 60.1015 Section 60.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... What is a new municipal waste combustion unit? (a) A new municipal waste combustion unit is a...

  14. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: COMBUSTION CONTROL AT NEW FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides the supporting data and rationale used to establish baseline emission levels for model plants that represent portions of the planned and projected population of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The baseline emissions represent performance levels that are exp...

  15. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: COMBUSTION CONTROL AT EXISTING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides the supporting data and rationale used to establish baseline emission levels for model plants that represent portions of the planned and projected population of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The baseline emissions represent performance levels that are exp...

  16. Densified fuels from wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    Wood compressed to a specific gravity of about 1.2 constitutes an excellent clean burning fuel. {open_quotes}Prestologs{close_quotes} were marketed before 1940, but in the past ten years a much larger and growing market is densified pellet fuel has developed. The market for pellet fuel is about 90% residential, using special pellet burning stoves. Initial sales were almost entirely in the northwest, but sales in other parts of the country are now growing rapidly. Approximately 300,000 stoves are in use. Note that this industry developed from the private sector with little or no support from federal or state governments. Densified fuel is manufactured by drying and compressing sawdust feedstock. Combustion is different than that of normal wood. For example, wood pellets require ample supplies of air. They then burn with a hot flame and very low particulate emissions. Volatile organic compounds are burned almost completely and carbon monoxide can also be kept very low. Stoves burning pellets easily meet EPA standards. This paper discusses technical and economic factors associated with densified fuel and considers the future of the industry.

  17. FUEL RICH SULFUR CAPTURE IN A COMBUSTION ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A refractory-lined, natural gas furnace was used to study fuel rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel rich sulfur species H2S and COS were monitored in a near-continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equipped with a fl...

  18. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  19. NASA broadened-specification fuels combustion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fear, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The broadened-Specification Fuels Combustion Technology program's purpose is to evolve and demonstrate the technology required to enable current and next generation high-thrust, high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to use fuels with broadened properties and to verify the evolved technology in full scale engine tests. The three phases of the program are combustor concept screening, combustor optimization testing, and engine verification testing. Constraints for designing combustion systems are outlined and problems to be expected in the use of broadened properties fuels are listed.

  20. Utilization of ventilation air methane as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler.

    PubMed

    You, Changfu; Xu, Xuchang

    2008-04-01

    Ventilation air methane (VAM) accounts for 60-80% of the total emissions from coal mining activities in China, which is of serious greenhouse gas concerns as well as a waste of valuable fuel sources. This contribution evaluates the use of the VAM utilization methods as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. The paper describes the system design and discusses some potential technical challenges such as methane oxidation rate, corrosion, and efficiency. Laboratory experimentation has shown that the VAM can be burnt completely in circulated fluidized bed furnaces, and the VAM oxidation does not obviously affect the boiler operation when the methane concentration is less than 0.6%. The VAM decreased the incomplete combustion loss for the circulating fluidized bed combustion furnace. The economic benefit from the coal saving insures that the proposed system is more economically feasible. PMID:18505001

  1. Utilization of ventilation air methane as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Changfu You; Xuchang Xu

    2008-04-01

    Ventilation air methane (VAM) accounts for 60-80% of the total emissions from underground coal mining activities in China, which is of serious greenhouse gas concerns as well as a waste of valuable fuel sources. This contribution evaluates the use of the VAM utilization methods as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. The paper describes the system design and discusses some potential technical challenges such as methane oxidation rate, corrosion, and efficiency. Laboratory experimentation has shown that the VAM can be burnt completely in circulated fluidized bed furnaces, and the VAM oxidation does not obviously affect the boiler operation when the methane concentration is less than 0.6%. The VAM decreased the incomplete combustion loss for the circulating fluidized bed combustion furnace. The economic benefit from the coal saving insures that the proposed system is more economically feasible. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  3. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000. PMID:24433051

  5. The aerosol radiative effects of uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodros, John K.; Cucinotta, Rachel; Ridley, David A.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Open, uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste is a potentially significant source of aerosol; however, this aerosol source is not generally included in many global emissions inventories. To provide a first estimate of the aerosol radiative impacts from domestic-waste combustion, we incorporate the Wiedinmyer et al. (2014) emissions inventory into GEOS-Chem-TOMAS, a global chemical-transport model with online aerosol microphysics. We find domestic-waste combustion increases global-mean black carbon and organic aerosol concentrations by 8 and 6 %, respectively, and by greater than 40 % in some regions. Due to uncertainties regarding aerosol optical properties, we estimate the globally averaged aerosol direct radiative effect to range from -5 to -20 mW m-2; however, this range increases from -40 to +4 mW m-2 when we consider uncertainties in emission mass and size distribution. In some regions with significant waste combustion, such as India and China, the aerosol direct radiative effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2. Similarly, we estimate a cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of -13 mW m-2, with a range of -4 to -49 mW m-2 due to emission uncertainties. In the regions with significant waste combustion, the cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2.

  6. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO{sub 2}; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  7. Combustion of coal-gas fuels in a staged combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T J; McVey, J B; Sederquist, R A; Schultz, D F

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources have been considered for use in industrial gas turbines. Such fuels generally have heating values much lower than the typical gaseous fuel, natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Additionally, coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable NO/sub x/ exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations have indicated that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low NO/sub x/ emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels containing up to 0.8-wt % nitrogen. An experimental program has been conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7% ammonia are presented. The test results permit the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Staged, rich-lean combustion represents the desirable approach to achieve ultra-low NO/sub x/ and CO emissions for coal gas fuels with heating values of 210 kJ/mol (238 Btu/scf) or higher. (2) Lean combustion represents the desirable approach to achieve ultra-low NO/sub x/ and CO emissions for coal gas fuels with low heating values (84 kJ/mol (95 Btu/scf)). (3) Staged combustion has the ability to limit NH/sub 3/ to NO/sub x/ conversion rates to less than 5%. NO/sub x/ emissions below the EPA limit can readily be achieved.

  8. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  9. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  10. Apparatus and method for combusting low quality fuel

    DOEpatents

    Brushwood, John Samuel; Pillsbury, Paul; Foote, John; Heilos, Andreas

    2003-11-04

    A gas turbine (12) capable of combusting a low quality gaseous fuel having a ratio of flammability limits less than 2, or a heat value below 100 BTU/SCF. A high quality fuel is burned simultaneously with the low quality fuel to eliminate instability in the combustion flame. A sensor (46) is used to monitor at least one parameter of the flame indicative of instability. A controller (50) having the sensor signal (48) as input is programmed to control the relative flow rates of the low quality and high quality fuels. When instability is detected, the flow rate of high quality fuel is automatically increased in relation to the flow rate of low quality fuel to restore stability.

  11. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  12. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  13. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Combustion of Automotive Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Silke, E J

    2006-11-10

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of fuels, including olefins and cycloalkanes used in diesel, spark-ignition and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate mixtures of hydrocarbon components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on production of emissions from practical automotive engines.

  14. Combustion fundamentals of pyrolysis oil based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Calabria, R.; Chiariello, F.; Massoli, P.

    2007-04-15

    The combustion behavior of emulsions of pyrolysis oil in commercial diesel oil was studied. The emulsions were different in terms of concentration and size of the dispersed phase. The study was carried out in a single droplet combustion chamber. The size of droplets varied between 400 {mu}m and 1200 {mu}m. They were suspended to a bare thermocouple and, hence, their temperature during combustion was measured. High-speed digital shadowgraphy was used to follow droplets evolution. The main features of the droplet combustion were recognized. The general combustion behavior of emulsions is intermediate with respect to pure PO and commercial diesel oil. Emulsion droplets underwent strong swelling and microexplosion phenomena. However, under the investigated conditions, the microexplosions were ineffective in destroying droplets. The size distribution of the dispersed PO droplets in the range 3-10 {mu}m was not effective either for determining the overall thermal behavior or for the efficacy of the microexplosions. The homogeneous combustion phase resulted identical for emulsions and diesel oil despite the emulsions composition (i.e., concentration of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, as well as the size of the oil droplets in the emulsion) and the different structure of the flame and also its time and spatial evolution. (author)

  15. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOEpatents

    Patrick, Brian R.; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn; Summers, Cathy Ann; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul Chandler

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  16. Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Krishnasamy; Ra, youngchul; Reitz, Rolf; Bunting, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

  17. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  18. Fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Freyer, E.; Steinwart, J.; Will, P.

    1981-01-06

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes an air suction pipe, a throttle valve located in the pipe, and a member, upstream of the throttle valve, which is actuatable by air flowing through the suction pipe so as to move a piston valve to dose a quantity of fuel to a fuel injection nozzle. The system includes a duct which bypasses the throttle valve, the duct having a valve which closes the duct when the throttle valve is closed and when the engine is above the idling speed. Dosing of fuel is thereby stopped during coasting of a vehicle, leading to decreased fuel consumption.

  19. High-pressure combustion of binary fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikami, Masato; Kono, Michikata; Sato, Jun'ichi; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this study is to obtain fundamental information relevant to combustion processes that occur in fuel sprays of practical interest at high pressures in internal combustion engines. Since practical fuels are multicomponent and derived from petroleum, the present work involves the model alkane mixture of n-heptane and n-hexadecane. Since burning droplets in sprays can interact with each other, the present work involves investigation of the effects of this interaction on flame shapes and droplet burning times. The small droplets in practical combustion chambers are not significantly influenced by buoyancy. Since such small droplets are difficult to study experimentally, the present work takes advantage of microgravity to lessen buoyancy and enable information about droplet interactions to be obtained by studying larger droplets. The results are intended to provide fundamental understanding that can be used in improving descriptions of practical spray combustion.

  20. Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Scramjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Cutler, A. D.

    2002-01-01

    Activities in the area of scramjet fuel-air mixing and combustion associated with the Research and Technology Organization Working Group on Technologies for Propelled Hypersonic Flight are described. Work discussed in this paper has centered on the design of two basic experiments for studying the mixing and combustion of fuel and air in a scramjet. Simulations were conducted to aid in the design of these experiments. The experimental models were then constructed, and data were collected in the laboratory. Comparison of the data from a coaxial jet mixing experiment and a supersonic combustor experiment with a combustor code were then made and described. This work was conducted by NATO to validate combustion codes currently employed in scramjet design and to aid in the development of improved turbulence and combustion models employed by the codes.

  1. The Fossil Fuel Combustion Waste Leaching Code -- including the GMIN chemical equilibrium model and the HELP water balance model. Volume 2, Technical manual for the FOWL-GH{trademark} code

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.

    1993-12-01

    This document is a technical reference manual for FOWL-GH{trademark}, the FOssil Fuel Combustion Waste Leaching Code. FOWL-GH{trademark} predicts the chemical composition of fifteen chemical constituents (Ba, Ca, Cd, CO{sub 3} Cr, Cu, Mo, SO{sub 4}, Sr, As, B, Ni, Se, Zn, and total dissolved solids), plus the pH (H{sup +}), as a function of time at electric utility by-product disposal sites. Boron and Zn are considered only in the ponded site option. These sites may contain fly ash, bottom ash, or flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludges. FOWL-GH{trademark} considers both landfill and slurry pond disposal sites. FOWL-GH{trademark} is a completely restructured and recoded version of the original FOWL{trademark} model. The major improvements in FOWL-GH{trademark} are the inclusion of a chemical equilibrium model (GMIN) to perform the geochemical calculations, a recoded version of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model for water-balance calculations at landfill sites, the capability to model slurry pond sites, an enhanced user-oriented interface, improved mechanistic (thermodynamic) and empirical data for several elements, and the capability to model concentrations of highly soluble salts. This manual describes the scientific basis for the calculations in FOWL-GH{trademark}. An overview of the structure of the model is also provided. The reliability of the geochemical-module calculations is demonstrated by an extensive comparison of model calculations with experimental data from laboratory batch experiments and data collected at field disposal sites. The results show good agreement with the experimental and field data for most of the chemical constituents included in the model.

  2. The Fossil Fuel Combustion Waste Leaching Code -- including the GMIN chemical equilibrium model and the HELP water balance model. Volume 1: User`s guide for the FOWL-GH{trademark} code

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.

    1993-12-01

    This document is a user`s manual for FOWL-GH{trademark}, the FOssil Fuel Combustion Waste Leaching Code. The necessary input data, model output, installation procedures, and example test cases for FOWL-GH{trademark} are described in this manual. FOWL-GH{trademark} predicts the chemical composition of fifteen chemical constituents (Ba, Ca, Cd, CO{sub 3}, Cr, CU, Mo, SO{sub 4}, Sr, Zn, As, B, Ni, Se, and the total dissolved solids), plus the pH (H{sup +}), as a function of time at electric utility by-product disposal sites. These sites may contain fly ash, bottom ash, or flue gas desulfurization sludges. FOWL-GH{trademark} considers both landfill and slurry-pond disposal sites. FOWL-GH{trademark} is a completely restructured and recoded version of the original FOWL{trademark} model. The major improvements in FOWL-GH{trademark} are the inclusion of a chemical equilibrium model (GMIN) to perform the geochemical calculations, a recoded version of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model for water-balance calculations at landfill sites, the capability to model slurry-pond sites, an enhanced user-oriented interface, improved mechanistic (thermodynamic) and empirical data for several elements, and the capability to model concentrations of highly soluble salts. The actual implementation of these features is described in the accompanying technical manual (Felmy et al. 1993). FOWL-GH{trademark} distributed in executable form for IBM-compatible personal computers by the Electric Power Software Center through an Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (EPRI) license.

  3. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  4. Portable safety flare for combustion of waste gases

    SciTech Connect

    Straitz, J.F.

    1981-03-10

    A portable safety flare for combustion of waste gases is disclosed for the combustion of combustible gas from oil wells, combustible waste gas from oil refineries and chemical plants, and particularly where it is not desired to go to the expense of installing a flare stack or for use in exploratory operations close to residential areas, or where the flare stack is not functional so that shut-down of the refinery would be required until the flare stack is repaired, and which preferably includes a vehicular trailer body with a floor and having stabilizing supports and side walls movable from closed positions for transport to elevated and heat shielding positions for use, and with provisions for noise suppression, the floor having waste gas burners thereabove with pilots and ignitors for staged combustion of the gas, the floor and walls being protected against the heat generated by the combustion, the trailer having sources of pressure fluid for operating various components and a source of igniting gas, and a motor driven tractor, separable from the trailer, the tractor having a control panel with pilot controls, staging control with manual override, and other controls.

  5. Proceedings: 1991 Conference on Waste Tires as a Utility Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-28

    540The objective of the 1991 EPRI Conference on Waste Tires as a Utility Fuel was to provide a status report on tire-derived fuel (TDF) preparation and combustion for power generation. Interest in use of waste tires as fuel is growing due to the need to dispose of the more than 200 million scrap tires generated each year and about two billion tires that now reside in scrap tire piles and landfills in the United States. Thirteen papers were presented at the conference on a range of topics, including alternate fuel cofiring, state scrap tire management programs, tire-derived fuel preparation and properties, cofiring TDF and coal in utility boilers, and fluidized bed combustion of TDF. Based on laboratory testing and early utility test burns of up to 10 percent TDF with coal in cyclone and wet bottom pulverized-coal boilers, it appears that TDF cofiring is technically feasible and does not adversely affect environmental emissions. However, careful control of TDF quality is needed to produce fuel with acceptable particle size and loose metal content in order to avoid fuel handling problems at the power plant. 30 refs., 40 figs., 40 tabs.

  6. Experience with the combustion of alternate fuels in a CFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Probst, S.G.; Wu, S.; Edvardsson, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    A circulating fluidized bed pilot plant has been operated for several years in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, by Tampella Power Corporation to test the combustion characteristics of many different types of fuels. The fuels tested at the facility include: bituminous and anthracite coals; bituminous (gob) and anthracite (culm) waste; fluid and delayed petroleum coke; Colorado and Israel oil shales; tire derived fuel (TDF); refuse derived fuel (RDF); paper mill sludge and bark; and refinery process off-gas. Each of these fuels presented special fuel and ash handling problems that needed to be addressed before successful testing could be accomplished; these problems are more urgent on the pilot scale than in the commercial scale due to the corresponding reduction in equipment size. Each of these fuels also behaved differently in terms of combustion characteristics and gaseous emissions, as would be expected on the basis of their vastly different physical and chemical properties. This paper describes the major experiences obtained during the pilot plant testing of each of these alternative fuels, including summaries of the tested fuels and their measured emissions, limestone performance when applicable, and practical considerations.

  7. Port fuel injection and induction system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bishai, M.N.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes an engine having a valve cover with a PVC valve to vent a valve chamber so as to eliminate oil and gas fumes there from and an automotive fuel injection system having a port fuel injector connected to a fuel supply and to an air manifold for injecting an air/fuel mixture into the injector for producing a fuel spray pattern at the outlet of an air induction passage form a throttle body assembly and upstream of an inlet valve to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine characterized by an integral electric motor driven pump assembly means supplying the injection air to the air manifold; the motor pump assembly means having a pump inlet connected to the PVC valve for providing a lubrication mist to the pump during the operation thereof and the motor pump assembly means having a pump outlet connected to the inlet of the air manifold.

  8. Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

  9. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  10. Combustion of liquid fuels in a flowing combustion gas environment at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of fuel droplets in gases which simulate combustion chamber conditions was considered both experimentally and theoretically. The fuel droplets were simulated by porous spheres and allowed to gasify in combustion gases produced by a burner. Tests were conducted for pressures of 1-40 atm, temperatures of 600-1500 K, oxygen concentrations of 0-13% (molar) and approach Reynolds numbers of 40-680. The fuels considered in the tests included methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane and n-decane. Measurements were made of both the rate of gasification of the droplet and the liquid surface temperature. Measurements were compared with theory, involving various models of gas phase transport properties with a multiplicative correction for the effect of forced convection.

  11. NO emission during oxy-fuel combustion of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, K.; Normann, F.; Johnsson, F.; Leckner, B.

    2008-03-15

    This work presents experimental results and modeling of the combustion chemistry of the oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} recycle) combustion process with a focus on the difference in NO formation between oxy-fired and air-fired conditions. Measurements were carried out in a 100 kW test unit, designed for oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycling. Gas concentration and temperature profiles in the furnace were measured during combustion of lignite. The tests comprise a reference test in air and three oxy-fuel cases with different oxygen fractions in the recycled feed gas. With the burner settings used, lignite oxy-combustion with a global oxygen fraction of 25 vol % in the feed gas results in flame temperatures close to those of air-firing. Similar to previous work, the NO emission (mg/MJ) during oxy-fuel operation is reduced to less than 30% of that of air-firing. Modeling shows that this reduction is caused by increased destruction of formed and recycled NO. The reverse Zeldovich mechanism was investigated by detailed modeling and was shown to significantly reduce NO at high temperature, given that the nitrogen content is low (low air leakage) and that the residence time is sufficient.

  12. Effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability

    SciTech Connect

    Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.H.

    1997-04-01

    Recent regulations on NO, emissions are promoting the use of lean premix (LPM) combustion for industrial gas turbines. LPM combustors avoid locally stoichiometric combustion by premixing fuel and the air upstream of the reaction region, thereby eliminating the high temperatures that produce thermal NO.. Unfortunately, this style of combustor is prone to combustion oscillation. Significant pressure fluctuations can occur when variations in heat release periodically couple pressure to acoustic modes in the combustion chamber. These oscillations must be controlled because resulting vibration can shorten the life of engine hardware. Laboratory and engine field testing have shown that instability regimes can vary with environmental conditions. These observations prompted this study of the effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability. Tests are conducted on a sub-scale combustor burning natural gas, propane, and some hydrogen/hydrocarbon mixtures. A premix, swirl-stabilized fuel nozzle typical of industrial gas turbines is used. Experimental and numerical results describe how stability regions may shift as inlet air temperature, humidity, and fuel composition are altered. Results appear to indicate that shifting instability instability regimes are primarily caused by changes in reaction rate.

  13. Atomization and combustion performance of antimisting kerosene and jet fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleeter, R.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion performance of antimisting kerosene (AMK) containing FM-9 polymer was investigated at various levels of degradation (restoration of AMK for normal use in a gas turbine engine). To establish the relationship of degradation and atomization to performance in an aircraft gas turbine combustor, sprays formed by the nozzle of a JT8-D combustor with Jet A and AMK at 1 atmosphere (atm) (14.1 lb/square in absolute) pressure and 22 C at several degradation levels were analyzed. A new spray characterization technique based on digital image analysis of high resolution, wide field spray images formed under pulsed ruby laser sheet illumination was developed. Combustion tests were performed for these fuels in a JT8-D single can combustor facility to measure combustion efficiency and the lean extinction limit. Correlation of combustion performance under simulated engine operating conditions with nozzle spray Sauter mean diameter (SMD) measured at 1 atm and 22 C were observed. Fuel spray SMD and hence the combustion efficiency are strongly influenced by fuel degradation level. Use of even the most highly degraded AMK tested (filter ratio = 1.2) resulted in an increase in fuel consumption of 0.08% to 0.20% at engine cruise conditions.

  14. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  15. NOx formation in combustion of gaseous fuel in ejection burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimár, Miroslav; Kulikov, Andrii

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare model for researching of the formation in combustion of gaseous fuels. NOx formation is one of the main ecological problems nowadays as nitrogen oxides is one of main reasons of acid rains. The ANSYS model was designed according to the calculation to provide full combustion and good mixing of the fuel and air. The current model is appropriate to research NOx formation and the influence of the different principles of NOx reduction method. Applying of designed model should spare both time of calculations and research and also money as you do not need to measure the burner characteristics.

  16. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  17. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  18. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded d...

  19. A comprehensive combustion model for biodiesel-fueled engine simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakora, Jessica L.

    Engine models for alternative fuels are available, but few are comprehensive, well-validated models that include accurate physical property data as well as a detailed description of the fuel chemistry. In this work, a comprehensive biodiesel combustion model was created for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations, specifically the KIVA3v R2 code. The model incorporates realistic physical properties in a vaporization model developed for multi-component fuel sprays and applies an improved mechanism for biodiesel combustion chemistry. A reduced mechanism was generated from the methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl-9-decenoate (MD9D) mechanism developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was combined with a multi-component mechanism to include n-heptane in the fuel chemistry. The biodiesel chemistry was represented using a combination of MD, MD9D and n-heptane, which varied for a given fuel source. The reduced mechanism, which contained 63 species, accurately predicted ignition delay times of the detailed mechanism over a range of engine-specific operating conditions. Physical property data for the five methyl ester components of biodiesel were added to the KIVA library. Spray simulations were performed to ensure that the models adequately reproduce liquid penetration observed in biodiesel spray experiments. Fuel composition impacted liquid length as expected, with saturated species vaporizing more and penetrating less. Distillation curves were created to ensure the fuel vaporization process was comparable to available data. Engine validation was performed against a low-speed, high-load, conventional combustion experiments and the model was able to predict the performance and NOx formation seen in the experiment. High-speed, low-load, low-temperature combustion conditions were also modeled, and the emissions (HC, CO, NOx) and fuel consumption were well-predicted for a sweep of injection timings. Finally, comparisons were made between the results of biodiesel

  20. System for improving internal combustion engine fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, J.S.

    1980-10-28

    A motor vehicle internal combustion engine is described having a pair of heat risers on the exhaust manifold and a plenum chamber positioned about the carburator fuel reservoir. Air from one of the heat risers is directed into the front of the air cleaner assembly. Air from the other heat riser is directed into the plenum where it preheats the fuel in the reservoir, and then exhausts into the air cleaner assembly where it is mixed with the air received from the first heat riser. Significant savings in fuel consumed by the engine have been noted by thus preheating the air and the fuel without vapor lock occurrences.

  1. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  2. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  3. Process aspects in combustion and gasification Waste-to-Energy (WtE) units.

    PubMed

    Leckner, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The utilisation of energy in waste, Waste to Energy (WtE), has become increasingly important. Waste is a wide concept, and to focus, the feedstock dealt with here is mostly municipal solid waste. It is found that combustion in grate-fired furnaces is by far the most common mode of fuel conversion compared to fluidized beds and rotary furnaces. Combinations of pyrolysis in rotary furnace or gasification in fluidized or fixed bed with high-temperature combustion are applied particularly in Japan in systems whose purpose is to melt ashes and destroy dioxins. Recently, also in Japan more emphasis is put on WtE. In countries with high heat demand, WtE in the form of heat and power can be quite efficient even in simple grate-fired systems, whereas in warm regions only electricity is generated, and for this product the efficiency of boilers (the steam data) is limited by corrosion from the flue gas. However, combination of cleaned gas from gasification with combustion provides a means to enhance the efficiency of electricity production considerably. Finally, the impact of sorting on the properties of the waste to be fed to boilers or gasifiers is discussed. The description intends to be general, but examples are mostly taken from Europe. PMID:24846797

  4. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal...

  6. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  7. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  8. Liquid fuel combustion within silicon-carbide coated carbon foam

    SciTech Connect

    Vijaykant, S.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2007-10-15

    Combustion of kerosene inside porous inert medium (PIM) has been investigated with the goal of reducing the emissions of nitric oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO) and soot. Silicon-carbide (SiC) coated carbon foam is used as PIM to attain high structural strength. The two-zone porous burner design consists of preheat and combustion sections. Different PIM configurations were tested by stacking together square porous pieces of 2.5 cm thickness. Two types of fuel injectors are considered: (i) in the air-assist injector, approximately 5% of the combustion air is used for atomization and the remaining air enters as the primary co-flow around the injector, and (ii) in the swirling-air injector, all of the combustion air enters the injector to create a swirling flow around the fuel jet to enhance atomization and fuel-air premixing. The distance between the injector and PIM inlet is a key operational parameter, which was varied in experiments with both injectors over a range of equivalence ratios and heat release rates. The NO{sub x} and CO emissions were measured to optimize the PIM configuration with minimum emissions. Results show stable combustion over a wide operating range. Three combustor operational regimes are identified depending upon the injector location. (author)

  9. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment: Thick Fuel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenkirch, Robert A.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; West, Jeff; Tang, Lin; Sacksteder, Kurt; Delichatsios, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of experiments for spread over polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA, samples in the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle are described. The results are coupled with modelling in an effort to describe the physics of the spread process for thick fuels in a quiescent, microgravity environment and uncover differences between thin and thick fuels. A quenching phenomenon not present for thin fuels is delineated, namely the fact that for thick fuels the possibility exists that, absent an opposing flow of sufficient strength to press the flame close enough to the fuel surface to allow the heated layer in the solid to develop, the heated layer fails to become 'fully developed.' The result is that the flame slows, which in turn causes an increase in the relative radiative loss from the flame, leading eventually to extinction. This potential inability of a thick fuel to develop a steady spread rate is not present for a thin fuel because the heated layer is the fuel thickness, which reaches a uniform temperature across the thickness relatively rapidly.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF GOOD COMBUSTION PRACTICE FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the rationale for EPA's good combustion practice (GCP) strategy. OTE: The EPA is developing new air pollution rules for all new and existing municipal waste combustors (MWCs), rules requiring all MWCs to use GCP. The goals of GCP are to maximize furnace destr...

  11. HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the results of several studies relating to hazardous waste combustion in cement and lime kilns. The tests included in the study are four kilns tested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, four kilns tested by State agencies or the kiln operator, two C...

  12. Hybrid rocket fuel combustion and regression rate study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Anderson, F. A.; Cohen, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop hybrid fuels (1) with higher regression rates and reduced dependence on fuel grain geometry and (2) that maximize potential specific impulse using low-cost materials. A hybrid slab window motor system was developed to screen candidate fuels - their combustion behavior and regression rate. Combustion behavior diagnostics consisted of video and high speed motion pictures coverage. The mean fuel regression rates were determined by before and after measurements of the fuel slabs. The fuel for this initial investigation consisted of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder with coal and aluminum fillers. At low oxidizer flux levels (and corresponding fuel regression rates) the filled-binder fuels burn in a layered fashion, forming an aluminum containing binder/coal surface melt that, in turn, forms into filigrees or flakes that are stripped off by the crossflow. This melt process appears to diminish with increasing oxidizer flux level. Heat transfer by radiation is a significant contributor, producing the desired increase in magnitude and reduction in flow dependency (power law exponent) of the fuel regression rate.

  13. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  14. Waste fuel delivery to long kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, M.R.; Hansen, E.R.; Reese, T.J.

    1993-07-06

    Method for charging combustible waste to a rotary cement kiln is described comprising a rotating kiln cylinder to burn said waste in contact with in-process mineral material, said method comprising the steps of (1) modifying said cement kiln to provide a port in the rotary kiln cylinder at a point along its length where waste charged through the port will contact calcining mineral during kiln operation, said port having a closure moveable between a port-closed and a port-opened position; (2) positioning the waste in alignment with said port during rotation of the kiln cylinder; (3) moving the port closure to the port-opened position and charging the waste into the kiln through the port; (4) moving the port closure to the port-closed position; and (5) repeating steps 2-4 during kiln operation whereby combustible waste is used to provide up to 40% or more of the energy requirements of kiln operation.

  15. Characterization of fuels for atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S. ); Rowley, D.R.; Perna, M.A. . Research Center); Stallings, J.W. ); Divilio, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a fuels characterization program for the past several years with the intention of assisting utilities and boiler manufacturers in evaluating fuel quality impact on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) performance. The goal has been to provide an improved framework for making fuel switching decisions and consolidating operating experience. Results from this program include a set of bench-scale testing procedures, a fuel characterization data base, and a performance simulation model that links fuel characteristics to combustion performance. This paper reviews the major results of the fuels characterization program. The testing procedures, data base, and performance simulation models are briefly described and their application illustrated with examples. Performance predictions for the B W 1-ft{sup 2} bench-scale AFBC and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 20 MW(e) AFBC Pilot Plant are compared with actual test data. The relationship of coal rank to combustion is discussed. 11 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Fireside corrosion in oxy-fuel combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, Gerald H.; Jung, Kee Young; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M.; Pettit, Frederick S.

    2011-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. Furthermore, the observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.

  17. Fireside corrosion in oxy-fuel combustion of coal

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, Gerald H.; Jung, Kee Young; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M.; Pettit, Frederick S.

    2011-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Crmore » alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. Furthermore, the observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.« less

  18. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations. PMID:16565750

  19. Thermal valorization of footwear leather wastes in bubbling fluidized bed combustion.

    PubMed

    Bahillo, A; Armesto, L; Cabanillas, A; Otero, J

    2004-01-01

    Transformation of hide (animal skins) into leather is a complicated process during which significant amounts of wastes are generated. Footwear is the sector that consumes the major part of leather (60%). Logically, this industry is producing the largest quantity of leather wastes. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of fluidized bed technology to recover the energy from burning footwear leather wastes. Considering the characteristics of leather waste, especially the heating value (12.5-21 MJ/kg), it can be considered a fairly good fuel. Moreover, leather waste has suitable characteristics for combustion, e.g., high volatile matter (76.5%) and low ash content (5.2%). Two factors deserve special attention: N3O and NOx emissions as a consequence of its unusual high nitrogen content (14.1%) and the chromium speciation because chromium is the main element of ash (3.2%) due to its use in leather tanning. A series of experiments has been carried out in a 0.1 MWt bubbling fluidized bed pilot plant. The combustion efficiency, flue gas composition and chromium speciation were investigated. Despite having high nitrogen content, a low conversion rate of fuel-N to NOx and N2O was attained. Chromium was concentrated in the solid streams and it was consistently found as Cr(III+); no presence of Cr(VI+) was detected. PMID:15504671

  20. Waste floor covering is an economical alternative fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.W.

    1995-03-01

    This article examines why power plants that can use it call waste carpeting an economical alternative fuel. According to recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data, 1.7 millions tons per year (tpy) of post-consumer carpet (PCC) waste are generated by residential and commercial sources. Monsanto and other major nylon producers responded to the magnitude of this figure and their increased environmental sensitivity by sponsoring a project to assess alternatives to landfill disposal of PCC materials. Many alternatives to landfill disposal exist for waste carpet. These include demonstrated recycling options, such as the reuse of thermoplastic resins for polymer applications and carpet reuse in landfill capping systems. Not all materials can be recycled economically, hence, thermal recycling alternatives to landfills are used, including combustion as a substitute fuel in power plant boilers.

  1. ROLE OF ROGUE DROPLET COMBUSTION IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop a predictive understanding of individual droplet trajectories in turbulent diffusion flames. In the incineration of liquid hazardous wastes, atomization quality may limit destruction efficiency. Large, nonmean droplets in a fuel spra...

  2. Combustion system for dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, F.S.; Smith, J.G.

    1990-10-30

    This patent describes in an dual gas-liquid fuel four cycle engine having cylinders and wherein each cylinder is operatively connected thereto and each cylinder has a piston, two inlet valves, two exhaust valves and a first liquid fuel injector. It comprises: at least one fuel torch cell operatively connected to at least one cylinder, the torch cell having a torch cell nozzle at one end thereof and the other end having appropriate means to connect the torch cell to a fuel supply, a second fuel injector mounted in the torch cell at a predetermined angle to an axis of the torch cell, the torch cell defining an auto-ignition chamber, the second fuel injector being in operative communication with the auto-ignition chamber by an injector nozzle passageway, the injector nozzle passageway entering the auto-ignition chamber at a predetermined angle relative to the axis, and a torch nozzle passage connecting the auto-ignition chamber with the cylinder at a predetermined angle to a top inner portion of a cylinder head.

  3. Leachability of trace elements in coal and coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Fishman, N.S.; Bullock, J.H. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Leaching of trace elements from coal and coal combustion waste (CCW) products from a coal-fired power plant, burning coal from the Appalachian and Illinois basins, was studied using deionized (DI) water as a lixiviant to resemble natural conditions in waste disposal sites exposed to dilute meteoric water infiltration. Samples of bottom ash, fly ash, and feed coal were collected from two combustion units at monthly intervals, along with a bulk sample of wastes deposited in an on-site disposal pond. The units burn different coals, one a high-sulfur coal (2.65 to 3.5 weight percent S) and the other, a low-sulfur coal (0.6--0.9 eight percent S). Short-term batch leaches with DI water were performed for times varying from a few minutes to 18 hours. Select fly ash samples were also placed in long-term (> 1 year) flow-through columns.

  4. Correlating microemulsion fuel composition, structure, and combustion properties

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Microemulsion fuels provide a method for increasing the use of byproduct and biomass materials, including alcohols, in diesel fuels. The ability to replace 50% of diesel fuel with byproduct and biomass-derived materials microemulsion fuels could significantly decrease petroleum consumption. However, it is likely that the low particulate and NO{sub x} emissions characteristic of these fuels will drive the adoption of this technology. This report is concerned with the development of a series of short experiments to determine the fuel composition changes required to support development of microemulsion fuels which have combustion properties acceptable to the public and adequate to support widespread use in current diesel engines. The goal is delineation of microemulsion diesel fuel compositions which have acceptable compression ignition and emissions properties and which permit the replacement of one-third to one-half of current diesel fuel petroleum. A review of the literature on cetane enhancers for conventional and alternative diesel fuels was performed and a small number of enhancers likely to be effective with high-alcohol fuels selected. Based on linear regression analysis of emissions from a passenger diesel engine using alcohol and aqueous microemulsion fuels, correlation between microemulsion solution structure as determined by small-angle neutron scattering and actual NO{sub x} and particulate emissions was determined. The analysis indicates that solution structure and microemulsion composition play major roles in emissions modification. 223 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Renewable synthetic diesel fuel from triglycerides and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hillard, J.C.; Strassburger, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    A renewable, synthetic diesel fuel has been developed that employs ethanol and organic waste materials. These organic materials, such as soybean oil or animal fats, are hydrolized to yield a mixture of solid soap like materials and glycerol. These soaps, now soluble in ethanol, are blended with ethanol; the glycerol is nitrated and added as well as castor oil when necessary. The synthetic fuel is tailored to match petroleum diesel fuel in viscosity, lubricity and cetane quality and, therefore, does not require any engine modifications. Testing in a laboratory engine and in a production Oldsmobile Cutlass has revealed that this synthetic fuel is superior to petroleum diesel fuel in vehicle efficiency, cetane quality, combustion noise, cold start characteristics, exhaust odor and emissions. Performance characteristics are indistinguishable from those of petroleum diesel fuel. These soaps are added to improve the calorific value, lubricity and cetane quality of the ethanol. The glycerol from the hydrolysis process is nitrated and added to the ethanol as an additional cetane quality improver. Caster oil is added to the fuel when necessary to match the viscosity and lubricity of petroleum diesel fuel as well as to act as a corrosion inhibitor, thereby, precluding any engine modifications. The cetane quality of the synthetic fuel is better than that of petroleum diesel as the fuel carries its own oxygen. The synthetic fuel is also completely miscible with petroleum diesel.

  6. Pressure Effects in Droplet Combustion of Miscible Binary Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikami, Masato; Habara, Osamu; Kono, Michikata; Sato, Jun-Ichi; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve understanding of the combustion of binary fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the critical point. Fiber-supported droplets of mixtures of n-heptane and n-hexadecane, initially 1 mm in diameter, were burned in room-temperature air at pressures from 1 MPa to 6 MPa under free-fall microgravity conditions. For most mixtures the total burning time was observed to achieve a minimum value at pressures well above the critical pressure of either of the pure fuels. This behavior is explained in terms of critical mixing conditions of a ternary system consisting of the two fuels and nitrogen. The importance of inert-gas dissolution in the liquid fuel near the critical point is thereby re-emphasized, and nonmonotonic dependence of dissolution on initial fuel composition is demonstrated. The results provide information that can be used to estimate high-pressure burning rates of fuel mixtures.

  7. Apparatus and method for solid fuel chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Weber, Justin M

    2015-04-14

    The disclosure provides an apparatus and method utilizing fuel reactor comprised of a fuel section, an oxygen carrier section, and a porous divider separating the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section. The porous divider allows fluid communication between the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section while preventing the migration of solids of a particular size. Maintaining particle segregation between the oxygen carrier section and the fuel section during solid fuel gasification and combustion processes allows gases generated in either section to participate in necessary reactions while greatly mitigating issues associated with mixture of the oxygen carrier with char or ash products. The apparatus and method may be utilized with an oxygen uncoupling oxygen carrier such as CuO, Mn.sub.3O.sub.4, or Co.sub.3O.sub.4, or utilized with a CO/H.sub.2 reducing oxygen carrier such as Fe.sub.2O.sub.3.

  8. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen-carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.; Notardonato, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of trials with a staged combustor designed to use coal-derived gaseous fuels and reduce the NO(x) emissions from nitrogen-bound fuels to 75 ppm and 37 ppm without bound nitrogen in 15% O2 are reported. The combustor was outfitted with primary zone regenerative cooling, wherein the air cooling the primary zone was passed into the combustor at 900 F and mixed with the fuel. The increase in the primary air inlet temperature eliminated flashback and autoignition, lowered the levels of CO, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke, and kept combustion efficiencies to the 99% level. The combustor was also equipped with dual fuel injection to test various combinations of liquid/gas fuel mixtures. Low NO(x) emissions were produced burning both Lurgi and Winkler gases, regardless of the inlet pressure and temperature conditions. Evaluation of methanation of medium energy gases is recommended for providing a fuel with low NO(x) characteristics.

  9. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  10. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  11. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.

    2011-01-03

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  12. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  13. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, George; Gokhale, Ashok J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  14. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  15. Emission of nanoparticles during combustion of waste biomass in fireplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drastichová, Vendula; Krpec, Kamil; Horák, Jiří; Hopan, František; Kubesa, Petr; Martiník, Lubomír; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Holubčík, Michal

    2014-08-01

    Contamination of air by solid particles is serious problem for human health and also environment. Small particles in nano-sizes are more dangerous than same weight of larger size. Negative effect namely of the solid particles depends on (i) number, (ii) specific surface area (iii) respirability and (iv) bonding of others substances (e.g. PAHs, As, Cd, Zn, Cu etc.) which are higher for smaller (nano-sizes) particles compared to larger one. For this reason mentioned above this contribution deals with measuring of amount, and distribution of nanoparticles produced form combustion of waste city biomass in small combustion unit with impactor DLPI.

  16. Chemical Looping Combustion System-Fuel Reactor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gamwo, I.K.; Jung, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Soong, Y.

    2007-04-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process in which an oxygen carrier is used for fuel combustion instead of air or pure oxygen as shown in the figure below. The combustion is split into air and fuel reactors where the oxidation of the oxygen carrier and the reduction of the oxidized metal occur respectively. The CLC system provides a sequestration-ready CO2 stream with no additional energy required for separation. This major advantage places combustion looping at the leading edge of a possible shift in strict control of CO2 emissions from power plants. Research in this novel technology has been focused in three distinct areas: techno-economic evaluations, integration of the system into power plant concepts, and experimental development of oxygen carrier metals such as Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Ca. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase fluid dynamics modeling for CLC is not available in the open literature. Here, we have modified the MFIX code to model fluid dynamic in the fuel reactor. A computer generated movie of our simulation shows bubble behavior consistent with experimental observations.

  17. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr.; Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  18. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  19. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  20. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  1. Disturbing effect of free hydrogen on fuel combustion in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, A

    1923-01-01

    Experiments with fuel mixtures of varying composition, have recently been conducted by the Motor Vehicle and Airplane Engine Testing Laboratories of the Royal Technical High School in Berlin and at Fort Hahneberg, as well as at numerous private engine works. The behavior of hydrogen during combustion in engines and its harmful effect under certain conditions, on the combustion in the engine cylinder are of general interest. Some of the results of these experiments are given here, in order to elucidate the main facts and explain much that is already a matter of experience with chauffeurs and pilots.

  2. Broad specification fuels combustion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design and development efforts to evolve promising aircraft gas turbine combustor configurations for burning broadened-properties fuels were discussed. Design and experimental evaluations of three different combustor concepts in sector combustor rig tests was conducted. The combustor concepts were a state of the art single-annular combustor, a staged double-annular combustor, and a short single-annular combustor with variable geometry to control primary zone stoichiometry. A total of 25 different configurations of the three combustor concepts were evaluated. Testing was conducted over the full range of CF6-80A engine combustor inlet conditions, using four fuels containing between 12% and 14% hydrogen by weight. Good progress was made toward meeting specific program emissions and performance goals with each of the three combustor concepts. The effects of reduced fuel hydrogen content, including increased flame radiation, liner metal temperature, smoke, and NOx emissions were documented. The most significant effect on the baseline combustor was a projected 33% life reduction, for a reduction from 14% to 13% fuel hydrogen content, due to increased liner temperatures.

  3. Electrostatic fuel conditioning of internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, P. I.

    1982-01-01

    Diesel engines were tested to determine if they are influenced by the presence of electrostatic and magnetic fields. Field forces were applied in a variety of configurations including pretreatment of the fuel and air, however, no affect on engine performance was observed.

  4. Combustion characteristics and air pollutant formation during oxy-fuel co-combustion of microalgae and lignite.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Dou, Jinxiao; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels is seen as one of the key technologies for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The combustion characteristics of lignite coal, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae, and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 conditions were studied using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). During co-combustion of blends, three distinct peaks were observed and were attributed to C. vulgaris volatiles combustion, combustion of lignite, and combustion of microalgae char. Activation energy during combustion was calculated using iso-conventional method. Increasing the microalgae content in the blend resulted in an increase in activation energy for the blends combustion. The emissions of S- and N-species during blend fuel combustion were also investigated. The addition of microalgae to lignite during air combustion resulted in lower CO2, CO, and NO2 yields but enhanced NO, COS, and SO2 formation. During oxy-fuel co-combustion, the addition of microalgae to lignite enhanced the formation of gaseous species. PMID:26894568

  5. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  6. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1045 - Are there different subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... units into two groups based on the aggregate capacity of the municipal waste combustion plant as follows... municipal waste combustion plants with an aggregate plant combustion capacity greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of “municipal waste combustion plant capacity” in §...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15090 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15090 Section 62.15090... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62.15090 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1635 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1635 Section 60.1635... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.1635 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1635 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1635 Section 60.1635... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.1635 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15090 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15090 Section 62.15090... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62.15090 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then...

  12. Combustion chemistry and an evolving transportation fuel environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.

    2010-05-01

    The world currently faces tremendous energy challenges stemming from the need to curb potentially catastrophic anthropogenic climate change. In addition, many nations, including the United States, recognize increasing political and economic risks associated with dependence on uncertain and limited energy sources. For these and other reasons the chemical composition of transportation fuels is changing, both through introduction of nontraditional fossil sources, such as oil sands-derived fuels in the US stream, and through broader exploration of biofuels. At the same time the need for clean and efficient combustion is leading engine research towards advanced low-temperature combustion strategies that are increasingly sensitive to this changing fuel chemistry, particularly in the areas of pollutant formation and autoignition. I will highlight the new demands that advanced engine technologies and evolving fuel composition place on investigations of fundamental reaction chemistry. I will focus on recent progress in measuring product formation in elementary reactions by tunable synchrotron photoionization, on the elucidation of pressure-dependent effects in the reactions of alkyl and substituted alkyl radicals with O{sub 2}, and on new combined efforts in fundamental combustion chemistry and engine performance studies of novel potential biofuels.

  13. Small-scale combustion testing of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, G.A.; Ekmann, J.M.; White, C.M.; Navadauskas, R.J.; Joubert, J.I.; Retcofsky, H.L.

    1981-11-01

    In order to assess the possible environmental impact of substituting synfuels for petroleum in utility and industrial boilers, two experimental programs have been undertaken at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. First, a fully instrumented 20-hp firetube boiler capable of burning liquid fuels ranging in combustion characteristics from No. 2 to No. 6 petroleum has been installed in the Combustion Division. Second, a sampling and analytical methodology for the organic compounds present in the exhaust duct of the 20-hp boiler is being developed by the Analytical Chemistry Division. This report outlines the progress on this project to date: twenty-four successful combustion runs have been completed on the 20-hp boiler, using a variety of petroleum-based fuels and synfuels; a sampling protocol for organic vapors in hot exhaust gases has been developed; significant differences in the composition of the trace organics in the exhaust gases have been observed as a function of the fuel being burned, but total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon levels are comparable for all fuels.

  14. Combustion of sponge iron plant wastes -- Char and fly ash in FBC boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Rajavel, M.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Banerjee, M.; Natarajan, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal based sponge iron plants generate large quantity of waste materials in the form of kiln char and fly ash. This material has a very little fuel value owing to the fact that it contains a large percentage of ash and it is almost free from volatiles. Added to this, wide size range of the kiln rejects makes it practically impossible to burn in conventional firing. However, it is realized that the overall economy of the sponge iron plant is likely to be greatly enhanced if the char, the fly ash and a considerable quantity of coal fines, separated in the coal preparation plant, can be utilized. The only possible way to gainfully use these fuels is by fluidized bed combustion. Extensive tests were conducted with these fuels in bubbling fluidized bed combustion test facilities at BHEL, Tiruchirapalli, India. The presentation highlights the experience gained with the above waste fuels in BHEL test facilities and discusses the findings which were subsequently used to design large size FBC boilers.

  15. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  16. Synthesis of Diopside by Solution Combustion Process Using Glycine Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherikar, Baburao N.; Umarji, A. M.

    Nano ceramic Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) powders are synthesized by Solution Combustion Process(SCS) using Calcium nitrate, Magnesium nitrate as oxidizer and glycine as fuel, fumed silica as silica source. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used as extra oxidizer. Effect of AN on Diopside phase formation is investigated. The adiabatic flame temperatures are calculated theoretically for varying amount of AN according to thermodynamic concept and correlated with the observed flame temperatures. A “Multi channel thermocouple setup connected to computer interfaced Keithley multi voltmeter 2700” is used to monitor the thermal events during the process. An interpretation based on maximum combustion temperature and the amount of gases produced during reaction for various AN compositions has been proposed for the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as synthesized powder. These powders are characterized by XRD, SEM showing that the powders are composed of polycrystalline oxides with crystallite size of 58nm to 74nm.

  17. Residues characterisation from the fluidised bed combustion of East London's solid recovered fuel.

    PubMed

    Balampanis, D E; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N; Longhurst, P; Coulon, F; Villa, R

    2010-07-01

    Waste thermal treatment in Europe is moving towards the utilisation of the combustible output of mechanical, biological treatment (MBT) plants. The standardisation of solid recovered fuels (SRF) is expected to support this trend and increase the amount of the generated combustion residues. In this work, the residues and especially the fly ashes from the fluidised bed combustion (FBC) of East London's NCV 3, Cl 2, and Hg 1 class SRF, are characterised. The following toxicity indicators have been studied: leachable chlorine, organochlorides expressed as pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene, and the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb. Furthermore the mineralogical pattern of the ashes has been studied by means of XRD and SEM-EDS. The results suggest that these SRF derived ashes have significantly lower quantities of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, leachable Cl, and organochlorides when compared to other literature values from traditional waste thermal treatment applications. This fact highlights the importance of modern separation technologies employed in MBT plants for the removal of components rich in metals and chlorine from the combustible output fraction of SRF resulting to less hazardous residues. PMID:20231082

  18. Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Scramjets. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Diskin, Glenn S.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2006-01-01

    At flight speeds, the residence time for atmospheric air ingested into a scramjet inlet and exiting from the engine nozzle is on the order of a millisecond. Therefore, fuel injected into the air must efficiently mix within tens of microseconds and react to release its energy in the combustor. The overall combustion process should be mixing controlled to provide a stable operating environment; in reality, however, combustion in the upstream portion of the combustor, particularly at higher Mach numbers, is kinetically controlled where ignition delay times are on the same order as the fluid scale. Both mixing and combustion time scales must be considered in a detailed study of mixing and reaction in a scramjet to understand the flow processes and to ultimately achieve a successful design. Although the geometric configuration of a scramjet is relatively simple compared to a turbomachinery design, the flow physics associated with the simultaneous injection of fuel from multiple injector configurations, and the mixing and combustion of that fuel downstream of the injectors is still quite complex. For this reason, many researchers have considered the more tractable problem of a spatially developing, primarily supersonic, chemically reacting mixing layer or jet that relaxes only the complexities introduced by engine geometry. All of the difficulties introduced by the fluid mechanics, combustion chemistry, and interactions between these phenomena can be retained in the reacting mixing layer, making it an ideal problem for the detailed study of supersonic reacting flow in a scramjet. With a good understanding of the physics of the scramjet internal flowfield, the designer can then return to the actual scramjet geometry with this knowledge and apply engineering design tools that more properly account for the complex physics. This approach will guide the discussion in the remainder of this section.

  19. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  20. Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    2009-11-15

    The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

  1. C60 fullerenes from combustion of common fuels.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Andrea J; Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi; Marr, Linsey C

    2016-03-15

    Releases of C60 fullerenes to the environment will increase with the growth of nanotechnology. Assessing the potential risks of manufactured C60 requires an understanding of how its prevalence in the environment compares to that of natural and incidental C60. This work describes the characterization of incidental C60 present in aerosols generated by combustion of five common fuels: coal, firewood, diesel, gasoline, and propane. C60 was found in exhaust generated by all five fuels; the highest concentrations in terms of mass of C60 per mass of particulate matter were associated with diesel and coal. Individual aerosols from these combustion processes were examined by transmission electron microscopy. No relationship was found between C60 content and either the separation of graphitic layers (lamellae) within the particles, nor the curvature of those lamellae. Estimated global emissions of incidental C60 to the atmosphere from coal and diesel combustion range from 1.6 to 6.3 t yr(-1), depending upon combustion conditions. These emissions may be similar in magnitude to the total amount of manufactured C60 produced on an annual basis. Consequent loading of incidental C60 to the environment may be several orders of magnitude higher than has previously been modeled for manufactured C60. PMID:26789363

  2. Vaporization and combustion of fuel droplets at supercritical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor

    1991-01-01

    Vaporization and combustion liquid-fuel droplets in both sub- and super-critical environments have been examined. The formulation is based on the complete conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates finite-rate chemical kinetics and a full treatment of liquid-vapor phase equilibrium at the droplet surface. The governing equations and the associated interface boundary conditions are solved numerically using a fully coupled, implicit scheme with the dual time-stepping integration technique. The model is capable of treating the entire droplet history, including the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state. As a specific example, the combustion of n-pentane fuel droplets in air is studied for pressures of 5-140 atm. In addition, the dynamic responses of droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient-pressure oscillations are investigated. Results indicate that the droplet gasification and burning mechanisms depend greatly on the ambient pressure. In particular, a rapid enlargement of the vaporization and combustion responses occurs when the droplet surface reaches its critical point, mainly due to the strong variations of latent heat of vaporization and thermophysical properties at the critical state.

  3. Experimental investigation of fuel vaporization on combustion efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Zakkay, V.; Agnone, A.; Clisset, H.

    1980-12-01

    The development of a residential size vaporizing oil burner is presented along with its operational and performance characteristics. The vaporization scheme consists of spraying No. 2 oil onto a regeneratively heated surface at a temperature above the oil vaporization temperature (650/sup 0/F). The vaporized oil mixes with a preheated air (T = 250/sup 0/F) stream to produce a uniform fuel air mixture. The premixed vaporized fuel/air stream produces short blue flamelets anchored to a steel screen flame holder. The operational and performance characteristics of this burner are presented for a range of the air and oil flow parameters around the stoichiometric condition, and for a nominal firing rate of less than or equal to 1.2 gph. Operation with less than 3% excess air is demonstrated with very little soot formation. The combustion quality of the vaporizing oil burner is substantially improved compared to conventional spray combustion and recirculation type blue flame burners. The vaporizing oil burner was adapted to a conventional boiler and the thermal efficiency was determined by a calorimeter technique and compared to the stack method. The thermal efficiency with the vaporized combustion mode is about 4% greater than conventional spray combustion burners. The increase is realized through the reduced excess air requirements. The increased efficiency can result in reduced oil consumption from 12% to 20% depending on the location and usage of the burner unit.

  4. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-01

    Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO(x) emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects. PMID:23602303

  5. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J. D.; Collins, E. D.; Crum, J. V.; Ebert, W. L.; Frank, S. M.; Garn, T. G.; Gombert, D.; Jones, R.; Jubin, R. T.; Maio, V. C.; Marra, J. C.; Matyas, J.; Nenoff, T. M.; Riley, B. J.; Sevigny, G. J.; Soelberg, N. R.; Strachan, D. M.; Thallapally, P. K.; Westsik, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  6. Large-Eddy Simulations of Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Kazuo; Menon, Suresh

    2000-11-01

    Past studies of internal combustion (IC) engine steady-state flow field have employed the well-known KIVA code for steady-state predictions. However, it is also well known that this code is incapable of accurately capturing the impact of unsteady fuel-air mixing on the combustion process. Here, the latest KIVA-3V code has been modified to carry out large-eddy simulations (LES). In particular, the RANS k-e model has been replaced by a subgrid kinetic energy model and a fourth-order ENO scheme has been implemented to increase the accuracy of the discretization of the advection term. Finally, a subgrid model to simulate the small-scale turbulent mixing, combustion and heat release is implemented for reacting flows. Simulations using the new version of KIVA3V denoted here as KIVALES of temporal mixing layers and flows past rearward facing step demonstrate the improved accuracy of the LES model. Accuracy of the prediction is demonstrated by comparing with DNS, LES and experimental results obtained in the past. Finally, the new code is employed to simulate fuel-air mixing and combustion in a typical IC engine. Comparison with predictions using the conventional KIVA is used to demonstrate the ability of the new code.

  7. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-30

    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  8. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  9. Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

  10. Device for reducing fuel consumption in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdlin, A.

    1981-04-21

    An internal combustion engine is provided with a device for automatically preventing thermal and mechanical stress during overload periods, and to power the engine with the most economical fuel consumption rate possible. In a preferred embodiment, the device is associated with the variable speed governor of the main diesel engine of a ship. The device includes a system actuated by significant movements of the governor to regulate the fuel pump or pumps or reduce the engine speed to a more economical and safe level. Means for overriding the system in emergency situations may be provided.

  11. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. The low nitrogen flue gas that results is relatively easy to capture CO{sub 2} from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions.

  12. Simplified jet fuel reaction mechanism for lean burn combustion application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Kundu, Krishna; Ghorashi, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Successful modeling of combustion and emissions in gas turbine engine combustors requires an adequate description of the reaction mechanism. Detailed mechanisms contain a large number of chemical species participating simultaneously in many elementary kinetic steps. Current computational fluid dynamic models must include fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, chemical reactions, and complicated boundary geometries. A five-step Jet-A fuel mechanism which involves pyrolysis and subsequent oxidation of paraffin and aromatic compounds is presented. This mechanism is verified by comparing with Jet-A fuel ignition delay time experimental data, and species concentrations obtained from flametube experiments. This five-step mechanism appears to be better than the current one- and two-step mechanisms.

  13. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-08-01

    The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, conbustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Sciences, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for the full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra-fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  14. Understanding wood wastes as fuel. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Vogler, J.

    1986-01-01

    The publication addresses the following subjects: Combustion in wood-burning stoves; modern air-tight stoves; advanced stove designs; dangers of simple stoves; burning sawdust; compacting wood wastes; sawdust briquettes; high-tech briquetting process; retting and pressing; making charcoal; various kilns; charcoal briquettes; binders for briquetting.

  15. Speciated hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of single component fuels. 1. Effect of fuel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, W.O.; McCabe, R.W.; Chun, W.; Kaiser, E.W.; Perry, J.; Henig, Y.I.; Trinker, F.H.; Anderson, R.W. )

    1992-07-01

    Speciated hydrocarbon emissions data have been collected for six single-component fuels run in a laboratory pulse flame combustor (PFC). The six fuels include n-heptane, isoctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), cyclohexane, 1-hexene, toluene, and methyl-t-butyl ether. Combustion of non-aromatic fuels in the PFC produced low levels of unburned fuel and high yields of methane and olefins irrespective of the molecular structure of the fuel. In contrast, hydrocarbon emissions from toluene combustion in the PFC were comprised predominantly of unburned fuel. With the PFC, low levels of 1,3-butadiene were observed from all the fuels except MTBE, for which no measurable level was detected; low levels of benzene were observed from isooctane, heptane, and 1-hexene, but significant levels from cyclohexane and toluene. No measurable amount of benzene was observed in the MTBE exhaust. For isooctane and toluene the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a spark-ignited (SI) single-cylinder engine were also determined. HC emissions from the Si engine contained the same species as observed from the PFC, although the relative composition was different. For the non-aromatic fuel isooctane, unburned fuel represented a larger fraction of the HC emissions when run in the engine. HC emissions from toluene combustion in the engine were smaller to those from the PFC.

  16. Effect of secondary fuels and combustor temperature on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff

    2007-08-15

    The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion at 1000 and 1300{sup o}C. High volatile bituminous coal is used as a reference case and chicken manure, olive residue, and B quality (demolition) wood are used as secondary fuels with 10 and 20% thermal shares. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor with a fuel input of 7-8 kWth. Elemental and total gaseous mercury concentrations in the flue gas of the reactor are measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with other elemental and surface properties. Animal waste like chicken manure behaves very differently from plant waste. The higher chlorine contents of chicken manure cause higher ionic mercury concentrations whereas even with high unburnt carbon, particulate mercury reduces with increase in the chicken manure share. This might be a problem due to coarse fuel particles, low surface area, and iron contents. B-wood and olive residue cofiring reduces the emission of total gaseous mercury and increases particulate mercury capture due to unburnt carbon formed, fine particles, and iron contents of the ash. Calcium in chicken manure does not show any effect on particulate or gaseous mercury. It is probably due to a higher calcium sulfation rate in the presence of high sulfur and chlorine contents. However, in plant waste cofiring, calcium may have reacted with chlorine to reduce ionic mercury to its elemental form. According to thermodynamic predictions, almost 50% of the total ash is melted to form slag at 1300{sup o}C in cofiring because of high calcium, iron, and potassium and hence mercury and other remaining metals are concentrated in small amounts of ash and show an increase at higher temperatures. No slag formation was predicted at 1000{sup o}C. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. CFD analysis of municipal solid waste combustion using detailed chemical kinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Frank, Alex; Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities are receiving renewed attention to reduce their output further. While NO x emissions are currently 60% below allowed limits, further reductions will decrease the air pollution control (APC) system burden and reduce consumption of NH3. This work combines the incorporation of the GRI 3.0 mechanism as a detailed chemical kinetic model (DCKM) into a custom three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model fully to understand the NO x chemistry in the above-bed burnout zones. Specifically, thermal, prompt and fuel NO formation mechanisms were evaluated for the system and a parametric study was utilized to determine the effect of varying fuel nitrogen conversion intermediates between HCN, NH3 and NO directly. Simulation results indicate that the fuel nitrogen mechanism accounts for 92% of the total NO produced in the system with thermal and prompt mechanisms accounting for the remaining 8%. Results also show a 5% variation in final NO concentration between HCN and NH3 inlet conditions, demonstrating that the fuel nitrogen intermediate assumed is not significant. Furthermore, the conversion ratio of fuel nitrogen to NO was 0.33, revealing that the majority of fuel nitrogen forms N2. PMID:25005043

  18. Cleaner co-combustion of lignite-biomass-waste blends by utilising inhibiting compounds of toxic emissions.

    PubMed

    Skodras, G; Palladas, A; Kaldis, S P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the co-combustion behaviour of coal with wastes and biomass and the related toxic gaseous emissions were investigated. The objective of this work is to add on towards a cleaner co-combustion of lignite-waste-biomass blends by utilizing compounds that could inhibit the formation of toxic pollutants. A series of co-combustion tests was performed in a pilot scale incinerator, and the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured. The co-combustion behaviour of lignite with olive kernels, MDF and sawdust was studied and the ability of additives such as urea, almond shells and municipal sewage sludge to reduce the PCDD/F emissions was examined. All blends were proven good fuels and reproducible combustion conditions were achieved. The addition of inhibitors prior to combustion showed in some cases, relatively high PCDD/F emissions reduction. Among the inhibitors tested, urea seems to achieve a reduction of PCDD/F emissions for all fuel blends, while an unstable behaviour was observed for the others. PMID:17204304

  19. EPA ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article examines EPA technical activities relating to the development of regulations pertaining to the control of both new and existing municipal waste combustion facilities (MWCs). The activities include: (1) assessing combustion and flue gas cleaning technologies, (2) colle...

  20. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  1. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  2. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion - A fuel processor for high-speed propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Rollbuhler, R. James; Lezberg, Erwin A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel was studied over the equivalence ratio range 4.7 to 7.8, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1250 to 1060 K. The process was soot-free and the gaseous products were similar to those obtained in the iso-octane study. A carbon atom balance across the catalyst bed calculated for the gaseous products accounted for about 70 to 90 percent of the fuel carbon; the balance was condensed as a liquid in the cold trap. It was shown that 52 to 77 percent of the fuel carbon was C1, C2, and C3 molecules. The viability of using fuel-rich catalytic combustion as a technique for preheating a practical fuel to very high temperatuers was demonstrated. Preliminary results from the scaled up version of the catalytic combustor produced a high-temperature fuel containing large amounts of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The balance of the fuel was completely vaporized and in various stages of pyrolysis and oxidation. Visual observations indicate that there was no soot present.

  3. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion: A fuel processor for high-speed propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Rollbuhler, R. James; Lezberg, Erwin A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel was studied over the equivalence ratio range 4.7 to 7.8, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1250 to 1060 K. The process was soot-free and the gaseous products were similar to those obtained in the iso-octane study. A carbon atom balance across the catalyst bed calculated for the gaseous products accounted for about 70 to 90 percent of the fuel carbon; the balance was condensed as a liquid in the cold trap. It was shown that 52 to 77 percent of the fuel carbon was C1, C2, and C3 molecules. The viability of using fuel-rich catalytic combustion as a technique for preheating a practical fuel to very high temperatures was demonstrated. Preliminary results from the scaled up version of the catalytic combustor produced a high-temperature fuel containing large amounts of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The balance of the fuel was completely vaporized and in various stages of pyrolysis and oxidation. Visual observations indicate that there was no soot present.

  4. Diesel fuel by fermentation of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, S.M.; Wayman, M.

    1983-01-11

    An improved diesel fuel which is entirely capable of preparation from renewable resources. The fuel comprises a blend of fermentation produced butanol and fermentation produced glycerides. The substrates useful for the butanol fermentation are conventional industrial waste products, such as cheese whey and low value carbohydrate containing waste materials such as corn cobs, wood chips, etc. Similar substrate materials are used in the fermentation or growth culture of glyceride producing microbes.

  5. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, H J; Fisher, E M; Glaude, P-A; Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Flynn, P F; Durrett, R P; zur Loye, A O; Akinyemi, O C; Dryer, F L

    2000-01-11

    Emission standards for diesel engines in vehicles have been steadily reduced in recent years, and a great deal of research and development effort has been focused on reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions. One promising approach to reducing emissions involves the addition of oxygen to the fuel, generally by adding an oxygenated compound to the normal diesel fuel. Miyamoto et al. [1] showed experimentally that particulate levels can be significantly reduced by adding oxygenated species to the fuel. They found the Bosch smoke number (a measure of the particulate or soot levels in diesel exhaust) falls from about 55% for conventional diesel fuel to less than 1% when the oxygen content of the fuel is above about 25% by mass, as shown in Figure 1. It has been well established that addition of oxygenates to automotive fuel, including both diesel fuel as well as gasoline, reduces NOx and CO emissions by reducing flame temperatures. This is the basis for addition of oxygenates to produce reformulated gasoline in selected portions of the country. Of course, this is also accompanied by a slight reduction in fuel economy. A new overall picture of diesel combustion has been developed by Dec [2], in which laser diagnostic studies identified stages in diesel combustion that had not previously been recognized. These stages are summarized in Figure 2. The evolution of the diesel spray is shown, starting as a liquid jet that vaporizes and entrains hot air from the combustion chamber. This relatively steady process continues as long as fuel is being injected. In particular, Dec showed that the fuel spray vaporizes and mixes with air and products of earlier combustion to provide a region in which a gas phase, premixed fuel-rich ignition and burn occurs. The products of this ignition are then observed experimentally to lead rapidly to formation of soot particles, which subsequently are consumed in a diffusion flame. Recently, Flynn et al. [3] used a chemical kinetic and

  6. Broad Specification Fuels Combustion Technology Program, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. P.; Jeroszko, R. A.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of two advanced technology combustor concepts was conducted to evolve and assess their capability for operation on broadened properties fuels. The concepts were based on the results of Phase 1 of the Broad Specification Fuel Combustor Technology Program which indicated that combustors with variable geometry or staged combustion zones had a flexibility of operation that could facilitate operation on these fuels. Emphasis in defining these concepts included the use of single pipe as opposed to duplex or staged fuels systems to avoid the risk of coking associated with the reduction in thermal stability expected in broadened properties fuels. The first concept was a variable geometry combustor in which the airflow into the primary zone could be altered through valves on the front while the second was an outgrowth of the staged Vorbix combustor, evolved under the NASA/P&W ECCP and EEE programs incorporating simplified fuel and air introduction. The results of the investigation, which involved the use of Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel, indicated that in the form initially conceived, both of these combustor concepts were deficient in performance relative to many of the program goals for performance emissions. However, variations of both combustors were evaluated that incorporated features to simulate conceptual enhancement to demonstrate the long range potential of the combustor. In both cases, significant improvements relative to the program goals were observed.

  7. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Recordkeeping § 62.15310 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion...

  8. Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Normal Alkane Fuels in a Model Combustor of Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    今村, 宰; 石川, 雄太; 鈴木, 俊介; 福本, 皓士郎; 西田, 俊介; 氏家, 康成; 津江, 光洋

    Effect of kinds of one-component n-alkane liquid fuels on combustion characteristics was investigated experimentally using a model combustor of scramjet engine. The inlet condition of a model combustor is 2.0 of Mach number, up to 2400K of total temperature, and 0.38MPa of total pressure. Five kinds of n-alkane are tested, of which carbon numbers are 7, 8, 10, 13, and 16. They are more chemically active and less volatile with an increase of alkane carbon number. Fuels are injected to the combustor in the upstream of cavity with barbotage nitrogen gas and self-ignition performance was investigated. The result shows that self-ignition occurs with less equivalence ratio when alkane carbon number is smaller. This indicates that physical characteristic of fuel, namely volatile of fuel, is dominant for self-ignition behavior. Effect on flame-holding performance is also examined with adding pilot hydrogen and combustion is kept after cutting off pilot hydrogen with the least equivalence ratio where alkane carbon number is from 8 to 10. These points are discussed qualitatively from the conflict effect of chemical and physical properties on alkane carbon number.

  9. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  10. Hazardous-waste combustion in industrial processes: cement and lime kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Mournighan, R.E.; Branscome, M.

    1987-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of several studies relating to hazardous-waste combustion in cement and lime kilns. The tests included in the study are four kilns tested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, four kilns tested by State agencies or the kiln operator, two Canadian tests, and one Swedish test. The predominant types of wastes tested included chlorinated organic compounds, aromatic compounds, and metal-contaminated waste oil. The kiln types include lime kilns and cement kilns, which included the dry, wet, and preheated processes. Fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) were the pollution-control devices used in these processes, and the primary fuels included coal, coke, coal/coke, fuel oil, and natural gas/coke. The parameters examined in the report were Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of the Principal Organic Hazardous Constitutents, particulate and HCl emissions, metals, and the effect of burning hazardous waste on SO/sub 2/, NOx, and CO emissions. The primary conclusion of the study is that DRE's of 99.99% or greater can be obtained in properly-operated calcining kilns. Particulate matter can increase when chlorinated wastes are burned in a kiln equipped with an electrostatic precipitator. Those kilns equipped with fabric filters showed no change in emissions.

  11. Fundamental combustion studies of emulsified fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dryer, F.L.

    1982-08-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and built in order to study the combustion of free, isolated fuel droplets at low Reynolds number conditions. Studies were conducted into the disruptive combustion behavior of n-paraffin/water emulsions and binary solutions of n-paraffins. A lower limiting paraffin boiling point was determined so that nucleation of water in emulsions was achieved. Solutions exhibited a limited range of composition for which disruption of the droplets was observed. A minimum difference in boiling points of the components was necessary to achieve disruption. Analysis of vapor bubble growth indicated fundamental differences between the behavior of emulsions and solutions. The work on binary paraffin solutions was extended to alcohol/paraffin solutions which also exhibited disruptive activity within a range of composition. Studies of emulsified No. 2 oil and ethanol/No. 2 oil solutions indicated the existence of microexplosions wih the combustion of these fuel blends. Finally, a full scale boiler test was conducted to determine the impact of heavy oil/water emulsification on boiler operating characteristics. The most significant effect was the reduction of large carbon particulate emissions.

  12. Combustion of liquid-fuel droplets in supercritical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Yang, Vigor; Hsaio, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of liquid-fuel droplet combustion in both subcritical and supercritical environments has been conducted. The formulation is based on the complete conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates variable thermophysical properties, finite-rate chemical kinetics, and a full treatment of liquid-vapor phase equilibrium at the drop surface. The governing equations and associated interfacial boundary conditions are solved numerically using a fully coupled, implicit scheme with the dual time-stepping integration technique. The model is capable of treating the entire droplet history, including the transition from the subcritical to supercritical state. As a specific example, the combustion of n-pentane fuel droplets in air is studied for pressures in the range of 5-140 atm. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influence on fluid transport, gas-liquid interfacial thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibit a considerable change in the combustion mechanism at the critical pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure.

  13. Toxic emissions during co-combustion of biomass-waste wood-lignite blends in an industrial boiler.

    PubMed

    Samaras, P; Skodras, G; Sakellaropoulos, G P; Blumenstock, M; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the PCDD/F emissions during the co-combustion of waste wood/coal co-combustion in an industrial boiler and to determine the relation of the toxic emissions to the fuel properties. Co-combustion experiments were performed in a 13.8 MWthermal industrial moving grate combustor. The fuels which were examined in this study included Greek lignite, natural uncontaminated wood, power poles and medium density fibers (MDFs) which were by-products of the plant production process. Fuel blends were prepared by mixing single components in various concentrations. PCDD/F emissions were collected during experimental runs and were analyzed according to standard methods. Low PCDD/F emissions were obtained during the co-combustion tests, lower than the limit value of 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3. The lowest values were observed during the combustion of fuel blends containing MDF, possibly due to the inhibitory action of some of the N-containing MDF ingredients, such as urea. No direct correlation was found between the PCDD/F and the copper emissions, while examination of the PCDD/F homologue patterns revealed the predominance of the lower chlorinated isomers over the higher ones. PMID:11372861

  14. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  15. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  16. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    General Electric Global Research will define, develop, and test new fuel nozzle technology concepts for gas turbine operation on a wide spectrum of opportunity fuels and/or fuel blends. This will enable gas turbine operation on ultra-low Btu fuel streams such as very weak natural gas, highly-diluted industrial process gases, or gasified waste streams that are out of the capability range of current turbine systems.

  17. The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-30

    The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and

  18. Analysis of Fuel Vaporization, Fuel-Air Mixing, and Combustion in Integrated Mixer-Flame Holders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deur, J. M.; Cline, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Requirements to limit pollutant emissions from the gas turbine engines for the future High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) have led to consideration of various low-emission combustor concepts. One such concept is the Integrated Mixer-Flame Holder (IMFH). This report describes a series of IMFH analyses performed with KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional CFD code for problems involving sprays, turbulence, and combustion. To meet the needs of this study, KIVA-II's boundary condition and chemistry treatments are modified. The study itself examines the relationships between fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, and combustion. Parameters being considered include: mixer tube diameter, mixer tube length, mixer tube geometry (converging-diverging versus straight walls), air inlet velocity, air inlet swirl angle, secondary air injection (dilution holes), fuel injection velocity, fuel injection angle, number of fuel injection ports, fuel spray cone angle, and fuel droplet size. Cases are run with and without combustion to examine the variations in fuel-air mixing and potential for flashback due to the above parameters. The degree of fuel-air mixing is judged by comparing average, minimum, and maximum fuel/air ratios at the exit of the mixer tube, while flame stability is monitored by following the location of the flame front as the solution progresses from ignition to steady state. Results indicate that fuel-air mixing can be enhanced by a variety of means, the best being a combination of air inlet swirl and a converging-diverging mixer tube geometry. With the IMFH configuration utilized in the present study, flashback becomes more common as the mixer tube diameter is increased and is instigated by disturbances associated with the dilution hole flow.

  19. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  20. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  1. Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

    Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

  2. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  3. Effects of fuel and additives on combustion chamber deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.M.; Pocinki, S.B.

    1994-10-01

    The effects of gasoline composition, as represented in typical regular and premium unleaded gasolines and fuel additives, on Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD) were investigated in BMW and Ford tests. In addition, the influences of engine lubricant oil and ethanol oxygenate on CCD were examined in Ford 2.3L engine dynamometer tests. Also, additive effects of packages based on mineral oil fluidizers versus synthetic fluidizers were studied in several different engines for CCD. Finally, a new method for evaluating the effect of fluidizers on valve sticking is introduced. 6 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Ming-Shing; Yang, Ralph T.

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  5. High pressure combustion of liquid fuels. [alcohol and n-paraffin fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures for a number of alcohol and n-paraffin fuels under natural and forced convection conditions. Porous spheres ranging in size from 0.64-1.9 cm O.D. were emloyed to simulate the fuel droplets. The natural convection cold gas tests considered the combustion in air of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane droplets at pressures up to 78 atmospheres. The pressure levels of the natural convection tests were high enough so that near critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol vaporization rates and liquid surface temperature measurements were made of droplets burning in a simulated combustion chamber environment. Ambient oxygen molar concentrations included 13%, 9.5% and pure evaporation. Fuels used in the forced convection atmospheric tests included those listed above for the natural convection tests. The ambient gas temperature ranged from 600 to 1500 K and the Reynolds number varied from 30 to 300. The high pressure forced convection tests employed ethanol and n-heptane as fuels over a pressure range of one to 40 atmospheres. The ambient gas temperature was 1145 K for the two combustion cases and 1255 K for the evaporation case.

  6. Wastes as co-fuels: the policy framework for solid recovered fuel (SRF) in Europe, with UK implications.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anurag; Smith, Richard; Hill, Daryl; Simms, Nigel; Pollard, Simon

    2007-07-15

    European Union (EU) member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) to comply with EU Landfill Directive (LD) targets on landfill diversion. We review the policy framework for MSW-derived solid recovered fuel (SRF), composed of paper, plastic, and textiles, in the energy-intensive industries. A comparatively high calorific value (15-18 MJ/ kg) fuel, SRF has the potential to partially replace fossil fuel in energy-intensive industries, alongside MSW in dedicated combustion facilities. Attempts by the European standards organization (CEN) to classify fuel properties consider net calorific value (CV) and chlorine and mercury content. However, the particle size, moisture content, and fuel composition also require attention and future studies must address these parameters. We critically review the implications of using SRF as a co-fuel in thermal processes. A thermodynamic analysis provides insight into the technical and environmental feasibility of co-combusting SRF in coal-fired power plants and cement kilns. Results indicate the use of SRF as co-fuel can reduce global warming and acidification potential significantly. This policy analysis is of value to waste managers, policy specialists, regulators, and the waste management research community. PMID:17711195

  7. Wastes as co-fuels: the policy framework for solid recovered fuel (SRF) in Europe, with UK implications

    SciTech Connect

    Anurag Garg; Richard Smith; Daryl Hill; Nigel Simms; Simon Pollard

    2007-07-15

    European Union (EU) member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) to comply with EU Landfill Directive (LD) targets on landfill diversion. We review the policy framework for MSW-derived solid recovered fuel (SRF), composed of paper, plastic, and textiles, in the energy-intensive industries. A comparatively high calorific value (15-18 MJ/kg) fuel, SRF has the potential to partially replace fossil fuel in energy-intensive industries, alongside MSW in dedicated combustion facilities. Attempts by the European standards organization (CEN) to classify fuel properties consider net calorific value (CV) and chlorine and mercury content. However, the particle size, moisture content, and fuel composition also require attention and future studies must address these parameters. We critically review the implications of using SRF as a co-fuel in thermal processes. A thermodynamic analysis provides insight into the technical and environmental feasibility of co-combusting SRF in coal-fired power plants and cement kilns. Results indicate the use of SRF as co-fuel can reduce global warming and acidification potential significantly. This policy analysis is of value to waste managers, policy specialists, regulators, and the waste management research community. 63 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The case for municipal waste combustion. Solid waste managers face numerous planning issues

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, B.W.

    1996-11-01

    As they look to the future of the municipal waste combustion (MWC) and waste-to-energy (WTE) industries, municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion decision-makers face increasingly federal regulations, judicial activity and public scrutiny. Public perception issues remain prodigious hurdles, as the public is undaunted in its opposition to siting new facilities near populated areas. This situation is partly the result of an increased focus by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on combustors, which has led to better informed community leaders and activists. In addition, state and federal legislation and judicial decisions often fail to support expansion of WTE markets, inferring that combustors are unsafe. Major pollutants of concern are the following: NO{sub x}, CO, SO{sub 2}, HCL, Hg, Cd, Pb, Sb, Ar, Be, Cr, chlorides, dioxin, and furans.

  9. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  10. Clean fuel test burn in TVA combustion turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerman, R.; Houlihan, T.; Hall, R.; Stephens, E.

    1998-07-01

    In the fall of 1997, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cooperation with A-55 Clean Fuels of Reno, NV (A-55) conducted a series of tests on the Unit 1 combustion turbine at the TVA Colbert Fossil Plant near Huntsville, AL. TVA was interested in assessing the use of oil/water emulsified fuels because they offered the potential of significant reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions without a significant impact on unit performance. Notably, the recorded data shows that there was a significant reduction in NOx emissions--upwards of 50%--in both transient and steady-state operations. Moreover, base load gross output increased 1.2 MW over a full range of operating ambient conditions. The following presentation displays the full set of operating and emission data obtained in the tests.

  11. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, Gerald H; Lutz, Bradley; Jung, Keeyoung; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M; Pettit, Frederick S; Zhu, Jingxi; Wise, Adam; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2013-11-25

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air for ease of capture of CO2 from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N2 with CO2 and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe–Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions. Evidence was found for a hreshold for severe attack between 10-4 and 10-3 atm of SO3 at 700ºC.

  12. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for Combustion of Oxygenated Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Curran, H.J.; Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-01-11

    Thermodynamic properties and detailed chemical kinetic models have been developed for the combustion of two oxygenates: methyl butanoate, a model compound for biodiesel fuels, and methyl formate, a related simpler molecule. Bond additivity methods and rules for estimating kinetic parameters were adopted from hydrocarbon combustion and extended. The resulting mechanisms have been tested against the limited combustion data available in the literature, which was obtained at low temperature, subatmospheric conditions in closed vessels, using pressure measurements as the main diagnostic. Some qualitative agreement was obtained, but the experimental data consistently indicated lower overall reactivities than the model, differing by factors of 10 to 50. This discrepancy, which occurs for species with well-established kinetic mechanisms as well as for methyl esters, is tentatively ascribed to the presence of wall reactions in the experiments. The model predicts a region of weak or negative dependence of overall reaction rate on temperature for each methyl ester. Examination of the reaction fluxes provides an explanation of this behavior, involving a temperature-dependent competition between chain-propagating unimolecular decomposition processes and chain-branching processes, similar to that accepted for hydrocarbons. There is an urgent need to obtain more complete experimental data under well-characterized conditions for thorough testing of the model.

  13. Large-scale commercial combustion systems for producing energy from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    The large scale combustion systems available on the US market today that use MSW only as fuel are reviewed. Its purpose is to provide waste to energy project participants with basic technical information to facilitate an understanding of the operation and performance of the technologies employed. General technical descriptions of the two types of large scale systems, mass burning and refuel derived fuel burning, are presented. Performance characteristics of each system, based on material and energy balances, are discussed. A description of the typical energy product options (steam only, cogeneration of steam and electricity, or ejectricity only) that may be considered for both types of systems depending on the available market(s) for energy is included. The sources and types of emissions from these systems (air, water, ash and other residue, noise, and odor) are discussed.

  14. Combustion of liquid fuel in the counter-swirled jets of a gas turbine plant annular combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Semichastnyi, N. N.; Sokolov, K. Iu.

    1986-03-01

    Tests were carried out on an annular combustion chamber rig with a stabilizer of the type used in the GTN-25 gas turbine plant to determine the feasibility of burning a liquid fuel (diesel fuel, GOST 4749-73) in a combustion chamber of this type. Very high performance was obtained for a number of important characteristics of the microflame combustion process in counterswirled jets where all the air was supplied through the front unit of the chamber. However, the tests did not make it possible to solve some of the problems which arise when operating under full-scale conditions, such as the required high combustion efficiency under variable operating conditions of a gas turbine plant; elimination of soot formation at the walls of the stabilizer and the internal surfaces of the pipes supplying fuel to the atomizers; and a decrease in smoking under conditions of excess air factor.

  15. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  16. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOEpatents

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  17. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  18. Combustion of liquid fuel droplets in supercritical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Yang, Vigor

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of liquid-fuel droplet combustion in both sub- and super-critical environments has been conducted. The formulation is based on the complete conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates finite-rate chemical kinetics and a full treatment of liquid-vapor phase equilibrium at the droplet surface. The governing equations and the associated interface boundary conditions are solved numerically using a fully coupled, implicit scheme with the dual time-stepping integration technique. The model is capable of treating the entire droplet history, including the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state. As a specific example, the combustion of n-pentane fuel droplets in air is studied for pressures of 5-140 atm. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influences on the fluid transport, gas/liquid interface thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibits a significant variation near the critical burning pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass-diffusion rate and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure. The influence of droplet size on the burning characteristics is also noted.

  19. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  20. Mach 2 combustion characteristics of hydrogen/hydrocarbon fuel mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Diskin, G.S.; Jachimowski, C.J.; Northam, G.B.; Bell, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The combustion of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2//C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ mixtures containing 10 to 70 vol pct hydrocarbon at combustor inlet Mach number 2 and temperatures 2000 to 4000 R is investigated experimentally, applying direct-connect test hardware and techniques similar to those described by Diskin and Northam (1987) in the facilities of the NASA Langley Hypersonic Propulsion Branch. The experimental setup, procedures, and data-reduction methods are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Fuel type and mixture are found to have little effect on the wall heating rate measured near the combustor exit, but H/sub 2//C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ is shown to burn much more efficiently than H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/, with no pilot-off blowout equivalence ratios greater than 0.5. It is suggested that H/sub 2//hydrocarbon mixtures are feasible fuels (at least in terms of combustion efficiency) for scramjet SSTO vehicles operating at freestream Mach numbers above 4.

  1. Atmospheric mercury emissions from waste combustions measured by continuous monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kida, Akiko

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions have attracted great attention owing to adverse impact of mercury on human health and the ecosystem. Although waste combustion is one of major anthropogenic sources, estimated emission might have large uncertainty due to great heterogeneity of wastes. This study investigated atmospheric emissions of speciated mercury from the combustions of municipal solid wastes (MSW), sewage treatment sludge (STS), STS with waste plastics, industrial waste mixtures (IWM), waste plastics from construction demolition, and woody wastes using continuous monitoring devices. Reactive gaseous mercury was the major form at the inlet side of air pollution control devices in all combustion cases. Its concentration was 2.0-70.6 times larger than elemental mercury concentration. In particular, MSW, STS, and IWM combustions emitted higher concentration of reactive gaseous mercury. Concentrations of both gaseous mercury species varied greatly for all waste combustions excluding woody waste. Variation coefficients of measured data were nearly equal to or more than 1.0. Emission factors of gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury, and total mercury were calculated using continuous monitoring data. Total mercury emission factors are 0.30 g-Hg/Mg for MSW combustion, 0.21 g-Hg/Mg for STS combustion, 0.077 g-Hg/Mg for STS with waste plastics, 0.724 g-Hg/Mg for industrial waste mixtures, 0.028 g-Hg/Mg for waste plastic combustion, and 0.0026 g-Hg/Mg for woody waste combustion. All emission factors evaluated in this study were comparable or lower than other reported data. Emission inventory using old emission factors likely causes an overestimation. PMID:22788107

  2. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H; Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Obtaining accurate data for the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon in thermally-treated waste is essential for determination of the environmental profile of waste technologies. Relations between the variability of waste chemistry and the biogenic and fossil carbon emissions are not well described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating ((14)C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy balance calculations using the balance method. The ability of the two approaches to accurately describe short-term day-to-day variations in carbon emissions, and to which extent these short-term variations could be explained by controlled changes in waste input composition, was evaluated. Finally, the measurement uncertainties related to the two approaches were determined. Two flue gas sampling campaigns at a full-scale waste incinerator were included: one during normal operation and one with controlled waste input. Estimation of carbon contents in the main waste types received was included. Both the (14)C method and the balance method represented promising methods able to provide good quality data for the ratio between biogenic and fossil carbon in waste. The relative uncertainty in the individual experiments was 7-10% (95% confidence interval) for the (14)C method and slightly lower for the balance method. PMID:24008327

  3. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOEpatents

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  4. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled with petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO(x) increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO(x) and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine. PMID:16822672

  5. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...” (§ 60.1940). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...” (§ 60.1940). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...” (§ 60.1940). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...” (§ 62.15410). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...” (§ 62.15410). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  10. EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION PARAMETERS ON POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN HOMOLOGUE PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL CO-COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale (0.6 MWt, 2x106 Btu/hr), co-fired-fuel [densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur Illinois coal] combustion system was used to provide i...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a)...

  12. Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Management: Resource Versus Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Vienna, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Management of irradiated fuel is an important component of commercial nuclear power production. Although it is broadly agreed that the disposition of some fraction of the fuel in geological repositories will be necessary, there is a range of options that can be considered that affect exactly what fraction of material will be disposed in that manner. Furthermore, until geological repositories are available to accept commercial irradiated fuel, these materials must be safely stored. Temporary storage of irradiated fuel has traditionally been conducted in storage pools, and this is still true for freshly discharged fuel. Criticality control technologies have led to greater efficiencies in packing of irradiated fuel into storage pools. With continued delays in establishing permanent repositories, utilities have begun to move some of the irradiated fuel inventory into dry storage. Fuel cycle options being considered worldwide include the once-through fuel cycle, limited recycle in which U and Pu are recycled back to power reactors as mixed oxide fuel, and advance partitioning and transmutation schemes designed to reduce the long term hazards associated with geological disposal from millions of years to a few hundred years. Each of these options introduces specific challenges in terms of the waste forms required to safely immobilize the hazardous components of irradiated fuel.

  13. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  14. Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO{sub x} and CO levels

    DOEpatents

    Keller, J.O.; Bramlette, T.T.; Barr, P.K.

    1996-07-30

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for safely combusting a fuel in such a manner that very low levels of NO{sub x} and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line containing a fuel and an inlet line containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line and to the oxidant line is a mixing means for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure, into a combustion region. Coupled to the combustion region is a means for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor, a rotating band, or a rotating cylinder within an acoustic chamber positioned upstream or downstream of the region of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve; a rotating cylinder; a rotating band having slots that expose open ends of said fuel inlet line and said oxidant inlet line simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli and oxidizer annuli. The means for producing a periodic flow field may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion. 14 figs.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  16. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ou

    Every year, biomass waste materials are produced in large quantity. The combustibles in biomass waste materials make up over 70% of the total waste. How to utilize these waste materials is important to the nation and the world. The purpose of this study is to test optimum processes and conditions of compacting a number of biomass waste materials to form a densified solid fuel for use at coal-fired power plants or ordinary commercial furnaces. Successful use of such fuel as a substitute for or in cofiring with coal not only solves a solid waste disposal problem but also reduces the release of some gases from burning coal which cause health problem, acid rain and global warming. The unique punch-and-die process developed at the Capsule Pipeline Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia was used for compacting the solid wastes, including waste paper, plastics (both film and hard products), textiles, leaves, and wood. The compaction was performed to produce strong compacts (biomass logs) under room temperature without binder and without preheating. The compaction conditions important to the commercial production of densified biomass fuel logs, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size, binder effects, and mold conditions were studied and optimized. The properties of the biomass logs were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. It was found that the compaction pressure and the initial moisture content of the biomass material play critical roles in producing high-quality biomass logs. Under optimized compaction conditions, biomass waste materials can be compacted into high-quality logs with a density of 0.8 to 1.2 g/cm3. The logs made from the combustible wastes have a heating value in the range 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb which is only slightly (10 to 30%) less than that of subbituminous coal. To evaluate the feasibility of cofiring biomass logs with coal, burn tests were

  17. Effect of air-staging on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff

    2007-08-15

    The concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources brought the concept of biomass and waste as secondary fuels to the power industry. Mercury emissions in cases of cofiring of chicken manure, olive residue, and B-wood with a high volatile bituminous coal blend are studied in the first part of this paper. The use of secondary fuels significantly affects NOx emissions due to different types of nitrogen present in the fuel matrix. Air-staging is a proven in-furnace NOx reduction technology. The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate the effect of air-staging on partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor at 1300{sup o}C with a 20%th share of secondary fuels. Elemental and total gaseous mercury from the reactor is measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with elemental and surface properties. Reducing the air stoichiometry in the primary zone of the combustor increases unburnt carbon which in turn reduces mercury emissions in the gas phase. Ash analysis shows the effect of surface area, particle size, and unburnt carbon on mercury capture. Calcium variation in the ash was observed due to formation of different slag in reducing and oxidizing conditions and might have affected the mercury capture in combination with the above parameters. A low iron concentration of ash does not seem to affect the capture of mercury. The results will help in predicting different forms of mercury emitted from the furnace at desired operating conditions which will eventually form the basis for the design of the control strategies for mercury emissions. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 40 CFR 60.1550 - What municipal waste combustion units must I address in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What municipal waste combustion units... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1550 What municipal waste combustion units...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1045 - Are there different subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart? 60.1045 Section 60.1045 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... combustion units within this subpart? (a) Yes, this subpart subcategorizes small municipal waste...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1565 - What subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units must I include in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units must I include in my State plan? 60.1565 Section 60.1565 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... of small municipal waste combustion units must I include in my State plan? This subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1545 - Does this subpart directly affect municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? 60.1545 Section 60.1545 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1550 - What municipal waste combustion units must I address in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What municipal waste combustion units... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1550 What municipal waste combustion units...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1545 - Does this subpart directly affect municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? 60.1545 Section 60.1545 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1565 - What subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units must I include in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plant combustion capacity greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of... combustion capacity less than or equal to 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of... of the municipal waste combustion plant as follows: (a) Class I units. Class I units are...

  18. Experimental Study of Unsupported Nonane fuel Droplet Combustion in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, B. J.; Avedisian, C. T.; Hertzog, D. E.; Berkery, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Soot formation in droplet flames is the basic component of the particulate emission process that occurs in spray combustion. The complexity of soot formation motivates a one-dimensional transport condition which has obvious advantages in modeling. Recent models of spherically symmetric droplet combustion have made this assumption when incorporating such aspects as detailed chemistry and radiation. Interestingly, spherical symmetry does not necessarily restrict the results because it has been observed that the properties of carbon formed in flames are not strongly affected by the nature of the fuel or flaming configuration. What is affected, however, are the forces acting on the soot aggregates and where they are trapped by a balance of drag and thermophoretic forces. The distribution of these forces depends on the transport conditions of the flame. Prior studies of spherical droplet flames have examined the droplet burning history of alkanes, alcohols and aromatics. Data are typically the evolution of droplet, flame, extinction, and soot shell diameters. These data are only now just beginning to find their way into comprehensive numerical models of droplet combustion to test proposed oxidation schemes for fuels such as methanol and heptane. In the present study, we report new measurements on the burning history of unsupported nonane droplets in a convection-free environment to promote spherical symmetry. The far-field gas is atmospheric pressure air at room temperature. The evolution of droplet diameter was measured using high speed cine photography of a spark-ignited, droplet within a confined volume in a drop tower. The initial droplet diameters varied between 0.5 mm and 0.6 mm. The challenge of unsupported droplets is to form, deploy and ignite them with minimal disturbance, and then to keep them in the camera field of view. Because of the difficulty of this undertaking, more sophisticated diagnostics for studying soot than photographic were not used. Supporting

  19. Influence of drop size distribution and fuel vapor fraction on premixed spray combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machiroutu, Sridhar Venkatabojji

    Premixed spray combustion is affected by fuel and oxidizer properties, mixture equivalence ratio and spray quality. The spray quality is characterized by a mean droplet diameter (SMD) and a droplet size distribution (DSD). Prior experimental studies have considered only the influence of SMD, in part due to the difficulty in controlling the DSD independently. The present work provides experimental evidence demonstrating the effect of the fuel droplet size distribution and fuel vapor fraction on premixed spray combustion. Combustion experiments were performed in a pilot-ignited, continuous flow, tubular, vertical test rig wherein fuel sprays were injected into an air stream. A novel twin-atomizer technique that allowed control over overall equivalence ratio, SMD, DSD, and fuel vapor fraction of the premixed spray was used to generate test sprays. A line-of-sight, infrared (IR) extinction technique was developed to quantify the fuel vapor fraction in premixed sprays. Radial distributions of fuel vapor were evaluated using an 'onion peeling' deconvolution technique. Combustion of test sprays indicated flame propagation among regions of high fuel vapor fraction to generate a high rate of combustion. In lean premixed sprays, the presence of a low fuel vapor concentration does not impact the combustion process. Experimental evidence demonstrating the enhancement of flame propagation velocity for optimal SMDs of ethanol sprays has been found. It was observed that test sprays with narrower DSDs have faster burning rates and more complete combustion. The DSD of the sprays were characterized with a droplet surface-area-based standard deviation of the DSD.

  20. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel-equivalence ratios 5.0 to 8.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Gracia-Salcedo, Carmen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (E.R. greater than 5.0) is a unique technique for preheating a hydrocarbon fuel to temperatures much higher than those obtained by conventional heat exchangers. In addition to producing very reactive molecules, the process upgrades the structure of the fuel by the formation of hydrogen and smaller hydrocarbons and produces a cleaner burning fuel by removing some of the fuel carbon from the soot formation chain. With fuel-rich catalytic combustion as the first stage of a two stage combustion system, enhanced fuel properties can be utilized by both high speed engines, where time for ignition and complete combustion is limited, and engines where emission of thermal NO sub x is critical. Two-stage combustion (rich-lean) has been shown to be effective for NO sub x reduction in stationary burners where residence times are long enough to burn-up the soot formed in the first stage. Such residence times are not available in aircraft engines. Thus, the soot-free nature of the present process is critical for high speed engines. The successful application of fuel-rich catalytic combustion to Jet-A, a multicomponent fuel used in gas turbine combustors, is discusssed.

  1. A new comprehensive reaction mechanism for combustion of hydrocarbon fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ranzi, E.; Sogaro, A.; Gaffuri, P.; Pennati, G.; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1993-12-03

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed which describes pyrolysis, ignition and oxidation of many small hydrocarbon fuels over a wide range of experimental conditions. Fuels include carbon monoxide and hydrogen, methane and other alkane species up to n-butane, ethylene, propene, acetylene, and oxygenated species such as methanol, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Formation of some larger intermediate and product species including benzene, butadiene, large olefins, and cyclopentadiene has been treated in a semi-empirical manner. The reaction mechanism has been tested for conditions that do not involve transport and diffusional processes, including plug flow and stirred reactors, batch reactors and shock tubes. The present kinetic model and its validation differ from previous reaction mechanisms in two ways. First, in addition to conventional combustion data, experiments more commonly associated with chemical engineering problems such as oxidative coupling, oxidative pyrolysis and steam cracking are used to test the reaction mechanism, making it even more general than previous models. In addition, H atom abstraction and some other reaction rates, even for the smaller C{sub 2}, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, are treated using approximations that facilitate future extensions to larger fuels in a convenient manner. Construction of the reaction mechanism and comparisons with experimental data illustrate the generality of the model.

  2. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    PubMed

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. PMID:26164851

  3. SYNTHETIC FUEL PRODUCTION FROM SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work described in this report has two objectives: first, to evaluate potential catalysts for the commercial practice of the gasification of chars produced by the pyrolysis of municipal or industrial wastes; second, to determine the potential for synthetic fuel production from...

  4. Element associations in ash from waste combustion in fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Karlfeldt Fedje, K.; Rauch, S.; Cho, P.; Steenari, B.-M.

    2010-07-15

    The incineration of MSW in fluidized beds is a commonly applied waste management practice. The composition of the ashes produced in a fluidized bed boiler has important environmental implications as potentially toxic trace elements may be associated with ash particles and it is therefore essential to determine the mechanisms controlling the association of trace elements to ash particles, including the role of major element composition. The research presented here uses micro-analytical techniques to study the distribution of major and trace elements and determine the importance of affinity-based binding mechanisms in separate cyclone ash particles from MSW combustion. Particle size and the occurrence of Ca and Fe were found to be important factors for the binding of trace elements to ash particles, but the binding largely depends on random associations based on the presence of a particle when trace elements condensate in the flue gas.

  5. Conversion of waste plastics to fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roaper, R. B.; Bhatia, J.

    1981-10-01

    Most of the plastics in use in the world today are produced from crude oil. This increased use of plastics results in an increased generation of discard and waste. In the case of thermoplastics, the types which constitute the bulk of the plastics in high volume use, it is theoretically possible to recycle discard and waste into virgin plastics. However, due to type incompatibility, and contamination with foreign materials, this approach has not proven economically feasible except for a smal quantity of the discard and waste stream. A pyrolysis process was successfully demonstrated which converted atactic polypropylene, APP, to fuel oil and a small fraction of fuel gas. In the current program, a commercial plant, with capacity of 17,000,000 lb/year feedstock, was designed for the pyrolysis of APP waste to fuel oil. In addition, the feasibility of this approach was extended to waste or discarded isotactic polypropylene, PP, and low density polyethylene, LDPE, through pilot plant work, process design, and economic considerations.

  6. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW

  7. Waste Management Planned for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program has been proposed to develop and employ advanced technologies to increase the proliferation resistance of spent nuclear fuels, recover and reuse nuclear fuel resources, and reduce the amount of wastes requiring permanent geological disposal. In the initial GNEP fuel cycle concept, spent nuclear fuel is to be reprocessed to separate re-useable transuranic elements and uranium from waste fission products, for fabricating new fuel for fast reactors. The separated wastes would be converted to robust waste forms for disposal. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is proposed by DOE for developing and demonstrating spent nuclear fuel recycling technologies and systems. The AFCF will include capabilities for receiving and reprocessing spent fuel and fabricating new nuclear fuel from the reprocessed spent fuel. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication activities will generate a variety of radioactive and mixed waste streams. Some of these waste streams are unique and unprecedented. The GNEP vision challenges traditional U.S. radioactive waste policies and regulations. Product and waste streams have been identified during conceptual design. Waste treatment technologies have been proposed based on the characteristics of the waste streams and the expected requirements for the final waste forms. Results of AFCF operations will advance new technologies that will contribute to safe and economical commercial spent fuel reprocessing facilities needed to meet the GNEP vision. As conceptual design work and research and design continues, the waste management strategies for the AFCF are expected to also evolve.

  8. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Cold temperature diesel performance/combustion with Canadian low ignition quality fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, W.S.; Wolf, W.M.; Webster, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Three Canadian tar sands derived experimental diesel fuels with cetane numbers (CN) of 36, 31 and 26 and a reference fuel with a 47 CN were tested in a Deutz F1L511D, single cylinder, 4 stroke, naturally aspirated, diesel engine. Tests were performed with intake and cooling air temperatures of 0/sup 0/C and -12/sup 0/C over the entire engine operating range. Performance and combustion behaviour with the 36 CN fuel was marginally acceptable at 0/sup 0/C and unacceptable at -12/sup 0/C. High maximum combustion pressures and rates of combustion pressure rise were encountered at the low engine speed, high load condition with the experimental fuels. Poor combustion behaviour was also experienced with the two low CN fuels at light loads. Operation of this engine configuration with the 31 and 26 CN fuels is not recommended at 0/sup 0/C and lower intake air temperatures.

  10. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M

    2015-05-01

    In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k-ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW. PMID:25746177

  11. Combustion rates of chars from high-volatile fuels for FBC application

    SciTech Connect

    Masi, S.; Salatino, P.; Senneca, O.

    1997-12-31

    The fluidized bed combustion of high volatile fuels is often associated with huge occurrence of comminution phenomena. These result into in-bed generation of substantial amounts of carbon fines which further undergo competitive processes of combustion and elutriation. The small size of carbon fines generated by comminution is such that their further combustion is largely controlled by the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation, alone or in combination with intraparticle diffusion. The competition between fine combustion and elutriation strongly affects the efficiency of fixed carbon conversion and calls for thorough characterization of the combustion kinetics and of residence times of fines in a fluidized bed of coarse solids. In this paper a collection of intrinsic combustion kinetic and porosimetric data for chars from three high-volatile fuels suitable for FBC application is presented. Chars from a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), a Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass (Robinia Pseudoacacia) are obtained from devolatilization, in fluidized bed, of fuel samples. Thermogravimetric analysis, mercury porosimetry and helium pycnometry are used to characterize the reactivity and the pore structure of the chars. Combustion rates are characterized over a wide range of temperatures (320--850 C) and oxygen partial pressures, covering the entire range of interest in fluidized bed combustion. Analysis of thermogravimetric and porosimetric data is directed to obtaining the parameters (pre-exponential factors, reaction orders, activation energies, intraparticle diffusivities) of combustion kinetic submodels for application in fluidized bed combustor modeling.

  12. Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Panteleev, V. I.; Karlina, O. K.; Klimov. V. L.

    2003-02-25

    Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear reactors, irradiated graphite, mixed, organic or chlorine-containing radioactive waste, contaminated soils, un-burnable heavily surface-contaminated materials, etc. Conventional treatment methods encounter serious problems concerning processing efficiency of such waste, e.g. complete destruction of organic molecules and avoiding of possible emissions of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemically hazardous species. Some contaminations cannot be removed from surface using common decontamination methods. Conditioning of ash residues obtained after treatment of solid radioactive waste including ashes received from treating problematic wastes also is a complicated task. Moreover due to relative small volume of specific type radioactive waste the development of target treatment procedures and facilities to conduct technological processes and their deployment could be economically unexpedient and ecologically no justified. Thermochemical processing technologies are used for treating and conditioning problematic radioactive wastes. The thermochemical processing uses powdered metal fuels (PMF) that are specifically formulated for the waste composition and react chemically with the waste components. The composition of the PMF is designed in such a way as to minimize the release of hazardous components and radionuclides in the off gas and to confine the contaminants in the ash residue. The thermochemical procedures allow decomposition of organic matter and capturing hazardous radionuclides and chemical species simultaneously. A significant advantage of thermochemical processing is its autonomy. Thermochemical treatment technologies use the energy of exothermic reactions in the mixture of radioactive or hazardous waste with PMF

  13. Heating value prediction for combustible fraction of municipal solid waste in Semarang using backpropagation neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuriati, Ainie; Setiabudi, Wahyu; Nur, Muhammad; Istadi, Istadi

    2015-12-01

    Backpropgation neural network was trained to predict of combustible fraction heating value of MSW from the physical composition. Waste-to-Energy (WtE) is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The influence of the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) is very important on the implementation of WtE systems. As MSW is heterogeneous material, direct heating value measurements are often not feasible. In this study an empirical model was developed to describe the heating value of the combustible fraction of municipal solid waste as a function of its physical composition of MSW using backpropagation neural network. Sampling process was carried out at Jatibarang landfill. The weight of each sorting sample taken from each discharged MSW vehicle load is 100 kg. The MSW physical components were grouped into paper wastes, absorbent hygiene product waste, styrofoam waste, HD plastic waste, plastic waste, rubber waste, textile waste, wood waste, yard wastes, kitchen waste, coco waste, and miscellaneous combustible waste. Network was trained by 24 datasets with 1200, 769, and 210 epochs. The results of this analysis showed that the correlation from the physical composition is better than multiple regression method .

  14. Effect [of] co-combustion of sewage sludge and biomass on combustion behavior and emissions in pulverized fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass not only has a considerable potential as an additional fuel source but also shows a reasonable cost level in comparison to other renewable energies. The practicable fuel types are both residual material from forestry and agriculture, such as wood or straw, and especially cultivated reproducible feedstock such as Miscanthus Sinensis, whole cereal plants, poplars, or willows. Besides as single fuel, it is also considered to be sensible to utilize biomass in co-combustion in existing firing systems, such as pc-fired power stations. Biomass or sewage sludge utilized as additional fuel in coal combustion systems has consequences on combustion behavior, emissions, corrosion and residual matter. The effects of burning sewage sludge and agricultural residuals such as straw and manure as well as specially grown energy plants in combination with coal were studied in a 0.5 MW pulverized fuel test facility and a 20 kW electrically heated combustor. A major aspect of the investigations had been the required preparation and milling of the additional fuels. The investigations showed that in co-combustion of straw with coal, a grinding of 6 mm and finer is sufficient. The definitely coarser milling degree of biomass delays combustion and is observable by in-flame measurements. The investigations reveal that biomass addition has a positive effect on emissions. Since biomass in most cases contains considerably less sulphur than coal, an increasing biomass share in the thermal output makes the SO{sub 2} emissions decrease proportionally. In addition, SO{sub 2} can partly be captured in the ash by the alkaline-earth fractions of the biomass ash. As for sewage sludge, the emissions of SO{sub 2} correlate with the sulphur content of the fuel and, hence, rise with an increasing share of this biomass. Independently from the type, biomass shows a considerably stronger release of volatile matter. This latter fact may have a positive impact on NOx emissions when NOx

  15. Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

    Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

  16. Co-combustion of textile residues with cardboard and waste wood in a packed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Changkook; Phan, Anh N; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim

    2007-11-15

    The combustible fraction of the municipal waste is mostly bio-derived. Energy recovery of the wastes that cannot be economically recycled is a key part of sustainable energy policy and waste management. Textile residues have high energy content. When burned alone in a packed bed system, however, their combustion efficiency is low due to the irregular propagation of the ignition front and the low burning rates. In order to achieve more efficient combustion of textile residues, a series of co-combustion tests were carried out for various mixture compositions and air flow rates in a packed bed combustor. The combustion performance of these materials was evaluated by using quantitative measures such as ignition rate, burning rate and equivalence ratio. Co-combustion of textile residues with cardboard for a textile fraction of up to 30% achieved satisfactorily high burning rate and low unburned carbon content in the bottom ash. The mixture was more resistant to convective cooling by air, which significantly expanded the range of air flow rate for combustion at high burning rates. In co-combustion with a material that has a very low ignition front speed such as waste wood, the propagation of the ignition front was governed by textile residues. Therefore, the co-combustion of textile residues can be better performed with a material having similar ignition front speeds, in which the two materials simultaneously burn at the ignition front. (author)

  17. Determination of some important emissions of poultry waste co-combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Huseyin; Amirabedin, Ehsan

    2012-11-01

    Poultry Wastes (PW) are rich biomass types which can be utilized as renewable energy sources in energy conversion systems. The PW is a mixture of poultry litter and organic materials spread on the poultry houses ground. In this paper, combustion of the poultry waste alone and mixed with coal in a combustor set up are implemented, and emissions are monitored. Experimental results reveal that, co-combustion of PW in an existing combustor firing coal can be considered as the best environment-friendly remedy to dispose the facility wastes while reducing the combustion emissions of the system.

  18. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    PubMed

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions. PMID:19409477

  19. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  20. The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: the case of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Apergis, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds methodological approach to investigate the relationship between economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and international tourism for the case of Tunisia spanning the period 1990-2010. The results from the Fisher statistic of both the Wald test and the Johansen test confirm the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables under investigation. The stability of estimated parameters has been tested, while Granger causality tests recommend a short-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to CO2 emissions, a bidirectional causality between economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption and unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to international tourism. In the long-run, the error correction terms confirm the presence of bidirectional causality relationships between economic growth, CO2 emissions, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and international tourism. Our long-run estimates show that combustible renewables and waste consumption increases international tourism, and both renewables and waste consumption and international tourism increase CO2 emissions and output. We recommend that (i) Tunisia should use more combustible renewables and waste energy as this eliminates wastes from touristic zones and increases the number of tourist arrivals, leading to economic growth, and (ii) a fraction of this economic growth generated by the increase in combustible renewables and waste consumption should be invested in clean renewable energy production (i.e., solar, wind, geothermal) and energy efficiency projects. PMID:25874437

  1. TOXICITY OF PARTICLES EMITTED FROM COMBUSTION OF WASTE CRANKCASE OIL: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. The potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. The toxicity of the emission particles and waste p...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15035 - Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion capacity greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of municipal... capacity of no more than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of municipal waste... small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant capacity?...

  3. Effects of fuel cracking on combustion characteristics of a supersonic model combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhan; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo

    2015-05-01

    The compositions of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels in cooling channels of regenerative cooled scramjet engines change along with fuel cracking. To investigate the effect of fuel compositions variation resulting from cracking on the combustion characteristics of supersonic combustors, a series of combustion tests with a wide range of equivalence ratios were conducted in a direct-connected test rig under the inflow conditions of Ma=3.46 and Tt=1430 K. The combustion characteristics of room temperature ethylene and vaporized China no. 3 aviation kerosene (RP-3) with negligible cracking were analyzed and compared based on the measured static pressure distributions along the combustor wall, fuel specific impulses, flame luminosity images and the one-dimensional average flow parameter distributions calculated by a quasi-one-dimensional data analysis method. The experimental results showed that the differences between the combustion characteristics of vaporized RP-3 and ethylene were sensitive to equivalence ratio. Under low equivalence ratios, vaporized RP-3 and ethylene had remarkably different combustion characteristics. Ethylene had an obvious higher static pressure level, specific impulse and combustion efficiency than vaporized RP-3 for its higher activity. The difference of combustion performance between vaporized RP-3 and ethylene was narrowed with the increase of equivalence ratio and the corresponding combustion condition improvement. When the equivalence ratio increased to 1.09, vaporized RP-3 and ethylene had tiny difference in combustion performance.

  4. Ammonia chemistry in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Mendiara, Teresa; Glarborg, Peter

    2009-10-15

    The oxidation of NH{sub 3} during oxy-fuel combustion of methane, i.e., at high [CO{sub 2}], has been studied in a flow reactor. The experiments covered stoichiometries ranging from fuel rich to very fuel lean and temperatures from 973 to 1773 K. The results have been interpreted in terms of an updated detailed chemical kinetic model. A high CO{sub 2} level enhanced formation of NO under reducing conditions while it inhibited NO under stoichiometric and lean conditions. The detailed chemical kinetic model captured fairly well all the experimental trends. According to the present study, the enhanced CO concentrations and alteration in the amount and partitioning of O/H radicals, rather than direct reactions between N-radicals and CO{sub 2}, are responsible for the effect of a high CO{sub 2} concentration on ammonia conversion. When CO{sub 2} is present as a bulk gas, formation of NO is facilitated by the increased OH/H ratio. Besides, the high CO levels enhance HNCO formation through NH{sub 2}+CO. However, reactions NH{sub 2}+ O to form HNO and NH{sub 2}+H to form NH are inhibited due to the reduced concentration of O and H radicals. Instead reactions of NH{sub 2} with species from the hydrocarbon/methylamine pool preserve reactive nitrogen as reduced species. These reactions reduce the NH{sub 2} availability to form NO by other pathways like via HNO or NH and increase the probability of forming N{sub 2} instead of NO. (author)

  5. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  6. Test Operation of Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator for Wastes From Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.-G.; Yang, H.cC.; Park, G.-I.; Kim, I.-T.; Kim, J.-K.

    2002-02-26

    The oxygen-enriched combustion concept, which can minimize off-gas production, has been applied to the incineration of combustible uranium-containing wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. A simulation for oxygen combustion shows the off-gas production can be reduced by a factor of 6.7 theoretically, compared with conventional air combustion. The laboratory-scale oxygen enriched incineration (OEI) process with a thermal capacity of 350 MJ/h is composed of an oxygen feeding and control system, a combustion chamber, a quencher, a ceramic filter, an induced draft fan, a condenser, a stack, an off-gas recycle path, and a measurement and control system. Test burning with cleaning paper and office paper in this OEI process shows that the thermal capacity is about 320 MJ/h, 90 % of design value and the off-gas reduces by a factor of 3.5, compared with air combustion. The CO concentration for oxygen combustion is lower than that of air combustion, while the O2 concentration in off-gas is kept above 25 vol % for a simple incineration process without any grate. The NOx concentration in an off-gas stream does not reduce significantly due to air incoming by leakage, and the volume and weight reduction factors are not changed significantly, which suggests a need for an improvement in sealing.

  7. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, William J.; McNenly, Matt J.; Whitesides, Russell; Mehl, Marco; Killingsworth, Nick J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  8. Use of fluidic oscillator to measure fuel-air ratios of combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator was investigated for use in measuring fuel-air ratios in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The oscillator was operated with dry exhaust gas from an experimental combustor burning ASTM A-1 fuel. Tests were conducted with fuel-air ratios between 0.015 and 0.031. Fuel-air ratios determined by oscillator frequency were within 0.001 of the values computed from separate flow measurements of the air and fuel.

  9. Toxic gas phase emissions from the combustion of pulverized coal mixed with powders of waste plastics or tire crumb

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Courtemanche, B.; Atal, A.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents results on the gas phase emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative waste fuels (plastics and automobile tires). The plastics examined were poly(ethylene) and poly(styrene). All fuels were burned in powder form. Mixtures (50- 50 by weight) of the above waste fuels with coal were also burned. Results are reported on the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and CO{sub 2} emissions. For a limited number of cases results are also presented on the release of organic air toxics, in particular the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments were conducted under well-controlled conditions in bench-scale laboratory facilities. Coal particles, {approx}100 {mu}m, and particles of pulverized alternative fuels, {approx}200 {mu}m, were injected and burned in an electrically-heated droptube furnace. The furnace temperature was set to 1250{degrees}C. The residence time of the gas was 1 s. Experiments spanned a range of fuel-lean ({phi} < 1), stoichiometric ({phi} = 1) and fuel-rich ({phi} > 1) conditions. Results showed that (a) the NO{sub x} emissions of tires were a few times lower than those of coal and those of plastics were even lower. Thus, blending these alterative fuels with coal drastically reduced NO{sub x} emissions.

  10. Investigation of thermal and environmental characteristics of combustion of gaseous fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetkin, A. V.; Suris, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical investigations are fulfilled for some thermal and environmental characteristics of combustion of gaseous fuels used at present in tube furnaces of petroleum refineries. The effect of the fuel composition on these characteristics is shown and probable consequences of the substitution of natural gas to other types of fuels. Methane, ethane, propane, butane, propylene, and hydrogen are considered for comparison, which in most cases are constituents of the composition of the fuel burnt in furnaces. The effect of the fuel type, its associated combustion temperature, combustion product emissivity, temperature of combustion chamber walls, mean beam length, and heat release on the variation in the radiant heat flux within the radiant chamber of furnaces is investigated. The effect of flame characteristics, which are determined by the presence of diffusion combustion zones formed by burners used at present in furnaces for reducing nitrogen oxides emission, is analyzed. The effect of the fuel type on the equilibrium NO concentration is also investigated. The investigations were carried out both at arbitrary given gas temperatures and at effective temperatures dependent on the adiabatic combustion temperature and the temperature at the chamber output and determined based on solving a set of equations at various heat-release rates of the combustion chamber.

  11. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  12. APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX CONTROL: ALTERNATE FUELS AND FLUIDIZED-BED COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effect of alternate fuels and fluidized coal combustion in controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The current trend in energy use in the U.S. is toward greater use of coal and coal derived fuels, and on ensuring that these fuels are produced an...

  13. Determining size of drops in fuel mixture of internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauter, J

    1926-01-01

    In compressorless Diesel engines and in explosion engines using fuels with high boiling points it is difficult to effect a good combustion of the fuel mixture. This report presents different methods for calculating the size and uniformity of fuel droplets and mixtures.

  14. Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

  15. Mixed waste paper as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kersletter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K. )

    1991-10-01

    A successful recycling program requires several components: education and promotion, convenient collection service, and most importantly, a market for collected materials. In Washington state, domestic markets currently have, or are building, the capacity to use most of the glass, newsprint, aluminum, tin cans, and corrugated materials that are collected. Unfortunately, markets for mixed waste paper (MWP), a major component of the state's solid waste stream, have been slow to develop and are unable to absorb the tremendous volumes of material generated. The American Paper Stock Institute classifies MWP as low grade paper such as magazines, books, scrap paper, non-corrugated cardboard (boxboard/chipboard), and construction paper. When viewed as part of a curbside collection program MWP consists primarily of catalogs, binder paper, magazines, brochures, junk mail, cereal boxes, and other household packaging items. A comprehensive analysis of Washington State's solid waste stream showed that during 1988, Washington citizens generated approximately 460,000 tons of mixed waste paper. No small amount, this is equivalent to more than 10% of the total solid waste generated in the state, and is expected to increase. Current projections of MWP generation rates indicated that Washington citizens could discard as much as 960,000 tons of MWP by the year 2010 making it one of the single largest components of the state's solid waste stream. This paper reports on the use of MWP as fuel source.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR TARGET ANALYTE LIST OF PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of pilot-scale incineration testing to develop a comprehensive list of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from hazardous waste combustion (HWC) systems. Project goals were to: (1) identify the total mass of organic compounds sufficiently to estimate...

  17. PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM DIRECT BURNING OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL-TREATED WOOD WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify potential air pollution problems from the combustion of waste wood treated with pentachlorophenol preservative for energy production in a boiler. The study emphasized the characterization of the products of incomplete combustion (PI...

  18. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  19. 40 CFR 62.15035 - Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is my small municipal waste combustion... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of This Subpart § 62.15035 Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant capacity?...

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa...

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion...

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class I Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class I Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1690 Section 60.1690 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1690...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Combustion Units 1 Table 1 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced... Combustion Units For the following pollutants You must meet thefollowing emission limits a Using...

  6. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  7. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW-rated fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bimodal PM size distribution (PSD) with over...

  8. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

  9. Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi Anaraki, Saber

    The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

  10. Co-combustion of pellets from Soma lignite and waste dusts of furniture works

    SciTech Connect

    Deveci, N.D.; Yilgin, M.; Pehlivan, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, volatiles and char combustion behaviors of the fuel pellets prepared from a low quality lignite and the dusts of furniture works and their various blends were investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system through which air flowed by natural convection. Combustion data obtained for varied bed temperatures, mass of pellets, and blend compositions has showed that ignition times of the pellets decreased and volatiles combustion rates tended to increase with the burning temperature. It was concluded that some synergy had existed between lignite and lower ratios of furniture work dusts, which was indicated by a prompt effect on the volatiles combustion rates. Char combustion rates of blend pellets have depended predominantly on the amount of lignite in the blend. The amounts of combustion residues of the pellets were considerably higher than those calculated from individual ash contents of the raw materials and related to lignite ratio in the blends.

  11. Characterization of high velocity oxy-fuel combustion sprayed hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Haman, J D; Lucas, L C; Crawmer, D

    1995-02-01

    Bioceramic coatings, created by the high velocity oxy-fuel combustion spraying of hydroxyapatite (HA) powders onto commercially pure titanium, were characterized in order to determine whether this relatively new coating process can be successfully applied to bioceramic coatings of orthopaedic and dental implants. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize both the HA starting powders and coatings. A 12 wk immersion test was conducted and the resulting changes in the coatings were also characterized. Calcium ion release during dissolution was measured with flame atomic absorption during the first 6 weeks of the immersion study. A comparison of powder and coating X-ray diffraction patterns and lattice parameters revealed an HA-type coating with some loss in crystallinity. Fourier transform infrared results showed a partial loss of the OH- group during spraying, however the phosphate groups were still present. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed a lamellar structure with very close coating-to-substrate apposition. The coatings experienced a loss of calcium during the immersion study, with the greatest release in calcium occurring during the first 6 days of the study. No significant structural or chemical changes were observed during the 12 wk immersion study. These results indicate that the high velocity oxy-fuel process can produce an HA-type coating; however, the process needs further optimization, specifically in the areas of coating-to-substrate bond strength and minimization of phases present other than HA, before it would be recommended for commercial use. PMID:7749000

  12. Solid Fuel Delivery System Developed for Combustion Testing on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.

    2004-01-01

    NASA initiated Bioastronautics and Human Research Initiatives in 2001 and 2003, respectively, to enhance the safety and performance of humans in space. The Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) is a multiuser facility being built at the NASA Glenn Research Center to advance these initiatives by studying fire safety and the combustion of solid fuels in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). One of the challenges for the FEANICS team was to build a system that allowed for several consecutive combustion tests to be performed with minimal astronaut crew interaction. FEANICS developed a fuel carousel that contains a various number of fuel samples, depending on the fuel width, and introduces them one at a time into a flow tunnel in which the combustion testing takes place. This approach will allow the science team to run the experiments from the ground, while only requiring the crew to change out carousels after several tests have been completed.

  13. Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher; Marx, Donald; Adriano, Domy; Koo, Bon Jun; Newman, Lee; Czapka, Stephen; Blake, John

    2005-12-01

    The establishment of a vegetative cover to enhance evapotranspiration and control runoff and drainage was examined as a method for stabilizing a landfill containing coal combustion waste. Suitable plant species and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and chemical stabilization were evaluated. A randomized plot design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five surface amendments (treatments) was implemented. The three blocks included (1) ripping and compost amended, (2) ripping only, and (3) control. Surface treatments included (1) topsoil, (2) fly ash, (3) compost, (4) apatite, and (5) control. Inoculated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and Virginia (Pinus virginiana) pine trees were planted on each plot. After three growing seasons, certain treatments were shown to be favorable for the establishment of vegetation on the basin. Seedlings located on block A developed a rooting system that penetrated into the basin media without significant adverse effects to the plant. However, seedlings on blocks B and C displayed poor rooting conditions and high mortality, regardless of surface treatment. Pore-water samples from lysimeters in block C were characterized by high acidity, Fe, Mn, Al, sulfate, and traceelement concentrations. Water-quality characteristics of the topsoil plots in block A, however, conformed to regulatory protocols. A decrease in soil-moisture content was observed in the rooting zone of plots that were successfully revegetated, which suggests that the trees, in combination with the surface treatments, influenced the water balance by facilitating water loss through transpiration and thereby reducing the likelihood of unwanted surface runoff and/or drainage effluent.

  14. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 17, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Completed modeling calculations of coal mineral matter transformations, deposition behavior, and heat transfer impacts of six test fuels; and ran pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, microagglomerate product, and mulled product.

  15. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-09-24

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable

  16. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  1. Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO.sub.x and CO levels

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Jay O.; Bramlette, T. Tazwell; Barr, Pamela K.

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for safely combusting a fuel in such manner that very low levels of NO.sub.x and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line (12) containing a fuel and an inlet line (18) containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line (12) and to the oxidant line (18) is a mixing means (11,29,33,40) for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means (11,29,33,40) is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure (8), into a combustion region (2). Coupled to the combustion region (2) is a means (1,29,33) for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region (2) to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor (1), a rotating band (29), or a rotating cylinder (33) within an acoustic chamber (32) positioned upstream or downstream of the region (2) of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve (11); a rotating cylinder (33); a rotating band (29) having slots (31) that expose open ends (20,21) of said fuel inlet line (12) and said oxidant inlet line (18) simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli (43) and oxidizer annuli (42,44). The means for producing a periodic flow field (1, 29, 33) may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion (2).

  2. The potential for clean energy production using oxy-fuel combustion and integrated pollutant removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Weber, Thomas .; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-05-01

    Effective remediation of flue gas produced by an oxy-fuel coal combustion process has been proven at bench scale in the course of cooperative research between USDOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. All combustion gas pollutants were captured, including CO2 which was compressed to a liquefied state suitable for sequestration. Current laboratory-scale research and the future of combined oxy-fuel/IPR systems are discussed.

  3. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  4. Effects of fuel-injector design on ultra-lean combustion performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions data were obtained for six fuel injector configurations tested with ultra lean combustion. Fuel injectors included three multiple source designs and three configurations using a single air assist injector. Only the multiple source fuel injectors provided acceptable emissions. Values of 16g CO/kg fuel, 1.9g HC/kg fuel, and 19.g NO2/kg fuel were obtained for the combustion temperature range of 1450 to 1700 K for both a high blockage 19 source injector and a low blockage 41 source injector. It was shown that high fuel injector pressure drop may not be required to achieve low emissions performance at high inlet air temperature when the fuel is well dispersed in the airstream.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  6. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 4, February--April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-06-01

    The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and missions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects test; and full-scale combustion tests.

  7. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin. PMID:17303316

  8. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  9. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Jet Fuels. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Ellen; Naik, Chitral V.; Puduppakkam, Karthik V.; Modak, Abhijit; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, Theo; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of jet fuels and appropriately associated model fuels. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels and biomass-derived jet fuels that meet certain specifications of currently used jet propulsion applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multidimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in real combustors. Such reliable kinetic models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal combustors and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics.

  10. Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

  11. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 12, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed editing of the fifth quarterly report and sent it to the publishing office; and prepared two technical papers for conferences.

  12. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 14, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1993-02-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; published two technical papers at conferences; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

  13. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  14. Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

    1990-04-01

    Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Lu, Shouxiang

    2014-04-30

    The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire was experimentally studied in an open fire test space of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science. A 30 cm × 30 cm square pool filled with n-heptane and ethanol blended fuel was employed. Flame images, burning rate and temperature distribution were collected and recorded in the whole combustion process. Results show that azeotropism obviously dominates the combustion behavior of n-heptane/ethanol blended fuel pool fire. The combustion process after ignition exhibits four typical stages: initial development, azeotropic burning, single-component burning and decay stage. Azeotropism appears when temperature of fuel surface reaches azeotropic point and blended fuel burns at azeotropic ratio. Compared with individual pure fuel, the effect of azeotropism on main fire parameters, such as flame height, burning rate, flame puffing frequency and centerline temperature were analyzed. Burning rate and centerline temperature of blended fuel are higher than that of individual pure fuel respectively at azeotropic burning stage, and flame puffing frequency follows the empirical formula between Strouhal and Froude number for pure fuel. PMID:24632362

  16. 40 CFR 62.15010 - Is my municipal waste combustion unit covered by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart, then subpart AAAA of 40 CFR part 60 (New Source Performance Standards for Small Municipal Waste... construction on or before August 30, 1999. (3) Your municipal waste combustion unit is not regulated by an EPA... unit becomes subject to subpart AAAA of 40 CFR part 60 (New Source Performance Standards for...

  17. Characterizing droplet combustion of pure and multi-component liquid fuels in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gregory S.; Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The importance of understanding the effects of fuel composition, length scales, and other parameters on the combustion of liquid fuels has motivated the examination of simple flames which have easily characterized flow fields and hence, the potential of being modeled accurately. One such flame for liquid fuel combustion is the spherically symmetric droplet flame which can be achieved in an environment with sufficiently low gravity (i.e., low buoyancy). To examine fundamental characteristics of spherically symmetric droplet combustion, a drop tower facility has been employed to provide a microgravity environment to study droplet combustion. This paper gives a brief review of results obtained over the past three years under NASA sponsorship (grant NAG3-987).

  18. Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L.; DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J.; Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M.

    1992-10-01

    A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m{sup 3} internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h{sup {minus}1} was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}. Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion.

  19. Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L. ); DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J. ); Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M. )

    1992-10-01

    A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m[sup 3] internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h[sup [minus]1] was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO[sub 2], and NO[sub x]. Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion.

  20. Partial replacement of non renewable fossil fuels energy by the use of waste materials as alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrawati, V.; Manaf, A.; Purwadi, G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports recent investigations on the use of biomass like rice husk, palm kernel shell, saw dust and municipal waste to reduce the use of fossil fuels energy in the cement production. Such waste materials have heat values in the range approximately from 2,000 to 4,000 kcal/kg. These are comparable to the average value of 5800 kcal/kg from fossil materials like coals which are widely applied in many industrial processing. Hence, such waste materials could be used as alternative fuels replacing the fossil one. It is shown that replacement of coals with such waste materials has a significant impact on cost effectiveness as well as sustainable development. Variation in moisture content of the waste materials, however should be taken into account because this is one of the parameter that could not be controlled. During fuel combustion, some amount of the total energy is used to evaporate the water content and thus the net effective heat value is less.

  1. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  2. Application of staged combustion and reburning to the co-firing of nitrogen-containing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Mulholland, J.A.; McSorley, J.A.; Hall, R.E.; Srivastava, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 MW precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-furnace NOx control, high combustion efficiency, and retrofit applications, for use with high nitrogen content fuel/waste mixtures. The 250- to 750-ms residence time precombustion chamber burner mounted on a prototype watertube package boiler simulator used air staging and in-furnace natural gas reburning to control NOx emissions. The paper reports results of research in which the low NOx precombustor was used to examine the co-firing characteristics of a nitrogenated pesticide, containing dinoseb (2-sec-butyl-4,6 dinitrophenol) in a fuel-oil/xylene solvent. The dinoseb formulation as fired contained 6.4% nitrogen. NO emissions without in-furnace NOx control exceeded 4400 ppm (at 0% O2). When NOx controls in the form of air staging and natural gas reburning were used, these emissions were reduced to < 150 ppm (96% reduction). Average CO and total hydrocarbon emissions were typically < 15 and 2 ppm, respectively. No dinoseb was detected in any emission sample, and the destruction efficiency was determined to be > 99.99%. Mutagenicity studies of the dinoseb emissions showed that reburning (used for NOx control) reduced the mutagenic emission factor about 60-70% from that with air staging alone.

  3. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

  4. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  5. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  6. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... statement that there are no crossover or entry points for sour gas (high H2S content) to be introduced into... for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Commenced After May 14, 2007 § 60.107a Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas...

  7. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... statement that there are no crossover or entry points for sour gas (high H2S content) to be introduced into... for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Commenced After May 14, 2007 § 60.107a Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic contaminants in emissions from refuse-derived fuel combustion were investigated in a 20-inch-diameter atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor. Combinations of coal/EcoFuel/MSW/toluene were burned inthe combustor with temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1550 degrees F. A Source ...

  9. Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

  10. Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, J. M.; Hardy, C. J.

    1981-05-01

    Alternaive nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. Management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium manufacture and enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes are discussed. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes were made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation.

  11. Progress for the treatment of the combustible portion of domestic waste for briquetting and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, H.H.; Sonneschein, H.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for the treatment of the combustible portion of crushed domestic waste is disclosed. The waste is pre-dried and separated from dense-medium material such as metal and glass prior to processing. A dried waste moisture level of about 8-10% is maintained throughout the process. High heat value briquets are produced without the addition of a bonding agent by sifting out fine inert material and plastic material prior to briquetting.

  12. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  13. Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Other Types of Chemical Fuels

    DOE Data Explorer

    The central feature of the Combustion Chemistry project at LLNL is the development, validation, and application of detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for the combustion of hydrocarbon and other types of chemical fuels. For the past 30 years, LLNL's Chemical Sciences Division has built hydrocarbon mechanisms for fuels from hydrogen and methane through much larger fuels including heptanes and octanes. Other classes of fuels for which models have been developed include flame suppressants such as halons and organophosphates, and air pollutants such as soot and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur. Reaction mechanisms have been tested and validated extensively through comparisons between computed results and measured data from laboratory experiments (e.g., shock tubes, laminar flames, rapid compression machines, flow reactors, stirred reactors) and from practical systems (e.g., diesel engines, spark-ignition engines, homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engines). These kinetic models are used to examine a wide range of combustion systems.

  14. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, S; Casciaro, G; Casu, S; Martino, M; Mingazzini, C; Russo, A; Portofino, S

    2009-02-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from "end of life" products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products. PMID:18657408

  15. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Galvagno, S. Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-02-15

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  16. Non-equilibrium diffusion combustion of a fuel droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurenkova, Veronika V.

    2012-06-01

    A mathematical model for the non-equilibrium combustion of droplets in rocket engines is developed. This model allows to determine the divergence of combustion rate for the equilibrium and non-equilibrium model. Criterion for droplet combustion deviation from equilibrium is introduced. It grows decreasing droplet radius, accommodation coefficient, temperature and decreases on decreasing diffusion coefficient. Also divergence from equilibrium increases on reduction of droplet radius. Droplet burning time essentially increases under non-equilibrium conditions. Comparison of theoretical and experimental data shows that to have adequate solution for small droplets it is necessary to use the non-equilibrium model.

  17. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  18. CO2 and H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion for zero-emission power

    SciTech Connect

    G A Richards; K H Casleton; B T Chorpening

    2005-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for zero-emission power generation systems. These systems are intended to produce power without releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. One method to achieve this goal is to produce hydrogen from the gasification of fossil or biomass fuels. Using various membrane and reforming technologies, the carbon in the parent fuel can be shifted to CO2 and removed from the fuel stream, followed by direct CO2 sequestration. The hydrogen fuel can be used directly in gas turbines fitted with low-NOx combustors. A second approach to producing zero-emission power is to replace the nitrogen diluent that accompanies conventional combustion in air with either CO2 or H2O. In this concept, CO2 or H2O is added to oxygen to control combustion temperatures in oxygen–fuel reactions. In the absence of nitrogen, the primary combustion products for any hydrocarbon under lean conditions are then simply CO2 and H2O. Thus, merely cooling the exhaust stream condenses the water and produces an exhaust of pure CO2, ready for sequestration. The dilute oxy-fuel combustion strategy can be incorporated in power cycles that are similar to Brayton or Rankine configurations, using CO2 or H2O as the primary diluent respectively. While the relativemerits of the various strategies to zero-emission power are the subject of various technical and economic studies, very little work has focused on defining the combustion issues associated with the dilute oxy-fuel option. In this paper, the expected combustion performance of CO2 and H2O diluted systems are compared. Experimental results from a high-pressure oxy-fuel combustor are also presented.

  19. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  20. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.; Park, Chan Seung

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  1. Methodology development of a time-resolved in-cylinder fuel oxidation analysis: Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion study application

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, L.; Guibert, P.; Cavadias, S.; Dupre, S.; Momique, J.C.

    2008-08-15

    A technique was developed and applied to understand the mechanism of fuel oxidation in an internal combustion engine. This methodology determines the fuel and concentrations of various intermediates during the combustion cycle. A time-resolved measurement of a large number of species is the objective of this work and is achieved by the use of a sampling probe developed in-house. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve with internal N{sub 2} dilution was developed for sampling gases coming from the combustion chamber. Combustion species include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, fuel components, and hydrocarbons produced due to incomplete combustion of fuel. Combustion gases were collected and analyzed with the objectives of analysis by an automotive exhaust analyzer, separation by gas chromatography, and detection by flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry. The work presented was processed in a homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion mode context. (author)

  2. Reduction of fuel side costs due to biomass co-combustion.

    PubMed

    Wils, Andrea; Calmano, Wolfgang; Dettmann, Peter; Kaltschmitt, Martin; Ecke, Holger

    2012-03-15

    The feasibility and influence of co-combustion of woody biomass on the fuel side costs is discussed for three hard coal power plants located in Berlin, Germany. Fuel side costs are defined as the costs resulting from flue gas cleaning and by-products. To have reliable data, co-firing tests were conducted in two power plants (i.e., slag tap furnace and circulating fluidising bed combustion). The amount of wood which was co-fired varied at levels below 11% of the fuel heat input. Wood chips originating from landscape management were used. The analyses show that co-combustion of woody biomass can lower the fuel side costs and that the co-combustion at a level below 10% of the thermal capacity is technically feasible without major problems. Furthermore, a flexible spreadsheet tool was developed for the calculation of fuel side costs and suggestions for operational improvements were made. For example, the adaptation of the Ca/S ratio (mass ratio of calcium in limestone to sulphur in the fuel) in one plant could reduce the fuel side costs up to 135 k€ yr(-1) (0.09 €M Wh(-1)). PMID:21514049

  3. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 6, July 1990--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  4. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of

  5. Influence of bio-additives on combustion of liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Durčanský, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution there are analyses of the course of the pressure curves, which were measured in the diesel engine MD UR IV, which is often used in cogeneration units. The results of the analyses confront the properties and quality of fuels. The measuring was realized with a constant rotation speed of the engine and by using different fuels. The fuels were pure diesel fuels and diesel fuel with bio-additives of hydrogenate RO (rape oil), FAME, and bioethanol.

  6. Fundamental combustion studies of emulsified fuels. Annual progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I M

    1980-01-01

    A research program in the Fuels Research Laboratory at Princeton University has provided fundamental information on the combustion properties of emulsions and multi-component fuel mixtures. Particular attention has been given to understanding the phenomenon of micro-explosions and disruptive combustion. Earlier work which investigated the behavior of n-paraffin and water emulsions, binary mixtures of n-paraffins, and solutions of alcohol with n-paraffins has been completed and is now published in the open literature. This work has been extended during the current contract period to the study of the droplet combustion of a No. 2 fuel oil. Both emulsions with water and solutions of alcohols were investigated and very useful data were generated with regard to the optimization of the disruption phenomenon in terms of additive content. In addition, some preliminary work has been done with micro-emulsions. This indicated the importance of further work to elucidate the role of surfactant loading. Theoretical work on the growth of gaseous bubbles in fuel droplets has helped to define some of the controlling parameters in the disruption phenomenon. Finally the design of a new free droplet apparatus has been completed and a novel optical diagnostic technique for droplet sizing is near completion. This program has generated information which is of general interest in the field of droplet combustion and represents a considerable advance in our understanding of fuel related combustion phenomena.

  7. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1991-07-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued drop tube devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; and started writing a summary topical report to include all results on the nine fuels tested.

  8. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions of Pollutants from Combustion Processes of Liquid Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Agnieszka; Guziałowska-Tic, Joanna; Tic, Wilhelm Jan

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic growth of the use of non-renewable fuels for energy purposes results in demand for catalysts to improve their combustion process. The paper describes catalysts used mainly in the processes of combustion of motor fuels and fuel oils. These catalysts make it possible to raise the efficiency of oxidation processes simultanously reducing the emission of pollutants. The key to success is the selection of catalyst compounds that will reduce harmful emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. Catalysts are introduced into the combustion zone in form of solutions miscible with fuel or with air supplied to the combustion process. The following compounds soluble in fuel are inclused in the composition of the described catalysts: organometallic complexes, manganese compounds, salts originated from organic acids, ferrocen and its derivatives and sodium chloride and magnesium chloride responsible for burning the soot (chlorides). The priority is to minimize emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon monoxide, as well as particulate matter.

  9. Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels. PMID:11219694

  10. Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

  11. Air-fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, T.; Suzuki, M.

    1981-09-29

    The air-fuel ratio for an internal combustion engine is controlled at the three stages: (A) when the engine temperature is lower than a first predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled only by a choke valve, (B) when the engine is at a temperature of the first predetermined value to a second predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled according to the output signals of engine temperature detecting means, and (C) when the engine temperature is higher than the second predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled according to the signals from air-fuel ratio detecting means.

  12. Multiphase CFD-based models for chemical looping combustion process: Fuel reactor modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jonghwun; Gamwo, I.K.

    2008-04-21

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a flameless two-step fuel combustion that produces a pure CO2 stream, ready for compression and sequestration. The process is composed of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors. The air reactor which is a conventional circulating fluidized bed and the fuel reactor which is a bubbling fluidized bed. The basic principle is to avoid the direct contact of air and fuel during the combustion by introducing a highly-reactive metal particle, referred to as oxygen carrier, to transport oxygen from the air to the fuel. In the process, the products from combustion are kept separated from the rest of the flue gases namely nitrogen and excess oxygen. This process eliminates the energy intensive step to separate the CO2 from nitrogen-rich flue gas that reduce the thermal efficiency. Fundamental knowledge of multiphase reactive fluid dynamic behavior of the gas–solid flow is essential for the optimization and operation of a chemical looping combustor. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase CFD-based models have not been adapted to chemical looping combustion processes in the open literature. In this study, we have developed the reaction kinetics model of the fuel reactor and implemented the kinetic model into a multiphase hydrodynamic model, MFIX, developed earlier at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Simulated fuel reactor flows revealed high weight fraction of unburned methane fuel in the flue gas along with CO2 and H2O. This behavior implies high fuel loss at the exit of the reactor and indicates the necessity to increase the residence time, say by decreasing the fuel flow rate, or to recirculate the unburned methane after condensing and removing CO2.

  13. Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Manbae; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Wagner, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

  14. Fiber optic sensing system for temperature and gas monitoring in coal waste pile combustion environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, D.; Ribeiro, J.; Ferreira, J.; Lopez-Albada, A.; Pinto, A. M. R.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Diaz, S.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-Lopez, A.; Esteban, O.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Silva, S. O.; Frazão, O.; Santos, J. L.; Flores, D.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Baptista, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    It is presented an optical fiber sensing system projected to operate in the demanding conditions associated with coal waste piles in combustion. Distributed temperature measurement and spot gas sensing are requirements for such a system. A field prototype has been installed and is continuously gathering data, which will input a geological model of the coal waste piles in combustion aiming to understand their dynamics and evolution. Results are presented on distributed temperature and ammonia measurement, being noticed any significant methane emission in the short time period considered. Carbon dioxide is also a targeted gas for measurement, with validated results available soon. The assessment of this technology as an effective and reliable tool to address the problem of monitoring coal waste piles in combustion opens the possibility of its widespread application in view of the worldwide presence of coal related fires.

  15. Improving combustion stability in a bi-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how a new strategy for ignition timing control can reduce NOx emissions from engines using CNG and gasoline. Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, a certain fraction of vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) must have bi-fuel capability. A bi-fuel engine, enjoying the longer range of gasoline and the cleaner emissions of CNG, can overcome the problem of having few CNG fueling stations. However, bi-fuel engines must be optimized to run on both fuels since low CNG volumetric efficiency causes power losses compared to gasoline.

  16. GRH 12-01 Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion Poster 0108

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20

    The goals are to: (1) Achieve 90% CO{sub 2} capture at no more than a 35% increase in levelized cost of electricity of post-combustion capture for new and existing conventional coal-fired power plants; (2) Provide high-temperature corrosion information to aid in materials development and selection for oxy-fuel combustion; and (3) Identify corrosion mechanism and behavior differences between air- and oxy-firing.

  17. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-01

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems. PMID:23301852

  18. Manipulation of combustion waves in carbon-nanotube/fuel composites by highly reactive Mg nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Yeol; Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Dongjoon; Choi, Wonjoon

    2015-10-28

    Manipulating the interface of micro/nanostructured materials and chemical fuels can change the fundamental characteristics of combustion waves that are generated during a reaction. In this study, we report that Mg/MgO nanoparticles actively amplify the propagation of combustion waves at the interface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and chemical fuels. Fuel/MWCNT and fuel/MWCNT-Mg/MgO composite films were prepared by a facile synthetic method. We present complete physiochemical characterization of these composite films and evaluate the propagating velocities and real-time surface temperatures of combustion waves. Mg/MgO nanoparticles at the interface enhanced the reaction front velocity by 41%. The resulting explosive reactions supplied additional thermal energy to the chemical fuel, accelerating flame propagation. Furthermore, the surface temperatures of the composites with Mg/MgO nanoparticles were much lower, indicating how the transient heat from the reaction would ignite the unreacted fuels at lower surface temperatures despite not reaching the necessary activation energy for a chain reaction. This mechanism contributed to thermopower waves that amplified the output voltage. Furthermore, large temperature gradients due to the presence of nanoparticles increased charge transport inside the nanostructured material, due to the increased thermoelectric effects. This manipulation could contribute to the active control of interfacially driven combustion waves along nanostructured materials, yielding many potential applications. PMID:26419765

  19. Stability analysis of a liquid fuel annular combustion chamber. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    High frequency combustion instability problems in a liquid fuel annular combustion chamber are examined. A modified Galerkin method was used to produce a set of modal amplitude equations from the general nonlinear partial differential acoustic wave equation in order to analyze the problem of instability. From these modal amplitude equations, the two variable perturbation method was used to develop a set of approximate equations of a given order of magnitude. These equations were modeled to show the effects of velocity sensitive combustion instabilities by evaluating the effects of certain parameters in the given set of equations.

  20. Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

    2004-12-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends. PMID:15288277