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Sample records for fuel depot shaw

  1. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Heretofore, discussions of space fuel depots assumed the depots would be supplied from Earth. However, the confirmation of deposits of water ice at the lunar poles in 2009 suggests the possibility of supplying a space depot with liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen produced from lunar ice. This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar resources. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the location of the depot (on the Moon or in cislunar space), and if in cislunar space, where (LEO, GEO, or Earth-Moon L1), and the method of propellant transfer (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 potential architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a satellite servicing mission and a cargo mission to Mars - were used to create demand for propellants, while a third DRM - a propellant delivery mission - was used to examine supply issues. The architectures were depicted graphically in a network diagram with individual segments representing the movement of propellant from the Moon to the depot, and from the depot to the customer

  2. Thermal Examination of an Orbiting Cryogenic Fuel Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Patrick V.; Canfield, Steven L.; Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John

    2002-01-01

    For many years NASA has been interested in the storage and transfer of cryogenic fuels in space. Lunar, L2 and other chemical propulsive space vehicle missions now have staged refueling needs that a fuel depot would satisfy. The depot considered is located in lower earth orbit. Many considerations must go into designing and building such a station. Multi-layer insulation systems, thermal shielding and low conductive structural supports are the principal means of protecting the system from excessive heat loss due to boiloff. This study focuses on the thermal losses associated with storing LH2 in a passively cooled fuel depot in a lower earth equatorial orbit. The corresponding examination looks at several configurations of the fuel depot. An analytical model has been developed to determine the thermal advantages and disadvantages of three different fuel depot configurations. Each of the systems consists of three Boeing rocket bodies arranged in various configurations. The first two configurations are gravity gradient stabilized while the third one is a spin-stabilized concept. Each concept was chosen for self-righting capabilities as well as the fuel settling capabilities, however the purpose of this paper is to prove which of the three concepts is the most efficient passively cooled system. The specific areas to be discussed are the heating time from the fusion temperature to the vaporization temperature and the amount of boiloff for a specific number of orbits. Each of the previous points is compared using various sun exposed surface areas of the tanks.

  3. 33 CFR 334.510 - U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St... REGULATIONS § 334.510 U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The... that have been specifically authorized to do so by the Officer in Charge of the Navy Fuel Depot....

  4. 33 CFR 334.510 - U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St... REGULATIONS § 334.510 U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The... that have been specifically authorized to do so by the Officer in Charge of the Navy Fuel Depot....

  5. 33 CFR 334.510 - U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St... REGULATIONS § 334.510 U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The... that have been specifically authorized to do so by the Officer in Charge of the Navy Fuel Depot....

  6. Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine invertebrates by surface runoff at a decommissioned military fuel depot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Roster, N.

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) and shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sp.) at a recently closed military fuel depot in central San Francisco Bay, California. In April 1996, during a period of above average precipitation, specimens were collected at the depot, near the depot, and at sites 10 and 20 km south of the depot. Four weeks after the rains ended, blue mussels were again collected at the depot, and at two additional sites in the central Bay region. In April, total PAHs in mussels from the depot were significantly higher only than that in mussels collected 20 km from the depot; however, seven specific, substituted PAHs were higher at the depot than at all other sites. In June, only two of the 38 PAHs common in mussels in April were detected at the depot; these concentrations were comparable to ambient concentrations in mussels at the Bay. It seemed that bioavailability of PAHs at the depot was enhanced by rainfall, probably due to the mobilization of PAHs via groundwater into the Bay. Concentrations in mussels from chronically contaminated sites were about five times higher than mussels collected from the depot. Low PAH concentrations were detected in shore crabs near the depot, and the highest levels were not associated with the depot. Observed PAH concentrations are discussed in relation to upper trophic organisms.

  7. 77 FR 70193 - Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing... Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  8. 33 CFR 334.510 - U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St... REGULATIONS § 334.510 U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area is described as: (1) A line running at 238.5° true and paralleling the pier at 100 feet...

  9. 33 CFR 334.510 - U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St... REGULATIONS § 334.510 U.S. Navy Fuel Depot Pier, St. Johns River, Jacksonville, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area is described as: (1) A line running at 238.5° true and paralleling the pier at 100 feet...

  10. Navy looks to bugs for cleanup task. [Bioremediation of Naval Fuel Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-03

    The US Navy is about to step into bioremediation in a big way, using the largest naval fuel depot in the continental US as a test bed for better ways to clean oil-soaked soils. Craney Island, a 900-acre peninsula near Portsmouth, Va., has been the Navy's main East Coast fueling depot since World War II. In the next few weeks, a 15-acre site on the island will be transformed into the largest bioremediation experiment on the East Coast, say officials with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Atlantic Division, which is in charge of the cleanup for the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center at Norfolk, VA. The site is extremely contaminated with petroleum, oil and lubricants (POL), primarily ship bunker fuel, and it will be cleaned up under the Navy's Installation Restoration Program, says John Peters, a NAVFAC spokesman. Using naturally occurring bacteria, the contractor will churn and aerate the soil, add lime and fertilizers, bring the moisture level to 20% and allow the mix to [open quote]bake[close quote] for about four months.

  11. Shaw on Hamlet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukore, Bernard F.

    1971-01-01

    Shaw's preoccupation with Hamlet resonates in his creative writing. Article documents this statement not only by examining his novels and plays but by searching through prefaces, postscripts, reviews, letters, speeches, etc. that span Shaw's lifetime. (Author/RB)

  12. 76 FR 22735 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit... filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007) apply to appeals of NRC... CAMOX-001 authorizes the construction of a plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant....

  13. Factor of explosiveness of pulverized fuel as a basis for classification of natural solid fuels with respect to their storageability in open coal depots

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Tolchinskii; A.Yu. Lavrent'ev

    2003-01-15

    Existing methods for estimating the storageability of fuel in open coal depots are analyzed. It is inferred that the capacity of coals for oxidation and spontaneous combustion cannot be unambiguously associated with the name of the coal basin, deposit, or grade. Methods for calculating a generalized parameter reflecting a fuel group are suggested. It is shown that the explosiveness factor Kf of solid fuels calculated from the data on technical and elemental compositions can be used as a generalized characteristic for classifying fuels according to their resistance to oxidation and spontaneous combustion.

  14. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  15. George Bernard Shaw on Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Alston, Theodore A; Carr, Daniel B

    2016-04-01

    Recipient of the 1925 Nobel Prize in Literature, George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was an influential critic of the health care establishment in the United Kingdom. Although skeptical of many medical and surgical procedures of the early 20th century, he respected the value of anesthesia, and he advocated its administration by Frederick W. Axham, a medical doctor whose registration was suspended as punishment for providing anesthesia for a bonesetting procedure. In 1924, when a friend needed surgery, Shaw offered to pay the extra fee for the optional anesthesia. PMID:27080502

  16. Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesterson, David B.

    Designed for use by the general reader, the college student, and the teacher, this book analyzes the life and literary career of Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), emphasizing his literary ventures and artistic talents. The analysis reveals Billings' talents as a subtle humorist, homespun philosopher, and artist of the essay. Chapters include…

  17. Flamelet Formation In Hele-Shaw Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, I. S.; Olson, S. L.

    2003-01-01

    A Hele-Shaw flow apparatus constructed at Michigan State University (MSU) produces conditions that reduce influences of buoyancy-driven flows. In addition, in the MSU Hele-Shaw apparatus it is possible to adjust the heat losses from the fuel sample (0.001 in. thick cellulose) and the flow speed of the approaching oxidizer flow (air) so that the "flamelet regime of flame spread" is entered. In this regime various features of the flame-to-smolder (and vice versa) transition can be studied. For the relatively wide (approx. 17.5 cm) and long (approx. 20 cm) samples used, approximately ten flamelets existed at all times. The flamelet behavior was studied mechanistically and statistically. A heat transfer analysis of the dominant heat transfer mechanisms was conducted. Results indicate that radiation and conduction processes are important, and that a simple 1-D model using the Broido-Shafizadeh model for cellulose decomposition chemistry can describe aspects of the flamelet spread process. Introduction

  18. Simulation of over-winter soil water and soil temperature with SHAW and RZ-SHAW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct simulation of over-winter condition is important for the growth of winter crops and for initial growth of spring crops. RZ-SHAW (RZWQM-SHAW) is a newly developed model by coupling the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) and the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model. The objective of thi...

  19. 33 CFR 117.223 - Shaw Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaw Cove. 117.223 Section 117.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.223 Shaw Cove. The draw of the Amtrak...

  20. Telerobotics for depot modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Petroski, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Development and application of telerobotics technology for the enhancement of the quality of the Air Logistic Centers (ALC) repair and remanufacturing processes is described. Telerobotics provides the means for bridging the gap between manual operation and full automation. The Robotics and Automation Center for Excellence (RACE) initiated the Unified Telerobotics Architecture Project (UTAP) to support the development and application of telerobotics for depot operation.

  1. Fishman Receives the Shaw Prize for Astronomy

    NASA Video Gallery

    In the video, Dr. Jerry Fishman discusses his career as a scientist, his lifelong interest in science and his recognition as the 2011 Shaw Prize Recipient for Astronomy. Fishman is being recognized...

  2. Function Point Analysis Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  3. Moon base/Mars base transportation depot

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1985-09-01

    Placement of the next space outpost, after the low-earth-orbit space station, will strongly affect the evolution of future space programs. The outpost will store rocket fuel and offer a haven to space workers, as well as provide a transportation depot for long missions. Ideally, it must be loosely bound to the earth, easy to approach and leave, and available for launch at any time. One Lagrange equilibrium point, L/sub 1/(SE), between the sun and the earth and another, L/sub 2/(EM), in the earth-moon system have excellent physical characteristics for an outpost; L/sub 1/(SE), for example, requires less than 2% additional rocket propellant for docking there on the way to Moon bases or Mars bases. We apply the rocket problem, the two-body problem, and the three-body problem in discussing alternative locations for space depots. We conclude that Lagrange point halo orbits are the standard by which other concepts for transportation depots must be gauged. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Kinetic undercooling in Hele-Shaw flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, Pedro H. A.; Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.

    2015-10-01

    A central topic in Hele-Shaw flow research is the inclusion of physical effects on the interface between fluids. In this context, the addition of surface tension restrains the emergence of high interfacial curvatures, while consideration of kinetic undercooling effects inhibits the occurrence of high interfacial velocities. By connecting kinetic undercooling to the action of the dynamic contact angle, we show in a quantitative manner that the kinetic undercooling contribution varies as a linear function of the normal velocity at the interface. A perturbative weakly nonlinear analysis is employed to extract valuable information about the influence of kinetic undercooling on the shape of the emerging fingered structures. Under radial Hele-Shaw flow, it is found that kinetic undercooling delays, but does not suppress, the development of finger tip-broadening and finger tip-splitting phenomena. In addition, our results indicate that kinetic undercooling plays a key role in determining the appearance of tip splitting in rectangular Hele-Shaw geometry.

  5. FPA Depot - Web Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Edwin M. Martinez; Muniz, Ricardo; Szafran, Jamie; Dalton, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Lines of code (LOC) analysis is one of the methods used to measure programmer productivity and estimate schedules of programming projects. The Launch Control System (LCS) had previously used this method to estimate the amount of work and to plan development efforts. The disadvantage of using LOC as a measure of effort is that one can only measure 30% to 35% of the total effort of software projects involves coding [8]. In the application, instead of using the LOC we are using function point for a better estimation of hours in each software to develop. Because of these disadvantages, Jamie Szafran of the System Software Branch of Control And Data Systems (NE-C3) at Kennedy Space Canter developed a web application called Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot. The objective of this web application is that the LCS software architecture team can use the data to more accurately estimate the effort required to implement customer requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the domain model used for function point analysis as project managers continually strive to generate more accurate estimates.

  6. Rotating Hele-Shaw cells with ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, José A.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate the flow of two immiscible, viscous fluids in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell, when one of the fluids is a ferrofluid and an external magnetic field is applied. The interplay between centrifugal and magnetic forces in determining the instability of the fluid-fluid interface is analyzed. The linear stability analysis of the problem shows that a nonuniform, azimuthal magnetic field, applied tangential to the cell, tends to stabilize the interface. We verify that maximum growth rate selection of initial patterns is influenced by the applied field, which tends to decrease the number of interface ripples. We contrast these results with the situation in which a uniform magnetic field is applied normally to the plane defined by the rotating Hele-Shaw cell.

  7. Kinetic undercooling in Hele-Shaw flows.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Pedro H A; Dias, Eduardo O; Miranda, José A

    2015-10-01

    A central topic in Hele-Shaw flow research is the inclusion of physical effects on the interface between fluids. In this context, the addition of surface tension restrains the emergence of high interfacial curvatures, while consideration of kinetic undercooling effects inhibits the occurrence of high interfacial velocities. By connecting kinetic undercooling to the action of the dynamic contact angle, we show in a quantitative manner that the kinetic undercooling contribution varies as a linear function of the normal velocity at the interface. A perturbative weakly nonlinear analysis is employed to extract valuable information about the influence of kinetic undercooling on the shape of the emerging fingered structures. Under radial Hele-Shaw flow, it is found that kinetic undercooling delays, but does not suppress, the development of finger tip-broadening and finger tip-splitting phenomena. In addition, our results indicate that kinetic undercooling plays a key role in determining the appearance of tip splitting in rectangular Hele-Shaw geometry. PMID:26565344

  8. Simulating the surface energy balance in a soybean canopy with SHAW and RZ-SHAW models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct simulation of surface energy balance in a crop canopy is critical for better understanding of soil water balance, canopy and soil temperature, plant water stress, and plant growth. One existing effort is to incorporate the surface energy balance in the Simultaneous Heat And Water (SHAW) into...

  9. Simple, Robust Cryogenic Propellant Depot for Near Term Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, Christopher; Pitchford, Brian; Mustafi, Shuvo; Wollen, Mark; Walls, Laurie; Schmidt, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The ability to refuel cryogenic propulsion stages on-orbit provides an innovative paradigm shift for space transportation supporting National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration program as well as deep space robotic, national security and commercial missions. Refueling enables large beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions without requiring super heavy lift vehicles that must continuously grow to support increasing mission demands as America s exploration transitions from early Lagrange point missions to near Earth objects (NEO), the lunar surface and eventually Mars. Earth-to-orbit launch can be optimized to provide competitive, cost-effective solutions that allow sustained exploration. This paper describes an experimental platform developed to demonstrate the major technologies required for fuel depot technology. This test bed is capable of transferring residual liquid hydrogen (LH2) or liquid oxygen (LO2) from a Centaur upper stage, and storage in a secondary tank for up to one year on-orbit. A dedicated, flight heritage spacecraft bus is attached to an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring supporting experiments and data collection. This platform can be deployed as early as Q1 2013. The propellant depot design described in this paper can be deployed affordably this decade supporting missions to Earth-Moon Lagrange points and lunar fly by. The same depot concept can be scaled up to support more demanding missions and launch capabilities. The enabling depot design features, technologies and concept of operations are described.

  10. Herbert R. Shaw (1930-2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, William

    Herbert Richard Shaw, a highly distinguished Scientist Emeritus with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), succumbed at home on 26 August 2002, at the age of 71, to long-term complications of congestive heart failure. He had been an AGU member (VGP) since 1968. Herb was admired for his unstinting generosity of intellect, spirit, and resources, and the ease and frequency with which he dispensed grace, where most others merely practice civility. He shared his own ideas freely and, with an infectious enthusiasm, encouraged the efforts of colleagues and students.

  11. Foaming dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells.

    PubMed

    Caps, H; Vandewalle, N; Broze, G

    2006-06-01

    We have studied foaming dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells partially filled with a soap and water mixture. A series of upside-down flips produces an intermittent wetting of the cell and leads to foam formation. As a function of the number of flips, an increasing number of bubbles composes the foam, until saturation is observed. Statistical analysis shows that the bubble size follows a Gamma distribution. Contrary to common belief, this foaming dynamics by "shaking" creates homogeneous foam, even though the system may pass through transient heterogeneous configurations. A mechanistic interpretation is proposed and included into a theoretical model. PMID:16906898

  12. Rediscovering Ruth Faison Shaw and Her Finger-Painting Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Ruth Faison Shaw was an art educator who developed a nontraditional educational perspective of teaching and a different vision about children's art. As such, she is considered by some to be the initiator of finger-painting in America (The History of Art Education Timeline 1930-1939, 2002.) Shaw developed the technique of finger-painting and a…

  13. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depots to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicles such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing, and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid, and Mars missions. A Mars Orbital Depot is also described to support ongoing Mars missions. New concepts for vehicle designs are presented that can be launched on current 5-meter diameter expendable launch vehicles. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a LEO Depot, L1 Depot, and Mars Orbital Depot based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. The high-energy depots at L1 and Mars orbit are compatible with, but do not require, electric propulsion tug use for propellant and/or cargo delivery. New reusable in-space crew transportation vehicles include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot and the L1 Depot, a new reusable Lunar Lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface, and a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) to support crew missions from the L1 Depot to ESL2, Asteroid, and Mars destinations. A 6 meter diameter Mars lander concept is presented that can be launched without a fairing based on the Delta IV heavy Payload Planners Guide, which indicates feasibility of a 6.5 meter fairing. This lander would evolve to re-usable operations when propellant production is established on Mars. Figure 1 provides a summary of the possible missions this infrastructure can support. Summary mission profiles are presented

  14. John Shaw Billings as a Bibliographer

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Joyce

    1969-01-01

    The influences that a man's childhood have on his life are, it is well known, great. Life is essentially a part of the things that happen to the individual and it is the manner in which one relates oneself to these things that determines what one is. With these facts in mind this study of John Shaw Billings as a bibliographer has been approached. His early life has been reviewed as an influence on his later achievements. Stress has been placed on those events which led to his bibliographic activities. Dr. Billings was prolific in many fields. Others have given detailed analyses of his writings (1, 2). The present study will consider only his bibliographic works. The description of these follows the brief outline of his childhood and youth. PMID:4898628

  15. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  16. Depot fluphenazine: risk/benefit ratio.

    PubMed

    Glazer, W M

    1984-05-01

    The risks and benefits associated with depot fluphenazine are reassessed by a review and critique of the literature, with an emphasis on controlled studies comparing depot to oral preparations. Specific gaps in our knowledge are noted and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:6370986

  17. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  18. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  19. 32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455678-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 111. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 122.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. Shaw Prize Goes to Reinhard Genzel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    The Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2008 is awarded to Professor Reinhard Genzel, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), in recognition of his outstanding contribution in demonstrating that the Milky Way contains a supermassive black hole at its centre, a result largely obtained with the help of ESO's telescopes. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 18/08 Motion of a Star The Shaw Prize is awarded annually by the Shaw Prize Foundation in Hong Kong in the Life Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Astronomy, each of the three prizes bearing a monetary award of one million US dollars. "I warmly congratulate Professor Genzel for this well-deserved award which highlights some of the best science produced with ESO's telescopes," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "Professor Genzel and his team have made a dedicated, long-term effort, using our telescopes and co-developing instruments, to study the Centre of our Galaxy, and as such, he has allowed us to enter an era of observational black hole physics." In 1969, Donald Lynden-Bell and Martin Rees suggested that the Milky Way might contain a supermassive black hole at its centre. But evidence for such an object was lacking at the time because the centre of the Milky Way is obscured by interstellar dust, and was detected only as a relatively faint radio source. Reinhard Genzel and his collaborators obtained compelling evidence for this black hole by developing state-of-the-art astronomical instruments to be used on ESO's telescopes and carrying out a persistent programme of observing the Galactic Centre and its surrounding stars for many years, which ultimately led to the discovery of a black hole with a mass of about three million times that of the Sun. Genzel's group has in particular followed since 1992, the motion of several stars, around the Galactic Centre. These observations were first done with the MPE-built near-infrared speckle imaging camera SHARP on ESO's New Technology Telescope at La

  2. DEPOT database: Reference manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Clancey, P.; Logg, C.

    1991-03-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered into the database, complete location, service, maintenance, modification, certification, and radiation exposure histories can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. This document describes the components of the DEPOT database, the elements in the database records, and the use of the supporting programs for entering data, searching the database, and producing reports from the information.

  3. Space propulsion technology and cryogenic fluid depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Information on space propulsion and technology and the cryogenic fluid depot is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer, electric propulsion, spacecraft propulsion, and program objectives.

  4. Orbiting propellant depot safety. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Appendices to support the findings of the Orbiting Propellant Depot Safety study are presented. The subjects discussed are ullage control subsystems, evaluation of methods, propellant transfer, and baseline subsystem selection.

  5. Depot antipsychotic drugs. Place in therapy.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Matalon, L; Watanabe, M D; Blake, L; Metalon L [corrected to Matalon, L

    1994-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of depot antipsychotic medications are such that an intramuscular injection given at intervals of from 1 to 4 weeks will produce adequate plasma concentrations that are sufficient to prevent relapse over the dosage interval. Such medication is useful in patients who do not reliably take their oral medication. The pharmacokinetics and clinical actions of various depot formulations of antipsychotic drugs have been extensively studied. Unfortunately, patients who do not reliably take their oral medications are unlikely to volunteer for controlled studies. This is because the same factors that influence a patient to not cooperate with the physician in taking the medication as prescribed will also interfere with their willingness to volunteer for research protocols. Thus, evidence from blinded controlled trials may not necessarily reflect the actual patient population at risk. We feel that particularly important evidence of efficacy of depot vs oral medication comes from mirror-image studies. In these trials, the number of hospitalisations after initiation of depot medication is compared with that observed when the patient was solely taking oral medication. Studies of this type show that depot medication substantially reduces the rate of relapse. There is considerable evidence about how long depot medications should be used. For many patients, depot medication to prevent relapse in schizophrenia should be used for the life of the patient. As the conventional antipsychotic agents are replaced by a new generation of agents, the need for depot formulations will continue, and the knowledge gained about the current formulations should transfer to future generations of drugs. PMID:7520856

  6. Space Resource Requirements for Future In-Space Propellant Production Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Fikes, John; Roy, Stephanie; Henley, Mark W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 studies were conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the technical requirements and commercial potential for propellant production depots in low Earth orbit (LEO) to support future commercial, NASA, and other Agency missions. Results indicate that propellant production depots appear to be technically feasible given continued technology development, and there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process utilizes large amounts of power, therefore a depot derived from advanced space solar power technology was defined. Results indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

  7. Visualization experiments on steam injection in Hele-Shaw cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Xianli; Haghighi, M.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-03-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been successfully employed in reservoir engineering research for many years. They involve 2-D geometries in transparent Hele-Shaw cells and glass micromodels. Although much work has been done on immiscible flows (drainage or imbibition), visualization of steamfloods, which constitute a major part of current EOR methods, has not been attempted to data. In this paper, we present experimental results on steam injection in a transparent, pyrex glass Hele-Shaw cell. Both synthetic (Dutrex 739) and natural heavy oils were used under a variety of conditions, including effects of gravity.

  8. Injectable controlled release depots for large molecules

    PubMed Central

    Schwendeman, Steven P.; Shah, Ronak B.; Bailey, Brittany A.; Schwendeman, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable, injectable depot formulations for long-term controlled drug release have improved therapy for a number of drug molecules and led to over a dozen highly successful pharmaceutical products. Until now, success has been limited to several small molecules and peptides, although remarkable improvements have been accomplished in some of these cases. For example, twice-a-year depot injections with leuprolide are available compared to the once-a-day injection of the solution dosage form. Injectable depots are typically prepared by encapsulation of the drug in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a polymer that is used in children every day as a resorbable suture material, and therefore, highly biocompatible. PLGAs remain today as one of the few “real world” biodegradable synthetic biomaterials used in US FDA-approved parenteral long-acting-release (LAR) products. Despite their success, there remain critical barriers to the more widespread use of PLGA LAR products, particularly for delivery of more peptides and other large molecular drugs, namely proteins. In this review, we describe key concepts in the development of injectable PLGA controlled-release depots for peptides and proteins, and then use this information to identify key issues impeding greater widespread use of PLGA depots for this class of drugs. Finally, we examine important approaches, particularly those developed in our research laboratory, toward overcoming these barriers to advance commercial LAR development. PMID:24929039

  9. The Peter Shaw Award Acceptance Address: An Immigrant Sociologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the author's acceptance address for receiving the Peter Shaw award. In this address, the author, an immigrant sociologist, tells how this award helps to resolve questions and uncertainties he has as to the degree to which he can or should consider himself an American--about the extent to which he has become a part, a member…

  10. George Bernard Shaw's "Androcles and the Lion": A Postmodernist Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooti, Noorbakhsh; Jeihouni, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    This study makes an attempt to analyze the manifold aspects of Shaw's "Androcles and the Lion" on a postmodernist standpoint, meanwhile, demonstrates the dominion of modernism, which is portrayed through the vehicle of comedy with a bitter ironic language through the play. Regardless of the historical period in which the play occurs, the…

  11. LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-116). - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot Bridge, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  12. 1. OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST OF SIDE ELEVATION OF THE DEPOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST OF SIDE ELEVATION OF THE DEPOT (RIGHT) WHICH SERVES AS THE HEART OF DIXIE RAILROAD MUSEUM. AT LEFT IS HISTORIC RAILROAD ROLLING STOCK FROM THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTIONS. - Wilton Depot, Ninth Street, Calera, Shelby County, AL

  13. Depot pipotiazine 1970-1982: a review.

    PubMed

    Burch, E A; Ayd, F J

    1983-07-01

    In the past 14 years pipotiazine palmitate, the second oldest depot neuroleptic, has proven to be effective and safe in reducing and preventing resurgence of symptoms of acute and chronic psychoses, chiefly in schizophrenia. It is particularly valuable in the management of erratic ingestors and unreliable absorbers of oral neuroleptics. Clinical experience substantiates that pipotiazine palmitate therapy is best initiated at low doses (25 mg), and that the most effective maintenance dosage is 25 to 200 mg once a month. Pipotiazine palmitate has a low propensity to evoke extrapyramidal reactions; in fact, it causes the lowest incidence of EPS of all depot neuroleptics. Patients receiving pipotiazine palmitate seldom require concomitant antiparkinsonian medication. This review highlights other assets and liabilities of depot pipotiazine therapy. PMID:6134718

  14. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued. PMID:26196421

  15. Interfacial instabilities and fingering formation in Hele-Shaw flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Jun

    1996-10-01

    The interfacial instability of Hele-Shaw flow has been a crucial issue for the understanding of the pattern formation of viscous fingers in a Hele-Shaw cell. By using a unified asymptotic approach, we derive two different types of instability mechanisms for slightly' time-dependent finger solutions; namely, (i) the global-trapped-wave (GTW) instability; and (ii) the zero-frequency (null-f) instability. On the basis of these instability mechanisms, the selection of viscous finger formation is clarified; the apparent contradiction between the previous linearstability analysis by Tanveer (1987, Phys. Fluid 30, 1589) and others and the numerical simulations by DeGregoria & Schwartz (1986, J. Fluid Mech. 164, 383)and the experimental evidence is reconciled.

  16. Suppression of viscous fingering in nonflat Hele-Shaw cells.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Rodolfo; Fontana, João V; Miranda, José A

    2014-11-01

    Viscous fingering formation in flat Hele-Shaw cells is a classical and widely studied fluid mechanical problem. Recently, instead of focusing on the development of the fingering instability, researchers have devised different strategies aiming to suppress its appearance. In this work, we study a protocol that intends to inhibit the occurrence of fingering instabilities in nonflat (spherical and conical) Hele-Shaw cell geometries. By using a mode-coupling theory to describe interfacial evolution, plus a variational controlling technique, we show that viscous fingering phenomena can be minimized in such a confined, curved environment by properly manipulating a time-dependent injection flow rate Q(t). Explicit expressions for Q(t) are derived for the specific cases of spherical and conical cells. The suitability of the controlling method is verified for linear and weakly nonlinear stages of the flow. PMID:25493877

  17. Premixed-Gas Flame Propagation in Hele-Shaw Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharif, J.; Abid, M.; Ronney, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that buoyancy and thermal expansion affect the propagation ra and shapes of premixed gas flames. The understanding of such effects is complicated by the large density ratio between the reactants and products, which induces a baroclinic production of vorticity due to misalignment of density and pressure gradients at the front, which in turn leads to a complicated multi-dimensional flame/flow interaction. The Hele-Shaw cell, i.e., the region between closely-spaced flat parallel plates, is probably the simplest system in which multi-dimensional convection is presents consequently, the behavior of fluids in this system has been studied extensively (Homsy, 1987). Probably the most important characteristic of Hele-Shaw flows is that when the Reynolds number based on gap width is sufficiently small, the Navier-Stokes equations averaged over the gap reduce to a linear relation, namely a Laplace equation for pressure (Darcy's law). In this work, flame propagation in Hele-Shaw cells is studied to obtain a better understanding of buoyancy and thermal expansion effects on premixed flames. This work is also relevant to the study of unburned hydrocarbon emissions produced by internal combustion engines since these emissions are largely a result of the partial burning or complete flame quenching in the narrow, annular gap called the "crevice volume" between the piston and cylinder walls (Heywood, 1988). A better understanding of how flames propagate in these volumes through experiments using Hele-Shaw cells could lead to identification of means to reduce these emissions.

  18. Fingering in a driven hele-shaw cell

    PubMed

    Rauseo

    2000-12-01

    A modified Hele-Shaw cell in which the plate gap can be modulated in time was constructed. Highly nonlinear fingers on the interface between air and water in the cell were observed as the plate gap was driven at a variety of frequencies, but typically near 60 Hz. Modified equations to describe the flow in a periodically driven cell were derived and the linear stability analysis of waves on a circular fluid-fluid interface was performed. PMID:11138089

  19. Suppression of Viscous Fingers in Miscible Hele-Shaw Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Radha; Burton, Justin; Nagel, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    The flow of two immiscible fluids between closely-spaced parallel plates can be highly unstable and produce a series of complex fingering patterns when the less viscous injected fluid invades the more viscous one. Air displacing granular material in such a Hele-Shaw geometry shows similar patterns with sharp features consistent with the granular/air surface tension being virtually zero. Here we investigate the flow of two miscible fluids in a radial Hele-Shaw cell, with an inner liquid displacing an outer one of higher viscosity. We use two glycerol- water mixtures so that the viscosity can be tuned by varying the glycerol concentration. We vary the plate spacing and flow rate as well as the fluid viscosites. The non-equilibrium interfacial tension between these two miscible fluids is expected to be nearly zero. However, extrapolating to zero surface tension in the linear theory for Hele-Shaw flow does not describe our results. Specifically, flow becomes stable even when the inner liquid has a much lower viscosity than the outer one. At higher velocity, it is possible to see small amplitude fingering patterns develop.

  20. Hele-Shaw Experiments on Plume Stretching and Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, M.; Mays, D. C.; Neupauer, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid mixing in laminar flow is important in a number of practical applications, including remediation of contaminated groundwater. Recent modeling studies have shown that mixing can be accelerated and amplified by imposing a flow that generates stretching and folding of an injected plume of treatment solution. Stretching and folding, in turn, results from engineered injection and extraction of clean water through an array of wells surrounding the treatment solution. This poster describes a series of experiments whose goal is to demonstrate plume stretching and folding in a Hele-Shaw apparatus. An initial plume of treatment solution is injected into the center of the Hele-Shaw apparatus, which is assumed to represent a zone of contaminated groundwater, with four wells spaced evenly around the treatment solution. In order to spread the treatment solution into the groundwater, the four wells perform a series of infusions and withdrawals that push and pull apart the plume of treatment solution. With the proper steps, it will be shown that the plume can be stretched and folded to greatly increase the reactive interface area between the treatment solution and the contaminated groundwater. Consideration is given to two qualitative differences with respect to previous modeling studies. First, constant volume is required by the no-flow boundary used at the edge of the Hele-Shaw cell; any pump that is withdrawing water must have a complementary pump adding water at the same rate. Second, in these experiments, mixing results from a physical process, namely Taylor dispersion, eliminating the uncertainty resulting from the need to assume dispersion mechanisms in numerical models. Therefore, these experiments further elucidate the benefits and challenges of imposing plume stretching and folding in systems (like aquifers) where dispersion is unavoidable, providing new insight into the required logistics of using this approach in groundwater treatment.

  1. Study of axisymmetric flow problems by Hele-Shaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P. V.; Sachan, J. S.

    1980-05-01

    Hele-Shaw models have been applied for solving two-dimensional, irrotational flow problems such as flow past bodies or radial seepage flow. The gap between the two plates is varied as a cubic parabola in the radial direction. Results are presented for seven axisymmetric models, including a cylindrical body with 60-deg conical head forms, an axisymmetric sluice entrance with a compound elliptical transition and radial flow to a well with a free surface. Pressure distributions were computed and compared with water-tunnel data, wind-tunnel data, finite-differential solutions and exact solutions.

  2. Density fingering in spatially modulated Hele-Shaw cells

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Tamara; Horvath, Dezso; Toth, Agota

    2007-12-21

    Density fingering of the chlorite-tetrathionate reaction has been studied experimentally in a periodically heterogeneous Hele-Shaw cell where the heterogeneity is introduced in the form of spatial modulation of gap width along the front. Depending on the spatial wavelength, gap width, and chemical composition, three types of cellular structures have been observed. The initial evolution is characterized by dispersion curves, while the long time behavior is described by the change in the autocorrelation function of the front profile and in the mixing length of the patterns.

  3. Shaw High School A Case Study in Rural High School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Doris Terry

    2004-01-01

    Shaw High School is one of two schools making up the Shaw School District. The school is located in an old and once majestic building whose large concrete pillars still stand at the entrance. A small white house across the street holds the district administrative office. Several buildings, detached from the main building, house the cafeteria,…

  4. Insights on why graphic correlation (Shaw's method) works.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1964 A.B.Shaw presented a method of correlating fossilferous sedimentary rocks based on interpretation of graphic plots of first- and last-occurrences of taxa. Because there is no way to determine the true total ranges of fossil taxa, it is instructive to test the accuracy of the method using hypothetical datasets. The dataset used here consists of 16 taxa in six sections with differing known rates of rock accumulation. In all graphs, a single straight-line correlation was a reasonable interpretation. The resulting ranges after the first and third rounds of compositing reproduce the 'true' ranges but with small errors. Slight errors in the positioning of individual correlation lines are more likely to lengthen ranges artificially than to shorten them. Shaw's method works well because, whereas actually sampled ranges will be shorter than true ranges, errors in correlation will be likely to extend some ranges. This or any exercise using simulated data is useful only if the hypothetical situation resembles real geologic situations and if insights derived from the hypothetical dataset provide insights into real situations. The method is only as good as the available data. -Author

  5. Optimal Control by Multipoles in the Hele-Shaw Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokutsievskiy, Lev; Runge, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    The two-dimensional Hele-Shaw problem for a fluid spot with free boundary can be solved using the Polubarinova-Galin equation. The main condition of its applicability is the smoothness of the spot boundary. In the sink-case, this problem is not well-posed and the boundary loses smoothness within finite time—the only exception being the disk centred on the sink. An extensive literature deals with the study of the Hele-Shaw problem with non-smooth boundary or with surface tension, but the problem remains open. In our work, we propose to study this flow from a control point of view, by introducing an analogue of multipoles (term taken from the theory of electromagnetic fields). This allows us to control the shape of the spot and to avoid non-smoothness phenomenon on its border. For any polynomial contours, we demonstrate how all the fluid can be extracted, while the border remains smooth until the very end. We find, in particular, sufficient conditions for controllability and a link between Richardson's moments and Polubarinova-Galin equation.

  6. Locoregional cancer therapy using polymer-based drug depots.

    PubMed

    Ramazani, Farshad; van Nostrum, Cornelis F; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan; Hennink, Wim E; Kok, Robbert J

    2016-04-01

    Locoregional delivery of anticancer drugs is an attractive approach to minimize adverse effects associated with intravenous chemotherapy. Polymer-based drug depots injected or implanted intratumorally or adjacent to the tumor can provide long-term local drug exposure. This review highlights studies in which drug-eluting depots have been applied locally in the treatment of cancer. In many cases such drug depots are used for prevention of tumor recurrence after surgery to eradicate remaining tumor cells. Clinical success has been reported for the treatment of brain cancer and liver cancer, and preclinical studies showed proof-of-concept for inhaled drug depots in lung cancer and intraperitoneally injected depots for the treatment of abdominal cancer. PMID:26969576

  7. Experience with depot neuroleptics in ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Fiolet, J

    1981-01-01

    Over the years, the depot neuroleptics clopenthixol decanoate, flupentixol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate and pipotiazine palmitate have prove their excellent tolerance: testing the sensitivity of the patient with the corresponding oral neuroleptic or with a low dose of the injectable form is no more necessary, operative anaesthesia is no more feared. Side-effects are largely due to the fact that the drug is actually taken, as opposed to oral treatments; they consist mainly of drowsiness or tiredness, and of extrapyramidal symptoms (preferably controlled by dexetimide, because of its long duration of action). Among the advantages of depot treatments, the author mentions an increasing motivation to accept medication, because of the reduction of hospitalisations and the fact that the patient is not reminded "three times daily" of his "ill state". Among the disadvantages, he mentions the fear of injection (the alternative being long-acting oral penfluridol), depression (esp. with fluphenazine decanoate) and the fact that the absorption cannot be interrupted in a short time. PMID:6117188

  8. Parallel flow in hele-shaw cells with ferrofluids

    PubMed

    Miranda; Widom

    2000-02-01

    Parallel flow in a Hele-Shaw cell occurs when two immiscible liquids flow with relative velocity parallel to the interface between them. The interface is unstable due to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type of instability in which fluid flow couples with inertial effects to cause an initial small perturbation to grow. Large amplitude disturbances form stable solitons. We consider the effects of applied magnetic fields when one of the two fluids is a ferrofluid. The dispersion relation governing mode growth is modified so that the magnetic field can destabilize the interface even in the absence of inertial effects. However, the magnetic field does not affect the speed of wave propogation for a given wave number. We note that the magnetic field creates an effective interaction between the solitons. PMID:11046508

  9. Roll waves in two-layer Hele-Shaw flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, I. V.; Chesnokov, A. A.; Liapidevskii, V. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the emergence and development of roll waves in two-layer fluid flow in a Hele-Shaw cell. We propose the mathematical model of such flow and define the conditions of transition from stable state to instability in the form of the roll waves. We find out the physical parameters of flows at which the roll waves exist. A linear stability analysis and the Whitham criterion of roll waves existence are used for solving the problem and arrive to identical conclusions on depths of upper and lower layers at which violation of flow stability occurs. The numerical calculations for the obtained mathematical model at found ratios of densities, viscosities and depths of layers are performed. They confirm development of the roll waves of finite amplitude from small oscillations of the interface.

  10. Finger Growth in Surfactant Solution in Hele-Shaw Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takehiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yousuke; Hashimoto, Takamasa; Mori, Noriyasu

    2006-05-01

    Viscous fingering in surfactant solutions was experimentally studied. Aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with sodium salicylate (NaSal) as a counter ion were used as test fluids. Excess of counter ion was added into a surfactant solution of CTAB to configure network structures of wormlike micelles. The experiments were mainly carried out using a square Hele-Shaw cell. The structure of fingering pattern was dimensionally analyzed to classify the patterns into three types. In addition, growth phenomena distinguishing for the viscous finger in the CTAB/NaSal solutions were observed: surface instabilities with dendrites, and a sudden protrusion from a cuspidate shaped finger tip. The dependence of the sudden protrusion on the shear rate was confirmed by the experiment using a rectangular cell.

  11. Plume dynamics in Hele-Shaw porous media convection.

    PubMed

    Ecke, Robert E; Backhaus, Scott

    2016-10-13

    Mass transport in multi-species porous media is through molecular diffusion and plume dynamics. Predicting the rate of mass transport has application in determining the efficiency of the storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide. We study a water and propylene-glycol system enclosed in a Hele-Shaw cell with variable permeability that represents a laboratory analogue of the general properties of porous media convection. The interface between the fluids, tracked using an optical shadowgraph technique, is used to determine the mass transport rate, the spatial separation of solutal plumes, and the velocity and width characteristics of those plumes. One finds that the plume dynamics are closely related to the mass transport rate.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597786

  12. Multiple steady bubbles in a Hele-Shaw channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Christopher; Vasconcelos, Giovani

    2014-11-01

    We construct analytical solutions, in the form of conformal mappings, solving the free boundary problem for the shapes of any finite number of steadily translating bubbles in a Hele-Shaw channel. These solutions can be decomposed into the sum of two analytic functions - corresponding to the complex potentials in the laboratory and co-travelling frames - which conformally map a bounded multiply connected circular domain onto respective degenerate polygonal domains (infinite strips with interior slits of finite-length which are either horizontally or vertically aligned). These functions are obtained using the generalised Schwarz-Christoffel formula for multiply connected domains in terms of the Schottky-Klein prime function. The solutions we have found are very general and make no assumptions on the geometrical arrangement of the bubbles.

  13. Multiple steadily translating bubbles in a Hele-Shaw channel

    PubMed Central

    Green, Christopher C.; Vasconcelos, Giovani L.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical solutions are constructed for an assembly of any finite number of bubbles in steady motion in a Hele-Shaw channel. The solutions are given in the form of a conformal mapping from a bounded multiply connected circular domain to the flow region exterior to the bubbles. The mapping is written as the sum of two analytic functions—corresponding to the complex potentials in the laboratory and co-moving frames—that map the circular domain onto respective degenerate polygonal domains. These functions are obtained using the generalized Schwarz–Christoffel formula for multiply connected domains in terms of the Schottky–Klein prime function. Our solutions are very general in that no symmetry assumption concerning the geometrical disposition of the bubbles is made. Several examples for various bubble configurations are discussed. PMID:24611028

  14. Plant-Wide Assessment Report for Shaw Industries, Plant #78; Aiken, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Brown PE, CEM; Matt Soderlund; Bill Meffert PE; Paolo Baldisserotto; Jerry Zolkowski PE, CEM

    2006-04-10

    A plant-wide energy assessment sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted at Shaw Industries Group, plant #78 in Aiken, SC. The assessment team consisted of Georgia Tech faculty from the Energy & Environmental Management Center and Shaw personnel from plant #78 and the corporate energy group. The purpose of this assessment was to uncover as many opportunities for saving energy usage and costs using techniques that have been established as best practices in the energy engineering field. In addition, these findings are to be shared with similar plants in Shaw Industries Group to multiply the lessons learned. The findings from this assessment are included in this report.

  15. Breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study of the incidence of breast cancer in relation to use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand, and one each in Kenya and Mexico. A relative risk for breast cancer of 0.7 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. Although no consistent decrease in risk with duration of use was observed, the lowest relative risk (0.5) was observed in women who had used DMPA for three or more years. These findings are based on small numbers and must be considered preliminary. However, they provide no evidence that DMPA increases the risk of breast cancer, and suggest that it may exert a protective effect, particularly in long-term users. PMID:2931206

  16. A comparison of two depot injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Mac Gabhann, L

    In the study reported in this article, the researchers attempted to raise awareness among practitioners of the importance of intramuscular drug administration technique in reducing injection site complications following antipsychotic depot injections. They also aimed to improve and expand the scope of present practice by comparing the effect of two accepted techniques, the 'air bubble' and 'Z-track' on these complications, and demonstrate that the air bubbles technique is more effective in reducing seepage and causes less discomfort. A 'within subjects' design was used, and Likert scales for scoring subjective and objective assessment of complications were established and scored at each injection. The study showed that there was no significant difference between the effects of either technique. PMID:9732632

  17. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  18. Abarelix: abarelix-depot-F, abarelix-depot-M, abarelix-L, PPI 149, R 3827.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Abarelix [Abarelix-Depot-F, Abarelix-Depot-M, Abarelix-L, PPI 149, R 3827, Plenaxis] is a peptide consisting of natural and artificial amino acids. In females, abarelix is an estrogen production antagonist with potential for the treatment of breast cancer, endometriosis and other reproductive hormone diseases. In males it is a testosterone production antagonist and has potential as hormonal therapy of prostate cancer. Depot formulations of abarelix (abarelix-depot-M and abarelix-depot-F) are being developed for hormonally responsive prostate cancer and endometriosis, respectively. Clinical development of the depot formulations is currently being conducted by Praecis Pharmaceuticals, the originators of the agent. A non-depot formulation, abarelix-L, was also being conducted for prostate gland volume reduction. Praecis Pharmaceuticals has entered into a number of licensing agreements covering abarelix. However, all agreements have since been terminated leaving Praecis to develop and commercialise the agent on its own. The terminated agreements include an agreement between Praecis and Roche for the commercialisation of abarelix in the US. This agreement was terminated in November 1998. Praecis Pharmaceuticals also entered into a collaborative agreement with Amgen in March 1999, whereby the companies would develop abarelix and Amgen would commercialise the drug in the US, Canada, Australia, Asia and several secondary markets. However, in September 2001, Praecis and Amgen announced that they were terminating the agreement for all indications. Praecis stated at the time that it remained committed to developing abarelix for both prostate cancer and endometriosis. Amgen had submitted 'Lotestrol' to the US Patent and Trademarks Office as a possible tradename for abarelix-depot-M. Lotestrol may also have been under consideration as a tradename for abarelix-depot-F. Praecis had also sold European, African, Latin American and Middle Eastern rights to abarelix to Sanofi

  19. Best Practices Case Study: Shaw Construction Burlingame Ranch Ph.1, Aspen, CO

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory & Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Shaw Construction built 84 energy efficient, affordable condominiums forthe City of Aspen that achieved HERS scores of less than 62 with help from Building America’s research team lead Building Science Corporation.

  20. Contextual view looking past ammunition depot buildings to main entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking past ammunition depot buildings to main entrance of A1 in background; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Magazine No. 1, Railroad Avenue, west side near Maseda Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Vitkus

    2008-04-07

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC’s Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  2. 32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 TYPICAL SECTION & DETAILS. Sheet 5 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 3 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 6 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 70'0' TRUSS. Sheet 7 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 END WALL FRAMING. Sheet 9 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 PLOT PLAN & TRANSVERSE SECTION. Sheet 1 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. Long-term depot antipsychotics. A risk-benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Barnes, T R; Curson, D A

    1994-06-01

    The main advantage of depot antipsychotic medication is that it overcomes the problem of covert noncompliance. Patients receiving depot treatment who refuse their injection or fail to receive it for any other reason can be immediately identified and appropriate action taken. In the context of a carefully monitored management programme, depot treatment can have a major impact on compliance and, consequently, the risk of relapse and hospitalisation can be reduced. Another major advantage is that the considerable individual variation in bioavailability and metabolism with oral antipsychotic drugs is markedly reduced with depot treatment. A better correlation between the dose administered and the concentration of medication found in blood or plasma is achieved with depot treatment, and thus, the clinician has greater control over the amount of drug being delivered to the site of activity. A further benefit of depot treatment is the achievement of stable plasma concentrations over long periods, allowing injections to be given every few weeks. However, this also represents a potential disadvantage in that there is a lack of flexibility of administration. Should adverse effects develop, the drug cannot be rapidly withdrawn. Furthermore, adjustment to the optimal dose becomes a long term strategy. The controlled studies of low dose maintenance therapy with depot treatment suggest that it can take months or years for the consequences of dose reduction, in terms of increased risk of relapse, to become manifest. When weighing up the risks and benefits of long term antipsychotic treatment for the individual patient with schizophrenia, the clinician must take into account the nature, severity and frequency of past relapses, and the degree of distress and disability related to any adverse effects. However, the clinical decision to prescribe either a depot or an oral antipsychotic for maintenance treatment will probably rest largely on an assessment of the risk of poor compliance

  9. 5. Photocopy titled 'Map of Naval Ammunition Depot, Bremerton (Puget ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy titled 'Map of Naval Ammunition Depot, Bremerton (Puget Sound), Wash.' dated June 30, 1947. Buildings 103 and 104 are shaded and located left of center near top of map. HABS film is an 8x10' high-contrast negative made from original map in the collection of the Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, North of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. Relapse and rehospitalization: comparing oral and depot antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Nina R

    2003-01-01

    A review of studies that compared conventional oral and depot antipsychotic medications highlighted the following points. Mirror-image studies in which patients served as their own controls provided evidence of substantial benefit for depot injectable medications. The randomized clinical trials did not, in general, support the findings of significant decrease in relapse rates between these 2 routes of administration. Across the studies reviewed, the 1-year relapse rate for long-acting depot medication was 27% compared with 42% for patients who received oral medication. The 27% risk of relapse in patients who received guaranteed depot medication suggests that relapse is not always driven by noncompliance. In the only study that lasted for 2 years, the risk of relapse decreased substantially in the depot-treated patients, suggesting that risk of noncompliance may be a more important factor in relapse over extended periods of time. A recent formal meta-analytic review of depot medications concluded that this route of administration resulted in clinical advantages in terms of global outcome. PMID:14680414

  11. Bubble dynamics in a variable gap Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedra, Saul; Domiguez, Roberto; Ramos, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    We present observations of the dynamics of individual air bubbles ascending in a Hele-Shaw cell filled with water. Cells with gaps of 1 mm, 1.5 and 2.5 mm are used and the volume of the bubbles is such that we observe bubbles with apparent diameter from 2 mm to 7.3 mm. Given that we work with air and water in all experiments, the Morton number is constant and equal to 2 . 5 ×10-11 . The results are given in terms of the Eotvos, Archimedes and Reynolds numbers, and the trajectories and wakes of the bubbles are described as functions of the gap. In all cases we observe a linear relationship between the Reynolds and Archimedes numbers, but the proportionality constant varies with the gap. Also, although the wake is composed of alternating vortices similar to the von Karman vortex street, the size and location of the vortices vary with the gap. The analysis of some features of the observations and the description of the shape of the bubbles and dominant forces are made with a two dimensional numerical solution of the conservation equations using a front tracking strategy.

  12. Lake Billy Shaw Operations and Maintenance, Final Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Lake Billy Shaw is a newly constructed earthen dam reservoir with a surface area of 430 acres. Construction on the dam and structures was complete in November of 1998. The fish screen structures were complete in December of 1998, with initial filling in May 1999. Upon initial filling, dam structures, monitoring wells, fish screen structures, and lake level were monitored daily, with recordings being taken three times/week. During June 1999 the water to the lake was turned off in order to complete additional construction work on the lake. This work included installation of culverts around the perimeter road, installation of boat launches, finish work on the spillway structure, pumphouse and well protection and planting 4 trees along the entrance to the boat launch area. The water was turned on again in late September 1999 with all structures having been checked, fish screens greased and maintained and well levels being monitored. In 2000 the Operations and Maintenance portion of the project began with monitoring of piezometers, water levels, biological monitoring, riparian plantings, protection of shorelines, and maintenance of structures and appurtances.

  13. A comparative study of depot injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Quartermaine, S; Taylor, R

    Depot injections of long-acting neuroleptic drugs, by maintaining a consistent drug regime, together with regular contact with health-care professionals, are an important factor in helping psychiatric patients who live in the community. As these injections are administered over a long period--often for years--it is important that care is taken to minimise discomfort and to reduce the incidence of problems at the injection site. Seepage of even small amounts of the medication will result in an inaccurate dose being absorbed and, owing to the irritant nature of many of these drugs, leakage into subcutaneous tissue and on to the skin surface can cause pain, irritation and lesions. This study was set up to compare two techniques of administering deep intramuscular injections to determine which best fulfilled the criteria of preventing seepage while causing as little discomfort as possible. The two methods used were the Z-track, which is standard practice in the UK, and the air bubble, which is widely taught and used in Canada and the USA. The study showed the air-bubble method to be significantly more effective at controlling seepage than the Z-track. PMID:7644369

  14. The risk/benefit ratio of depot neuroleptics: a Scandinavian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dencker, S J

    1984-05-01

    The three developmental phases in the acceptance and use of depot neuroleptics are described. The practical advantages of these drugs are considered, as well as the extrapyramidal side effects that may result from oral or depot administration. Local (injection site) and other side effects of depot neuroleptics are discussed. Typical plasma drug concentration curves and receptor responses of depot neuroleptics are illustrated. Alternative use of oral drugs and strategies to increase the effectiveness of depot forms are presented. The depot neuroleptics used in Scandinavia today are discussed, and predictions are made regarding their use in the future. PMID:6143744

  15. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental impacts of continuing to store M55 rockets at Lexington-Blue Grass Depot Activity, Anniston Army Depot, Umatilla Depot Activity, Pine Bluff Arsenal, and Tooele Army Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, J.A.; Breck, J.E.; Coleman, P.R.; Griffin, G.D.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Kornegay, F.C.; Ogles, M.R.; Schweitzer, M.; Sigal, L.L.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose is to provide an assessment of the potential health and environmental impacts of continuing to store M55 rockets filled with nerve agent GB or VX at their current storage locations at Anniston Army Depot in Alabama, Lexington-Blue Grass Depot Activity in Kentucky, Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas, Tooele Army Depot in Utah, and Umatilla Depot Activity in Oregon. The assessment considers the possible impacts of (1) normal storage (with no release to the environment) and (2) two postulated accidents on the air quality, ground and surface water, aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, human health, and cultural and socioeconomic resources in and around the various storage depots. The analysis considers three basic scenarios during storage: (1) normal operations; (2) a minor spill of agent (the contents of one rocket released to the biosphere); and (3) a maximum credible event or MCE. The MCE is an igloo fire resulting in the aerosolization of a small (in the case of GB) or an extremely small (in the case of VX) percentage of the igloo's nerve agent contents to the biosphere. The extremely low probabilities of such accidents, which are reported elsewhere, are noted. Our assessments of the impacts of a minor spill and of an MCE consider two sets of meteorological conditions: conservative most likely and worst-case. In addition, we assume that an agent plume would travel toward the area of highest population density. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Stepping Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; Fikes, John C.

    2005-01-01

    An In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot (ISCPD) is an important stepping stone to provide the capability to preposition, store, manufacture, and later use the propellants for Earth-Neighborhood campaigns and beyond. An in-space propellant depot will provide affordable propellants and other similar consumables to support the development of sustainable and affordable exploration strategies as well as commercial space activities. An in-space propellant depot not only requires technology development in key areas such as zero boil-off storage and fluid transfer, but in other areas such as lightweight structures, highly reliable connectors, and autonomous operations. These technologies can be applicable to a broad range of propellant depot concepts or specific to a certain design. In addition, these technologies are required for spacecraft and orbit transfer vehicle propulsion and power systems, and space life support. Generally, applications of this technology require long-term storage, on-orbit fluid transfer and supply, cryogenic propellant production from water, unique instrumentation and autonomous operations. This paper discusses the reasons why such advances are important to future affordable and sustainable operations in space. This paper also discusses briefly R&D objectives comprising a promising approach to the systems planning and evolution into a meaningful stepping stone design, development, and implementation of an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot. The success of a well-planned and orchestrated approach holds great promise for achieving innovation and revolutionary technology development for supporting future exploration and development of space.

  17. A Cryogenic Propellant Production Depot for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.; Henley, Mark; Guitierrez, Sonia; Fikes, John; Carrington, Connie; Smitherman, David; Gerry, Mark; Sutherlin, Steve; Beason, Phil; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit can be lowered if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The power requirements for a propellant depot that electrolyzes water and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen can be met using technology developed for space solar power. A propellant depot is described that will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit, receive tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth by gun launch or reusable launch vehicle, convert the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and store Lip to 500 metric tonnes of cryogenic propellants. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. The tanks are configured in an inline gravity-gradient configuration to minimize drag and settle the propellant. Temperatures can be maintained by body-mounted radiators; these will also provide some shielding against orbital debris. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotate once per orbit to track the Sun. In the longer term, cryogenic propellant production technology can be applied to a larger LEO depot, as well as to the use of lunar water resources at a similar depot elsewhere.

  18. Dissolution-driven convection in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slim, Anja C.; Bandi, M. M.; Miller, Joel C.; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-02-01

    Motivated by convection in the context of geological carbon-dioxide (CO2) storage, we present an experimental study of dissolution-driven convection in a Hele-Shaw cell for Rayleigh numbers R in the range 100 < R< 1700. We use potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in water as an analog for CO2 in brine and infer concentration profiles at high spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy from transmitted light intensity. We describe behavior from first contact up to 65% average saturation and measure several global quantities including dissolution flux, average concentration, amplitude of perturbations away from pure one-dimensional diffusion, and horizontally averaged concentration profiles. We show that the flow evolves successively through distinct regimes starting with a simple one-dimensional diffusional profile. This is followed by linear growth in which fingers are initiated and grow quasi-exponentially, independently of one-another. Once the fingers are well-established, a flux-growth regime begins as fresh fluid is brought to the interface and contaminated fluid removed, with the flux growing to a local maximum. During this regime, fingers still propagate independently. However, beyond the flux maximum, fingers begin to interact and zip together from the root down in a merging regime. Several generations of merging occur before only persistent primary fingers remain. Beyond this, the reinitiation regime begins with new fingers created between primary existing ones before merging into them. Through appropriate scaling, we show that the regimes are universal and independent of layer thickness (equivalently R) until the fingers hit the bottom. At this time, progression through these regimes is interrupted and the flow transitions to a saturating regime. In this final regime, the flux gradually decays in a manner well described by a Howard-style phenomenological model.

  19. Magnetic field effects on viscous fingering of a ferrofluid in an anisotropic Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballou, R.; Molho, P.

    2005-12-01

    When a viscous fluid is pushed into a more viscous one in a Hele-Shaw cell, the interface between the two fluids may become unstable, leading to fingering and ramified patterns. Anisotropy can be introduced by engraving a grid in one plate of the cell, allowing one to obtain dendritic patterns. The use of a ferrofluid as one of the viscous fluid is a way to introduce magnetism in the problem, especially the magnetic field as a control parameter. Magnetic field effects on viscous fingering of ferrofluids have already been studied: in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell, a magnetic field applied in the cell plane is stabilizing when parallel to the interface between the two fluids and destabilizing when normal to the interface. A magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of a radial Hele-Shaw cell has the same destabilizing effect as the pressure. We have studied the effect of a magnetic field, normal to and in the plane of anisotropic radial Hele-Shaw cells te{5}, to characterize the competing effects of hydrodynamics, magnetic field and dipolar energy, and anisotropy. Here we study more precisely the effect of a magnetic field normal to a radial anisotropic Hele-Shaw cell. Figs 8, Refs 9.

  20. Postinjection Delirium/Sedation Syndrome with Olanzapine Depot Injection

    PubMed Central

    Sarangula, Sadhvi Mythili; Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y.; Reddy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    After 1 year of introduction of olanzapine long-acting injectable (LAI) in India, many psychiatrists believe that it is a very affordable, well-tolerated, and effective second generation long-acting antipsychotic depot compared to not well tolerated but cheap first generation antipsychotic depots and to other second generation depots which are costly. However, reports of its possible adverse events in clinical settings are not yet published. We report what probably might be the first case of postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) in India. Although the occurrence is uncommon, incorrect understanding of this event may hinder the future use of the potentially useful olanzapine LAI. We review the available literature on the proposed diagnostic guidelines, mechanism of this event, precautions, and management of PDSS. PMID:27570354

  1. DEPOT: A Database of Environmental Parameters, Organizations and Tools

    SciTech Connect

    CARSON,SUSAN D.; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; MALCZYNSKI,LEONARD A.; POHL,PHILLIP I.; QUINTANA,ENRICO; SOUZA,CAROLINE A.; HIGLEY,KATHRYN; MURPHIE,WILLIAM

    2000-12-19

    The Database of Environmental Parameters, Organizations, and Tools (DEPOT) has been developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as a central warehouse for access to data essential for environmental risk assessment analyses. Initial efforts have concentrated on groundwater and vadose zone transport data and bioaccumulation factors. DEPOT seeks to provide a source of referenced data that, wherever possible, includes the level of uncertainty associated with these parameters. Based on the amount of data available for a particular parameter, uncertainty is expressed as a standard deviation or a distribution function. DEPOT also provides DOE site-specific performance assessment data, pathway-specific transport data, and links to environmental regulations, disposal site waste acceptance criteria, other environmental parameter databases, and environmental risk assessment models.

  2. Postinjection Delirium/Sedation Syndrome with Olanzapine Depot Injection.

    PubMed

    Sarangula, Sadhvi Mythili; Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y; Reddy, M S

    2016-01-01

    After 1 year of introduction of olanzapine long-acting injectable (LAI) in India, many psychiatrists believe that it is a very affordable, well-tolerated, and effective second generation long-acting antipsychotic depot compared to not well tolerated but cheap first generation antipsychotic depots and to other second generation depots which are costly. However, reports of its possible adverse events in clinical settings are not yet published. We report what probably might be the first case of postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) in India. Although the occurrence is uncommon, incorrect understanding of this event may hinder the future use of the potentially useful olanzapine LAI. We review the available literature on the proposed diagnostic guidelines, mechanism of this event, precautions, and management of PDSS. PMID:27570354

  3. DEPOT: Database for electronics parts and other things

    SciTech Connect

    Logg, C.A.; Clancey, P.W.; Crane, G.

    1990-01-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered in the database, a complete service, maintenance, modification, certification, location history, and, optionally, a radiation exposure history, can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. It is now being adopted by other systems at SLAC. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) - The application of ATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G.; Jenkins, Henry C.; Mauceri, A. Jack

    1990-01-01

    The concept of the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program is described. The function of the NSLD at Cape Canaveral is to perform the acceptance and diagnostic testing of the Shuttle's space-rated line-replaceable units and shop-replaceable units (SRUs). The NSLD includes a comprehensive electronic automatic test station, program development stations, and assorted manufacturing support equipment (including thermal and vibration test equipment, special test equipment, and a card SRU test system). The depot activities also include the establishment of the functions for manufacturing of mechanical parts, soldering, welding, painting, clean room operation, procurement, and subcontract management.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception.

    PubMed

    Mishell, D R

    1996-05-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an aqueous suspension of 17-acetoxy 6-methyl progestin administered by intramuscular injection for long-term contraception. This highly effective injectable formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has a prolonged duration of action since the progestin is released slowly from the muscle. MPA is detected in the serum within 30 minutes after an injection of 150 mg. Serum concentrations vary between individual women but generally plateau at about 1.0 ng/mL for about three months, after which there is a gradual decline. In some women, MPA can be detected in the serum for as long as nine months after a single injection of 150 mg. The circulating MPA initially inhibits the midcycle leutinizing hormone (LH) peak, but LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels remain in the range of those for the luteal phase of a pretreatment control cycle. Since ovulation is inhibited, serum progesterone levels remain low (< 0.4 ng/mL) for several months following an injection of DMPA. When MPA levels fall below 0.1 ng/mL, ovulation resumes. Thus, return to fertility is delayed for several months if a woman wishes to conceive after receiving one or more injections of DMPA. Following an injection of DMPA, serum estradiol levels initially are in the early to midfollicular phase range (mean approximately 50 pg/nL). Serum estradiol levels begin to rise about four months after a single injection when MPA levels fall below 0.5 ng/mL. For women who have used DMPA for several years, serum estradiol levels range between 10 and 92 pg/mL, with mean levels of about 40 pg/mL. Despite these low levels of estradiol, hot flushes are a rare event, and the vaginal epithelium remains moist and well rugated. Women using DMPA for several years do not observe a change in breast size. DMPA causes the endometrium to become atrophic, with small, straight endometrial glands and decidualized stroma. The cervical mucus remains thick and viscid. DMPA is a

  6. Modeling evapotranspiration and energy balance in a wheat-maize cropping system using the revised RZ-SHAW model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correctly simulating evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy balance is essential to estimating crop growth under water and heat stress conditions in agricultural systems. The revised hybrid model (RZ-SHAW), combining the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) and Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW...

  7. Adipose tissue development in extramuscular and intramuscular depots in meat animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular and metabolic aspects of developing intramuscular adipose tissue and other adipose tissue depots have been studied including examination of the expression of a number of genes. Depot dependent or depot “marker” genes such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase and leptin for subcutaneous adipose ti...

  8. Examination of adipose depot-specific PRAR moieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory ani...

  9. Radiological Scoping Survey of the Scotia Depot Scotia, New York

    SciTech Connect

    E. N. Bailey

    2005-02-05

    At the request of the Defense Logistics Agency, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education conducted radiological scoping surveys of the Scotia Depot during the period of September 24 through 27, 2007. The scoping survey included visual inspections and limited radiological surveys performed in accordance with area classification that included surface scans, total and removable activity measurements, and soil sampling.

  10. Identification of a new supraclavicular brown fat depot in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in healthy adult humans raises the possibility of utilizing BAT to combat obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Adult humans possess limited amounts of BAT with the most thermoactive depot located in the supraclavicular area of the neck. Understan...

  11. Development of a Lunar Consumables Storage and Distribution Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Notardonato, William

    2004-01-01

    NASA is in the preliminary planning stages for a future lunar base as a response to President George W. Bush's recent announcement of a new sustained exploration program beyond low earth orbit. Kennedy Space Center engineers are supporting this program by utilizing experience in Spaceport system design and operations to help develop a Lunar Consumables Depot. This depot will store propellants, life support fluids, and other consumables either transported from Earth or manufactured from In Situ resources. The depot will distribute these consumables in an energy efficient manner to end users including spacecraft, habitation modules, and rovers. This paper addresses some of the changes to lunar base architecture design as a result of advances in knowledge of lunar resources over the past 35 years, as well as technology advances in the area of In Situ Resource Utilization and consumable storage and distribution. A general system level description of the depot will be presented, including overall design philosophy and high level requirements. Finally, specific subsystem technologies that have been or will be developed by KSC will be addressed. Examples of these technologies are automated umbilicals, cryogenic refrigerators, novel storage vessels, advanced heat switches and heat exchangers, and self healing gaskets and wires.

  12. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  13. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  14. Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support (CALS): Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, N.C.; Greer, D.K.

    1993-04-01

    This CALS Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance provides the foundation strategy and the near term tactical plan for CALS implementation in the depot maintenance environment. The user requirements enumerated and the overarching architecture outlined serve as the primary framework for implementation planning. The seamless integration of depot maintenance business processes and supporting information systems with the emerging global CALS environment will be critical to the efficient realization of depot user's information requirements, and as, such will be a fundamental theme in depot implementations.

  15. Simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacokinetic analysis of intramuscular depots.

    PubMed

    Probst, Mareike; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Scheuch, Eberhard; Seidlitz, Anne; Hadlich, Stefan; Evert, Katja; Oswald, Stefan; Siegmund, Werner; Weitschies, Werner

    2016-04-10

    The present pilot study introduces a method that might give novel insights in drug absorption processes from intramuscularly administered depots. An oily suspension or an aqueous solution of paracetamol (6 mg/kg body mass), prednisolone or its hemisuccinate sodium salt for the aqueous solutions (10mg/kg body mass) or diclofenac (10mg/kg body mass) was injected into the muscle tissue of the hind leg of female Lewis-rats (n=47). For the oily suspensions the micronized particles were suspended in medium-chain triglycerides. The aqueous solutions were buffered to a pH of 7.4 ± 0.5. Polyethylene glycol was added as a cosolvent in the formulations containing paracetamol (acetaminophen) and diclofenac and sodium chloride was added to the aqueous solutions of prednisolone hemisuccinate sodium to achieve nearly isotonic formulations. The formed depot was visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and characterized with regard to volume and surface area. A 7 T-small animal scanner was used and T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences including a fat saturation were performed. Simultaneously blood samples were taken and the drugs were quantitatively analyzed. The water based solvent and the oily dispersion agent were visible in the MRI images without the use of contrast agents. Since a free hand injection mostly led to an application directly into the fascia, resulting in a fast removal of the depot, MRI-guided injection was conducted. Comparing pharmacokinetic data with MRI data it was observed that maximal blood levels occurred before the solvent and the dispersion agent were removed from the muscle tissue. Thus, the drug is not absorbed together with the depot. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the shape of the depot and the rate of absorption. Consequently, a higher surface area or volume of the depot did not result in a faster release or absorption of the drugs from the tested formulations. In contrast to the paracetamol and prednisolone formulations the

  16. 75 FR 20776 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Shaw Cove, New London, CT, Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Shaw Cove, New London, CT, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  17. 75 FR 54024 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Shaw Cove, New London, CT, Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Shaw Cove, New London, CT, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  18. Where Do Interjections Come From? A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Shaw's "Pygmalion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Starting from our recent findings regarding emotional and initializing functions of interjections in TV and radio interviews (Kowal & O'Connell, 2004b; O'Connell & Kowal, in press; O'Connell, Kowal, & Ageneau, 2005), we used the book and script of Shaw (1916/1969) and the audiotape of the motion picture (Pascal, Asquith, & Howard, 1938) Pygmalion…

  19. Frank Parsons's Enablers: Pauline Agassiz Shaw, Meyer Bloomfield, and Ralph Albertson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershenson, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Frank Parsons was not the 1st American to recognize or address the need for vocational guidance. Why he, rather than his predecessors, is credited with initiating the field can be attributed to the largely overlooked contributions of 3 other persons: Pauline Agassiz Shaw, Meyer Bloomfield, and Ralph Albertson. The author calls attention to the…

  20. Save Energy Now Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    The Shaw Industries carpet manufacturing plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, optimized boiler operation and installed waste heat exchangers on two processes in the dye house and an economizer on one boiler, for a payback of 1.7 years. These results prompted plant #4, also located in Dalton, to participate in an assessment.

  1. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental impacts of transporting M55 rockets from Lexington-Blue Grass Depot activity, Anniston Army depot, and Umatilla depot activity to alternative disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Breck, J.E.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Coleman, P.R.; Griffin, G.D.; Hillsman, E.L.; Holcomb, M.C.; Johnson, P.E.; Kornegay, F.C.; Peterson, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This assessment discusses the potential health and environmental impacts of transporting M55 rockets filled with nerve agent GB or VX from various existing Army storage depots to alternative Army depots for disposal. The origin depots include Anniston Army Depot in Alabama, Lexington-Blue Grass Depot Activity in Kentucky, and Umatilla Depot Activity in Oregon. The destination depots include Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas, Tooele Army Depot in Utah, and the facility on Johnston Island in the central Pacific Ocean. This assessment considers the possible impacts of normal transport operations and of two postulated accident scenarios on the air quality, ground and surface water, aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, human health, and cultural and socioeconomic resources of the various transport corridors involved. The impacts of these scenarios are assessed for truck, train, and air transport for each orgin-destination pair. The analysis considers three basic scenario during transport: (1) normal operations with no atmospheric release of nerve agent; (2) a minor agent spill (the contents of one rocket being released to the biosphere); and (3) a worst-case accident involving the release of a large, specified quantity of nerve agent to the biosphere. The extremely low probabilities of such accidents, which are reported elsewhere, are noted.

  2. Adipose depots differ in cellularity, adipokines produced, gene expression, and cell systems

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min; Wang, Songbo; Bergen, Werner G; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Basu, Urmila; Poulos, Sylvia P; Hausman, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    The race to manage the health concerns related to excess fat deposition has spawned a proliferation of clinical and basic research efforts to understand variables including dietary uptake, metabolism, and lipid deposition by adipocytes. A full appreciation of these variables must also include a depot-specific understanding of content and location in order to elucidate mechanisms governing cellular development and regulation of fat deposition. Because adipose tissue depots contain various cell types, differences in the cellularity among and within adipose depots are presently being documented to ascertain functional differences. This has led to the possibility of there being, within any one adipose depot, cellular distinctions that essentially result in adipose depots within depots. The papers comprising this issue will underscore numerous differences in cellularity (development, histogenesis, growth, metabolic function, regulation) of different adipose depots. Such information is useful in deciphering adipose depot involvement both in normal physiology and in pathology. Obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, carcass composition of meat animals, performance of elite athletes, physiology/pathophysiology of aging, and numerous other diseases might be altered with a greater understanding of adipose depots and the cells that comprise them—including stem cells—during initial development and subsequent periods of normal/abnormal growth into senescence. Once thought to be dormant and innocuous, the adipocyte is emerging as a dynamic and influential cell and research will continue to identify complex physiologic regulation of processes involved in adipose depot physiology. PMID:26317047

  3. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. The Home Depot Upgrades its Corporate Building Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    The Home Depot partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  5. Developing a safe on-orbit cryogenic depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Nicholas J.

    1992-01-01

    New U.S. space initiatives will require technology to realize planned programs such as piloted lunar and Mars missions. Key to the optimal execution of such missions are high performance orbit transfer vehicles and propellant storage facilities. Large amounts of liquid hydrogen and oxygen demand a uniquely designed on-orbit cryogenic propellant depot. Because of the inherent dangers in propellant storage and handling, a comprehensive system safety program must be established. This paper shows how the myriad and complex hazards demonstrate the need for an integrated safety effort to be applied from program conception through operational use. Even though the cryogenic depot is still in the conceptual stage, many of the hazards have been identified, including fatigue due to heavy thermal loading from environmental and operating temperature extremes, micrometeoroid and/or depot ancillary equipment impact (this is an important problem due to the large surface area needed to house the large quantities of propellant), docking and maintenance hazards, and hazards associated with extended extravehicular activity. Various safety analysis techniques were presented for each program phase. Specific system safety implementation steps were also listed. Enhanced risk assessment was demonstrated through the incorporation of these methods.

  6. The Two-Phase Hell-Shaw Flow: Construction of an Exact Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaikah, K. R.

    2013-03-01

    We consider a two-phase Hele-Shaw cell whether or not the gap thickness is time-dependent. We construct an exact solution in terms of the Schwarz function of the interface for the two-phase Hele-Shaw flow. The derivation is based upon the single-valued complex velocity potential instead of the multiple-valued complex potential. As a result, the construction is applicable to the case of the time-dependent gap. In addition, there is no need to introduce branch cuts in the computational domain. Furthermore, the interface evolution in a two-phase problem is closely linked to its counterpart in a one-phase problem

  7. Averaged equations in a Hele-Shaw cell: Hierarchy of models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logvinov, Oleg A.

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to the classical Darcy law, Navier-Stokes-Darcy model of a flow in a Hele-Shaw cell includes small inertial and viscous forces in the plane of a cell. The displacement of viscous fluid by a less viscous one from a Hele-Shaw cell is studied numerically using these models. A distinguishing feature is the special microgravity conditions of displacement. Miscibility of fluids together with the high speed of displacement (Peclet number tends to infinity) provides the absence of surface tension on the one hand and minimal manifestation of molecular diffusion on the other. Simulations based on the Darcy law and on the Navier-Stokes-Darcy model have been compared. The Navier-Stokes-Darcy model clearly exhibits a better consistency with the experimental data.

  8. Determining the number of fingers in the lifting Hele-Shaw problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Jose; Dias, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The lifting Hele-Shaw cell flow is a variation of the celebrated radial viscous fingering problem for which the upper cell plate is lifted uniformly at a specified rate. This procedure causes the formation of intricate interfacial patterns. Most theoretical studies determine the total number of emerging fingers by maximizing the linear growth rate, but this generates discrepancies between theory and experiments. In this work, we tackle the number of fingers selection problem in the lifting Hele-Shaw cell by employing the recently proposed maximum-amplitude criterion. Our linear stability analysis accounts for the action of capillary, viscous normal stresses, and wetting effects, as well as the cell confinement. The comparison of our results with very precise laboratory measurements for the total number of fingers shows a significantly improved agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental data. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.

  9. An evolutionarily conserved mode of modulation of Shaw-like K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Cotella, Diego; Hernandez-Enriquez, Berenice; Duan, Zhibing; Wu, Xilong; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Brown, Maile R.; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Sesti, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels of the Shaw family (also known as the KCNC or Kv3 family) play pivotal roles in mammalian brains, and genetic or pharmacological disruption of their activities in mice results in a spectrum of behavioral defects. We have used the model system of Caenorhabditis elegans to elucidate conserved molecular mechanisms that regulate these channels. We have now found that the C. elegans Shaw channel KHT-1, and its mammalian homologue, murine Kv3.1b, are both modulated by acid phosphatases. Thus, the C. elegans phosphatase ACP-2 is stably associated with KHT-1, while its mammalian homolog, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP; also known as ACPP-201) stably associates with murine Kv3.1b K+ channels in vitro and in vivo. In biochemical experiments both phosphatases were able to reverse phosphorylation of their associated channel. The effect of phosphorylation on both channels is to produce a decrease in current amplitude and electrophysiological analyses demonstrated that dephosphorylation reversed the effects of phosphorylation on the magnitude of the macroscopic currents. ACP-2 and KHT-1 were colocalized in the nervous system of C. elegans and, in the mouse nervous system, PAP and Kv3.1b were colocalized in subsets of neurons, including in the brain stem and the ventricular zone. Taken together, this body of evidence suggests that acid phosphatases are general regulatory partners of Shaw-like K+ channels.—Cotella, D., Hernandez-Enriquez, B., Duan, Z., Wu, X., Gazula, V.-R., Brown, M. R., Kaczmarek, L. K., and Sesti, F. An evolutionarily conserved mode of modulation of Shaw-like K+ channels. PMID:23233530

  10. Numerical simulation of ground water mounding and its verification by Hele Shaw model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, Tswn-Syau; Hoopes, John A.

    1998-12-01

    Ground water mounding is the rise of the water table above its regional level in a local area of an aquifer in order to provide sufficient head to distribute the water supplied by a localized source to that area. The shape and height of the mound depend on many factors including recharge rate and distribution, geology, hydraulic conductivity, flow/head control locations, saturated thickness and regional flow in the aquifer in that area. In this work, an accurate and efficient numerical model for calculating ground water mounding was developed. Numerical calculations were done on a uniform rectangular grid, obtained by a transformation of the physical domain. Grid for computation were generated by a grid generation code, EagleView, which is developed by the Mississippi State University. Model predictions were verified with tests in a Hele-Shaw model for situations with and without a regional flow, with and without heterogeneity, and for two recharge rates. SAE#50 oil was used as the fluid in the Hele-Shaw. A peristaltic pump was used to supply the constant (and adjustable) recharge rate from the reservoir below the Hele-Shaw model. The results of experiments of estimating mounds and the numerical mounding model are in good agreement. However, mound height of the region below recharge of Hele-Shaw model can not be observed because the flow of this region combines vertical flow from recharge and the rising of the free surface (horizontal flow). Hence, an emulated perched aquifer was used so that mound height of the recharge region can be observed.

  11. Gravity-driven instability in a spherical Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, José A.; Parisio, Fernando; Moraes, Fernando; Widom, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A pair of concentric spheres separated by a small gap form a spherical Hele-Shaw cell. In this cell an interfacial instability arises when two immiscible fluids flow. We derive the equation of motion for the interface perturbation amplitudes, including both pressure and gravity drivings, using a mode coupling approach. Linear stability analysis shows that mode growth rates depend upon interface perimeter and gravitational force. Mode coupling analysis reveals the formation of fingering structures presenting a tendency toward finger tip-sharpening.

  12. An evolutionarily conserved mode of modulation of Shaw-like K⁺ channels.

    PubMed

    Cotella, Diego; Hernandez-Enriquez, Berenice; Duan, Zhibing; Wu, Xilong; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Brown, Maile R; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Sesti, Federico

    2013-04-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) channels of the Shaw family (also known as the KCNC or Kv3 family) play pivotal roles in mammalian brains, and genetic or pharmacological disruption of their activities in mice results in a spectrum of behavioral defects. We have used the model system of Caenorhabditis elegans to elucidate conserved molecular mechanisms that regulate these channels. We have now found that the C. elegans Shaw channel KHT-1, and its mammalian homologue, murine Kv3.1b, are both modulated by acid phosphatases. Thus, the C. elegans phosphatase ACP-2 is stably associated with KHT-1, while its mammalian homolog, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP; also known as ACPP-201) stably associates with murine Kv3.1b K(+) channels in vitro and in vivo. In biochemical experiments both phosphatases were able to reverse phosphorylation of their associated channel. The effect of phosphorylation on both channels is to produce a decrease in current amplitude and electrophysiological analyses demonstrated that dephosphorylation reversed the effects of phosphorylation on the magnitude of the macroscopic currents. ACP-2 and KHT-1 were colocalized in the nervous system of C. elegans and, in the mouse nervous system, PAP and Kv3.1b were colocalized in subsets of neurons, including in the brain stem and the ventricular zone. Taken together, this body of evidence suggests that acid phosphatases are general regulatory partners of Shaw-like K(+) channels. PMID:23233530

  13. Heterogeneity among white adipose tissue depots in male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E; Munn, Rachel D; Lubbers, Ellen R; Kopchick, John J

    2012-01-01

    The widespread prevalence of obesity has lead to extensive research on white adipose tissue (WAT), which frequently uses the C57BL/6J mouse strain as a model. In many studies, results obtained in one WAT depot are often extrapolated to all WAT. However, functional differences among WAT depots are now becoming apparent. Thus, to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for WAT depot-specific differences under "normal" conditions, four C57BL/6J mouse WAT depots (inguinal, mesenteric, epididymal, and retroperitoneal) were analyzed. Depot proteomic profiles, along with weights, protein contents, adipocyte sizes and oxidative stress were determined. Mesenteric WAT had almost twice the protein content of the other depots analyzed. Mean adipocyte size was highest in epididymal and lowest in mesenteric and inguinal depots. The proteome of inguinal WAT displayed low levels of enzymes involved in ATP generation, glucose and lipid metabolism, and antioxidant proteins. Higher levels of these proteins were observed in mesenteric and epididymal WAT, with variable levels in the retroperitoneal depot. Some of these proteins showed depot-specific correlations with plasma levels of insulin, leptin, and adiponectin. In agreement with the proteomic data, levels of the antioxidant protein heat shock protein β1 (HSPβ1) also were lower in inguinal WAT when analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Also, lipid peroxidation products showed similar trends. Our results are consistent with lower triglyceride turnover and lower oxidative stress in inguinal than mesenteric and epididymal WAT. The observed WAT depot-specific differences provide clues as to the mechanisms leading to these depots' respective diverse functions. PMID:21779095

  14. Cellular Responses and Tissue Depots for Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Skinner, Andrea L.; Araínga, Mariluz A.; Puligujja, Pavan; Palandri, Diana L.; Baldridge, Hannah M.; Edagwa, Benson J.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) induces a range of innate immune migratory, phagocytic and secretory cell functions that perpetuate drug depots. While recycling endosomes serve as the macrophage subcellular depots, little is known of the dynamics of nanoART-cell interactions. To this end, we assessed temporal leukocyte responses, drug uptake and distribution following both intraperitoneal and intramuscular injection of nanoformulated atazanavir (nanoATV). Local inflammatory responses heralded drug distribution to peritoneal cell populations, regional lymph nodes, spleen and liver. This proceeded for three days in male Balb/c mice. NanoATV-induced changes in myeloid populations were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with CD45, CD3, CD11b, F4/80, and GR-1 antibodies. The localization of nanoATV within leukocyte cell subsets was determined by confocal microscopy. Combined FACS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry assays determined nanoATV carriages by cell-based vehicles. A robust granulocyte, but not peritoneal macrophage nanoATV response paralleled zymosan A treatment. ATV levels were highest at sites of injection in peritoneal or muscle macrophages, dependent on the injection site. The spleen and liver served as nanoATV tissue depots while drug levels in lymph nodes were higher than those recorded in plasma. Dual polymer and cell labeling demonstrated a nearly exclusive drug reservoir in macrophages within the liver and spleen. Overall, nanoART induces innate immune responses coincident with rapid tissue macrophage distribution. Taken together, these works provide avenues for therapeutic development designed towards chemical eradication of human immunodeficiency viral infection. PMID:26716700

  15. The transportation depot: An orbiting vehicle support facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the details of an effort to produce conceptual designs for an orbiting platform, called a transportation depot, to handle assembly and processing of lunar, Martian, and related vehicles. High-level requirements for such a facility were established, and several concepts were developed to meet those requirements. By showing that the critical rigid-body momentum characteristics of each concept are similar to those of the dual-keel space station, some insight was gained about the controllability and utility of this type of facility. Finally, several general observations were made that highlight the advantages and disadvantages of particular design features.

  16. Spatial distribution of oil depots monitored in human muscle using MRI.

    PubMed

    Kalicharan, R W; Baron, P; Oussoren, C; Bartels, L W; Vromans, H

    2016-05-30

    Oil depots are parenteral drug formulations meant for sustained release of lipophilic compounds. According to mass transport models, the drug-release rate from these injections is determined by the surface area of the oil depot. Until now, the size of the surface area of injected depots has not been assessed, however. MRI provides an excellent possibility to distinguish between water and adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MRI can be used to determine the shape and hence the surface area of oil depots in muscle tissue. The developed MRI-scan protocol is demonstrated to be suitable for visualising oil depots. It was applied to determine the surface area of 0.5mL oil, i.m. injected in healthy volunteers. The mean (±RSD) surface area and volume of the depots recovered after injection was 755.4mm(2) (±26.5) and 520.1mm(3) (±24.6). It is shown that the depot disappearance from the injection site is very variable between volunteers. It is suggested that the oil is first solubilized and subsequently distributed. In all cases, the oil was not detectable after 14days. These factors are relevant for the understanding of the mechanism by which compounds are released out of oil depots. PMID:27041126

  17. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot (ISCPD) Architecture Definitions and Systems Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the ISCPD Architecture Definitions and Systems Studies were to determine high leverage propellant depot architecture concepts, system configuration trades, and related technologies to enable more ambitious and affordable human and robotic exploration of the Earth Neighborhood and beyond. This activity identified architectures and concepts that preposition and store propellants in space for exploration and commercial space activities, consistent with Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) objectives. Commonalities across mission scenarios for these architecture definitions, depot concepts, technologies, and operations were identified that also best satisfy the Vision of Space Exploration. Trade studies were conducted, technology development needs identified and assessments performed to drive out the roadmap for obtaining an in-space cryogenic propellant depot capability. The Boeing Company supported the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by conducting this Depot System Architecture Development Study. The primary objectives of this depot architecture study were: (1) determine high leverage propellant depot concepts and related technologies; (2) identify commonalities across mission scenarios of depot concepts, technologies, and operations; (3) determine the best depot concepts and key technology requirements and (4) identify technology development needs including definition of ground and space test article requirements.

  18. 78 FR 77108 - Surplus Property Notice at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Pueblo Chemical Depot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Property List 1. Addition Colorado Pueblo Chemical Depot: 45825 Hwy 96E, Building 1, Pueblo, CO 81006- 9330... Department of the Army Surplus Property Notice at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Pueblo Chemical Depot, Colorado AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice...

  19. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  20. Cryogenic thermal system analysis for orbital propellant depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2014-09-01

    In any manned mission architecture, upwards of seventy percent of all payload delivered to orbit is propellant, and propellant mass fraction dominates almost all transportation segments of any mission requiring a heavy lift launch system like the Saturn V. To mitigate this, the use of an orbital propellant depot has been extensively studied. In this paper, a thermal model of an orbital propellant depot is used to examine the effects of passive and active thermal management strategies. Results show that an all passive thermal management strategy results in significant boil-off for both hydrogen and oxygen. At current launch vehicle prices, these boil-offs equate to millions of dollars lost per month. Zero boil-off of propellant is achievable with the use of active cryocoolers; however, the cooling power required to produce zero-boil-off is an order of magnitude higher than current state-of-the-art cryocoolers. This study shows a zero-boil-off cryocooler minimum power requirement of 80-100 W at 80 K for liquid oxygen, and 100-120 W at 20 K for liquid hydrogen for a representative Near-Earth Object mission. Research and development effort is required to improve the state-of-the-arts in-space cryogenic thermal management.

  1. 78 FR 9431 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Order Approving Indirect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    .... Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. II By letter dated August 30, 2012... submit written comments was published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2012 (77 FR 65208). No... was corrected on (January 30, 2013; 78 FR 6356) to fix a typographical error. Pursuant to Section...

  2. Liquid-Liquid Displacement Flows in a Hele-Shaw Cell including Viscoplastic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza Mendes, Paulo R.; Varges, Priscilla R.

    2008-07-01

    Viscous fingering in non-Newtonian fluids in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell is investigated. This cell is filled with aqueous solutions of carbopol in two different concentrations. A Newtonian mineral oil is then injected into the cell and the displacement is observed. A digital camera is used to capture images of the interface between the fluids during the flow. Applications include displacement of heavy crude oil in reservoirs. The main parameters that govern this flow are the viscosity ratio, the rheological capillary number, and the (dimensionless) flow rate. The interface shape is given for two different values of flow rate and viscosity ratio.

  3. Experimental investigation of the onset of instability in a radial Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Martyushev, L M; Birzina, A I; Konovalov, M S; Sergeev, A P

    2009-12-01

    The initial stage of interface instability upon radial displacement of a fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell is investigated. An air-silicone oil system is analyzed. The critical radii of stability relative to long-wave perturbations are determined. It is found that, in the investigated range of parameters, instability most often begins by a translational mechanism. It is ascertained that in the overwhelming majority of cases the critical radii of instability are smaller than the values predicted by the linear stability theory and external effects make this difference even greater. The obtained results are discussed and compared with the existing theories. PMID:20365266

  4. Spiral pattern in a radial displacement in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Mitsumasa; Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Yoshihiro; Tada, Yutaka

    2008-11-01

    When a reactive and miscible less-viscous liquid displaces a more-viscous liquid in a Hele-Shaw cell, reactive miscible viscous fingering takes place. We have experimentally shown that the pattern created by the displacement of a more-viscous fluid by a less-viscous one in a radial Hele-Shaw cell develops not radially but spirally when a more-viscous sodium polyacrylate solution is displaced by a less-viscous trivalent iron ion (Fe^3+) solution with a sufficiently high concentration of Fe^3+. Another experiment in order to investigate the mechanism of spiral pattern formation revealed that an instantaneous chemical reaction takes place between the two fluids and at high Fe^3+ concentrations it produces a film of the gel at the contact plane. The gel is formed by three-dimensional network structures between the polyacrylate solution and the trivalent iron ion (Fe^3+) solution. We have proposed a physical model that the gel's film is responsible for the form of the spiral pattern.

  5. Generalized Saffman-Taylor formula for multi-layer Hele-Shaw flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2011-03-01

    Stability theory plays a major role from fundamental science to applied sciences. It is useful in the design of many processes and engineering instruments as well as in explaining many phenomena. In this paper we review some of the author's and his collaborator's recent works on the extension of Saffman-Taylor instability which occurs at an interface between two immiscible fluids in porous media and Hele-Shaw cells when displacing fluid is less viscous than the displaced one. The growth rate of interfacial disturbances is given by a formula called Saffman-Taylor formula which plays a very important role in many areas including flows in porous media and oil recovery among many others. In this talk, we will present our results on the generalization of this formula to multi-layer flows involving many interfaces. As an application of the generalized Saffman-Taylor formula, we will derive necessary conditions for suppressing instability of two-layer flows by introducing arbitrary number of constant viscosity fluid layers in between. The important role that these conditions play in stabilization of hydrodynamic instabilities in Hele-Shaw flows will be discussed.

  6. Foam morphology, frustration and topological defects in a Negatively curved Hele-Shaw geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mughal, Adil; Schroeder-Turk, Gerd; Evans, Myfanwy

    2014-03-01

    We present preliminary simulations of foams and single bubbles confined in a narrow gap between parallel surfaces. Unlike previous work, in which the bounding surfaces are flat (the so called Hele-Shaw geometry), we consider surfaces with non-vanishing Gaussian curvature. We demonstrate that the curvature of the bounding surfaces induce a geometric frustration in the preferred order of the foam. This frustration can be relieved by the introduction of topological defects (disclinations, dislocations and complex scar arrangements). We give a detailed analysis of these defects for foams confined in curved Hele-Shaw cells and compare our results with exotic honeycombs, built by bees on surfaces of varying Gaussian curvature. Our simulations, while encompassing surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature (such as the sphere and the cylinder), focus on surfaces with negative Gaussian curvature and in particular triply periodic minimal surfaces (such as the Schwarz P-surface and the Schoen's Gyroid surface). We use the results from a sphere-packing algorithm to generate a Voronoi partition that forms the basis of a Surface Evolver simulation, which yields a realistic foam morphology.

  7. Contracting bubbles in Hele-Shaw cells with a power-law fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCue, Scott W.; King, John R.

    2011-02-01

    The problem of bubble contraction in a Hele-Shaw cell is studied for the case in which the surrounding fluid is of power-law type. A small perturbation of the radially symmetric problem is first considered, focussing on the behaviour just before the bubble vanishes, it being found that for shear-thinning fluids the radially symmetric solution is stable, while for shear-thickening fluids the aspect ratio of the bubble boundary increases. The borderline (Newtonian) case considered previously is neutrally stable, the bubble boundary becoming elliptic in shape with the eccentricity of the ellipse depending on the initial data. Further light is shed on the bubble contraction problem by considering a long thin Hele-Shaw cell: for early times the leading-order behaviour is one-dimensional in this limit; however, as the bubble contracts its evolution is ultimately determined by the solution of a Wiener-Hopf problem, the transition between the long thin limit and the extinction limit in which the bubble vanishes being described by what is in effect a similarity solution of the second kind. This same solution describes the generic (slit-like) extinction behaviour for shear-thickening fluids, the interface profiles that generalize the ellipses that characterize the Newtonian case being constructed by the Wiener-Hopf calculation.

  8. Fundamental investigation of foam flow in a liquid-filled Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Osei-Bonsu, Kofi; Shokri, Nima; Grassia, Paul

    2016-01-15

    The relative immobility of foam in porous media suppresses the formation of fingers during oil displacement leading to a more stable displacement which is desired in various processes such as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) or soil remediation practices. Various parameters may influence the efficiency of foam-assisted oil displacement such as properties of oil, the permeability and heterogeneity of the porous medium and physical and chemical characteristics of foam. In the present work, we have conducted a comprehensive series of experiments using customised Hele-Shaw cells filled with either water or oil to describe the effects of foam quality, permeability of the cell as well as the injection rate on the apparent viscosity of foam which is required to investigate foam displacement. Our results reveal the significant impact of foam texture and bubble size on the foam apparent viscosity. Foams with smaller bubble sizes have a higher apparent viscosity. This statement only applies (strictly speaking) when the foam quality is constant. However, wet foams with smaller bubbles may have lower apparent viscosity compared to dry foams with larger bubbles. Furthermore, our results show the occurrence of more stable foam-water fronts as foam quality decreases. Besides, the complexity of oil displacement by foam as well as its destabilizing effects on foam displacement has been discussed. Our results extend the physical understanding of foam-assisted liquid displacement in Hele-Shaw cell which is a step towards understanding the foam flow behaviour in more complex systems such as porous media. PMID:26473278

  9. Energy engineering analysis program at New Cumberland Army Depot, PA. Volume 1: Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-03-01

    This is the Corrected Final Report on Increments A through G of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at New Cumberland Army Depot (NCAD). This project has been conducted under the Norfolk District, Corps of Engineers Contract No. DACA 65-8O-C-0O14, by PRC Systems Services, Cocoa Beach, FL. During Increments A and B, four modification projects were recommended for funding under the Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP). Increment G resulted in three recommended projects and Increment E determined the feasibility of a new, coal-fired central steam plant. Studies conducted during Increments C, D, and F concluded that none of the proposed work was economically feasible under applicable guidelines. Actual energy consumption at NCAD was determined from electricity billings and from fuel oil delivery records. Costs were taken. from contracts and service agreements that were in force at the times the various increments were undertaken. Using conversion factors specified in the Army Facilities Energy Plan and prices in effect during the year, the following summarizes the total energy picture for fiscal year (FY) 83.

  10. Tanker Argus: Re-supply for a LEO Cryogenic Propellant Depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Germain, B.; Olds, J.; Kokan, T.; Marcus, L.; Miller, J.

    The Argus reusable launch vehicle (RLV) concept is a single-stage-to-orbit conical, winged bodied vehicle powered by two liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen supercharged ejector ramjets. The 3rd generation Argus launch vehicle utilizes advanced vehicle technologies along with a Maglev launch assist track. A tanker version of the Argus RLV is envisioned to provide an economical means of providing liquid fuel and oxidizer to an orbiting low-Earth orbit (LEO) propellant depot. This depot could then provide propellant to various spacecraft, including reusable orbital transfer vehicles used to ferry space solar power satellites to geo-stationary orbit. Two different tanker Argus configurations were analyzed. The first simply places additional propellant tanks inside the payload bay of an existing Argus reusable launch vehicle. The second concept is a modified Argus RLV in which the payload bay is removed and the vehicle propellant tanks are stretched to hold extra propellant. An iterative conceptual design process was used to design both Argus vehicles. This process involves various disciplines including aerodynamics, trajectory analysis, weights &structures, propulsion, operations, safety, and cost/economics. The payload bay version of tanker Argus, which has a gross mass of 256.3MT, is designed to deliver a 9.07MT payload to LEO. This payload includes propellant and the tank structure required to secure this propellant in the payload bay. The modified, pure tanker version of Argus has a gross mass of 218.6MT and is sized to deliver a full 9.07MT of propellant to LEO. The economic analysis performed for this study involved the calculation of many factors including the design/development and recurring costs of each vehicle. These results were used along with other economic assumptions to determine the "per kilogram" cost of delivering propellant to orbit. The results show that for a given flight rate the "per kilogram" cost is cheaper for the pure tanker version of Argus

  11. 44. Storehouse of Philadelphia Signal Depot, U.S. Army Corps of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Storehouse of Philadelphia Signal Depot, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, War Department (1942) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Forward-looking recognition based on convex hull invariants of oil depot region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fangfang; Sun, Jiyin; Han, Bing; Xia, Jing

    2007-11-01

    Forward-looking navigation system is a fire-new technique for terminal guidance of intending precision-guided weapons and research on oil depot recognition of forward-looking imaging is an essential task for this control and guide system. As conventional matching methods could not overcome perspective transmutation, a new method to identify the forward-looking area of oil depot was advanced in this paper. First, constructed three statistics of regions based on convex hull, which were invariant to affine transform. Then, number of inside oilcans could easily be achieved by adding a decision step. Finally the area of oil depot could be located according to the comparison between the computed number and the foreknowable number under a given threshold. Experiments applied to optical images in different areas show that the proposed method is accurate and has wider application in identifying such small objects as oilcans, and it realizes automatically recognizing area of oil depot from forward-looking imaging.

  13. U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Ammunition Depot West Loch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Ammunition Depot West Loch, Oahu, Dispensary, Near Avenue A between First & Second Streets, Lualualei, West Loch Branch Naval Magazine, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Analytic theory for the determination of velocity and stability of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. Part 2: Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, Saleh

    1989-01-01

    The analysis is extended to determine the linear stability of a bubble in a Hele-Shaw cell analytically. Only the solution branch corresponding to largest possible bubble velocity U for given surface tension is found to be stable, while all the others are unstable, in accordance with earlier numerical results.

  15. Combining Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) with photosynthesis model to simulate water and CO2 fluxes over wheat canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy, water and CO2 flux at the soil-atmosphere interface is a key interest among ecosystem researchers. The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model describes radiation energy balance, heat transfer and water movement within the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum, but has no provisions for carbon as...

  16. A Comprehensive Program for the Training of Elementary School Teachers at Shaw University. Final Report, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw Univ., Raleigh, NC.

    This report contains a description of the current elementary teacher education program at Shaw University; a brief summary of each of the nine U.S. Office of Education models for elementary teacher education programs; review and synthesis of concepts in the three models (Florida State, Georgia, and Massachusetts) most applicable in redeveloping…

  17. Scheme of water saving irrigation in autumn based on SHAW model in Inner Mongolia Hetao Irrigation District

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In accordance with the prevention of soil salination and water-saving irrigation in autumn in Inner Mongolia Hetao irrigation district, the reasonable water-saving irrigation scheme in autumn was quantified by using SHAW model for the different salinized soils. For slightly salinized soils, autumn i...

  18. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Staub, W.P.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1990-09-01

    This is the 1990 Addendum (Volume 2) for the Phase I report on the disposal of chemicals and munitions at Anniston Army Depot. Included in the Addendum are responses to reviewers' comments on population density estimates, seismicity information, fault locations, and references. Reviewing agencies errata, and conclusions are also listed. Information presented does not change the principal conclusion reached by the Phase I report, that on-site disposal remains valid for Anniston Army Depot. (SM)

  19. Inhalational anaesthetics and n-alcohols share a site of action in the neuronal Shaw2 Kv channel

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharji, Aditya; Klett, Nathan; Go, Ramon Christopher V; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Neuronal ion channels are key targets of general anaesthetics and alcohol, and binding of these drugs to pre-existing and relatively specific sites is thought to alter channel gating. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this action are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neuronal Shaw2 voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel to ask whether the inhalational anaesthetic halothane and n-alcohols share a binding site near the activation gate of the channel. Experimental approach: Focusing on activation gate mutations that affect channel modulation by n-alcohols, we investigated n-alcohol-sensitive and n-alcohol-resistant Kv channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes to probe the functional modulation by externally applied halothane using two-electrode voltage clamping and a gas-tight perfusion system. Key results: Shaw2 Kv channels are reversibly inhibited by halothane in a dose-dependent and saturable manner (K0.5= 400 µM; nH= 1.2). Also, discrete mutations in the channel's S4S5 linker are sufficient to reduce or confer inhibition by halothane (Shaw2-T330L and Kv3.4-G371I/T378A respectively). Furthermore, a point mutation in the S6 segment of Shaw2 (P410A) converted the halothane-induced inhibition into halothane-induced potentiation. Lastly, the inhibition resulting from the co-application of n-butanol and halothane is consistent with the presence of overlapping binding sites for these drugs and weak binding cooperativity. Conclusions and implications: These observations strongly support a molecular model of a general anaesthetic binding site in the Shaw2 Kv channel. This site may involve the amphiphilic interface between the S4S5 linker and the S6 segment, which plays a pivotal role in Kv channel activation. PMID:20136839

  20. Ferrofluid patterns in Hele-Shaw cells: Exact, stable, stationary shape solutions.

    PubMed

    Lira, Sérgio A; Miranda, José A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a quasi-two-dimensional system composed of an initially circular ferrofluid droplet surrounded by a nonmagnetic fluid of higher density. These immiscible fluids flow in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell, under the influence of an in-plane radial magnetic field. We focus on the situation in which destabilizing bulk magnetic field effects are balanced by stabilizing centrifugal forces. In this framing, we consider the interplay of capillary and magnetic normal traction effects in determining the fluid-fluid interface morphology. By employing a vortex-sheet formalism, we have been able to find a family of exact stationary N-fold polygonal shape solutions for the interface. A weakly nonlinear theory is then used to verify that such exact interfacial solutions are in fact stable. PMID:26871176

  1. Universality Results for Multi-layer Radial Hele-Shaw Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daripa, Prabir; Gin, Craig; Daripa Research Team

    2014-03-01

    Saffman-Taylor instability is a well known viscosity driven instability of an interface separating two immiscible fluids. We study linear stability of this displacement process in multi-layer radial Hele-Shaw geometry involving an arbitrary number of immiscible fluid phases. Universal stability results have been obtained and applied to design displacement processes that are considerably less unstable than the pure Saffman-Taylor case. In particular, we derive universal formula which gives specific values of the viscosities of the fluid layers corresponding to smallest unstable band. Other similar universal results will also be presented. The talk is based on ongoing work. Supported by an NPRP Grant # 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

  2. Ferrofluid patterns in Hele-Shaw cells: Exact, stable, stationary shape solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Sérgio A.; Miranda, José A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a quasi-two-dimensional system composed of an initially circular ferrofluid droplet surrounded by a nonmagnetic fluid of higher density. These immiscible fluids flow in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell, under the influence of an in-plane radial magnetic field. We focus on the situation in which destabilizing bulk magnetic field effects are balanced by stabilizing centrifugal forces. In this framing, we consider the interplay of capillary and magnetic normal traction effects in determining the fluid-fluid interface morphology. By employing a vortex-sheet formalism, we have been able to find a family of exact stationary N -fold polygonal shape solutions for the interface. A weakly nonlinear theory is then used to verify that such exact interfacial solutions are in fact stable.

  3. Universality Results for Multi-Layer Hele-Shaw and Porous Media Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    Saffman-Taylor instability is a well known viscosity driven instability of an interface. Motivated by a need to understand the effect of various injection policies currently in practice for chemical enhanced oil recovery, we study linear stability of displacement processes in a Hele-Shaw cell involving injection of an arbitrary number of immiscible fluid phases in succession. This is a problem involving many interfaces. Universal stability results have been obtained for this multi-layer (multi-region) flow in the sense that the results hold with arbitrary number of interfaces. These stability results have been applied to design injection policies that are considerably less unstable than the pure Saffman-Taylor case. In particular, we determine specific values of the viscosity of the fluid layers corresponding to smallest unstable band. Moreover, we discuss universal selection principle of optimal viscous profiles. The talk is based on following papers. Qatar National Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  4. Janus Gel Fabrication Using Liquid Drop Coalescence and Limited Mixing in the Hele-Shaw Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Brittany; Moran, Alexis; Lee, Donghee; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogel substrates of tunable stiffness have been actively utilized for in vitro cell mechanobiology study. Here we present a new method to fabricate Janus polyacrylamide gel based on limited mixing between liquid drops coalescing in the Hele-Shaw geometry. Two pre-polymer drops with different concentrations were sandwiched and squeezed between two parallel glass surfaces. Once the drops coalesced in the decreased gap between the surfaces, gelation was initiated by UV light exposure with various time delays. AFM nano-indentation was utilized to map the Young's modulus of obtained gels. Fabricated Janus gels had two regions of different Young's moduli interfaced by the stiffness gradient zone, and the width of the gradient zone increased with the delay time. We acknowledge support from Bioengineering for Human Health grant from UNL and UNMC, and NSF REU grant for UNL.

  5. One-dimensional mixing layer model for a shear Hele-Shaw flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtunenko, P. V.

    2016-06-01

    A shear flow of a viscosity-stratified fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell is considered. The long-wave approximation is applied to the governing equations. To describe the evolution of the mixing layer, a special flow with a three-layered structure is considered. A one-dimensional model is derived by averaging the motion equations over the cell width, taking into account the flow structure. For a stationary flow, solutions of motion equations are constructed. The influence of viscosity on the mixing layer evolution is investigated by performing a numerical experiment for a flow with different viscosities in the layers and for a flow with always zero viscosity. It is shown that viscosity has a significant influence on the flow evolution.

  6. Radial Hele-Shaw flow with suction: Fully nonlinear pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Yao; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Miranda, José A.

    2014-05-01

    We study the development of intricate, fully nonlinear immiscible interfacial patterns in the suction-driven radial Hele-Shaw problem. The complex-shaped, contracting fluid-fluid interface arises when an initially circular blob of more viscous fluid, surrounded by less viscous one, is drawn into an eccentric point sink. We present sophisticated numerical simulations, based on a diffuse interface model, that capture the most prominent interfacial features revealed by existing experimental studies of the problem. The response of the system to changes in the capillary number is investigated, accurately revealing the occurrence of finger competition phenomena, and correctly describing the velocity behavior of both inward- and outward-pointing fingers. For the large-capillary-number regime, a set of complex interfacial features (finger merging, shielding, and pinch-off) whose experimental realization is still not available, are predicted.

  7. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Liquid Drop Dynamics Within Unsaturated Vertical Hele-Shaw Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Huang; Paul Meakin

    2008-03-01

    A three-dimensional, multiphase fluid flow model with volume of fluid-interface tracking was developed and applied to study the multiphase dynamics of moving liquid drops of different sizes within vertical Hele-Shaw cells. The simulated moving velocities are significantly different from those obtained from a first-order analytical approximation, based on simple force-balance concepts. The simulation results also indicate that the moving drops can exhibit a variety of shapes and that the transition among these different shapes is largely determined by the moving velocities. More important, there is a transition from a linear moving regime at small capillary numbers, in which the capillary number scales linearly with the Bond number, to a nonlinear moving regime at large capillary numbers, in which the moving drop releases a train of droplets from its trailing edge. The train of droplets forms a variety of patterns at different moving velocities.

  8. The wake structures of the air bubbles rising in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskun, Eric; Wu, Mingming; Zarandi, Mehrdad M.

    1997-11-01

    The wake structures of the penny-shaped air bubbles rising in a layer of fluid contained in a Hele-Shaw cell were studied qualitatively by colored dye visualization technique, and quantitatively by digital particle imaging velocimetry(DPIV). We found that the straight path of a rising circular bubble was changed to a zigzag path when the Reynolds number R (proportional to the bubble terminal velocity) exceeded a threshold R_c.( Erin Kelley and Mingming Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett.), 79, 1265(1997). The colored dye visualization results demonstrated that the path instability was a consequence of vortex shedding behind the bubbles. The DPIV measurements supplied the full velocity fields behind the bubbles, and revealed the details of the vortex forming processes. The boundary conditions at the surfaces of the small bubbles will be discussed.

  9. Wavelength selection in injection-driven Hele-Shaw flows: A maximum amplitude criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Eduardo; Miranda, Jose

    2013-11-01

    As in most interfacial flow problems, the standard theoretical procedure to establish wavelength selection in the viscous fingering instability is to maximize the linear growth rate. However, there are important discrepancies between previous theoretical predictions and existing experimental data. In this work we perform a linear stability analysis of the radial Hele-Shaw flow system that takes into account the combined action of viscous normal stresses and wetting effects. Most importantly, we introduce an alternative selection criterion for which the selected wavelength is determined by the maximum of the interfacial perturbation amplitude. The effectiveness of such a criterion is substantiated by the significantly improved agreement between theory and experiments. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.

  10. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  11. Shocks and finite-time singularities in Hele-Shaw flow

    SciTech Connect

    Teodorescu, Razvan; Wiegmann, P; Lee, S-y

    2008-01-01

    Hele-Shaw flow at vanishing surface tension is ill-defined. In finite time, the flow develops cusplike singularities. We show that the ill-defined problem admits a weak dispersive solution when singularities give rise to a graph of shock waves propagating in the viscous fluid. The graph of shocks grows and branches. Velocity and pressure jump across the shock. We formulate a few simple physical principles which single out the dispersive solution and interpret shocks as lines of decompressed fluid. We also formulate the dispersive solution in algebro-geometrical terms as an evolution of Krichever-Boutroux complex curve. We study in details the most generic (2,3) cusp singularity which gives rise to an elementary branching event. This solution is self-similar and expressed in terms of elliptic functions.

  12. A pancake droplet translating in a Hele-Shaw cell: lubrication film and flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lailai; Gallaire, François

    2016-07-01

    We adopt a boundary integral method to study the dynamics of a translating droplet confined in a Hele-Shaw cell in the Stokes regime. The droplet is driven by the motion of the ambient fluid with the same viscosity. We characterize the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the droplet interface and of the flow field. The interface develops an arc-shaped ridge near the rear-half rim with a protrusion in the rear and a laterally symmetric pair of higher peaks; this pair of protrusions has been identified by recent experiments (Huerre et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 115 (6), 2015, 064501) and predicted asymptotically (Burgess and Foster, Phys. Fluids A, vol. 2 (7), 1990, pp. 1105-1117). The mean film thickness is well predicted by the extended Bretherton model (Klaseboer et al., Phys. Fluids, vol. 26 (3), 2014, 032107) with fitting parameters. The flow in the streamwise wall-normal middle plane is featured with recirculating zones, which are partitioned by stagnation points closely resembling those of a two-dimensional droplet in a channel. Recirculation is absent in the wall-parallel, unconfined planes, in sharp contrast to the interior flow inside a moving droplet in free space. The preferred orientation of the recirculation results from the anisotropic confinement of the Hele-Shaw cell. On these planes, we identify a dipolar disturbance flow field induced by the travelling droplet and its $1/r^2$ spatial decay is confirmed numerically. We pinpoint counter-rotating streamwise vortex structures near the lateral interface of the droplet, further highlighting the complex 3D flow pattern.

  13. A study of gas bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaasen, B.; Verhaeghe, F.; Blanpain, B.; Fransaer, J.

    2014-01-01

    High-quality observations of mesoscopic gas bubbles in liquid metal are vital for a further development of pyrometallurgical gas injection reactors. However, the opacity of metals enforces the use of indirect imaging techniques with limited temporal or spatial resolution. In addition, accurate interface tracking requires tomography which further complicates the design of a high-temperature experimental setup. In this paper, an alternative approach is suggested that circumvents these two main restrictions. By injecting gas in a thin layer of liquid metal entrapped between two flat and closely spaced plates, bubbles in a Hele-Shaw flow regime are generated. The resulting quasi-2D multiphase flow phenomena can be fully captured from a single point of view and, when using a non-wetted transparent plate material, the bubbles can be observed directly. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by observations on buoyancy-driven nitrogen bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. By using a moving high-speed camera to make continuous close up recordings of individual bubbles, the position and geometry of these bubbles are quantified with a high resolution along their entire path. After a thorough evaluation of the experimental accuracy, this information is used for a detailed analysis of the bubble expansion along the path. While the observed bubble growth is mainly caused by the hydrostatic pressure gradient, a careful assessment of the volume variations for smaller bubbles shows that an accurate bubble description should account for significant dynamic pressure variations that seem to be largely regime dependent.

  14. Tsunakawa-Shaw method - an absolute paleointensity technique using alternating field demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Shibuya, H.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Among geologic materials volcanic rocks have been typically used to deduce an absolute paleointensity. In the last decade, however, there seems a becoming consensus that volcanic rocks are not so ideal materials due to such as magnetic grains other than non-interacting single domain particles. One approach to obtain a good paleointensity estimate from the rocks is to reduce and correct the non-ideality, suppress alterations in laboratory and screen out suspicious results. We have been working on a development and an application of the Tsunakawa-Shaw method, which has been previously called the LTD-DHT Shaw method. This method is an AF(alternating field)-based technique and thus a paleointensity is estimated using coercivity spectra. To reduce the non-ideality, all remanences undergo low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) before any AF demagnetizations to remove multi-domain like component. To correct the non-ideality, anhysteretic remanent magnetizations (ARMs) are imparted with their directions parallel to natural remanent magnetizations and laboratory-imparted thermoremanent magnetizations (TRMs) and measured before and after laboratory heating. These ARMs are used to correct remanence anisotropies, possible interaction effects originated from the non-ideal grains and TRM changes caused by laboratory alterations. TRMs are imparted by heating specimens above their Curie temperatures and then cooling to room temperature at once to simulate nature conditions. These cycles are done in vacuum to suppress alterations in laboratory. Obtained results are judged by selection criteria, including a check for validity of the ARM corrections.It has been demonstrated that successful paleointensities are obtained from historical lavas in Japan and Hawaii, and from baked clay samples from a reconstructed ancient kiln, with the flow-mean precision of 5-10%. In case of old volcanic rocks, however, the method does not necessarily seem to be perfect. We will summarize these points in

  15. Optimisation of microstructured biodegradable finasteride formulation for depot parenteral application.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama A; Hussein, Amal K; Mady, Fatma M

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to use the biocompatibility features of the biodegradable polymers to prepare depot injectable finasteride (FIN) microspheres for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. FIN microspheres were prepared utilising an emulsion-solvent evaporation/extraction technique. The Box-Behnken experimental design was adopted to optimise the preparation process. FIN plasma levels in albino rabbits were determined after injection with optimised FIN microspheres formula and compared with oral FIN suspension. Results revealed that the optimum microspheres displayed an amended sustained release pattern with lower initial burst. The cumulative FIN % released after 25 days was in the range 27.83-73.18% for F4 and F1, respectively. The optimised formula, with 50.0% (X1), and 22.316% (X2) and 1.38% (X3) showed 6.503 μm, 93.213%, 14.574%, and 64.838% for Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In vivo studies displayed a sustained release pattern with minimal initial burst release when injected into rabbits. PMID:26886073

  16. Impact of correlated noise in an energy depot model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chunhua; Zeng, Jiakui; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Based on the depot model of the motion of active Brownian particles (ABPs), the impact of cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises has been investigated. Using a nonlinear Langevin approach, we discuss a new mechanism for the transport of ABPs in which the energy originates from correlated noise. It is shown that the correlation between two types of noise breaks the symmetry of the potential to generate motion of the ABPs with a net velocity. The absolute maximum value of the mean velocity depends on correlated noise or multiplicative noise, whereas a monotonic decrease in the mean velocity occurs with additive noise. In the case of no correlation, the ABPs undergo pure diffusion with zero mean velocity, whereas in the case of perfect correlation, the ABPs undergo pure drift with zero diffusion. This shows that the energy stemming from correlated noise is primarily converted to kinetic energy of the intrawell motion and is eventually dissipated in drift motion. A physical explanation of the mechanisms for noise-driven transport of ABPs is derived from the effective potential of the Fokker-Planck equation.

  17. Emergency response concept plan for Tooele Army Depot and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Miller, R.L.; Watson, A.P.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-10-01

    The continued storage and disposal of the United States' unitary chemical stockpile, including that portion stored at Tooele Army Depot (TEAD) near Tooele, Utah, have the potential for accidental releases that could escape installation boundaries and pose a threat to civilian populations. The US Army, in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other federal agencies, is committed to implement an emergency preparedness program that will significantly reduce the probability of adverse effects from such releases. This concept plan, which is but a part of a comprehensive ongoing effort, provides a framework for initiating such a program for the TEAD stockpile. This report develops information and methodologies that bear on two major decisions for such a program -- determining emergency planning zones and selecting protective action strategies. These decisions are based on the hazards posed by the TEAD stockpile and its disposal. These hazards, in turn, are based largely on the distribution of potential accidental releases associated with interim storage and disposal activities and associated external events (e.g., earthquakes and airplane crashes), the distribution of natural features that can affect an agent release (topographical features and meteorological characteristics), and the distribution of people and resources (e.g., homes, schools, and hospitals) potentially affected by an accidental release. 22 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Performance Gains of Propellant Management Devices for Liquid Hydrogen Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents background, experimental design, and preliminary experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to investigate the parameters that affect liquid acquisition device (LAD) performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank, to mitigate risk in the final design of the LAD for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, and to provide insight into optimal LAD operation for future LH2 depots. Preliminary test results show an increase in performance and screen retention over the low reference LH2 bubble point value for a 325 2300 screen in three separate ways, thus improving fundamental LH2 LAD performance. By using a finer mesh screen, operating at a colder liquid temperature, and pressurizing with a noncondensible pressurant gas, a significant increase in margin is achieved in bubble point pressure for LH2 screen channel LADs.

  19. Impact of correlated noise in an energy depot model

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chunhua; Zeng, Jiakui; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Based on the depot model of the motion of active Brownian particles (ABPs), the impact of cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises has been investigated. Using a nonlinear Langevin approach, we discuss a new mechanism for the transport of ABPs in which the energy originates from correlated noise. It is shown that the correlation between two types of noise breaks the symmetry of the potential to generate motion of the ABPs with a net velocity. The absolute maximum value of the mean velocity depends on correlated noise or multiplicative noise, whereas a monotonic decrease in the mean velocity occurs with additive noise. In the case of no correlation, the ABPs undergo pure diffusion with zero mean velocity, whereas in the case of perfect correlation, the ABPs undergo pure drift with zero diffusion. This shows that the energy stemming from correlated noise is primarily converted to kinetic energy of the intrawell motion and is eventually dissipated in drift motion. A physical explanation of the mechanisms for noise-driven transport of ABPs is derived from the effective potential of the Fokker-Planck equation. PMID:26786478

  20. Impact of correlated noise in an energy depot model.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chunhua; Zeng, Jiakui; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Based on the depot model of the motion of active Brownian particles (ABPs), the impact of cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises has been investigated. Using a nonlinear Langevin approach, we discuss a new mechanism for the transport of ABPs in which the energy originates from correlated noise. It is shown that the correlation between two types of noise breaks the symmetry of the potential to generate motion of the ABPs with a net velocity. The absolute maximum value of the mean velocity depends on correlated noise or multiplicative noise, whereas a monotonic decrease in the mean velocity occurs with additive noise. In the case of no correlation, the ABPs undergo pure diffusion with zero mean velocity, whereas in the case of perfect correlation, the ABPs undergo pure drift with zero diffusion. This shows that the energy stemming from correlated noise is primarily converted to kinetic energy of the intrawell motion and is eventually dissipated in drift motion. A physical explanation of the mechanisms for noise-driven transport of ABPs is derived from the effective potential of the Fokker-Planck equation. PMID:26786478

  1. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots. PMID:26254076

  2. A Practical, Affordable Cryogenic Propellant Depot Based on ULA's Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; O'Neil, Gary; Pitchford, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Mankind is embarking on the next step in the journey of human exploration. We are returning to the moon and eventually moving to Mars and beyond. The current Exploration architecture seeks a balance between the need for a robust infrastructure on the lunar surface, and the performance limitations of Ares I and V. The ability to refuel or top-off propellant tanks from orbital propellant depots offers NASA the opportunity to cost effectively and reliably satisfy these opposing requirements. The ability to cache large orbital quantities of propellant is also an enabling capability for missions to Mars and beyond. This paper describes an option for a propellant depot that enables orbital refueling supporting Exploration, national security, science and other space endeavors. This proposed concept is launched using a single EELV medium class rocket and thus does not require any orbital assembly. The propellant depot provides cryogenic propellant storage that utilizes flight proven technologies augmented with technologies currently under development. The propellant depot system, propellant management, flight experience, and key technologies are also discussed. Options for refueling the propellant depot along with an overview of Exploration architecture impacts are also presented.

  3. Differential gene expression between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots.

    PubMed

    Atzmon, G; Yang, X M; Muzumdar, R; Ma, X H; Gabriely, I; Barzilai, N

    2002-01-01

    Abdominal obesity has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). By surgical removal of visceral fat (VF) in a variety of rodent models, we prevented insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, establishing a cause-effect relationship between VF and the metabolic syndrome. To characterize the biological differences between visceral and peripheral fat depots, we obtained perirenal visceral (VF) and subcutaneous (SC) fat from 5 young rats. We extracted mRNA from the fat tissue and performed gene array hybridization using Affymetrix technology with a platform containing 9 000 genes. Out of the 1 660 genes that were expressed in fat tissue, 297 (17.9 %) genes show a two-fold or higher difference in their expression between the two tissues. We present the 20 genes whose expression is higher in VF fat (by 3 - 7 fold) and the 20 genes whose expression is higher in SC fat (by 3 - 150 fold), many of which are predominantly involved in glucose homeostasis, insulin action, and lipid metabolism. We confirmed the findings of gene array expression and quantified the changes in expression in VF of genes involved in insulin resistance (PPARgamma leptin) and its syndrome (angiotensinogen and plasminogen activating inhibitor-1, PAI-1) by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Finally, we demonstrated increased expression of resistin in VF by around 12-fold and adiponectin by around 4-fold, peptides that were not part of the gene expression platform. These results indicate that visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are biologically distinct. PMID:12660871

  4. The search for purpose in a post-Darwinian universe: George Bernard Shaw, 'creative evolution', and Shavian eugenics: 'The dark side of the force'.

    PubMed

    Hale, Piers J

    2006-01-01

    The Irish playwright and socialist George Bernard Shaw has been of marginal concern for historians of biology because his vitalist Lamarckism has been viewed as out of step with contemporary science. However, Julian Huxley and J.B.S. Haldane were certainly of the opinion that Shaw was a man of influence in this regard and took pains to counter his views in their own attempts to engage the public in science. Previously, Shaw's colleague and friend H.G. Wells had also agued with Shaw from his own mechanistic neo-Darwinian perspective. The very public debate between Shaw and Wells, which continued to concern Huxley and Haldane, shows that public concern over the moral implications of Darwinism has a long history. Taking into account the opinions of John Maynard Smith on this matter, I suggest that a consideration of Shaw in this context can give us an understanding of the historical popularity of vitalist teleology as well as of the persistent ambivalence to the non-normative character of Darwinism. PMID:17702503

  5. Cation ordering in orthopyroxenes and cooling rates of meteorites: Low temperature cooling rates of Estherville, Bondoc and Shaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Yang, H.; Ghose, S.

    1993-01-01

    The cooling rates of meteorites provide important constraints on the size of their parent bodies, and their accretionary and evolutionary histories. However, the cooling rates obtained so far from the commonly used metallographic, radiometric and fission-track methods have been sometimes quite controversial, such as in the case of the mesosiderites and the meteorite Shaw. We have undertaken a systematic study of the cooling rates of meteorites using a different approach, which involves single crystal x-ray determination of Fe(2+)-Mg ordering in orthopyroxenes (OP(x)) in meteorites, subject to bulk compositional constraints, and numerical simulation of the evolution of the ordering state as a function of cooling rate, within the framework of the thermodynamic and kinetic principles governing cation ordering. We report the results obtained for OP(x) crystals from Shaw and two mesosiderites, Estherville and Bondoc.

  6. The ethics of killing human/great-ape chimeras for their organs: a reply to Shaw et al.

    PubMed

    Palacios-González, César

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to critically examine David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp, and Guido de Wert's arguments in favour of the procurement of human organs from human/nonhuman-primate chimeras, specifically from great-ape/human chimeras. My main claim is that their arguments fail and are in need of substantial revision. To prove this I first introduce the topic, and then reconstruct Shaw et al.'s position and arguments. Next, I show that Shaw et al.: (1) failed to properly apply the subsidiarity and proportionality principles; (2) neglected species overlapping cases in their ethical assessment; (3) ignored the ethics literature on borderline persons; and (4) misunderstood McMahan's two-tiered moral theory. These mistakes render an important part of their conclusions either false or problematic to the point that they would no longer endorse them. Finally I will briefly mention a possible multipolar solution to the human organ shortage problem that would reduce the need for chimeras' organs. PMID:26294174

  7. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  8. Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery Requests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sombuntham, Pandhapon; Kachitvichyanukul, Voratas

    2010-10-01

    This paper considers a multi-depot vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery requests. In the problem of interest, each location may have goods for both pickup and delivery with multiple delivery locations that may not be the depots. These characteristics are quite common in industrial practice. A particle swarm optimization algorithm with multiple social learning structures is proposed for solving the practical case of multi-depot vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pickup and delivery and time window. A new decoding procedure is implemented using the PSO class provided in the ETLib object library. Computational experiments are carried out using the test instances for the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW) as well as a newly generated instance. The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide good solutions to most of the test problems.

  9. The Adipose Tissue Microenvironment Regulates Depot-Specific Adipogenesis in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Elise; Wing, Allison; Holtrup, Brandon; Sebo, Zachary; Kaplan, Jennifer L; Saavedra-Peña, Rocio; Church, Christopher D; Colman, Laura; Berry, Ryan; Rodeheffer, Matthew S

    2016-07-12

    The sexually dimorphic distribution of adipose tissue influences the development of obesity-associated pathologies. The accumulation of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) that occurs in males is detrimental to metabolic health, while accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SWAT) seen in females may be protective. Here, we show that adipocyte hyperplasia contributes directly to the differential fat distribution between the sexes. In male mice, high-fat diet (HFD) induces adipogenesis specifically in VWAT, while in females HFD induces adipogenesis in both VWAT and SWAT in a sex hormone-dependent manner. We also show that the activation of adipocyte precursors (APs), which drives adipocyte hyperplasia in obesity, is regulated by the adipose depot microenvironment and not by cell-intrinsic mechanisms. These findings indicate that APs are plastic cells, which respond to both local and systemic signals that influence their differentiation potential independent of depot origin. Therefore, depot-specific AP niches coordinate adipose tissue growth and distribution. PMID:27320063

  10. Increased depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use increases family planning program pharmaceutical supply costs.

    PubMed

    Margulies, R; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    To measure the use rates of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and oral contraceptives and compare the costs between the two methods to see whether these trends had impacted the pharmaceutical acquisition costs for a family planning program, we compared vendor invoice costs over three time periods, 1992, 1994, and 1999. Visit types and client demographic statistics were tabulated from existing encounter record data sources. A local pharmaceutical chain was queried about their acquisition costs for similar products. Since 1992, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use has increased from 3 to 17% while oral contraceptive use has decreased from 45 to 40% of contraceptive clients. The cost to our program for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is $4.75 for 28 days and the average pill package is purchased for $1.35. The cost to our program is 4 times greater for the injection contraceptive user than for the oral contraceptive user. Approximately 80% of our clients have household incomes less than 200% of the poverty level and obtain their services from our program for free. This combination of increasing popularity and the high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate has resulted in a great increase in the pharmacy acquisition cost. The oral contraceptive manufacturers make their products available at large discounts (20-fold reduction), but depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not provided at a similar discount (2.8-fold reduction). We believe this is because there is no generic or competing product. The high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate could jeopardize our ability to offer this highly effective method of birth control to all women. PMID:11368987

  11. Nanostructured Cubosomes in a Thermoresponsive Depot System: An Alternative Approach for the Controlled Delivery of Docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Rarokar, Nilesh R; Saoji, Suprit D; Raut, Nishikant A; Taksande, Jayashree B; Khedekar, Pramod B; Dave, Vivek S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a thermoresponsive depot system comprising of docetaxel-loaded cubosomes. The cubosomes were dispersed within a thermoreversible gelling system for controlled drug delivery. The cubosome dispersion was prepared by dilution method, followed by homogenization using glyceryl monooleate, ethanol and Pluronic(®) F127 in distilled water. The cubosome dispersion was then incorporated into a gelling system prepared with Pluronic(®) F127 and Pluronic(®) F68 in various ratios to formulate a thermoresponsive depot system. The thermoresponsive depot formulations undergo a thermoreversible gelation process i.e., they exists as free flowing liquids at room temperature, and transforms into gels at higher temperatures e.g., body temperature, to form a stable depot in aqueous environment. The mean particle size of the cubosomes in the dispersion prepared with Pluronic(®) F127, with and without the drug was found to be 170 and 280 nm, respectively. The prepared thermoresponsive depot system was evaluated by assessing various parameters like time for gelation, injectability, gel erosion, and in-vitro drug release. The drug-release studies of the cubosome dispersion before incorporation into the gelling system revealed that a majority (∼97%) of the drug was released within 12 h. This formulation also showed a short lag time (∼3 min). However, when incorporated into a thermoresponsive depot system, the formulation exhibited an initial burst release of ∼21%, and released only ∼39% drug over a period of 12 h, thus indicating its potential as a controlled drug delivery system. PMID:26208439

  12. Spatiotemporally photoradiation-controlled intratumoral depot for combination of brachytherapy and photodynamic therapy for solid tumor.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Ratul; Schaal, Jeffrey; Li, Xinghai; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Asai, Daisuke; Zalutsky, Michael R; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Liu, Wenge

    2016-02-01

    In an attempt to spatiotemporally control both tumor retention and the coverage of anticancer agents, we developed a photoradiation-controlled intratumoral depot (PRCITD) driven by convection enhanced delivery (CED). This intratumoral depot consists of recombinant elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) containing periodic cysteine residues and is conjugated with a photosensitizer, chlorin-e6 (Ce6) at the N-terminus of the ELP. We hypothesized that this cysteine-containing ELP (cELP) can be readily crosslinked through disulfide bonds upon exposure to oxidative agents, specifically the singlet oxygen produced during photodynamic stimulation. Upon intratumoral injection, CED drives the distribution of the soluble polypeptide freely throughout the tumor interstitium. Formation and retention of the depot was monitored using fluorescence molecular tomography imaging. When imaging shows that the polypeptide has distributed throughout the entire tumor, 660-nm light is applied externally at the tumor site. This photo-radiation wavelength excites Ce6 and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of oxygen. The ROS induce in situ disulfide crosslinking of the cysteine thiols, stabilizing the ELP biopolymer into a stable therapeutic depot. Our results demonstrate that this ELP design effectively forms a hydrogel both in vitro and in vivo. These depots exhibit high stability in subcutaneous tumor xenografts in nude mice and significantly improved intratumoral retention compared to controls without crosslinking, as seen by fluorescent imaging and iodine-125 radiotracer studies. The photodynamic therapy provided by the PRCITD was found to cause significant tumor inhibition in a Ce6 dose dependent manner. Additionally, the combination of PDT and intratumoral radionuclide therapy co-delivered by PRCITD provided a greater antitumor effect than either monotherapy alone. These results suggest that the PRCITD could provide a stable platform for delivering synergistic, anti

  13. Schlieren imaging of viscous fingering in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunton, P.; Marin, D.; Stewart, S.; Meiburg, E.; De Wit, A.

    2016-02-01

    Interfaces between different fluids can be unstable with regard to hydrodynamic instabilities such as viscous fingering or buoyancy-driven convection. To study such instabilities experimentally for transparent fluids, dyes or chemical indicators are most often used to track the dynamics. While the interfacial deformation can easily be tracked by color changes, it is difficult to have access to the internal flow structure for comparison with theoretical predictions. To overcome this problem, a modification of a Schlieren technique is introduced to image 3D flows during viscously driven instabilities in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell without using any dye or chemical indicator. The method is exquisitely sensitive, readily yielding information about 3D flows in gaps under a millimeter and allowing imaging of the flow structure internal to the fingers, rather than merely imaging the flow boundary. Following a description of the technique, visualization of dynamics for nonreactive water-glycerol and reactive displacements is presented revealing previously unobserved internal flows. These flows are tentatively interpreted in terms of known theoretical predictions.

  14. Instability of displacement of Oldroyd-B fluid by air in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2014-03-01

    We study the displacement of an Oldroyd-B fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell when driven by air. In particular, we explicitly obtain an analytical expression for the growth rate of instability which depends on the relaxation and retardation (time) constants, denoted by λ, and λ1 respectively, appearing in the Oldroyd-B constitutive relations. When these two constants are zero, we recover the classical Saffman-Taylor result for a Newtonian liquid displaced by air. Our results show that this displacement process is more unstable than the case when a Newtonian fluid is displaced by air. The analytical results are plotted and compared with numerical results on this unstable displacement process available in the literature. The agreement is found to be excellent. In particular, results show that the non-Newtonian case (i.e., Oldroyd-B) is more unstable than the Newtonian case. Supported by an NPRP Grant # 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Molding Hele-Shaw Flow of Polymeric Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chono, Shigeomi; Tsuji, Tomohiro; Sun, Jianye

    To develop a general-purpose program for predicting the molding flow of polymeric liquid crystals, we present a basic model and its computational procedure. The flow is modeled by the Transversely Isotropic Fluid theory, which is equivalent to the Leslie-Ericksen equations in the high viscosity limit. In the modeling, the Hele-Shaw approximation is applied to reduce computational power. A finite difference technique is used to solve the governing equations, except for the angular momentum equation, which is solved by a streamline integration method. Two molds with thin and simple shape cavities are selected to evaluate the model. The computational results for the locations of the flow front, and for the distributions of the temperature and the molecular orientation show that the model successfully predicts a smooth molding process and that the molecular orientation direction depends strongly on the position in the gap direction. Since alignment of molecules is disordered by the occurrence of tumbling behavior, which depends on the fluid temperature and shear strain, the mold wall temperature and the gate position are important for effective molding.

  16. Acceleration of convective dissolution by chemical reaction in a Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Cherezov, Ilia; Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2016-09-14

    New laboratory experiments quantify the destabilising effect of a second-order chemical reaction on the fingering instability of a diffusive boundary layer in a Hele-Shaw cell. We show that, for a given chemical system, the dynamics of such a reactive boundary layer is fully determined by two dimensionless groups, Da/Ra(2), which measures the timescale for convection compared to those for reaction and diffusion, and CBo', which reflects the excess of the environmental reactant species relative to the diffusing solute. Results of a systematic study varying CBo' in the range 0-0.1 are presented. It is shown that the chemical reaction increases the growth rate of a perturbation and favours small wavelengths compared to the inert system. A higher concentration of CBo' not only accelerates the onset of convection, but crucially also increases the transport of the solute by up to 150% compared to the inert system. This increase in solute transfer has important practical implications, such as in the storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers. PMID:27510413

  17. Low frequency vibration induced streaming in a Hele-Shaw cell

    SciTech Connect

    Costalonga, M.; Brunet, P.; Peerhossaini, H.

    2015-01-15

    When an acoustic wave propagates in a fluid, it can generate a second order flow whose characteristic time is much longer than the period of the wave. Within a range of frequency between ten and several hundred Hz, a relatively simple and versatile way to generate streaming flow is to put a vibrating object in the fluid. The flow develops vortices in the viscous boundary layer located in the vicinity of the source of vibrations, leading in turn to an outer irrotational streaming called Rayleigh streaming. Because the flow originates from non-linear time-irreversible terms of the Navier-Stokes equation, this phenomenon can be used to generate efficient mixing at low Reynolds number, for instance in confined geometries. Here, we report on an experimental study of such streaming flow induced by a vibrating beam in a Hele-Shaw cell of 2 mm span using long exposure flow visualization and particle-image velocimetry measurements. Our study focuses especially on the effects of forcing frequency and amplitude on flow dynamics. It is shown that some features of this flow can be predicted by simple scaling arguments and that this vibration-induced streaming facilitates the generation of vortices.

  18. Buoyancy-Driven Instability of an Autocatalytic ReactionFront in a Hele-Shaw Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jerome; Rakotomalala, Nicole; Salin, Dominique; Bockmann, Martin

    2001-11-01

    J. Martin, N. Rakotomalala, D. Salin, Laboratoire Fluides Automatique et Systèmes Thermiques, Universités P. et M. Curie and Paris Sud, C.N.R.S. (UMR 7608) Bâtiment 502, Campus Universitaire, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and M. Böckmann, University Magdeburg, PF 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg Germany--- Autocatalytic reaction front between two reacting species is able to propagate as a solitary wave, that is at a constant velocity and with a stationary shape concentration profile resulting from a balance between diffusion and chemical reaction. Recent experiments on ascending front, which leaves a lighter fluid behind, have been recently reported to be buoyantly unstable . We extend our recent analysis of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the interface between two miscible fluids in a Hele-Shaw cell to the corresponding density stratification across the reaction front. The computed dispersion relation as well our 3-D lattice BGK simulations fit reasonably well the series of reported experimental data of M. Böckmann and S. C. Müller, Phys.Rev. Lett. 85, 2506 (2000).

  19. New Trends on Antineoplastic Therapy Research: Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil Nanostructured Systems.

    PubMed

    Amaral-Machado, Lucas; Xavier-Júnior, Francisco H; Rutckeviski, Renata; Morais, Andreza R V; Alencar, Éverton N; Dantas, Teresa R F; Cruz, Ana K M; Genre, Julieta; da Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A; Pedrosa, Matheus F F; Rocha, Hugo A O; Egito, Eryvaldo S T

    2016-01-01

    Bullfrog oil is a natural product extracted from the Rana catesbeiana Shaw adipose tissue and used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extraction process of bullfrog oil, to develop a suitable topical nanoemulsion and to evaluate its efficacy against melanoma cells. The oil samples were obtained by hot and organic solvent extraction processes and were characterized by titration techniques and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The required hydrophile-lipophile balance and the pseudo-ternary phase diagram (PTPD) were assessed to determine the emulsification ability of the bullfrog oil. The anti-tumoral activity of the samples was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for normal fibroblast (3T3) and melanoma (B16F10) cell lines. Both extraction methods produced yielded around 60% and the oil was mainly composed of unsaturated compounds (around 60%). The bullfrog oil nanoemulsion obtained from PTPD presented a droplet size of about 390 nm and polydispersity = 0.05 and a zeta potential of about -25 mV. Both the bullfrog oil itself and its topical nanoemulsion did not show cytotoxicity in 3T3 linage. However, these systems showed growth inhibition in B16F10 cells. Finally, the bullfrog oil presented itself as a candidate for the development of pharmaceutical products free from cytotoxicity and effective for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:27144557

  20. An experimental study of non-isothermal miscible displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Fujita, Norihito; Kato, Yoshihito; Tada, Yutaka

    2009-04-15

    Non-isothermal miscible displacements in a radial Hele-Shaw cell were experimentally investigated using a scheme in which room temperature liquids of relatively high viscosity were displaced by high-temperature (80 C), less-viscous liquids. Fundamental characteristics have been presented regarding how the effect of a non-isothermal field on miscible displacement patterns varies in terms of factors such as the viscosity ratio of the more- and less-viscous liquids at 20 C, M{sub 20}, the rate of an increase in the pattern's area, R, and the gap width of the cell, b. The concept of area density was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of the non-isothermal fields on the patterns. We have found that the effect of the non-isothermal field on the patterns does not monotonically vary with M{sub 20} and b. In contrast, it increases with R in the present experimental condition. The experimental results can be explained by introducing an assumption in which heat is transferred mainly to the plates of the cell, in other words, the temperature of the more-viscous liquid remains constant, whereas that of the less-viscous liquid spatiotemporally decreases and the viscosity of it increases along with the temperature decrease. Visualization of non-isothermal field in the cell has been done by means of a thermo sheet and the results support the assumption mentioned above. (author)

  1. Systematic weakly nonlinear analysis of interfacial instabilities in Hele-Shaw flows.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lacalle, E; Casademunt, J; Ortín, J

    2001-07-01

    We develop a systematic method to derive all orders of mode couplings in a weakly nonlinear approach to the dynamics of the interface between two immiscible viscous fluids in a Hele-Shaw cell. The method is completely general: it applies to arbitrary geometry and driving. Here we apply it to the channel geometry driven by gravity and pressure. The finite radius of convergence of the mode-coupling expansion is found. Calculation up to third-order couplings is done, which is necessary to account for the time-dependent Saffman-Taylor finger solution and the case of zero viscosity contrast. The explicit results provide relevant analytical information about the role that the viscosity contrast and the surface tension play in the dynamics of the system. We finally check the quantitative validity of different orders of approximation and a resummation scheme against a physically relevant, exact time-dependent solution. The agreement between the low-order approximations and the exact solution is excellent within the radius of convergence, and is even reasonably good beyond this radius. PMID:11461386

  2. Volume-of-fluid simulations of bubble dynamics in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Klaasen, Bart; Degrève, Jan; Mahulkar, Amit; Heynderickx, Geraldine; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Blanpain, Bart; Verhaeghe, Frederik

    2016-05-01

    Bubbles in confined geometries serve an important role for industrial operations involving bubble-liquid interactions. However, high Reynolds number bubble dynamics in confined flows are still not well understood due to experimental challenges. In the present paper, combined experimental and numerical methods are used to provide a comprehensive insight into these dynamics. The bubble behaviour in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell is investigated experimentally with a fully wetting liquid for a variety of gap thicknesses. A numerical model is developed using the volume of fluid method coupled with a continuum surface force model and a wall friction model. The developed model successfully simulates the dynamics of a bubble under the present experimental conditions and shows good agreement between experimental and simulation results. It is found that with an increased spacing between the cell walls, the bubble shape changes from oblate ellipsoid and spherical-cap to more complicated shapes, while the bubble path changes from only rectilinear to a combination of oscillating and rectilinear; the bubble drag coefficient decreases and this results in a higher bubble velocity caused by a lower pressure exerted on the bubble; the wake boundary and wake length evolve gradually accompanied by vortex formation and shedding.

  3. Phase-field simulation of gas bubble growth and flow in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying

    2005-11-01

    A diffuse interface model has been developed for gas bubble growth and dynamics in a supersaturated liquid. The liquid becomes supersaturated in the gas species because of a drop in the pressure or temperature. The bubbles grow by gas diffusion in the liquid towards the bubble interfaces. During bubble growth, flows are induced by the large density contrast between the phases. The bubbles coarsen due to surface tension effects. The process widely exists in biological systems, materials processing, oil recovery, and other applications. The flows in the gas and liquid phases are solved using a diffuse interface model for two-phase flows with surface tension, phase change, and density and viscosity differences between the phases. This diffuse-interface model for flow is coupled with a phase-field equation for calculating the interface motion, and a species conservation equation for the gas transport. The model is validated for a single bubble growing inside a semi-infinite liquid, and convergence of the results with respect to the interface width is demonstrated. Large-scale numerical simulations for multiple bubbles inside a Hele-Shaw cell reveal the presence of complex interface dynamics and flows. The bubble dynamics, including coarsening and coalescence, are investigated as a function of the initial gas concentration, surface tension, and the density and viscosity contrasts between the phases.

  4. Schlieren Imaging of Viscous-Fingering in a Horizontal Hele-Shaw Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunton, Patrick; Brooks, Gabrielle; Stewart, Simone; de Wit, Anne

    2014-11-01

    Viscous fingering (VF) occurs when a fluid of high mobility displaces a fluid of lower mobility. Recent increased interest is motivated by applications to enhanced petroleum recover, pollutant dispersal, and climatological issues along with increased computational capability. Most often VF is observed in a Hele-Shaw (HS) cell consisting of two transparent plates separated by a narrow gap. For the typical case of transparent fluids, dyes are used for observation. Chemical indicators are used for reactive studies. Other techniques have been used such as interferometry, Schlieren, shadowgraph, fluorescence, and MRI. Here is reported a modification of Schlieren for use in imaging horizontal flows in a HS cell. The technique requires no dyes or chemical indicators that might complicate interpretation or even alter the dynamics. It is exquisitely sensitive, readily yielding information about 3D flows in gaps under a mm. Schlieren imaging is particularly useful in that it allows one to image flows within the fingers, rather than merely imaging the boundary. Following a description of the technique, data for water-glycerol systems are presented revealing previously unobserved internal detail. This detail is interpreted in terms of recently published 3D models of VF. Supported by the National Science Foundation CBET 1335739.

  5. Bubble dynamics inside an outgassing hydrogel confined in a Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Haudin, Florence; Noblin, Xavier; Bouret, Yann; Argentina, Médéric; Raufaste, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    We report an experimental study of bubble dynamics in a non-Newtonian fluid subjected to a pressure decrease. The fluid is a hydrogel, composed of water and a synthetic clay, prepared and sandwiched between two glass plates in a Hele-Shaw geometry. The rheological properties of the material can be tuned by the clay concentration. As the imposed pressure decreases, the gas initially dissolved in the hydrogel triggers bubble formation. Different stages of the process are observed: bubble nucleation, growth, interaction, and creation of domains by bubble contact or coalescence. Initially bubble behave independently. They are trapped and advected by the mean deformation of the hydrogel, and the bubble growth is mainly driven by the diffusion of the dissolved gas through the hydrogel and its outgassing at the reactive-advected hydrogel-bubble interface. In this regime, the rheology of the fluid does not play a significant role on the bubble growth. A model is proposed and gives a simple scaling that relates the bubble growth rate and the imposed pressure. Carbon dioxide is shown to be the gas at play, and the hydrogel is degassing at the millimeter scale as a water solution does at a smaller scale. Later, bubbles are not independent anymore. The growth rate decreases, and the morphology becomes more anisotropic as bubbles interact because they are separated by a distance smaller than the individual stress field extension. Our measurements show that the interaction distance scales with the bubbles' size. PMID:27627394

  6. Foam imbibition in a Hele-Shaw cell via laminated microfluidic ``T-junction'' device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Dina; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    In this talk we analyze experimental results of a novel microfluidic ``T-junction'' device, made from laminated plastic, that is used to produce foam in porous media. The fluids, both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids and air, are driven using constant-static pressure fluid pumping. For the T-junction geometry studied there are novel observations with this type of pumping: 1) at low pressure ratios there is an increase in the liquid and total flow rates and 2) at higher pressure ratios there is a decrease in the liquid flow rate. To understand this phenomenon we visualize the drop production process near the T-junction. Furthermore, flow rates for the liquid and total volume are estimated by imbibing the foam into a Hele-Shaw cell. Foam is produced by using a mixture containing aqueous polyacrylamide of concentrations ranging from 0.01-0.10% by weight and several solution also containing a sodium-lauryl-sulfate (SLS) surfactant at concentrations ranging 0.01-0.1% by weight.

  7. Low frequency vibration induced streaming in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costalonga, M.; Brunet, P.; Peerhossaini, H.

    2015-01-01

    When an acoustic wave propagates in a fluid, it can generate a second order flow whose characteristic time is much longer than the period of the wave. Within a range of frequency between ten and several hundred Hz, a relatively simple and versatile way to generate streaming flow is to put a vibrating object in the fluid. The flow develops vortices in the viscous boundary layer located in the vicinity of the source of vibrations, leading in turn to an outer irrotational streaming called Rayleigh streaming. Because the flow originates from non-linear time-irreversible terms of the Navier-Stokes equation, this phenomenon can be used to generate efficient mixing at low Reynolds number, for instance in confined geometries. Here, we report on an experimental study of such streaming flow induced by a vibrating beam in a Hele-Shaw cell of 2 mm span using long exposure flow visualization and particle-image velocimetry measurements. Our study focuses especially on the effects of forcing frequency and amplitude on flow dynamics. It is shown that some features of this flow can be predicted by simple scaling arguments and that this vibration-induced streaming facilitates the generation of vortices.

  8. 2D Flow patterning in Hele-Shaw configurations using Non-Uniform Electroosmotic Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Evgeniy; Rubin, Shimon; Gat, Amir; Bercovici, Moran

    2015-11-01

    We present an analytical study, validated by numerical simulations, of electroosmotic flow in a Hele-Shaw configuration with non-uniform zeta potential distribution. Applying the lubrication approximation and assuming thin electric double layer, we derive a pair of uncoupled Poisson equations for the pressure and the stream function, and show that the inhomogeneous parts in these equations are governed by gradients in zeta potential parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field, respectively. We obtain a solution for the case of a disk with uniform zeta potential and show that the flow field created is an exact dipole, even in the immediate vicinity of the disk. We then illustrate the ability to generate complex flow fields using superposition of such disks. Furthermore, we study the inverse problem in which we define the desired flow pattern and solve for the zeta potential distribution required in order to establish it. We demonstrate that such inverse problem solutions can be used to create directional flows confined within narrow regions, without physical walls. We show that these solutions can be assembled to create complex microfluidic networks, composed of intersecting channels and turns, which are basic building blocks in microfluidic devices.

  9. Flow patterning in Hele-Shaw configurations using non-uniform electro-osmotic slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Evgeniy; Rubin, Shimon; Gat, Amir D.; Bercovici, Moran

    2015-10-01

    We present an analytical study of electro-osmotic flow in a Hele-Shaw configuration with non-uniform zeta potential distribution. Applying the lubrication approximation and assuming thin electric double layer, we obtain a pair of uncoupled Poisson equations for the pressure and depth-averaged stream function, and show that the inhomogeneous parts in these equations are governed by gradients in zeta potential parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field, respectively. We obtain a solution for the case of a disk-shaped region with uniform zeta potential and show that the flow field created is an exact dipole, even in the immediate vicinity of the disk. In addition, we study the inverse problem where the desired flow field is known and solve for the zeta potential distribution required in order to establish it. Finally, we demonstrate that such inverse problem solutions can be used to create directional flows confined within narrow regions, without physical walls. Such solutions are equivalent to flow within channels and we show that these can be assembled to create complex microfluidic networks, composed of intersecting channels and turns, which are basic building blocks in microfluidic devices.

  10. Channelization of viscoplastic flow in a rough Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Duncan; Balmforth, Neil

    2015-11-01

    The flow of viscoplastic fluid down slender conduits or through porous media has application in a range of industrial and geophysical settings, from the plumbing of mud volcanoes to the transport of proppant slurries in hydraulic fracturing. The yield stress can cause the fluid locally to clog up, which can significantly affect the flow patterns. Flow of a viscoplastic fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell that has randomly ``roughened'' walls is investigated, both numerically and using analogue laboratory experiments. Fluid injected into the centre of the rough cell, which is initially full of the same fluid, show pronounced channelization: above a critical pressure drop (below which there is no flow and all the fluid is unyielded and stagnant), one or more thin conduits of yielded, flowing fluid develop. At larger pressure drops, more channels of yielded fluid develop. The quantity and width of the channels, and the value of the critical pressure drop, depend on the amplitude of the roughness of the walls of the cell. If this roughness is known, the locations of the first channels to flow and the corresponding pressure drop can be predicted by an optimization algorithm.

  11. Male Bovine GH Transgenic Mice Have Decreased Adiposity With an Adipose Depot-Specific Increase in Immune Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Benencia, Fabian; Harshman, Stephanie; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lubbers, Ellen R.; List, Edward O.; Householder, Lara; Al-Naeeli, Mawadda; Liang, Xiaoyu; Welch, Lonnie; Kopchick, John J.

    2015-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is composed of mature adipocytes and a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a variety of cells, including immune cells that vary among the different WAT depots. Growth hormone (GH) impacts immune function and adiposity in an adipose depot-specific manner. However, its effects on WAT immune cell populations remain unstudied. Bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice are commonly used to study the in vivo effects of GH. These giant mice have an excess of GH action, impaired glucose metabolism, decreased adiposity, increased lean mass, and a shortened lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the WAT depot-specific differences in immune cell populations in the presence of excess GH in vivo. Three WAT depots were assessed: inguinal (sc), epididymal (EPI), and mesenteric (MES). Subcutaneous and MES bGH WAT depots showed a significantly higher number of total SVF cells, yet only MES bGH WAT had higher leukocyte counts compared with control samples. By means of flow cytometry analysis of the SVF, we detected greater macrophage and regulatory T-cell infiltration in sc and MES bGH WAT depots compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in the EPI WAT depot. RNA-sequencing confirmed significant alterations in pathways related to T-cell infiltration and activation in the sc depot with fewer significant changes in the EPI bGH WAT depot. These findings collectively point to a previously unrecognized role for GH in influencing the distribution of WAT immune cell populations in a depot-specific manner. PMID:25521584

  12. Stromal vascular cells and adipogenesis: Cells within adipose depots regulate adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of investigations indicate the importance of adipose tissue stromal/stem cells to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during adipogenesis. Early in development the stromal-vascular (S-V) elements control and dictate the extent of adipogenesis in a depot dependent manner. For instance, the...

  13. Tests of the higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulations (HOTMAC) at Deseret Chemical Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, K.R.

    1998-11-01

    Deseret Chemical Depot is one of the US Army`s storage facilities for its stockpile of chemical weapon agents. Congress has directed the Department of Defense to eliminate the aging stockpiles, which have existed since the end of World War II, and the US Army is destroying these lethal chemical munitions. Although the danger is slight, accurate predictions of the wind field in the valley are necessary for dispersion calculations in the event of an accident involving toxic chemicals at the depot. There are several small communities in Rush and Tooele valleys, including the town of Tooele, and Salt Lake City is located 65 km to the Northeast of Deseret Chemical Depot South area, at 1,300 m MSL and beyond the Oquirrh Mountains. The purpose of this report is to carry out three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulations in the region around Deseret Chemical Depot with the Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric Circulations (HOTMAC) and to evaluate the performance of the model. The code had been modified to assimilate local meteorological observations through the use of Newtonian nudging. The nudging scheme takes advantage of the extensive network of local observations in the valley.

  14. 33 CFR 334.850 - Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio. 334.850 Section 334.850 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.850 Lake Erie, west end, north of...

  15. 33 CFR 334.850 - Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio. 334.850 Section 334.850 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.850 Lake Erie, west end, north of...

  16. 33 CFR 334.850 - Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio. 334.850 Section 334.850 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.850 Lake Erie, west end, north of...

  17. Stability results for multi-layer radial Hele-Shaw and porous media flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Craig; Daripa, Prabir

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by stability problems arising in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery, we perform linear stability analysis of Hele-Shaw and porous media flows in radial geometry involving an arbitrary number of immiscible fluids. Key stability results obtained and their relevance to the stabilization of fingering instability are discussed. Some of the key results, among many others, are (i) absolute upper bounds on the growth rate in terms of the problem data; (ii) validation of these upper bound results against exact computation for the case of three-layer flows; (iii) stability enhancing injection policies; (iv) asymptotic limits that reduce these radial flow results to similar results for rectilinear flows; and (v) the stabilizing effect of curvature of the interfaces. Multi-layer radial flows have been found to have the following additional distinguishing features in comparison to rectilinear flows: (i) very long waves, some of which can be physically meaningful, are stable; and (ii) eigenvalues can be complex for some waves depending on the problem data, implying that the dispersion curves for one or more waves can contact each other. Similar to the rectilinear case, these results can be useful in providing insight into the interfacial instability transfer mechanism as the problem data are varied. Moreover, these can be useful in devising smart injection policies as well as controlling the complexity of the long-term dynamics when drops of various immiscible fluids intersperse among each other. As an application of the upper bound results, we provide stabilization criteria and design an almost stable multi-layer system by adding many layers of fluid with small positive jumps in viscosity in the direction of the basic flow.

  18. Droplet relaxation in Hele-Shaw geometry: Application to the measurement of the nematic-isotropic surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Patrick; Poy, Guilhem

    2015-12-01

    Shape measurements after the coalescence of isotropic droplets embedded in a thin sample of a homeotropic nematic phase provides a tool to measure the nematic-isotropic surface tension. In addition, this experiment allows us to check the scaling laws recently given by Brun et al. [P.-T. Brun, M. Nagel, and F. Gallaire, Phys. Rev. E 88, 043009 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.043009] to explain the relaxation of ellipsoidal droplets in a Hele-Shaw cell.

  19. Fingering patterns in Hele-Shaw flows are density shock wave solutions of dispersionless KdV hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    Teodorescu, Razvan; Lee, S - Y; Wiegmann, P

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of a Hele-Shaw flow as the free boundary evolves from smooth initial conditions into a generic cusp singularity (of local geometry type x{sup 3} {approx} y{sup 2}), and then into a density shock wave. This novel solution preserves the integrability of the dynamics and, unlike all the weak solutions proposed previously, is not underdetermined. The evolution of the shock is such that the net vorticity remains zero, as before the critical time, and the shock can be interpreted as a singular line distribution of fluid deficit.

  20. Waves on a Hele-Shaw Cell: Simulations of Acoustic Emissions During Aerofracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Daniel, Guillaume; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we develop a numerical model to explain the lab scale experimental setup [1] modeling the aerofractures in a porous medium. The mentioned experimental setup consists in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell with three closed boundaries and one semi-permeable boundary which enables the flow of the fluid but not the solid particles. During the experiments, the fluid (pressurized air) is injected into the system with a constant injection pressure from the point opposite to the semi-permeable boundary. At the large enough injection pressures, the fluid also displaces grains (80 μm grain size) and creates channels and fractures towards the semi-permeable boundary. This analogue model is developed in a linear geometry, with confinement and at a lower porosity to study the instabilities developing during the fast motion of a fluid in dense porous materials: fracturing, fingering, and channeling. Different sources of the signal (air vibration in the carved area, changes in the effective stress due to fluid-solid interactions [2]) are separately analyzed and are investigated further using a far field approximation of Lamb waves presented by Goyder & White [3]. In the analysis phase, power spectrum of different timewindows (5 ms) obtained from the recorded signal are computed. Then, the evolution of this power spectrum is compared with the experimental findings. In the power spectrum, it is possible to see some characteristic structure like peaks in specific frequency ranges. These "peaks" are strongly influenced by the size and branching of the channels, compaction of the medium, vibration of air in the pores and the fundamental frequency of the plate. We found that, in the synthetic dataset, the peaks in the low frequency range (f < 20 kHz) diminishes while the medium fractures as suggested in experimental work. 1. Turkaya S, Toussaint R, Eriksen FK, Zecevic M, Daniel G, Flekkøy EG, Måløy KJ. "Bridging aero-fracture evolution with the characteristics of the

  1. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations preclude safe entry. The restricted periods will be identified by the use of quick-flashing beacon... the entrance of Rich Passage. Entry into the area is prohibited when the quick-flashing beacons are...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operations preclude safe entry. The restricted periods will be identified by the use of quick-flashing beacon... the entrance of Rich Passage. Entry into the area is prohibited when the quick-flashing beacons are...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operations preclude safe entry. The restricted periods will be identified by the use of quick-flashing beacon... the entrance of Rich Passage. Entry into the area is prohibited when the quick-flashing beacons are...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operations preclude safe entry. The restricted periods will be identified by the use of quick-flashing beacon... the entrance of Rich Passage. Entry into the area is prohibited when the quick-flashing beacons are...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operations preclude safe entry. The restricted periods will be identified by the use of quick-flashing beacon... the entrance of Rich Passage. Entry into the area is prohibited when the quick-flashing beacons are...

  6. Depot-medication compliance for patients with psychotic disorders: the importance of illness insight and treatment motivation

    PubMed Central

    Noordraven, Ernst L; Wierdsma, André I; Blanken, Peter; Bloemendaal, Anthony FT; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2016-01-01

    Background Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are related to each other and their compliance with depot medication. Methods Interviews were conducted in 169 outpatients with a psychotic disorder taking depot medication. Four patient groups were defined based on low or high illness insight and on low or high motivation. The associations between depot-medication compliance, motivation, and insight were illustrated using generalized linear models. Results Generalized linear model showed a significant interaction effect between motivation and insight. Patients with poor insight and high motivation for treatment were more compliant (94%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.821, 3.489) with their depot medication than patients with poor insight and low motivation (61%) (95% CI: 0.288, 0.615). Patients with both insight and high motivation for treatment were less compliant (73%) (95% CI: 0.719, 1.315) than those with poor insight and high motivation. Conclusion Motivation for treatment was more strongly associated with depot-medication compliance than with illness insight. Being motivated to take medication, whether to get better or for other reasons, may be a more important factor than having illness insight in terms of improving depot-medication compliance. Possible implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:26893565

  7. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  8. Terbutaline depot tablets in childhood asthma. A double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Foged, N; Høst, A; Ljungholm, K

    1985-10-01

    Thirty children 8-13 years old, with perennial asthma and with a reversibility of greater than or equal to 20% in lung function (FEV1) were given a sustained-release preparation of terbutaline sulphate 5 mg twice a day and ordinary tablets 2.5 mg three times a day; each treatment lasted 1 week. The design of the study was double-blind, cross-over, with a randomized allocation of the drugs. Both drugs improved the lung function significantly. The children had significantly less coughing during the night when they took depot tablets than when they took ordinary tablets. The side effects were few with both treatments. Most of the patients preferred the depot tablets. PMID:3907394

  9. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  10. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy of ovarian cancer by hydrogel depot of paclitaxel nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Taha, Maie S; Ramsey, Benjamin; Torregrosa-Allen, Sandra; Elzey, Bennett D; Yeo, Yoon

    2016-08-10

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is a promising post-surgical therapy of ovarian cancer, but the full potential is yet to be realized. To facilitate IP chemotherapy of ovarian cancer, we developed an in-situ crosslinkable hydrogel depot containing paclitaxel (PTX) nanocrystals (PNC). PNC suppressed SKOV3 cell proliferation more efficiently than microparticulate PTX precipitates (PPT), and the gel containing PNC (PNC-gel) showed a lower maximum tolerated dose than PPT-containing gel (PPT-gel) in mice, indicating greater dissolution and cellular uptake of PNC than PPT. A single IP administration of PNC-gel extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice significantly better than Taxol, but PPT-gel did not. These results support the advantage of PNC over PPT and demonstrate the promise of a gel depot as an IP drug delivery system. PMID:27238443

  11. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxi; Lin, Boliang; Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  12. Hybrid tabu search for the multi-depot vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shan-Liang

    2010-07-01

    A hybrid tabu search for the multi-depot vehicle routing problem is considered in this paper. The purpose of the proposed approach is to decrease the number of used vehicles and the total travel cost. An extensive numerical experiment was performed on benchmark problem instances available in literature, the computational results are presented to show the high effectiveness and performance of the proposed approaches.

  13. Control of Adipocyte Differentiation in Different Fat Depots; Implications for Pathophysiology or Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuquan; Lee, Paul; Chisholm, Donald J.; James, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation and its impact on restriction or expansion of particular adipose tissue depots have physiological and pathophysiological significance in view of the different functions of these depots. Brown or “beige” fat [brown adipose tissue (BAT)] expansion can enhance thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance; conversely expanded visceral fat [visceral white adipose tissue (VAT)] is associated with insulin resistance, low grade inflammation, dyslipidemia, and cardiometabolic risk. The largest depot, subcutaneous white fat [subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SAT)], has important beneficial characteristics including storage of lipid “out of harms way” and secretion of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, with positive metabolic effects including lipid oxidation, energy utilization, enhanced insulin action, and an anti-inflammatory role. The absence of these functions in lipodystrophies leads to major metabolic disturbances. An ability to expand white adipose tissue adipocyte differentiation would seem an important defense mechanism against the detrimental effects of energy excess and limit harmful accumulation of lipid in “ectopic” sites, such as liver and muscle. Adipocyte differentiation involves a transcriptional cascade with PPARγ being most important in SAT but less so in VAT, with increased angiogenesis also critical. The transcription factor, Islet1, is fairly specific to VAT and in vitro inhibits adipocyte differentiation. The physiological importance of Islet1 requires further study. Basic control of differentiation is similar in BAT but important differences include the effect of PGC-1α on mitochondrial biosynthesis and upregulation of UCP1; also PRDM16 plays a pivotal role in expression of the BAT phenotype. Modulation of the capacity or function of these different adipose tissue depots, by altering adipocyte differentiation or other means, holds promise for interventions that can be

  14. Adipose tissue depot specific differences of PLIN protein content in endurance trained rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sofhia V; Turnbull, Patrick C; MacPherson, Rebecca E K

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is classified as either white (WAT) or brown (BAT) and differs not only by anatomical location but also in function. WAT is the main source of stored energy and releases fatty acids in times of energy demand, whereas BAT plays a role in regulating non-shivering thermogenesis and oxidizes fatty acids released from the lipid droplet. The PLIN family of proteins has recently emerged as being integral in the regulation of fatty acid storage and release in adipose tissue. Previous work has demonstrated that PLIN protein content varies among adipose tissue depots, however an examination of endurance training-induced depot specific changes in PLIN protein expression has yet to be done. Male Sprague-dawley rats (n = 10) underwent 8-weeks of progressive treadmill training (18-25 m/min for 30-60 min at 10% incline) or remained sedentary as control. Following training, under isoflurane induced anesthesia epidydmal (eWAT), inguinal subcutaneous (iWAT) and intrascapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) was excised, and plasma was collected. Endurance training resulted in an increase in BAT PLIN5 and iWAT PLIN3 content, while there was no difference in PLIN protein content in endurance trained eWAT. Interestingly, endurance training resulted in a robust increase in ATGL and CGI-58 in eWAT alone. Together these results suggest the potential of a depot specific function of PLIN3 and PLIN5 in adipose tissue in response to endurance training. PMID:27386161

  15. A Genetically Engineered Thermally Responsive Sustained Release Curcumin Depot to Treat Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, S. Michael; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Gooden, David M.; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Setton, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiculopathy, a painful neuroinflammation that can accompany intervertebral disc herniation, is associated with locally increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Systemic administration of TNF antagonists for radiculopathy in the clinic has shown mixed results, and there is growing interest in the local delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to treat this pathology as well as similar inflammatory events of peripheral nerve injury. Curcumin, a known antagonist of TNFα in multiple cell types and tissues, was chemically modified and conjugated to a thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) to create an injectable depot for sustained, local delivery of curcumin to treat neuroinflammation. ELPs are biopolymers capable of thermally-triggered in situ depot formation that have been successfully employed as drug carriers and biomaterials in several applications. ELP-curcumin conjugates were shown to display high drug loading, rapidly release curcumin in vitro via degradable carbamate bonds, and retain in vitro bioactivity against TNFα-induced cytotoxicity and monocyte activation with IC50 only two-fold higher than curcumin. When injected proximal to the sciatic nerve in mice via intramuscular (i.m.) injection, ELP-curcumin conjugates underwent a thermally triggered soluble-insoluble phase transition, leading to in situ formation of a depot that released curcumin over 4 days post-injection and decreased plasma AUC 7-fold. PMID:23830979

  16. Health assessment for Umatilla Army Depot, Hermiston, Oregon, Region 10. CERCLIS No. OR6213820917. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Umatilla Army Depot Site (UAS) is listed on the National Priorities List. The site covers 23 square miles and is located in Hermiston (Umatilla and Morrow Counties), Oregon. UAS is a storage depot for chemical warfare agents. Parts of the depot were contaminated with explosives as a result of past demilitarization and disposal operations. Preliminary on-site lagoon sampling results have identified 2,4,6-TNT (2,800 ppm in surface soil, 180 ppm in subsurface soil), RDX (350 ppm in surface soil, 260 ppm subsurface soil), dinitrotoluene (DNT) (10 ppm in surface soil) and tetryl (12 ppm in surface soil). Preliminary off-site ground water sampling results identified 2,4-DNT (trace to 400 ppb), 2,6-DNT (trace to 5 ppb), and 2,5,6-TNT (trace to 4,350 ppb). In addition, HMX (trace to 2,530 ppb) and RDX (trace to 7,480 ppb) were also identified in off-site ground water samples. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because on-site employees may be exposed by direct contact to site-related contaminants in soil and possible ingestion of site-related contaminants that bioaccumulate through the food chain. It may be prudent to restrict areas of known contamination to post personnel.

  17. Automated Detection of Oil Depots from High Resolution Images: a New Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, A. O.; Başeski, E.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an original approach to identify oil depots from single high resolution aerial/satellite images in an automated manner. The new approach considers the symmetric nature of circular oil depots, and it computes the radial symmetry in a unique way. An automated thresholding method to focus on circular regions and a new measure to verify circles are proposed. Experiments are performed on six GeoEye-1 test images. Besides, we perform tests on 16 Google Earth images of an industrial test site acquired in a time series manner (between the years 1995 and 2012). The results reveal that our approach is capable of detecting circle objects in very different/difficult images. We computed an overall performance of 95.8% for the GeoEye-1 dataset. The time series investigation reveals that our approach is robust enough to locate oil depots in industrial environments under varying illumination and environmental conditions. The overall performance is computed as 89.4% for the Google Earth dataset, and this result secures the success of our approach compared to a state-of-the-art approach.

  18. The localization and differential expression of Serum Amyloid A in bovine liver and adipose tissue depots.

    PubMed

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Soler, Laura; Grilli, Guido; Marques, Andreia T; Giudice, Chiara; Lecchi, Cristina

    2015-11-15

    In this article the localization of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A (SAA) in different depots of bovine adipose tissue (AT) and liver is reported. Quantitative (Real Time) PCR was paired to immunohistochemistry after the production of a specific polyclonal antibody. SAA's mRNA was found in all analyzed AT depots included in the present study, the AT located in the withers being the major source of SAA mRNA. A polyclonal antibody was raised against bovine SAA and was used to validate gene expression analyses. Western Blotting confirmed that SAA is present in all the seven adipose tissue depots include in the present experiment. Anti-SAA polyclonal antibody also stained diffusely adipocytes. In liver, intracytoplasmic immunolabeling was observed in hepatocytes. Staining was generally mild and not diffuse: negative hepatocytes were intermixed with positive ones. A positive intracytoplasmic immunostaining was occasionally observed in endothelial cells lining small blood vessels within AT septa and liver parenchyma. Our data confirm that bovine AT may provide an important source of SAA in healthy subjects. It remains to be determined which is the contribution of AT in the serum concentration of SAA. PMID:26319890

  19. Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  20. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  1. An efficient fully-discrete local discontinuous Galerkin method for the Cahn-Hilliard-Hele-Shaw system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ruihan; Xia, Yinhua; Xu, Yan

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient and energy stable fully-discrete local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method for the Cahn-Hilliard-Hele-Shaw (CHHS) system. The semi-discrete energy stability of the LDG method is proved firstly. Due to the strict time step restriction (Δt=O(Δx4)) of explicit time discretization methods for stability, we introduce a semi-implicit time integration scheme which is based on a convex splitting of the discrete Cahn-Hilliard energy. The unconditional energy stability has been proved for this fully-discrete LDG scheme. The fully-discrete equations at the implicit time level are nonlinear. Thus, the nonlinear Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid method has been applied to solve this system of algebraic equations, which has been shown the nearly optimal complexity numerically. Numerical results are also given to illustrate the accuracy and capability of the LDG method coupled with the multigrid solver.

  2. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell

    PubMed Central

    Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki; Okumura, Ko

    2016-01-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes’ drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. PMID:27562151

  3. Elastic deformations in a Hele-Shaw cell driven by local non-homogeneities of fluid properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Shimon; Gat, Amir; Bercovici, Moran

    2015-11-01

    We consider a Hele-Shaw chamber with an elastic top plate, and study the effect of spatial variations in fluid properties on deformations of the plate. Specifically, we present analytical solutions for the pressure and depth-averaged flow field for axially-symmetric variations in slip velocity, viscosity, slip length, and channel height. We then focus on electroosmotic flow, which may be a practical method for obtaining gradients in slip velocity via non-uniform zeta-potential patterning of the surface. We derive an equation which relates elastic deformations of a Kirchhoff-Love plate to gradients in zeta potential, and obtain an analytical solution for the zeta potential distribution which gives rise to a local Gaussian deformation. Owing to the fact that any surface can be represented by superposition of Gaussians, we are thus able to determine the zeta potential necessary for creation of arbitrary deformations.

  4. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki; Okumura, Ko

    2016-01-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes' drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. PMID:27562151

  5. Droplet migration in a Hele-Shaw cell: Effect of the lubrication film on the droplet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yue; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Popinet, Stéphane; Josserand, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Droplet migration in a Hele-Shaw cell is a fundamental multiphase flow problem which is crucial for many microfluidics applications. We focus on the regime at low capillary number and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations are performed to investigate the problem. In order to reduce the computational cost, an adaptive mesh is employed and high mesh resolution is only used near the interface. Parametric studies are performed on the droplet horizontal radius and the capillary number. For droplets with an horizontal radius larger than half the channel height, the droplet overfills the channel and exhibits a pancake shape. A lubrication film is formed between the droplet and the wall and particular attention is paid to the effect of the lubrication film on the droplet velocity. The computed velocity of the pancake droplet is shown to be lower than the average inflow velocity, which is in agreement with experimental measurements. The numerical results show that both the strong shear induced by the lubrication film and the three-dimensional flow structure contribute to the low mobility of the droplet. In this low-migration-velocity scenario, the interfacial flow in the droplet reference frame moves toward the rear on the top and reverses direction moving to the front from the two side edges. The velocity of the pancake droplet and the thickness of the lubrication film are observed to decrease with capillary number. The droplet velocity and its dependence on capillary number cannot be captured by the classic Hele-Shaw equations, since the depth-averaged approximation neglects the effect of the lubrication film.

  6. Nonlinear longitudinal oscillations of fuel in rockets feed lines with gas-liquid damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramov, K. V.; Filipkovsky, S.; Tonkonogenko, A. M.; Klimenko, D. V.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical model of the fuel oscillations in the rockets feed lines with gas-liquid dampers is derived. The nonlinear model of the gas-liquid damper is suggested. The vibrations of fuel in the feed lines with the gas-liquid dampers are considered nonlinear. The weighted residual method is applied to obtain the finite degrees of freedom nonlinear model of the fuel oscillations. Shaw-Pierre nonlinear normal modes are applied to analyze free vibrations. The forced oscillations of the fuel at the principle resonances are analyzed. The stability of the forced oscillations is investigated. The results of the forced vibrations analysis are shown on the frequency responses.

  7. Age-related and depot-specific changes in white adipose tissue of growth hormone receptor-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Zhang, Han; Vesel, Clare B; Troike, Katie M; Gosney, Elahu S; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone receptor-null (GHR(-/-)) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long-lived in spite of increased adiposity. However, their adiposity is not uniform, with select white adipose tissue (WAT) depots enlarged. To study WAT depot-specific effects on insulin sensitivity and life span, we analyzed individual WAT depots of 12- and 24-month-old GHR(-) (/-) and wild-type (WT) mice, as well as their plasma levels of selected hormones. Adipocyte sizes and plasma insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased with age in both GHR(-) (/-) and WT mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomes of WAT depots were similar among groups, but several proteins involved in endocytosis and/or cytoskeletal organization (Ehd2, S100A10, actin), anticoagulation (S100A10, annexin A5), and age-related conditions (alpha2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A-I, transthyretin) showed significant differences between genotypes. Because Ehd2 may regulate endocytosis of Glut4, we measured Glut4 levels in the WAT depots of GHR(-) (/-) and WT mice. Inguinal WAT of 12-month-old GHR(-) (/-) mice displayed lower levels of Glut4 than WT. Overall, the protein changes detected in this study offer new insights into possible mechanisms contributing to enhanced insulin sensitivity and extended life span in GHR(-) (/-) mice. PMID:23873966

  8. Identification of Specific Cell-Surface Markers of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Wee Kiat; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chan, Kai Li; Goesantoso, Grace Gandi; Chan, Xin Hui Derryn; Chan, Edmund; Yin, Jocelyn; Yeo, Chia Rou; Khoo, Chin Meng; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Shabbir, Asim; Toh, Sue-Anne; Han, Weiping; Sugii, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) from the anatomically distinct subcutaneous and visceral depots of white adipose tissue (WAT) differ in their inherent properties. However, little is known about the molecular identity and definitive markers of ASCs from these depots. In this study, ASCs from subcutaneous fat (SC-ASCs) and visceral fat (VS-ASCs) of omental region were isolated and studied. High-content image screening of over 240 cell-surface markers identified several potential depot-specific markers of ASCs. Subsequent studies revealed consistent predominant expression of CD10 in SC-ASCs and CD200 in VS-ASCs across 12 human subjects and in mice. CD10-high-expressing cells sorted from SC-ASCs differentiated better than their CD10-low-expressing counterparts, whereas CD200-low VS-ASCs differentiated better than CD200-high VS-ASCs. The expression of CD10 and CD200 is thus depot-dependent and associates with adipogenic capacities. These markers will offer a valuable tool for tracking and screening of depot-specific stem cell populations. PMID:24527391

  9. Depot- and sex-specific effects of maternal obesity in offspring's adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lecoutre, Simon; Deracinois, Barbara; Laborie, Christine; Eberlé, Delphine; Guinez, Céline; Panchenko, Polina E; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne; Breton, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, alterations of nutrient supply in the fetus or neonate result in long-term programming of individual body weight (BW) setpoint. In particular, maternal obesity, excessive nutrition, and accelerated growth in neonates have been shown to sensitize offspring to obesity. The white adipose tissue may represent a prime target of metabolic programming induced by maternal obesity. In order to unravel the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a rat model of maternal obesity using a high-fat (HF) diet (containing 60% lipids) before and during gestation and lactation. At birth, newborns from obese dams (called HF) were normotrophs. However, HF neonates exhibited a rapid weight gain during lactation, a key period of adipose tissue development in rodents. In males, increased BW at weaning (+30%) persists until 3months of age. Nine-month-old HF male offspring was normoglycemic but showed mild glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercorticosteronemia. Despite no difference in BW and energy intake, HF adult male offspring was predisposed to fat accumulation showing increased visceral (gonadal and perirenal) depots weights and hyperleptinemia. However, only perirenal adipose tissue depot exhibited marked adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia with elevated lipogenic (i.e. sterol-regulated element binding protein 1 (Srebp1), fatty acid synthase (Fas), and leptin) and diminished adipogenic (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-Hds1)) mRNA levels. By contrast, very few metabolic variations were observed in HF female offspring. Thus, maternal obesity and accelerated growth during lactation program offspring for higher adiposity via transcriptional alterations of visceral adipose tissue in a depot- and sex-specific manner. PMID:27122310

  10. ENTRANCE TO AMMUNITION DEPOT, PLANS, ELEVATIONS, AND DETAILS. (i.e. Snetry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENTRANCE TO AMMUNITION DEPOT, PLANS, ELEVATIONS, AND DETAILS. (i.e. Snetry Posts A272 and A279, also including a plot plan). Navy Yard, Mare Island, California. Barrett & Hilp, Contractors, San Francisco, California. Y & D (Yards & Docks) drawing no. 270448, approved May 26, 1942; P.W. (Public Works) drawing no. 10485-88A; file no. A-272-1. Various scales. 46 cm x 61 cm. Photocopy. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Sentry Houses, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA