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1

Gas turbine alternative fuels combustion characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance and exhaust pollutant concentrations for specific synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Baseline comparison fuels used were gasoline and diesel fuel number two. Testing was done over a range of fuel to air mass ratios, total mass flow rates, and input combustion air temperatures in a flame-tube-type gas turbine combustor. Test results were obtained in terms of released heat and combustion gas emission values. The results were comparable to those obtained with the base fuels with variations being obtained with changing operating conditions. The release of carbon particles during the tests was minimal.

Rollbuhler, R. James

1989-02-01

2

Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used

2007-01-01

3

Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion  

SciTech Connect

In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

Ferguson, D.H.

2007-10-01

4

Fuel Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program is an analytical study correlating fuel properties and engine design and operating parameters with engine combustion performance and hot section (combustor and turbine) durability. Standard fuel specification data and fuel composition data ar...

A. H. Lefebvre

1983-01-01

5

Apparatus for the premixed gas phase combustion of liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to improvements in the art of liquid fuel combustion and, more particularly, concerns a method and apparatus for the controlled gasification of liquid fuels, the thorough premixing of the then gasified fuel with air and the subsequent gas-phase combustion of the mixture to produce a flame substantially free of soot, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and unburned fuel.

G. A. Roffe; H. A. Trucco

1981-01-01

6

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of variations in properties and characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon base fuels in gas turbine engine combustors was investigated. Baseline fuels consisted of military specification materials processed from petroleum and shale oil. Experimental fuels were comprised of liquid petroleum blends that were prepared specifically to exhibit desired physical and chemical properties. These fuels were assessed for their influence on

1984-01-01

7

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of variations in properties and characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon-base fuels in gas turbine engine combustors was investigated. Baseline fuels consisted of military-specification materials processed from petroleum and shale oil. Experimental fuels were comprised of liquid petroleum blends that were prepared specifically to exhibit desired physical and chemical properties. These fuels were assessed for their influence on ignition and

1984-01-01

8

Converting a fuel to combustible gas  

SciTech Connect

A sulfur-containing fuel is passed into a first fluidized bed containing CaSO/sub 4/ and CaO and an oxygen-transfer mediator (e.g. H/sub 2/) whereby the fuel is converted to combustible gas, some CaSO/sub 4/ being reduced to CaS and sulfur being fixed as CaS by reaction with CaO. Bed particles pass from the bottom layer of the first bed into the bottom layer of the second bed which is fluidized by air at conditions such that some, but not all of the CaS is selectively oxidized to CaSO/sub 4/ with no liberation of sulfur moieties. Bed particles pass from the bottom layer of second bed to the bottom layer of a third bed optionally after passage via a fourth bed between the second and third beds. In the third bed particles are fluidized with air to convert CaS selectively to CaSO/sub 4/ with no liberation of sulfur moiety whereby to raise the particles' temperature sufficiently above that of the first bed that particles passing from the bottom layer of the third bed into the bottom layer of the first bed provide sufficient sensible heat to maintain the fuel conversion temperature of the first bed. In the fourth bed particles are fluidized with air under such conditions that sulfur moiety is liberated, preferably at a rate which approximately equals the rate of sulfur-capture in the first bed whereby to maintain approximately a constant amount of reactive CaO in the beds for sulfur-capture in the first bed.

Moss, G.

1985-04-02

9

Pollutants from Methane Fueled Gas Turbine Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The air pollution characteristics of a model gas turbine type combustor using methane as fuel were studied in this investigation. Detailed information regarding gas compositions at various locations within the combustor and direct measurement of temperatu...

P. G. Parikh R. F. Saw A. L. London

1971-01-01

10

Apparatus for the gas phase combustion of liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arrangement to produce high efficiency gas phase combustion of liquid fuels is described. A liquid fuel, such as conventional heating oil, is pumped through a heat exchanger immersed in a liquid bath whose temperature is maintained at a level which is sufficiently high to cause the fuel to gassify but low enough to preclude undesirable chemical decomposition. The liquid

G. A. Roffe; H. A. Trucco

1977-01-01

11

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

The effects of variations in properties and characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon-base fuels in gas turbine engine combustors was investigated. Baseline fuels consisted of military-specification materials processed from petroleum and shale oil. Experimental fuels were comprised of liquid petroleum blends that were prepared specifically to exhibit desired physical and chemical properties. These fuels were assessed for their influence on ignition and performance characteristics in combustors of the F100, TF30, and J57 (TF33) engines at simulated operating conditions. In general, during relatively short duration tests, combustor ignition and performance became increasingly poorer as fuel quality deviated from specification or historical values.

Mosier, S.A.

1984-01-01

12

Current gas turbine combustion and fuels research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of current research and development work in gas turbine combustion and fuels based on publications in the open literature and papers and reports supplied to the author by various gas turbine manufacturers on their current combustor research and development programs. Both aircraft and industrial applications are considered for the two major topics that are covered

1987-01-01

13

FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES  

SciTech Connect

In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

2008-06-13

14

FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms,

Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

2008-01-01

15

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion-ignition, stability, and combustion efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study is made of the substantial body of experimental data acquired during recent Wright-Patterson Aero Propulsion Laboratory sponsored programs on the effects of fuel properties on the performance and reliability of several gas turbine combustors, including J79-17A, J79-17C (Smokeless), F101, TF41, TF39, J85, TF33, and F100. Quantitative relationships are derived between certain key aspects of combustion, notably combustion

1984-01-01

16

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion-ignition, stability, and combustion efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study is made of the substantial body of experimental data acquired during recent Wright-Patterson Aero Propulsion Laboratory sponsored programs on the effects of fuel properties on the performance and reliability of several gas turbine combustors, including J79-17A, J79-17C (Smokeless), F101, TF41, TF39, J85, TF33, and F100. Quantitative relationships are derived between certain key aspects of combustion, notably combustion

A. H. Lefebvre

1985-01-01

17

Combustion of liquid fuel in the counter-swirled jets of a gas turbine plant annular combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were carried out on an annular combustion chamber rig with a stabilizer of the type used in the GTN-25 gas turbine plant to determine the feasibility of burning a liquid fuel (diesel fuel, GOST 4749-73) in a combustion chamber of this type. Very high performance was obtained for a number of important characteristics of the microflame combustion process in

A. G. Tumanovskii; N. N. Semichastnyi; K. Iu. Sokolov

1986-01-01

18

Gas turbine combustion and fuels technology; Proceedings of the Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Ga., November 27December 2, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas turbine combustion and fuels technology are discussed with reference to three basic categories: combustion diagnostic methods, gas turbine fuel injection, and gas turbine combustion. Attention is given to laser instruments for measuring fluid properties in combustion processes, comparisons between conventional fuel injectors and prevaporizing-premixing injection systems, and fuel hydrogen content as an indicator of aircraft combustor performance.

E. K. Bastress

1977-01-01

19

Thermal explosion in a combustible gas containing fuel droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original physical model of self-ignition in a combustible gas mixture containing liquid fuel droplets is developed. The droplets are small enough for the gas-droplet mixture to be considered as a fine mist such that individual droplet burning is subsumed into a well-stirred, spatially invariant burning approximation. A classical Semenov-type analysis is used to describe the exothermic reaction, and the endothermic terms involve the use of quasi-steady mass transfer/heat balance and the Clausius-Clapeyron evaporative law. The resulting analysis predicts the ignition delay which is a function of the system parameters. Results are given for typical dynamical regimes. The case of different initial temperatures for droplets and gas is highly relevant to gas turbine lean blow-out and re-ignition.

McIntosh, A. C.; Gol'dshtein, V.; Goldfarb, I.; Zinoviev, A.

1998-06-01

20

Measurement of fuel mixing and transport processes in gas turbine combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement techniques for delineating fuel-air mixing and transport in gas turbine combustion, as well as examples of representative results, are provided in this overview. The summary is broken into applications for gaseous fuels and liquid fuels since many diagnostics which are specific to the phase of the fuel have been developed. Many possible methods for assessing the general mixing

V. G. McDonell; G. S. Samuelsen

2000-01-01

21

Internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas—hydrogen mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a survey of research papers on utilization of natural gas–hydrogen mixtures in internal combustion engines is carried out. In general, HC, CO2, and CO emissions decrease with increasing H2, but NOx emissions generally increase. If a catalytic converter is used, NOx emission values can be decreased to extremely low levels. Consequently, equivalence zero emission vehicles (EZEV) standards

S. Orhan Akansu; Zafer Dulger; Nafiz Kahraman; T. Nejat Veziro?lu

2004-01-01

22

Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How

S. R. Jr. Penfield; N. A. Moussa

1999-01-01

23

Premixed Combustion Models for Gas Turbine with Stratified Fueling Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most popular conventional combustion models are the “Eddy-Break-Up Model” by Spalding and “Eddy Dissipation Model” by Magnussen, both of which are accepted as applicable to premixed flames. However, these models have not simulated all the premixed combustion phenomena. In this paper we assess four combustion models; (1) “Eddy Dissipation Model”: “Magnussen Model” (2) premixed combustion model of the “Katsuki Model” which controls the reaction rate by the Damköhler number; (3) the “Kido Model”, which predicts turbulent burning velocity by laminar burning velocity and turbulent characteristics and (4) the “Modified Katsuki Model”, in which the fluctuations of concentrations and temperature are solved by the transport equation. In present work, the Kido model is newly presented as computational code based on the flame cell concept and the modified Katsuki model is also developed for application to multi-fuel systems. Our study showed that the “Modified Katsuki Model” could predict the premixed combustion phenomena sufficiently and could trace the changes of the frame front.

Mandai, Shigemi; Uda, Nobuki; Nishida, Hiroyuki

24

Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry;

A. Gupta; R. Natole; A. Sanyal; J. Veilleux

1998-01-01

25

A new type of coal gas fueled chemical-looping combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of coal gas fueled chemical-looping combustion is experimentally investigated by means of a fixed-bed reactor operated at elevated pressure. Chemical-looping combustion may be carried out in two successive reactions between two reactors, a reduction reactor (coal gas with metal oxides) and an oxidation reactor (reduced metal with oxygen in the air), which may lead to a breakthrough

Hongguang Jin; Masaru Ishida

2004-01-01

26

Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel

Szybist; James P

2008-01-01

27

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a

Wijmans Johannes G; Timothy C. Merkel; Richard W. Baker

2012-01-01

28

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

Not Available

1993-05-01

29

Different fuels combustion burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a burner for simultaneous combustion of liquid and solid fuels comprising: a liquid-fuel combustion nozzle having a liquid fuel injection port for injecting liquid fuel into the burner circumferentially of the liquid fuel nozzle along an arc subtending a predetermined angle; and a solid-fuel combustion nozzle having a solid fuel injection port for injecting a solid fuel

S. Miyamae; T. Abe

1987-01-01

30

Research on Combustion Processes Associated with Natural Gas Used as an Internal Combustion Engine Fuel. Final Report, May 1988-July 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the mechanisms responsible for the observed ignition, flammability, stability, and knock limits in natural gas fueled internal combustion engines, particularly in strongly turbulent flows, and to devise ways to improve natural-gas engi...

P. D. Ronney

1990-01-01

31

Mild Combustion of Methane-Derived Fuel Mixtures: Natural Gas and Biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild combustion (also called diluted or flameless combustion) is an innovative combustion process able to strongly reduce pollutant emissions with respect to traditional combustion processes; it is characterized by high preheating of the combustion air and massive recycle of burned gases. While it is well known that mild combustion leads to lowering NOx emissions when pure fuels (such as methane)

Alessandro Effuggi; Davino Gelosa; Marco Derudi; Renato Rota

2008-01-01

32

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started

LeCren

1994-01-01

33

Combustion Products of Petroleum Jet Fuel, a Fischer–Tropsch Synthetic Fuel, and a Biomass Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Fuel for a Gas Turbine Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report combustion emissions data for several alternatives to petroleum based Jet A jet fuel, including a natural gas–derived Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthetic fuel; a 50\\/50 blend of the FT synthetic fuel with Jet A-1; a 20\\/80 blend of a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with jet fuel; and a 40\\/60 blend of FAME with jet fuel. The chief distinguishing features

Michael T. Timko; Scott C. Herndon; Elena de la Rosa Blanco; Ezra C. Wood; Zhenhong Yu; Richard C. Miake-Lye; W. Berk Knighton; Linda Shafer; Matthew J. DeWitt; Edwin Corporan

2011-01-01

34

Graphite fuels combustion off-gas treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios for burning bulk graphite and for burning crushed fuel particles from graphite spent nuclear fuels have been considered. Particulates can be removed with sintered metal filters. Subsequent cooling would then condense semi-volatile fission products into or onto a particulate. These particulates would be trapped by a second sintered metal filter or downstream packed bed. A packed bed scrub column

R. J. Kirkham; R. E. Lords

1993-01-01

35

Burn-out calculations for atomized hydrocarbon fuel in gas turbine combustion chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A method is proposed for calculating the burn-out of atomized hydrocarbon fuel in gas turbine combustion chambers, in which an evaporation mechanism is realized. (The corresponding value of the Spalding criterion Sl?Lx==f(te\\/tc.t).3.Comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical curve, based on the proposed method of calculation, has shown that the total burn-out times are the same with an accuracy

R. S. Tyul'panov

1966-01-01

36

Liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid fuel combustion apparatus is described comprising: wall means defining a cylindrical combustion chamber; a cylindrical portion of the wall means having a first port therein for receiving an ignition device and a first nipple integral with the wall means and surrounding the first port; means for introducing fuel and combustion air into the combustion chamber and for removing

K. Sawada; K. Kikuchi

1987-01-01

37

Liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus of the type including: a cylinder defining a combustion chamber, the cylinder having an inlet end for receipt of combustion air and an outlet end for exhausting gaseous combustion products; an end plate covering the inlet end of the cylinder; a blower, including a rotor and a casing, for supplying combustion

K. Sawada; Y. Kimijima; H. Umehara

1986-01-01

38

Integrated process for converting sulfur-containing fuels to low sulfur combustible gas  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur-containing fuels are converted to substantially sulfurfree combustible gas in an integrated process involving part combustion in a dense phase fluidized conversion bed of particles comprising alkaline earth metal oxides. An oxygen-containing gas is passed into the base of the bed to maintain a relatively high fuel/air ratio. Sulfur is chemically fixed in the particles by reaction to form alkaline earth metal sulfide. Particles containing alkaline earth metal sulfide are circulated from one region of the conversion bed to one region of a dense phase fluidized regeneration bed operated at a higher temperature and fluidized by passing into the base thereof an oxygen-containing gas which exothermically regenerates chemically active alkaline earth metal oxide from the sulfide liberating gases which have a low oxygen content and a relatively high content of sulfur moieties (e.g. SO2). Hot particles are circulated from a second region of the regeneration bed to a second region of the conversion bed for use in fixing further quantities of sulfur from sulfur-containing fuel. Both beds contain a high molar proportion of unreacted alkaline earth metal oxide thereby imparting high sulfur-retaining capability to the conversion bed, and the beds interact cooperatively with each other at least in that particles entering the regeneration bed moderate temperatures therein and particles entering the conversion bed add heat thereto thereby reducing the fuel requirement for maintaining the conversion bed temperature.

Moss, G.

1981-03-10

39

Inspection manual for the enforcement of new source performance standards: fuel gas fired combustion units. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document outlines the air pollution requirements of Federal New Source Performance Standards for petroleum refinery combustion units which are fired on fuel gas. It is designed to be utilized by agency personnel who are responsible for the enforcement of these regulations. Briefly, the rules are applicable to all combustion units on which construction or modification was commenced after June

G. E. Umlauf; B. Parehk

1976-01-01

40

and Uncertainty in Stationary Natural Gas-fueled Internal Combustion Engine NOx and Total Organic Compounds Emission Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative methods for characterizing both variability and uncertainty are applied to case studies of emission factors for stationary natural gas-fueled internal combustion engines. NOx and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) emission data sets for lean burn engines were analyzed. Data were available for uncontrolled engines and for engines with pre-combustion chamber (PCC) and \\

H. Christopher Frey

41

Use of catalytic reforming to aid natural gas HCCI combustion in engines: experimental and modelling results of open-loop fuel reforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process to deliver drastically reduced emissions of NOx and improved fuel economy from internal combustion engines is well known. The process is, however, difficult to initiate and control, especially when methane or natural gas are used as fuel. To aid the HCCI combustion of natural gas, hydrogen addition has been

S. Peucheret; M. L. Wyszy?ski; R. S. Lehrle; S. Golunski; H. Xu

2005-01-01

42

Gas turbine combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text focuses on the fundamentals of gas turbine combustion, emphasizing combustor design and performance. The material presented is based on the latest research results. Aerodynamic and heat transfer processes in gas turbine combustors as well as the combustion performance parameters of ignition, combustion efficiency, and stability are described. Some of the topics covered are combustion fundamentals; diffusers; aerodynamics; combustion

1983-01-01

43

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOEpatents

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01

44

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOEpatents

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

1997-08-05

45

Combustion performance of contaminated marine diesel fuels in a T63 gas-turbine combustor. Interim report, November 1983September 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion performance of 26 fuel blends of Navy distillate fuel (NDF), heavy marine gas oil (HMGO), and a Jet A reference fuel contaminated with residuals containing various concentrations of asphaltenes, resins, and ash was measured in a T63 gas turbine combustor rig. Combustion-performance measurements included cold-start ignition, combustion efficiency, gaseous exhaust emissions, flame radiation, exhaust smoke, liner temperature, and

D. W. Naegeli; L. G. Dodge

1985-01-01

46

Modeling of combustion instabilities and their active control in a gas fueled combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the development of simplified models for simulation of combustion instabilities and their active control. Modulation of a part of the fuel supply is used to damp instabilities by generating heat release oscillations that are out of phase with the existing pressure oscillations. A model that accounts for mixing using a heuristic source term has been developed, and used for simulation of combustion instabilities and their control in a premixed gaseous rocket motor. For validation with experimental data, the model is used to investigate the combustor's response to open loop excitation by pulsation of the secondary fuel injection rate. The numerical model's prediction that (a) the pressure oscillation amplitude decreases, and (b) the phase shift between the fuel injection rate and heat-release oscillations increases linearly, as the frequency of fuel injection rate increases, are in good agreement with experimental data from a gas rocket. Subsequently, the heuristic model is used to study the performances of an observer based control system and an adaptive control system. A modular model that is oriented towards application in a lean premixed gas turbine combustor has been developed. A dump combustor geometry has been used to demonstrate cases of stable and unstable combustion. The two modules of the model are the recirculation zone, which is modeled as either a quasi steady or unsteady well stirred reactor, and the separation-free core flow region which is modeled as a quasi one dimensional flow with source terms. The observed cases of unstable combustion involve fluctuations in local equivalence ratio, and in the mass and energy exchange between the recirculation zone and the core flow. Roe scheme, the numerical scheme used for the solution of the heuristic and the modular models, has been extended to appropriately account for various source terms that occur in a generalized quasi one dimensional flow. The effect of the source terms is accounted by the use of relevant compatibility relations from the theory of characteristics. This approach is demonstrated with examples for not only Roe scheme but also for characteristics-based boundary conditions.

Mohanraj, Rajendran

47

Gas turbine combustion chamber arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas turbine has a combustion chamber of toroidal configuration that includes separation structure dividing the combustion chamber into an annular primary zone and an annular dilution zone. Injection of compressor discharge air into the primary zone sets up a toroidal recirculation pattern of generally circular cross-sectional configuration. Fuel slinger structure at the inner periphery of the primary zone has

A. M. Heitmann; W. L. Brassert; D. N. Chouinard

1977-01-01

48

Sensitivity of natural gas HCCI combustion to fuel and operating parameters using detailed kinetic modeling  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to analyze natural gas HCCI combustion in an engine. The HCT code has been modified to better represent the conditions existing inside an engine, including a wall heat transfer correlation. Combustion control and low power output per displacement remain as two of the biggest challenges to obtaining satisfactory performance out of an HCCI engine, and these are addressed in this paper. The paper considers the effect of natural gas composition on HCCI combustion, and then explores three control strategies for HCCI engines: DME (dimethyl ether) addition, intake heating and hot EGR addition. The results show that HCCI combustion is sensitive to natural gas composition, and an active control may be required to compensate for possible changes in composition. The three control strategies being considered have a significant effect in changing the combustion parameters for the engine, and should be able to control HCCI combustion.

Aceves, S; Dibble, R; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Westbrook, C K

1999-07-19

49

Control of unstable combustion oscillations in liquid-fueled gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-loop controller to suppress thermoacoustic combustion instabilities in liquid-fueled systems is described. The controller supplies unsteady heat release pulses which are out-of-phase with those associated with combustion instability to damp unstable oscillations. Pulse-width modulation is used to control the heat pulse amplitude and phase. The controller was tested both in a numerical simulation of dynamic combustion instability using a

Keith R. McManus; John C. Magill; Michael F. Miller

1998-01-01

50

Design and development test of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine combustion system for low-Btu coal gas fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heavy-duty industrial gas turbine combustion system has been designed and developed for low-Btu coal gas fuel with heating value in the 100 to 150 Btu\\/scf range (4.22 to 6.33 MJ\\/ncm). The new design uses a unique high-swirl fuel injector to provide rapid fuel\\/air mixing and a stable flame front. A full-scale, full-pressure laboratory development test program has been conducted

K. W. Beebe; J. C. Blanton

1985-01-01

51

Temporal soot evolution and diesel engine combustion: Influence of fuel composition, injection parameters, and exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the investigation of the influence of fuel composition, injection parameters, and exhaust gas recirculation on not only engine-out, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions but also on the temporal behaviour of soot formation and oxidation during combustion. Based on accurate measurements of exhaust emissions (gaseous components, particle number, and size distributions), in-cylinder temporal evolution of soot

S Kunte; A Bertola; P Obrecht; K Boulouchos

2006-01-01

52

Vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus comprising: a cylinder defining a combustion chamber, the cylinder having an inlet end for receipt of combustion air, a first flange surrounding the inlet end and an outlet end for exhausting gaseous combustion products; means for introducing the fuel into the combustion chamber and ignition means exposed to the combustion chamber

Y. Kimijima; K. Kikuchi

1986-01-01

53

Direct coal combustion in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the beneficiation, cleaning, fine grinding, and slurry preparation for coal water mixture fuels have prompted renewed interest in the direct combustion of coal in gas turbines. Advances in gas turbine technology have been identified which will improve the opportunities for success with coal fuels. The next step in the march toward direct coal combustion in gas turbines

1984-01-01

54

Visualization of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) Fuel Liquid Length and Soot Formation in the Constant Volume Combustion Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, GTL spray combustion was visualized in an optically accessible quiescent constant-volume combustion chamber. The results were compared with the spray combustion of diesel fuel. Fast-speed photography with direct laser sheet illumination was used to determine the fuel liquid-phase length, and shadowgraph photography was used to determine the distribution of the sooting area in the fuel jet. The results showed that the fuel liquid-phase length of GTL fuel jets stabilized at about 20-22mm from the injector orifice and mainly depended on the ambient gas temperature and fuel volatility. GTL had a slightly shorter liquid length than that of the diesel fuel. This tendency was also maintained when multiple injection strategy was applied. The penetration of the tip of the liquid-phase fuel during pilot injection was a little shorter than the penetration during main injection. The liquid lengths during single and main injections were identical. In the case of soot formation, the results showed that soot formation was mainly affected by air-fuel mixing, and had very weak dependence on fuel volatility.

Azimov, Ulugbek; Kim, Ki-Seong

55

Modeling the effects of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate shape on diesel engine combustion and emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate-shaping on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied using KIVA a multidimensional computational fluid dynamics code. Auxiliary gas injection (AGI) is the injection of a gas, in addition to the fuel injection, directly into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The objective of AGI is to influence the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce emissions of pollutants (soot and NO x). In this study, the accuracy of modeling high speed gas jets on very coarse computational grids was addressed. KIVA was found to inaccurately resolve the jet flows near walls. The cause of this inaccuracy was traced to the RNG k - ? turbulence model with the law-of-the-wall boundary condition used by KIVA. By prescribing the lengthscale near the nozzle exit, excellent agreement between computed and theoretical jet penetration was attained for a transient gas jet into a quiescent chamber at various operating conditions. The effect of AGI on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied by incorporating the coarse grid gas jet model into a detailed multidimensional simulation of a Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of AGI timing, composition, amount, orientation, and location were investigated. The effects of AGI and split fuel injection were also investigated. AGI was found to be effective at reducing soot emissions by increasing mixing within the combustion chamber. AGI of inert gas was found to be effective at reducing emissions of NOx by depressing the peak combustion temperatures. Finally, comparison of AGI simulations with experiments were conducted for a TACOM-LABECO engine. The results showed that AGI improved soot oxidation throughout the engine cycle. Simulation of fuel injection rate-shaping investigated the effects of three injection velocity profiles typical of unit-injector type, high-pressure common-rail type, and accumulator-type fuel injectors in the Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine. Pollutant emissions for the engine operating with different injection velocity profiles reflected the sensitivity of diesel engines to the location of pollutants within the combustion chamber, as influenced by the fuel injection.

Mather, Daniel Kelly

1998-11-01

56

Combined gas-steam turbine cycle using coal derived liquid fuel - A viable alternative to direct combustion of coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative to direct coal-combustion for electric power generation is liquefaction of coal prior to combustion in a combined gas-steam turbine plant. For optimization of the overall efficiency of the power plant, individual subsystem efficiencies must be analyzed, but the prevailing energy analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics is insufficient for this purpose and can be misleading. The paper presents a complete thermodynamic analysis of an 873 MWe combined gas-steam turbine cycle, which utilizes semiclean fuel from the H-Coal process.

Tabi, R.; Mesko, J. E.

57

Combustion of fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the combustion of various kerosene-diesel and alcohol-diesel fuel blends is presented. Tests are conducted in a continuous flow combustor to study the effect of fuel blends on the combustion process and pollutants in the exhaust gases. Exhaust analyses of CO, CO2, O2, NOx, HC and soot mass concentration are presented. For the ethanol alcohol-diesel blends, a

K. R. Asfar; H. Hamed

1998-01-01

58

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOEpatents

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01

59

Liquid metal fuel combustion mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of the droplet formation at the gas\\/liquid boundary interface of a gaseous jet injected into a liquid metal bath and the turbulent mixing of the resultant two-phase (gas\\/liquid) mixture is presented as a preliminary to the analysis of the liquid metal fuel combustion problem. The model is used to predict velocity and liquid droplet fraction distributions across the

Tirumalesa Duvvuri

1990-01-01

60

Development of a gas turbine combustion system for medium-Btu fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cool Water Coal Gasification Project requires a gas turbine combustion system to burn a high hydrogen medium-Btu coal gas produced in an oxygen-blown gasifier. The gas turbine selected for this demonstration plant is a General Electric Company MS7001E unit. The plant is located in Daggett, California, a location requiring compliance with stringent environmental regulations; that is, oxides of nitrogen

J. F. Savelli; G. L. Touchton

1985-01-01

61

Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors  

SciTech Connect

Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

Ahsan Choudhuri

2011-03-31

62

Gas turbine combustion chamber with air scoops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gas turbine combustion chamber. It comprises: means for admission of fuel to the upstream end thereof and discharge of hot gases from the downstream end thereof, and a combustion chamber wall, having an outer surface, with apertures therethrough, and air scoops provided through the apertures to direct air into the combustion chamber.

S. E. Mumford; J. P. Smed

1989-01-01

63

Simplified kinetic schemes for oxy-fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents simplified kinetic schemes to be adopted in the CFD modeling of oxy-fuel combustion. Oxy-fuel combustion is an important technology to control CO 2 emissions. The reduction of nitrogen content during combustion makes easier the CO 2 capture for its successive storage. Flue gas recirculation can be adopted for the eventual temperature control. Moreover, oxygen rich combustion finds

A. Frassoldati; A. Cuoci; T. Faravelli; E. Ranzi; C. Candusso; D. Tolazzi

64

Combustion device for combustion of a gaseous fuel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustion device for a hot gas engine having tubes containing working gas. The combustion device has a gaseous fuel with air supplied at a pressure slightly above atmospheric. The device comprises a combustion chamber, a preheater for heating the combustion air by exhaust gases leaving the combustion chamber, a blower for supplying air to the preheater, means for governing the mass flow of air supplied from the blower, a plenum chamber receiving preheated air from the preheater and delivering the preheated air to the combustion chamber. The plenum chamber includes first and second swirl devices for guiding the preheated air as primary and secondary air respectively for combustion, means for delivering a mass flow of gaseous fuel to the combustion chamber as a function of the mass flow of preheated air is supplied. The fuel delivery means includes an ejector having a flow restriction and a tube supplying the gaseous fuel at a pressure slightly above atmospheric to the flow restriction. The tube has an open terminal end protruding into and terminating within the ejector at a most restricted flow area in the restriction. The swirl device is located upstream of the ejector.

Alpqvist, J.A.

1987-06-30

65

Toward the Impact of Fuel Evaporation-Combustion Interaction on Spray Combustion in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers. Part II: Influence of High Combustion Temperature on Spray Droplet Evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While the first part of this work dealt with the question related to the impact of partial vaporization on spray flame properties,\\u000a the second part attempts to answer the question how the evaporation process behaves under turbulent premixed combustion conditions.\\u000a According to the Eulerian-Lagrangian RANS-based spray module designed in Part I the non-equilibrium evaporation model, that\\u000a was proven to capture accurately

Amsini Sadiki; W. Ahmadi; Mouldi Chrigui

66

A parametric study on natural gas fueled HCCI combustion engine using a multi-zone combustion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogenous Charge Combustion Ignition (HCCI) is a good method for higher efficiency and to reduce NOx and particulate matter simultaneously in comparison to conventional internal combustion engines. In HCCI engines, there is no direct control method for auto ignition time. A common way to indirectly control the ignition timing in HCCI combustion engines is varying engine’s parameters which can affect

Ali Yousefzadi Nobakht; R. Khoshbakhi Saray; Arash Rahimi

2011-01-01

67

Ignition Delay and Combustion Duration with Natural Gas Fueling ofDiesel Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ignition and combustion of natural gas directly injected into\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009a multi-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine and ignited by a pilot\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009liquid diesel injection has been investigated experimentally and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009with the aid of numerical simulation. Measurements of cylinder pressure\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009and thermal efficiency were supplemented by endoscopic observation\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009of flame development and three-dimensional numerical simulation of\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009the ignition and combustion process.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009With

Peter L. Mtui; Philip G. Hill

1996-01-01

68

Gas turbine combustion and emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals of combustion are discussed in the context of gaseous and liquid fuels and gas turbine fuels. Methods for reducing the emission of pollutants in gas turbines are considered. These emissions are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, smoke\\/soot, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon dioxide. The focus is on nitrogen oxides. The general principles of combustor and burner design are

B. Schetter

1993-01-01

69

Fuel supply apparatus for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A fuel supply apparatus for internal combustion engines is proposed, which has a fuel injection pump for supplying a regulatable fuel injection quantity, a ventilation apparatus for the fuel injection pump, a fuel quantity meter and a means of exhaust gas recirculation controlled by fuel quantity. A ventilation valve responding to a predetermined pump interior pressure is included in an overflow line in order to cool the fuel injection pump by connection with the fuel supply container. The fuel quantity meter is embodied as a spring-loaded piston-type fuel quantity meter and has a travel receptor which generates an electrical output signal and delivers it to a control member of the exhaust gas recirculation system for varying the recirculated exhaust gas quantity accordingly.

Straubel, M.

1984-03-06

70

Contribution of solid fuel, gas combustion or tobacco smoke to indoor air pollutant concentrations in Irish and Scottish homes  

PubMed Central

There are limited data describing pollutant levels inside homes that burn solid fuel within developed country settings with most studies describing test conditions or the effect of interventions. This study recruited homes in Ireland and Scotland where open combustion processes take place. Open combustion was classified as coal, peat or wood fuel burning, use of a gas cooker or stove, or where there is at least one resident smoker. 24-hour data on airborne concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in size (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), endotoxin in inhalable dust and carbon dioxide (CO2), together with 2–3 week averaged concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were collected in 100 houses during the winter and spring of 2009–2010. The geometric mean of the 24-hour time-weighted-average (TWA) PM2.5 concentration was highest in homes with resident smokers (99?g/m3 – much higher than the WHO 24-hour guidance value of 25 ?g/m3. Lower geometric mean 24-hour TWA levels were found in homes that burned coal (7 ?g/m3) or wood (6 ?g/m3) and in homes with gas cookers (7 ?g/m3). In peat-burning homes the average 24-hourPM2.5 level recorded was 11 ?g/m3. Airborne endotoxin, CO, CO2 and NO2 concentrations were generally within indoor air quality guidance levels.

Semple, S; Garden, C; Coggins, M; Galea, KS; Whelan, P; Cowie, H; Sanchez-Jimenez, A; Thorne, PS; Hurley, JF; Ayres, JG

2012-01-01

71

Evaluation of synthetic-fuel-character effects on rich-lean stationary-gas-turbine combustion systems. Volume 1. Subscale test program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes work on the Evaluation of Synthetic Fuel Character Effects on Rich-Lean Stationary Gas Turbine Combustion Systems. Five fuels, including No. 2 petroleum distillate fuel, SRC II, H-coal, and EDS middle distillates and hydrotreated Paraho shale oil residual were tested in a subscale 5-inch diameter rich-burn\\/quick-quench staged rich-lean combustor at conditions representative of peak, baseload, part power and

Rosfjord

1983-01-01

72

Determination of liquid-fuel prevaporization and premixing in gas-turbine combustion chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiempirical mathematical model of the evaporation and distribution of liquid fuel in the prevaporization-premixing zone of a stationary gas turbine is developed, and the predictions obtained are compared with published experimental data and with the results of photographic, suction-probe, two-focus-laser-velocimeter, and light-scattering measurements on water sprays from 65-deg hollow-cone nozzles in a wind tunnel operating at 64 m\\/s. Good

J. Mrugalla

1983-01-01

73

Combustion of Heavy Liquid Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book is intended for the engineers working in the field of liquid-fuel combustion control and also for advance students in related courses of study. The fundamental laws governing liquid-fuel atomization and combustion are discussed and optimal combus...

L. V. Kulagin S. S. Okhotnikov

1970-01-01

74

Fuel Flexibility in Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This poster presents research findings from cofiring studies of various biomass feedstocks such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-treated wood, lumber mill and furniture waste sawdusts, pallets, feedlot biomass (cattle manure), hybrid willow, and switchgrass with several bituminous and subbituminous coals. This research includes evaluation of advanced instrumentation and the study of interrelated combustion/emissions issues, such as char burnout, impacts on SO2, NOx, fine particulate (PM2.5), mercury (Hg) and other trace emissions, as well as issues impacting heat transfer, such as ash deposition slagging/fouling behavior. Biomass cofiring in large industrial and utility coal-fired boilers is a practical approach for increasing renewable energy given the wide availability, capital investment, and established performance of coal-fired boilers for providing efficient, low cost power. Although some utility biomass cofiring is successfully practiced in the U.S. and abroad, establishing long-term reliability and improving economics are still significant needs, along with research to support advanced combustion in future Vision 21 systems. Biomass cofiring in Vision 21 systems may reduce fossil CO2 emissions per MWe at capital and operations/maintenance cost savings relative to other technology options. Because an increasing number (currently 14) states have recently passed legislation establishing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), goals, or set-asides that will impact new power generation by 2009 and beyond, cofiring may broaden the appeal of Vision 21 systems to solve other environmental issues, including reducing landfill requirements. Legislation has been proposed to establish a federal RPS as well as extend IRS Section 29/45 tax credits (e.g., $0.005-0.010/kW-hr) for cofiring residues to supplement existing incentives, such as a $0.015/kW-hr tax credit for closed loop biomass (e.g., energy crops, such as switchgrass, hybrid willow) gasification. In addition, the coproduction/cogeneration concepts embodied in Vision 21 may also lend itself well to the type of utility/industry partnering involved in cofiring approaches. In light of the cost limitations in shipping distance (e.g., 50-100 miles or less) from collection to end-use based on the low energy density of biomass, resource availability is a site-specific consideration. Biomass fuels also exhibit significant differences in fuel characteristics, including volatility and ash chemistry that can also influence cofiring performance. Pilot-scale biomass cofiring tests have been conducted in the 150 kWt Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF). A key aspect of the present work is to examine biomass char conversion for a range of initial particle sizes at various residence times for combustion relative to fuel processing/handling issues. In addition, a number of biomass cofiring R&D as well as full-scale utility demonstrations are providing technical insights to assist in cofiring technology commercialization. The paper will also discuss research plans, including lignin cofiring for ethanol/power co-production, novel concepts involving animal waste utilization, advanced combustion studies, and tri-firing concepts with other fuels.

Freeman, M.C.; O'Dowd, W.J.; Mathur, M.P. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Walbert, G.F. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology, Inc.)

2001-11-06

75

Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

2007-06-30

76

Construction of a simplified wood gas generator for fueling internal combustion engines in a petroleum emergency  

SciTech Connect

This report is one in a series of emergency technology assessments sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The purpose of this report is to develop detailed, illustrated instructions for the fabrication, installation, and operation of a biomass gasifier unit (i.e., a ''producer gas'' generator, also called a ''wood gas'' generator) that is capable of providing emergency fuel for vehicles, such as tractors and trucks, in the event that normal petroleum sources were severely disrupted for an extended period of time. These instructions have been prepared as a manual for use by any mechanic who is reasonably proficient in metal fabrication or engine repair. This report attempts to preserve the knowledge about wood gasification that was put into practical use during World War II. Detailed, step-by-step fabrication procedures are presented for a simplified version of the World War II, Imbert wood gas generator. This simple, stratified, downdraft gasifier unit can be constructed from materials that would be widely available in the United States in a prolonged petroleum crisis. For example, the body of the unit consists of a galvanized metal garbage can atop a small metal drum; common plumbing fittings throughout; and a large, stainless steel mixing bowl for the grate. The entire compact unit was mounted onto the front of a farm tractor and successfully field tested, using wood chips as the only fuel. Photographic documentation of the actual assembly of the unit as well as its operation is included. 19 refs., 39 figs., 6 tabs.

LaFontaine, H.; Zimmerman, G.P.

1989-03-01

77

Combustion engine with multi-fuel capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combustion engine. It has a combustion chamber, a fuel tank, a fuel delivery line from the fuel tank to the engine, air\\/fuel delivery means for pumping a mixture of one or more liquid fuels in an unknown combination from the fuel tank through the fuel delivery line to the combustion chamber in combination with air in

Gonze

1990-01-01

78

High Temperature Corrosion During Combustion of Gas, Coal and Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanism of high temperature corrosion caused by combustion of gas, coal and oil is surveyed by literature. Fuels are subdivided into three groups according to their combustion products, namely, those free from sulfur and ashes, those containing sulfur b...

A. Rahmel

1976-01-01

79

Industrial Medium-Btu Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Technical Support Report: Combustion System Data (Deliverable No. 46). Part 1. Comubstion Trials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion data for the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) boiler spud burner were obtained as a part of the program to supply to potential users of Industrial Fuel Gas (IFG) the information necessary to make decisions regarding the suitability of their burners...

1979-01-01

80

Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel and Coal in a Cyclone Furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C.P. Crane Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a p...

1982-01-01

81

A Study of Pollutant Formation from the Lean Premixed Combustion of Gaseous Fuel Alternatives to Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research is to identify how nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions and flame stability (blowout) are impacted by the use of fuels that are alternatives to typical pipeline natural gas. The research focuses on lean, premixed combustors that are typically used in state-of-the-art natural gas fueled systems. An idealized laboratory lean premixed combustor, specifically the jet-stirred reactor, is used for experimental data. A series of models, including those featuring detailed fluid dynamics and those focusing on detailed chemistry, are used to interpret the data and understand the underlying chemical kinetic reasons for differences in emissions between the various fuel blends. An ultimate goal is to use these data and interpretive tools to develop a way to predict the emission and stability impacts of changing fuels within practical combustors. All experimental results are obtained from a high intensity, single-jet stirred reactor (JSR). Five fuel categories are studied: (1) pure H 2, (2) process and refinery gas, including combinations of H2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8, (3) oxygen blown gasified coal/petcoke composed of H2, CO, and CO2, (4) landfill and digester gas composed of CH4, CO2, and N2, and (5) liquified natural gas (LNG)/shale/associated gases composed of CH4, C2H6, and C3 H8. NOx measurements are taken at a nominal combustion temperature of 1800 K, atmospheric pressure, and a reactor residence time of 3 ms. This is done to focus the results on differences caused by fuel chemistry by comparing all fuels at a common temperature, pressure, and residence time. This is one of the few studies in the literature that attempts to remove these effects when studying fuels varying in composition. Additionally, the effects of changing temperature and residence time are investigated for selected fuels. At the nominal temperature and residence time, the experimental and modeling results show the following trends for NOx emissions as a function of fuel type: 1.) NOx emissions decrease with increasing H2 fuel fraction for combustion of CH4/H2 blends. This appears to be caused by a reduction in the amount of NO made by the prompt pathway involving the reaction of N2 with hydrocarbon radicals as the CH4 is replaced by H2. 2.) For category 2 (the process and refinery blend) and category 5 (the LNG, shale, and associated gases), NOx emissions increase with the addition of C2 and C3 hydrocarbons. This could be due to an increased production of free radicals resulting from increasing CO production when higher molecular weight hydrocarbons are broken down. 3.) For category 3 (the O2 blown gasified coal/petcoke), NOx emissions increase with increasing CO fuel fraction. The reason for this is attributed to CO producing more radicals per unit heat release than H2. When CO replaces H2, an increase in NOx emissions is seen due to an increase in the productivity of the N2O, NNH, and Zeldovich pathways. 4.) For category 4 (the landfill gas) the addition of diluents such as CO2 and N2 at constant air flow produces more NOx per kg of CH4 consumed, and N2 is more effective than CO 2 in increasing the NOx emission index. The increase in emission index appears to be due to an enhancement of the prompt NOx pathway as the diluents are added and the mixture moves towards stoichiometric. In addition, the presence of CO2 as a diluent catalyzes the loss of flame radicals, leading to less NOx formation than when an equivalent amount of N2 is used as a diluent. For a selected set of fuels, detailed spacial reactor probing is carried out. At the nominal temperature and residence time, the experimental results show the following trends for flame structure as a function of fuel type: 1.) Pure H2 is far more reactive in comparison to CH4 and all other pure alkane fuels. This results in relatively flat NO x and temperature profiles; whereas, the alkane fuels drop in both temperature and NOx production in the jet, where more fresh reactor feed gases are present. 2.) For category 2 (the Process and Refinery blends), H 2 addition increases reactivity in the

Fackler, Keith Boyd, Jr.

82

Combustion Tests with Pulverized Fuels in a Cyclone Combustion Chamber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective with this project has been to establish combustion conditions and characterize material handling, milling and parameters as combustibility, ashmelting, combustion efficiency and emission index, for refined and pulverized fuels from wood, pea...

L. Eriksson

1983-01-01

83

Presentation and Briefing Materials on Advanced Combustion Technology Including Principle Alternate Fuels, Intermittent Combustion Engines and Residue and Waste Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

US Department of Energy research programs aimed at conserving petroleum, natural gas and coal through the development of more efficient combustion technologies, the substitution of synthetic and refuse-derived fuels for fossil fuels, and the improvement o...

1978-01-01

84

Prediction of temperature front in a gas turbine combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical computation has been applied to investigate the temperature field in a gas turbine combustion chamber. The simulation assumed that pressure imbalance conditions of air flow between primary and secondary inlets occur. The combustion chamber under study is part of a 70MW gas turbine from an operating combined cycle power plant. The combustion was simulated with normal fuel–air flow rate

F. Z. Sierra; J. Kubiak; G. González; G. Urquiza

2005-01-01

85

Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.  

PubMed

Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

86

Combustion of lean prevaporized fuel–air mixtures mixed with hot burned gas for low-NO x emissions over an extended range of fuel–air ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction of lean to ultra-lean mixtures supported by high-temperature burned gas can resolve the dilemma between complete combustion versus ultra-low NOx emissions in lean premixed gas turbine combustors. The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions in “lean–lean” two-stage combustion were investigated for premixed–prevaporized kerosene–air mixtures using a co-axial flow configuration. Secondary prevaporized kerosene–air mixtures of lean to ultra-lean compositions were injected

Naoki Aida; Tomoki Nishijima; Shigeru Hayashi; Hideshi Yamada; Tadashige Kawakami

2005-01-01

87

Combustion-Generated NO x and Coke in Heavy Residual Fuel Oil Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the numerical modelling of heavy residual fuel oil combustion. Some results of combustion-generated nitric oxide and coke are presented. The emissions of both species are greatly affected by a gas temperature and thus the modelling of soot concentration, which affects radiation heat transfer is of vital importance. The calculated results of three combustion cases, the thermal

A. OKSANEN; R. KARVINEN

1995-01-01

88

BURNER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL FROM LOW-BTU GAS COMBUSTION: VOLUME II. ELEVATED FUEL TEMPERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to provide quantitative data on combustion emissions from high-temperature low-Btu gas. It complements a recently completed EPA project that evaluated emissions resulting from the burning of ambient-temperature low-Btu gas. The experimental r...

89

Multistage process for combusting fuel mixtures using oxide catalysts in the hot stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for partially combusting combustible mixtures comprising the steps of: (a) mixing an oxygen-containing gas with a fuel to form a combustible mixture, (b) contacting the combustible mixture in a first zone with a first zone combustion catalyst comprising palladium completely covering a catalyst support at reaction conditions sufficient to combust at least a portion but not

R. A. Dalla Betta; Kazunori Tsurumi; Nobuyasu. Ezawa

1993-01-01

90

Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

1995-12-31

91

EVALUATION OF THE ACCEPTABILITY OF NATURAL GAS AS A MITIGATING FUEL FOR UTILITY COMBUSTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives preliminary findings of a joint EPA/Gas Research Institute study of methane (CH4) loss from the U.S. natural gas industry. he study, not scheduled for completion until 1992, is part of an effort to resolve the issue of CN4 emissions from natural gas production and...

92

Low NOx Combustion of DME by Means of Flue Gas Recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the fundamental characteristics of DME (Dimethyl Ether) combustion aiming at development of low-NOx combustion technology with flue gas recirculation, FGR. The flue gas is recirculated into the combustion chamber to reduce the oxygen concentration and to suppress the combustion gas temperature, so that NOx emission is significantly reduced. The fuel gas recirculation at high mixing ratio,

Ryosuke Matsumoto; Mamoru Ozawa; Shinya Terada; Takenori Iio

2008-01-01

93

Stirling engine natural gas combustion demonstration program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric

W. Ernst; J. Moryl; G. Riecke

1991-01-01

94

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 à 10⁶Btu\\/hr) and commercial-scale (25 à 10⁶ to 50 à 10⁶Btu\\/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel

O. K. Chow; G. W. Gralton; Y. V. Lachowicz; R. C. Laflesh; A. A. Levasseur; G. N. Liljedahl

1989-01-01

95

Direct coal-fueled combustion turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology requirements for direct coal-fueled turbine systems are discussed. Combustion, emissions, and turbine life considerations are emphasized. Compact, short residence time combustors must provide acceptable combustion efficiencies and emissions using the coal fuels. The turbine flow path exposed to the products of combustion (POC) from those combustors must achieve acceptable deposition, erosion, and corrosion (DEC) lifetimes. Initial combustion and POC

Wenglarz

1987-01-01

96

Availability analysis of hydrogen\\/natural gas blends combustion in internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibly one of the most significant advantages that hydrogen may have as a fuel is its potential for increased second-law efficiency, due to fundamental differences in the mechanism of entropy generation during combustion with respect to the usual hydrocarbon-based fuels. A computational investigation of this effect is pursued for the case of mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas combusting in

C. D. Rakopoulos; M. A. Scott; D. C. Kyritsis; E. G. Giakoumis

2008-01-01

97

Construction of a Simplified Wood Gas Generator for Fueling Internal Combustion Engines in a Petroleum Emergency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one in a series of emergency technology assessments sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The purpose of this report is to develop detailed, illustrated instructions for the fabrication, and operation of a biomass gas...

H. LaFontaine G. P. Zimmerman

1989-01-01

98

40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) product specification...complete vaporization of the LPG and sulfur containing-compounds...streams produced in the hydrogen plant, catalytic reforming...Standard 2377-86, Test for Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide in...

2010-07-01

99

40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) product specification...complete vaporization of the LPG and sulfur containing-compounds...streams produced in the hydrogen plant, catalytic...Standard 2377-86, Test for Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide...

2009-07-01

100

Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: A comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management

Ola Eriksson; Göran Finnveden; Tomas Ekvall; Anna Björklund

2007-01-01

101

Carbon Nanotubes, Nanocrystal Forms, and Complex Nanoparticle Aggregates in common fuel-gas combustion sources and the ambient air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregated multiwall carbon nanotubes (with diameters ranging from ?3 to 30nm) and related carbon nanocrystal forms ranging in size from 0.4 to 2 ?m (average diameter) have been collected in the combustion streams for methane\\/air, natural gas\\/air, and propane gas\\/air flames using a thermal precipitator. Individual particle aggregates were collected on carbon\\/formvar-coated 3mm nickel grids and examined in a transmission

L. E. Murr; J. J. Bang; E. V. Esquivel; P. A. Guerrero; D. A. Lopez

2004-01-01

102

Automatic stopping device of combustion fuel supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic fuel supply stopping device incorporated in fuel combustion equipment including a shut-off valve and a combustor. The automatic fuel supply stopping device comprises a fluid intercepting mechanism interposed in a channel through which the fuel supply to the combustor is supplied. A photosensor is adapted to detect fuel combustion in the combustor by radiation emitted from a thermosensitive

Shimizu

1985-01-01

103

SSSStudy on Combustion Characteristics of the Blast Furnace Gas in the Constant Volume Combustion Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace gas is the byproduct of smelting steel production process, and is the important secondary energy source. It is can be used as fuel for engines to generate electricity for most middle and small steel enterprises. In order to understand the combustion mechanism and provide the basis for the design of blast furnace gas engine,premixed laminar combustion experiments of

LIU YONGQI; WANG HAIFENG; LI PING

104

Staged combustion of biomass produced level calorific value gas  

SciTech Connect

The problem of NO/sub x/ emissions as a consequence of high (2%) nitrogen contents in biomass fuels was addressed using staged combustion. Initial combustion of LCV gas from a fluidized bed gasifier fueled with cotton gin trash was accomplished using a specially designed cyclone (primary combustor). A one second delay between primary and secondary combustion allowed for NO/sub x/ destruction. NO/sub x/ values of 1700 ppm were reduced below 250 ppm.

Finch, S.; Parnell, C.B.; Le Pori, W.A.

1987-01-01

105

Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system  

SciTech Connect

A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

2011-03-22

106

Fuels Combustion Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Air Force aircraft fuels will contain chemical constituents that not only contribute to the propulsion of the aircraft but also to the temperature control of both the combustor walls and the aircraft body. Temperature control may require the use of...

I. Glassman K. Brezinsky

1993-01-01

107

Experimental investigation on low velocity filtration combustion in porous packed bed using gaseous and liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study on the characteristics of the filtration combustion of premixed gas as well as the pulse combustion of liquid fuel spray in a porous medium burner (PMB), with the latter as emphasis. The experimental system consists of combustor, primary combustion chamber (PCC), gas supply system, fuel supply system and the data acquisition system, which employs

Dan Wu; Hongsheng Liu; Maozhao Xie; Hong Liu; Wence Sun

108

Removal of SOx, NOx, and particulate from combusted carbonaceous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is a method for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate from the products of combusted carbonaceous fuels. Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate are currently discharged to the atmosphere as flue gas in quantities highly detrimental to the environment. Potassium compounds, as are found in agricultural grade potash, are dispersed throughout the combustion products at the exit

Dayen

1985-01-01

109

A detailed kinetic mechanism including methanol and nitrogen pollutants relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels  

SciTech Connect

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the simulation of the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels was compiled by assembling selected reaction subsets from existing mechanisms (parents). The mechanism, here referred to as ''AaA,'' includes reaction subsets for the oxidation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), light hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}), and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). The mechanism also takes into account reaction subsets of nitrogen pollutants, including the reactions relevant to staged combustion, reburning, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). The AaA mechanism was validated against suitable experimental data from the literature. Overall, the AaA mechanism gave more accurate predictions than three other mechanisms of reference, although the reference mechanisms performed better occasionally. The predictions from AaA were also found to be consistent with the predictions of its parent mechanisms within most of their range of validity, thus transferring the validity of the parents to the inheriting mechanism (AaA). In parametric studies the AaA mechanism predicted that the effect of methanol on combustion and pollutants is often similar to that of light hydrocarbons, but it also showed that there are important exceptions, thus suggesting that methanol should be taken into account when simulating biomass combustion. To our knowledge, the AaA mechanism is currently the only mechanism that accounts for the chemistry of methanol and nitrogen relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels. (author)

Coda Zabetta, Edgardo; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

2008-01-15

110

Gas turbine combustion instability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion oscillations are a common problem in development of LPM (lean premix) combustors. Unlike earlier, diffusion style combustors, LPM combustors are especially susceptible to oscillations because acoustic losses are smaller and operation near lean ...

G. A. Richards G. T. Lee

1996-01-01

111

Variability in natural gas fuel composition and its effects on the performance of catalytic combustion systems. Final report for period September 18, 1998 - September 17, 2000  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is composed primarily of methane with small amounts of higher hydrocarbons and diluents, which vary by region and over time. Compositions of natural gas from domestic and worldwide sources were surveyed with respect to content of higher hydrocarbons and diluents. The survey showed slight compositional variability between most of the gases, with a small fraction of them containing significantly larger contents of higher hydrocarbons than the mean. As gas-fired turbines will be used for power generation all over the world, they will need to tolerate operation with fuels with a wide variety of compositions, particularly with respect to the concentration of higher hydrocarbons and diluents. Subscale catalytic combustion modules typical of those used in gas turbine power generation with ultra low emissions of pollutants were tested in a subscale test system with natural gas alone and with added known levels of hydrocarbon compounds and diluents. The range of compositions tested contained the range observed in the survey. Test results were used to calculate the effect of composition on catalyst performance. The compositional variability is of little consequence to the catalyst for most of the gases in the survey, including nearly all of the gases delivered in the U.S. To accommodate the remaining gases, the catalyst inlet temperature must be lowered to maintain combustor durability. These results support commercial acceptance of catalytic combustion systems for use in natural gas fired turbines in distributed power generation with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions.

Ginter, David; Simchick, Chuck; Schlatter, Jim

2002-03-01

112

40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration...California § 52.277 Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration...effect for sources combusting liquid or solid fuels with heat input...retained for sources combusting liquid, solid, or gaseous...

2010-07-01

113

Study on the combustion characteristics of low calorific value gas in the Constant Volume Combustion Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Constant Volume Combustion system is introduced in this paper, which was used to investigate the combustion characteristics of gaseous fuel. In the system, the combination of methane and Carbon dioxide was conducted to simulate the low calorific value gas-biogas. The purpose of the experimental research which was performed on the system is to study the effects of the fraction

Xuejiao Han; Hongguang Zhang; Xiaolei Bai

2011-01-01

114

Research of the influence of combustion chamber structure on performance of dual fuel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research that the influence of combustion chamber's construction parameter on performance of diesel-natural gas dual fuel engine has been done, which is based on a dual fuel engine of diesel-natural gas. The heat release rate of dual fuel engine is calculated and analyzed via the indicated work diagrams of three kinds of different combustion chamber's structural parameter. The research

Du Qian; Ma Fengxian

2011-01-01

115

Flexible fuel engine based on multi-combustion control technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combustion control strategy is proposed for diesel engine to reduce PM and NOx emissions significantly, which adopts some technologies including internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), split spray,\\u000a adjustable fuel delivery advance angle and the application of alternative fuels. Based on this strategy, a flexible fuel engine\\u000a has been developed. The experimental results show that this engine can be fueled

Xiaolu Li; Zhen Huang; Xinqi Qiao; Jun Song; Junhua Fang; Huimin Xia

2005-01-01

116

Combustion engine with multi-fuel capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combustion engine. It has means for providing thereto a fuel mixture of one or more liquid fuels in an unknown combination through a fuel line and means for determining an engine operating control parameter in response to the dielectric constant of the fuel mixture. The last means comprising, in combination: a capacitor in the fuel line

Gonze

1990-01-01

117

Method and apparatus for controlling combustion of gasified fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combustion of gasified fuel by gasifying a low quality fuel and combusting the gasified fuel in a combustor, combustion of gasified fuel is controlled by sampling the gasified fuel at a constant flow rate at the upstream side of the combustor, combusting the sampled gasified fuel, detecting an overall energy level of sensible heat and heating value possessed per

Y. Uchiyama; S. Sugita; Z. Tamura; S. Tsukahara

1984-01-01

118

Stirling engine natural gas combustion demonstration program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric generator configured to burn natural gas. Combustion parameters were optimized to produce the lowest possible exhaust emissions for a flame-type combustor without compromising overall engine thermal efficiency. A market application survey and manufacturing cost analysis indicate that a market opportunity potentially exists in the volumes needed to economically manufacture a newly designed Stirling engine (Mod 3) for stationary applications and hybrid vehicles. The translation of such potential markets into actual markets does, however, pose difficult challenges as substantial investments are required. Also, the general acceptance of a new engine type by purchasers requires a considerable amount of time.

Ernst, W.; Moryl, J.; Riecke, G.

1991-02-01

119

Conceptual design of the cooling system for 1700 C-class, hydrogen-fueled combustion gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of three types of cooling systems on the calculated operating performances of a hydrogen-fueled thermal power plant with a 1,700 C-class gas turbine were studied with the goal of attaining a thermal efficiency of greater than 60%. The combination of a closed-circuit water cooling system for the nozzle blades and a steam cooling system for the rotor blades

N. Kizuka; K. Sagae; S. Anzai; S. Marushima; T. Ikeguchi; K. Kawaike

1999-01-01

120

Combustion gas heat recovery apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A secondary heat exchanger is positioned within a cold air return plenum of a forced air gas or oil fired furnace to preheat cold air drawn into the furnace through the cold air plenum. A heat recovery flue pipe is connected between a primary flue pipe of the furnace and the secondary heat exchanger, and an exhaust pipe is connected between the secondary heat exchanger and the outside of a structure served by the furnace. A secondary blower coupled to the exhaust pipe draws hot combustion gases from the primary flue pipe through the heat exchanger and exhausts cooled combustion gases to the outside. The secondary heat exchanger comprises a combustion gas inlet plenum and a combustion gas outlet plenum, with a plurality of heat conducting pipes sealingly connected therebetween. Each of the heat conducting pipes is arranged to define a circuitous path between the inlet plenum and the outlet plenum, with each heat conducting pipe defining at least two aligned linear radiating surfaces over which cold air is drawn. Heat conducting fins are intimately connected to the heat conducting pipes and a condensate drain is provided in the lower extremities of the heat conducting pipes to drain condensate from the secondary heat exchanger.

McCann, A.

1985-12-17

121

Fuel combustion system and method of operation for an Otto-cycle internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of combusting a predetermined combustible mixture of fuel and air in an Otto-cycle internal combustion engine including a main combustion chamber, first control valve means for admitting the combustible mixture into the main combustion chamber, an auxiliary combustion chamber, second control valve means for opening and blocking fluid communication between the main combustion chamber and

Bailey

1991-01-01

122

Numerical simulations of gas turbine combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical investigation of gas turbine combustion is conducted using the KIVA-3V code. Off-design conditions and spray parameters have significant effects on flow patterns, kinetic reactions and spray dynamics in the combustor, which consequently influences combustion performance and NOx emissions. This study provides insight into physical and chemical processes in combustion, and evaluates variations of combustion performance and NOx emissions

Ke Su

2002-01-01

123

Steady\\/unsteady gas turbine combustion simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual gas turbine combustion simulator is proposed to study steady and unsteady combustion phenomena at conditions relevant to aviation engines. It is intended to duplicate the flow and combustion characteristics of an aviation engine in a simple laboratory scale device in order to conduct scientific study to provide deeper insight to the complex combustion dynamics problems and other related

Pratikash Prakash Panda

2011-01-01

124

Gas turbine combustion assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved gas turbine engine combustor assembly particularly for automotive application including a primary reaction chamber disposed in a pressurized air plenum of the engine, fixed area air flow ports between the reaction chamber and the plenum, a prechamber housing at an upstream end of the reaction chamber having an annular fixed area air passage between the plenum and the

W. Cornelius; E. D. Klomp

1984-01-01

125

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the extent where elimination of a supplementary pilot fuel can now be projected.

Staub, F.W.; Kimura, S.G.; Spiro, C.L. (Corporate Research and Development, General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (US)); Horner, M.W. (Dept. General Electric Co., Springdale, OH (US))

1989-01-01

126

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the extent where elimination of a supplementary pilot fuel can now be projected.

Staub, F.W.; Kimura, S.G.; Spiro, C.L. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (USA). Corporate Research and Development Center); Horner, M.W. (Marine and Industrial Engines Projects Dept., General Electric Co., Springdale, OH (US))

1988-01-01

127

A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses design and operation of a single-nozzle test combustor for studying lean, premixed combustion oscillations from gas turbine fuel nozzles. It was used to study oscillations from a prototype fuel nozzle that produced oscillations during testing in a commercial engine. Similar, but not identical, oscillations were recorded in the test device. Basic requirements of the device design were

G. A. Richards; R. S. Gemmen; M. J. Yip

1996-01-01

128

Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

1978-09-11

129

Solid fuels in chemical-looping combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a number of different solid fuels in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has been investigated. A laboratory fluidized bed reactor system for solid fuel, simulating a chemical-looping combustion system by exposing the sample to alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, was used. In each reducing phase 0.2g of fuel in the size range 180–250?m was added to the reactor

Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt

2008-01-01

130

Method and apparatus for utilizing alcohol as fuel for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention broadly relates to a fuel system for an internal combustion engine. More particularly the invention concerns a method and apparatus for utilizing alcohol as fuel for gasoline fed internal combustion engine, wherein the alcohol to gasoline ratio is controlled by a double acting metering device and the alcohol fuel is vaporized using heated positive crankcase ventilation gas.

Concepcion

1982-01-01

131

Ignition system and method for multi-fuel combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for combusting fuel in the combustion chamber of a multi-fuel internal combustion engine by both spark ignition and hot surface ignition, is described comprising the steps of: retaining combustion heat in an electrode apparatus positioned in the combustion chamber for providing surface ignition of the fuel when the electrode apparatus has reached a sufficient temperature, the electrode apparatus

J. A. Lo Russo; H. A. Cikanek; R. W. Anderson

1988-01-01

132

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. This report summarizes studies conducted under Task 4. The objective was to quantify CWF atomization and combustion properties utilizing industrial/utility scale equipment. Burners were evaluated and combustion performance differences identified for various CWF formulations. 12 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

Lachowicz, Y.V.; LaFlesh, R.C.

1987-07-01

133

30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56...MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions...housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall...

2013-07-01

134

30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57...MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions...housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall...

2013-07-01

135

Effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulations on NO, emissions are promoting the use of lean premix (LPM) combustion for industrial gas turbines. LPM combustors avoid locally stoichiometric combustion by premixing fuel and the air upstream of the reaction region, thereby eliminating the high temperatures that produce thermal NO.. Unfortunately, this style of combustor is prone to combustion oscillation. Significant pressure fluctuations can occur when variations in heat release periodically couple pressure to acoustic modes in the combustion chamber. These oscillations must be controlled because resulting vibration can shorten the life of engine hardware. Laboratory and engine field testing have shown that instability regimes can vary with environmental conditions. These observations prompted this study of the effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability. Tests are conducted on a sub-scale combustor burning natural gas, propane, and some hydrogen/hydrocarbon mixtures. A premix, swirl-stabilized fuel nozzle typical of industrial gas turbines is used. Experimental and numerical results describe how stability regions may shift as inlet air temperature, humidity, and fuel composition are altered. Results appear to indicate that shifting instability instability regimes are primarily caused by changes in reaction rate.

Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J. [USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States); Robey, E.H. [EG& G Technical Services of West Virginia (United States)

1997-04-01

136

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluidized bed combustion of a number of alternative fuels of practical interest has been analyzed by a combination of experimental and modeling techniques. Solid fuels of widely different origin (biomass, agricultural, civil and industrial wastes) have been considered in this work. A lab-scale experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the comminution (fragmentation, attrition) behavior of the fuels. Experimental

Fabrizio Scala; Riccardo Chirone

2004-01-01

137

Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J. (Woodward)

2007-05-01

138

Combustion Systems for Biomass Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is one of humanity's earliest sources of energy. Traditionally, biomass has been utilized through direct combustion, and this process is still widely used in many parts of the world. Biomass thermo-chemical conversion investigations are certainly not the most important options at present; combustion is responsible for over 97% of the world's bio-energy production. Biomass combustion is a series of

Ayhan Demirbas

2007-01-01

139

Turbine Burners: Turbulent Combustion of Liquid Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed theoretical/computational and experimental study addresses the vital two-way coupling between combustion processes and fluid dynamic phenomena associated with schemes for burning liquid fuels in high- speed, accelerating and turning transonic...

D. Dunn-Rankin F. Liu W. A. Sirignano

2006-01-01

140

Studies of Oscillatory Combustion and Fuel Vaporization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research projects involving oscillatory combustion and fuel vaporization are reported. Comparisons of experimental and theoretical droplet vaporization histories under ambient conditions such that the droplet may approach its thermodynamic critical point ...

G. L. Borman O. A. Uyehara P. S. Myers

1972-01-01

141

Combustion of Alternative Fuel Study (CAFS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a study intended to provide ERDA with a guide to future activities in waste-based fuel combustion hardware research, development and demonstration are reported. Four study activities were undertaken: the identification of the types, quantities ...

R. B. Saunders

1977-01-01

142

Laser diagnostics for gas turbine combustion research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practical problems and limitations involved in using laser diagnostics to monitor gas turbine combustion are discussed using the results of experience with several laser diagnostic systems in gas turbine combustion research. It is concluded that the two most significant obstacles to using LDA in gas turbine systems are the lack of availability of a good LDA seeder and the

D. R. Ballal; T. H. Chen; W. J. Schmoll

1988-01-01

143

Energy Content in Flue Gases from Combustion of Fossil Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The enthalpy and average specific heat of flue gas from the combustion of fossil fuels of known composition have been calculated as a function of temperature and presented in diagrams. Specific heat data at constant pressure as a function of temperature f...

B. Solbracke

1975-01-01

144

Combustion of local gas volume in closed vessel  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, the authors consider the simplest model of emergency production procedure situation in problems of gas combustion in closed vessels, by considering the combustion of a finite gas volume inside a closed vessel filled with nonfuel (inert) gas. The authors discuss thermodynamic relations, kinetic relations, and approximate relations. Since the conclusions of the theoretical analysis in the present work are not limited by the dimensions of the local volume, they must also be valid in the limiting case -- with complete filling of the vessel by fuel mixture. It is shown that the problem of the combustion of a local volume is a generalization of the problem of gas combustion in a closed vessel.

Babkin, V.S.; Kononenko, Yu.G.; Krakhtinova, T.V.; Krivulin, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, E.A.; Vykhristyuk, A.Ya.

1986-05-01

145

Simulation of natural-gas combustion in a blast-furnace tuyere  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method of reducing blast-furnace coke consumption is to inject gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel in the blast-furnace tuyeres. It is important ensure the maximum possible fuel combustion in the tuyere, since incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons from the fuel results in their pyrolysis, with the formation of soot, which is entrained wastefully from the furnace with the gas or

T. B. Ibadullaev; V. A. Arutyunov; I. A. Levitskii; V. N. Loginov; I. F. Kurunov; S. A. Feshchenko

2007-01-01

146

Characteristics and economic evaluation of a CO 2-capturing repowering system with oxy-fuel combustion for utilizing exhaust gas of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale of 2.4MW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) was taken to construct a high-efficiency and economic power generation system without CO2 emission for utilizing its exhaust gas. A conventional steam turbine power generation system (STPS) is evaluated and the net generated power (NGP) is estimated to be only 131kW and the STPS is not economically feasible. A CO2-caputuring repowering

Pyong Sik Pak; Young Duk Lee; Kook Young Ahn

2009-01-01

147

Multistage process for combusting fuel mixtures using oxide catalysts in the hot stage  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for partially combusting combustible mixtures comprising the steps of: (a) mixing an oxygen-containing gas with a fuel to form a combustible mixture, (b) contacting the combustible mixture in a first zone with a first zone combustion catalyst comprising palladium completely covering a catalyst support at reaction conditions sufficient to combust at least a portion but not all of the fuel, (c) contacting the partially combusted gas from the first zone in a second zone with a second zone combustion catalyst on a support having integral heat exchange surfaces comprising a metallic support with walls having catalyst applied to at least a portion of only one side and not the other side of the surface forming the walls of the catalyst support so as to limit the catalyst substrate temperature and bulk outlet gas temperature at reaction conditions sufficient to combust at least a further portion but not all of the fuel, and (d) contacting the partially combusted gas from the second zone in a third zone with a third zone combustion catalyst comprising a metal-oxygen catalytic material at reaction conditions sufficient to combust at least a further portion of the fuel.

Dalla Betta, R.A.; Tsurumi, Kazunori; Ezawa, Nobuyasu.

1993-08-03

148

Port fuel injection and induction system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an engine having a valve cover with a PVC valve to vent a valve chamber so as to eliminate oil and gas fumes there from and an automotive fuel injection system having a port fuel injector connected to a fuel supply and to an air manifold for injecting an air/fuel mixture into the injector for producing a fuel spray pattern at the outlet of an air induction passage form a throttle body assembly and upstream of an inlet valve to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine characterized by an integral electric motor driven pump assembly means supplying the injection air to the air manifold; the motor pump assembly means having a pump inlet connected to the PVC valve for providing a lubrication mist to the pump during the operation thereof and the motor pump assembly means having a pump outlet connected to the inlet of the air manifold.

Bishai, M.N.

1991-04-23

149

Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal  

SciTech Connect

Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, G.H.; Jung. K.; Mu, N.; Yanar, N.M.; Pettit, F.S.

2012-08-01

150

Liquid-metal fuel-combustion mechanics. Professional paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of the droplet formation at the gas\\/liquid boundary interface of a gaseous jet injected into a liquid metal bath and the turbulent mixing of the resultant two-phase (gas\\/liquid droplets) mixture is presented as a preliminary to the analysis of the liquid metal fuel combustion problem. The model is used to predict velocity and liquid droplet fraction distributions across

Duvvuri

1990-01-01

151

Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

2003-02-12

152

Combustion Tests of RJ-5 Fuel Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the addition of viscosity reducing additives to RJ-5 fuel. The tests were to determine if the additives hindered or improved the combustion efficiency of the basic RJ-5 fuel. The tests were conducted in a 12 ...

R. R. Craig J. Petrarca J. T. Hojnacki P. L. Buckley

1976-01-01

153

Fuel supply system for multi-fuel internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel supply system is described for multi-fuel internal combustion engines having a selector valve for controlling the feed of fuels such as gasoline and kerosene and vacuum actuator to operate the selector valve according to the pressure in intake passage of the engine. The system is provided for feeding the gasoline and kerosene at heavy load and low speed,

Y. Itoh; M. Shibata; A. Masuda; Y. Ohtake; M. Etoh

1978-01-01

154

Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

1992-01-01

155

Development prospects for plasma technology in igniting and combustion of fuel in heating equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of energy conversion in heating plant is the incomplete combustion of fuel from fractions of one-percent with nominal schedules, to 2-3 or more percentage points with partial loading cycles. With the conversion of the operation of steam generators in boiler plant from liquid to powdered coal and gas fuels, the incompleteness of combustion, even with a standard schedule,

N. A. Gatsenko; I. M. Lamanov

1992-01-01

156

Method and apparatus for minimizing the fuel usage in an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method is disclosed for minimizing the fuel usage in an internal combustion engine. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with an engine installation subject to varying loads and which includes a governor for varying fuel flow as a function of load. In operation, the combustibles in the exhaust gas of the engine is continuously monitored.

Smojven

1984-01-01

157

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels; status, successes and problems of the technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion can be used for energy production or incineration for almost any material containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur in a combustible form, whether it be in the form of a solid, liquid, slurry or gas. The technology's fuel flexibility arises from the fact that the fuel is present in the combustor at a low level and is burnt

E. J Anthony

1995-01-01

158

Preliminary test on combustion of wood derived fast pyrolysis oils in a gas turbine combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial gas turbines fueled by fast pyrolysis liquid made from biomass are a promising option for electricity generation from a renewable resource. This paper reports a preliminary study on combustion of wood derived fast pyrolysis oils and their mixtures with ethanol in a gas turbine combustor. The combustion of these biofuels is analyzed and their possible use in a gas

G. López Juste; J. J. Salvá Monfort

2000-01-01

159

Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Institute of Combustion Problems, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan)

2006-03-15

160

Investigation of Droplet Combustion with Nongray Gas Radiation Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single droplet combustion processes including heating, evaporation, burning, soot formation and flame radiation were theoretically investigated by adopting nongray gas radiation model for the radiative transfer equation (RTE). n-Heptane was chosen as a fuel in the numerical calculation and the results were compared with the experimental data available in the literature. The discrete ordinate method (DOM) was employed to solve

SEUNG WOOK BAEK; JAE HYUN PARK; CHANG EUN CHOI

1999-01-01

161

A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the design and operation of a test device suitable for studying combustion oscillations produced by commercial-scale gas turbine fuel nozzles. Unlike conventional test stands, this test combustor uses a Helmholtz acoustic geometry to replicate the acoustic response that would otherwise be observed only during complete engine testing. The authors suggest that successful simulation of engine oscillations requires

G. A. Richards; R. S. Gemmen; M. J. Yip

1997-01-01

162

Analysis of acid gas emissions in the combustion of the binder enhanced d-RDF (densified Refuse Derived Fuel) by ion chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The acid gas emissions of combusting d-RDF pellets with sulfur-rich coal were analyzed by ion chromatography and decreased when d-RFD pellets were utilized. The results imply the possibility of using d-RDF pellets to substitute for sulfur-rich coal as fuel, and also substantiate the effectiveness of a binder, calcium hydroxide, in decreasing emissions of SO{sub x}. In order to perform the analysis of the combustion sample, sampling and sample pretreatment methods prior to the IC analysis and the first derivative detection mode in IC are investigated as well. At least two trapping reagents are necessary for collecting acid gases: one for hydrogen halides, and the other for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. Factors affecting the absorption of acid gases are studied, and the strength of an oxidizing agent is the main factor affecting the collection of NO{sub X} and SO{sub x}. The absorption preference series of acid gases are determined and the absorption models of acid gases in trapping reagents are derived from the analytical results. To prevent the back-flushing of trapping reagents between impingers when leak-checking, a design for the sampling train is suggested, which can be adopted in sample collections. Several reducing agents are studied for pretreating the sample collected in alkali-permanganate media. Beside the recommendation of the hydrogen peroxide solution in EPA method, methanol and formic acid are worth considering as alternate reducing agents in the pretreatment of alkaline-permanganate media prior to IC analysis. The first derivative conductivity detection mode is developed and used in IC system. It is efficient for the detection and quantification of overlapping peaks as well as being applicable for nonoverlapping peaks.

Jen, J.F.

1988-01-01

163

A Sub-model of a Reacting Gas-Liquid Jet as a Tool for Better Simulation of Liquid Fuel Combustion in Fluidized Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract The paper presents and discusses a sub-model of a horizontal, reacting jet flare downstream from a nozzle discharging liquid fuel into a fluidized bed combustor. It is a further achievement towards a more thorough description of fundamental mechanisms governing the liquid fuel combustion in bubbling fluidized bed combustors (FBC) that operate in a temperature range (i.e., 650-800°C) lower

L. Ferrante; M. Miccio

164

Fuel Flexibility for Dry Low Emission Gas Turbines - Cleanly Burning Biofuels, Coal Liquids and Petroleum Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

successfully used with natural gas in combustion turbines to meet stringent emissions standards. However, the burning of liquid fuels in DLE systems is still a challenging task due to the complexities of fuel vaporization and air premixing. Lean, Premixed, Prevaporized (LPP) combustion has always provided the promise of obtaining low pollutant emissions while burning liquid fuels such as kerosene and

Michael J. Ramotowski; Richard J. Roby; Leo D. Eskin; Michael S. Klassen

165

Future Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the world is facing three critical problems: (1) high fuel prices, (2) climatic changes, and (3) air pollution. Experts suggest that current oil and gas reserves would suffice to last only a few more decades. Biorenewable liquids are the main substitutes to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel. These fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels; however, some still

A. Demirbas

2010-01-01

166

Internal combustion engine fuel rail assembly joint  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel rail assembly of an internal combustion engine. It comprises a non-metallic fuel rail containing devices that are part of a fuel injection system of the engine, and also comprising a metal tube which is in fluid communication with a fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail and connected with the non-metallic fuel rail by means of a joint, characterized in that the joint comprises a cylindrical metal sleeve that is partially embedded in the non-metallic fuel rail such that a first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail lines an interior end portion of the sleeve and is in fluid communication with the fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail and such that the sleeve lines the interior of a second cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail, the metal tube and the first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail fit together in a sealed manner to place the metal tube in fluid communication with the fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail, the sleeve has another portion that is not embedded in the non-metallic fuel rail, and a retention means coacts with the another axis end segment and with the metal tube to retain the metal tube and the first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail fit together in a sealed manner.

Imoehl, W.J.

1992-04-21

167

Cordwood gasification and gas combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate to farmers and potential manufacturing interests a cord wood combustion system for providing thermal energy for curing flue-cured tobacco. Two stage combustion technology which offers advantages of clean and efficient combustion and a modulatable output was utilized. In 1980 a 1.0 GJ\\/h cord wood gasifier-combustor was designed and tested. Two-staged combustion of

1983-01-01

168

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. Unit performance analyses showed significantly better load capacity for utility and industrial boilers as the CWF feed coal ash content is reduced to 5% or 2.6%. In general, utility units had more attractive capacity limits and retrofit costs than the industrial boilers and process heaters studied. Economic analyses indicated that conversion to CWF firing generally becomes feasible when differential fuel costs are above $1.00/10{sup 6}Btu. 60 figs., 24 tabs.

Chow, O.K.; Gralton, G.W.; Lachowicz, Y.V.; Laflesh, R.C.; Levasseur, A.A.; Liljedahl, G.N.

1989-02-01

169

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

There are applications where the combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers potential advantages over the use of either coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use during to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary volatiles'' to enhance the combustion. In addition, natural gas provides a clean fuel source of fuel which, in cofiring situations, can extend the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. The addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emission through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. In this research program, studies of combined coal and natural gas combustion will provide particle ignition, burnout rates and ash characterization, that will help clarify the effect of coal and natural gas and identify the controlling parameters and mechanisms.

Buckius, R.O.

1991-01-01

170

40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices and flares.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than 5 ppm H2 S. Sampling data must include, at minimum...of daily monitoring (14 grab samples) for frequently operated fuel...and acceptable range based on data for the outlying weekly sample plus data collected over the...

2013-07-01

171

Air Augmented Rocket Fixed Fuel Flow Combustion Characterization Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program demonstrated that reliable, consistent combustion efficiency data could be obtained independently at different facilities. The detailed combustion efficiency performance of two Boron loaded fuel rich propellants was mapped over an air-to-fuel...

J. L. Fields

1973-01-01

172

ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES BY AUTOMATED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses on-line measurement of nitrous oxide (N2O) from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. ossil fuel combustion is suspected of contributing to measured increases in the ambient concentrations of N2O. haracterization of N2O emissions from fossil fuel...

173

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste

Tom Beer; Tim Grant; David Williams; Harry Watson

2002-01-01

174

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel  

SciTech Connect

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot.

Brabbs, T.A.; Merritt, S.A.

1993-07-01

175

Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.

Namba, Kunihiko; Ida, Tamio

176

Extinction of model fuels with anomalous pressure dependence of the combustion velocity  

SciTech Connect

This article investigates the regimes of combustion of model fuels with a drop in pressure. The following fuel compositions were examined: a reference composition consisting of a model nitroglycerine fuel, nitroglycerine fuel with a 2% additive of lead and copper compounds, and nitroglycerine with the addition of 1% compound of lead. The temperature gradient in the gas near the combustion surface was determined from the temperature profile. The results indicate that when the pressure boundary for the change in combustion mechanisms is crossed during the pressure drop, the conditions for extinguishing the fuel are considerably eased. It is concluded that the investigation of fuel combustion accompanying a pressure drop permits the obtaining of additional data and enables the understanding of the combustion mechanism at constant pressure.

Marshakov, V.N.; Melik-Gaikazov, G.V.

1983-09-01

177

Combustion liner for a gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes, for a gas turbine power plant, a combustor having panels generally circular in shape and extending axially arranged end to end to define an annular combustion chamber. Each of the panels have an inner surface subjected to combustion gases and an outer surface subjected to power plant cooler air. It also has means on the downstream end

1986-01-01

178

Santilli's new fuels as sources of clean combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular combustion or nuclear fission is the conventional source of energy, which are not clean as they generate large amount of green house gas or nuclear waste. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. However, each of these sources has their own limitations and is dependent on geographical locations. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review on such novel fuels like Hadronic energy of non-nuclear type (combustion of MagneGas) and nuclear type (intermediate controlled nuclear fusion and particle type like stimulated neutron decay) has been presented.

Sarma, Indrani B. Das

2013-10-01

179

Combustion of Condensed Phase Alternative Fuels in an Acoustic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study focused on fuel droplet combustion characteristics for various liquids during exposure to external acoustical perturbations. Emphasis in the present study was placed on the combustion of a number of alternative liquid fuels, including ethanol, methanol, aviation fuels, and blends of aviation fuel and liquid synthetic fuel derived from coal gasification via the Fischer-Tropsch process. The study examined

Juan Rodriguez; Hann-Shin Mao; Sophonias Teshome; Alec Pezeshkian; Owen Smith; Ann Karagozian

2007-01-01

180

Burner design criteria for Nox control from low-Btu gas combustion: Volume II. Elevated fuel temperature. Final report October 1976October 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a program to provide quantitative data on combustion emissions from high-temperature low-Btu gas. It complements a recently completed EPA project that evaluated emissions resulting from the burning of ambient-temperature low-Btu gas. The experimental results were gathered from a pilot-scale furnace fired with a movable-vane boiler burner at a heat input of 0.66 MW (2.25 million

D. R. Shoffstall; R. T. Waibel

1977-01-01

181

CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

182

FUEL NOX CONTROL BY CATALYTIC COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an experimental study to: (1) define operating conditions for catalytic combustors that give low levels of NOx emissions for fuelbound nitrogen compounds, and (2) quantitatively determine the fate of fuel nitrogen during catalytic combustion. Tests wer...

183

Dual stage-dual mode low emission gas turbine combustion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas turbine combustor arrangement involves two combustion chambers separated by a necked down throat portion with provision for fuel introduction into each of the chambers. Initially, fuel is introduced into the first chamber and ignited. Thereafter, fuel is introduced into the second chamber until the total fuel flow to the combustor is at the desired rate. Burning in the

R. A. Jorgensen; R. A. Farrell; W. Gerhold

1983-01-01

184

Pressure-gain combustion for gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation has been performed to evaluate {open_quotes}pressure-gain{close_quotes} combustion systems for gas turbine applications. Results from the investigation have shown that, due to the oscillatory combustion process, a pressure boost can be achieved for suitable combustor geometries. The pressure gains achieved thus far have been as high as

R. Gemmen; G. Richards; M. Janus

1995-01-01

185

Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

186

Oxygen gas concentration-detecting apparatus and air-fuel ratio-controlling apparatus using same in internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen concentration-detecting apparatus is described comprising a ceramic substrate for generating an electromotive force between a first surface contacted with a reference gas and a second surface contacted with a gas to be detected according to the ratio of the concentration of oxygen gas O/sub 2/ between the two gases, a pair of electrode members formed at parts of the first and second surfaces, respectively, of the ceramic substrate, to take out the electromotive force as a detection signal, an oxidation catalyst layer arranged to cover the outer surface of the ceramic substrate and promote oxidation reaction of unburnt components, and a reduction catalyst layer arranged to cover an outer surface of the ceramic substrate and promote mainly reduction reaction of nitrogen oxides NO/sub x/.

Uchikawa, A.; Anbe, S.; Suwa, T.; Kawashima, M.; Yamada, T.

1988-09-27

187

Ash deposition and composition resulting from the combustion of lignite coals combined with fuel oil and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for alternative fuels for use by American Industry has led to the development of coal-oil mixtures and more recently coal-water mixtures. Ash handling equipment costs for retrofitted units represents a substantial percentage of the total capital investment and often contributes to making conversion to coal-oil mixtures economically unattractive. This paper reports on the findings of ash deposition and

V. A. Cundy; N. Estep; D. Maples

1983-01-01

188

Intelligent management and control of fuel gas network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design procedure of an advanced controller for the fuel gas network of a refinery is illustrated. Its purpose is to improve the performance of the heat generators using fuel gas and fuel oil as combustible and to reduce the operation that reduce the refinery efficiency. Soft computing approaches are widely used to attain the desired results. Fuzzy logic and

A. De Carli; S. Falzini; Raffaele Liberatore; Domenico Tomei

2002-01-01

189

Further applications of the Lucas fan spray fuel injection combustion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASME paper 79-gt-175 presented the design philosophy upon which Lucas fan spray fuel injection combustion systems for small gas turbines is based. Included were results from a system designed for an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (apu) and capable of operating with avaiation kerosene, gas oil and marine diesel fuels. Since the publication of the above paper there has been further

1985-01-01

190

Modernization of burner devices of gas- and liquid-fueled power boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes three types of low-toxic gas-fuel-oil burners that have up to now been implemented at several of Russia's power stations in the conversion of coal-fired boilers to natural-gas and fuel-oil combustion and modernization of gas-fuel oil boilers using known combustion technologies to suppress the formation of nitric oxides.

Shestakov, N. S.; Leikam, A. E.; Asoskov, V. A.; Sorokin, A. P.

2012-03-01

191

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

SciTech Connect

This program has the objectives to: A. Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition. B. Determine emissions characteristics including NO, NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents, and C. Operate with at least two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions. As a result of this program: 1. GE Engineering is now confident that the syngas fuels produced by all currently--viable coal gasifiers can be accommodated by the GE advanced (``F`` Technology) combustion system, and 2. For proposed syngas fuels with varying amounts of steam, nitrogen or CO{sub 2} diluent, the combustion and emissions characteristics can be reasonably estimated without undertaking expensive new screening tests for each different fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Belisle, F.H.; Maxwell, G.P.

1993-11-01

192

Use of Fluidic Oscillator to Measure Fuel-Air Ratios of Combustion Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fluidic oscillator was investigated for use in measuring fuel-air ratios in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The oscillator was operated with dry exhaust gas from an experimental combustor burning ASTM A-1 fuel. Tests were conducted with fuel-air ratio...

S. M. Riddlebaugh

1974-01-01

193

Experimental study of oxy-fuel combustion and sulfur capture in a mini-CFBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-fuel technology uses effectively pure oxygen for fossil fuel combustion in order to obtain a highly concentrated CO stream, suitable for direct compression and sequestration. It is an effective technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere from large point sources such as power generation plants. Oxy-fuel FBC technology has the combined advantage of producing high CO concentration flue

L. Jia; Y. Tan; C. Wang; E. J. Anthony

2007-01-01

194

Effect of fuel nitrogen and hydrogen content on emissions in hydrocarbon combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of operating conditions and fuel properties on emissions for the two-stage combustion of fuels with significant organic nitrogen content. This is a basic research effort in support of DOE's Advanced Power Systems Program, a development program to adapt ground-power gas turbines to use coal derived fuels. The present paper

D. A. Bittker; G. Wolfbrandt

1980-01-01

195

Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.  

PubMed

Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

Tesseraux, Irene

2004-04-01

196

Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal  

SciTech Connect

Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. The low nitrogen flue gas that results is relatively easy to capture CO{sub 2} from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions.

G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

2012-05-20

197

FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

2003-08-24

198

Multi-fuel system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-fuel system is described for an internal combustion engine which consists of: a carburetor having an air inlet and a fuel inlet and means for mixing the air and liquid fuel to form a combustible mixture which is conducted to the engine to operate the same; a first liquid fuel supply assembly having means for regulating the pressure of

O. V. Phillips; W. R. Phillips

1986-01-01

199

Precise combustion-control saves fuel and power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumentation assuring a minimum amount of excess air for combustion of fuels improves the importance and increases the thermal efficiency of boilers, furnaces, and kilns. This has now become an important factor due to increased fuel prices. To achieve good combustion control and the best fuel-burning efficiency requires that two fundamental conditions be established: exact balancing of the air\\/fuel ratio

1975-01-01

200

Combustion of Waste Derived Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decade Warren Spring Laboratory has been involved in programs to investigate various aspects of the incineration of waste and the use of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). Investigations were carried out to assess the suitability of RDF for combusti...

B. J. Davis P. Clayton

1984-01-01

201

Pyrometric thermometry and sizing of fuel particles in combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between temperature and size of a burning fuel particle can provide important knowledge about the reactivity and the detailed combustion mechanism of different coals and other solid fuels. This thesis reports on the development of methods and instrumentation for pyrometric thermometry and sizing of fuel particles and on applications to pressurised pulverised coal combustion and fluidised bed combustion. Modifications of the two-colour pyrometric technique were developed and applied to reactors of different types and several series of measurements were performed at these facilities. The prime novelty of these modifications lies in the capability to determine the size of fuel particles along with the temperature using the same pyrometric signals. In the first application a two-colour pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of temperature and size of individual fuel particles in a pressurised entrained flow reactor has been developed. This technique can be used for the identification of measured particles through a single optical port. The particle sizing is based on the proportionality of the measured radiative flux and the cross sectional area of a particle at known temperature. A large number of experiments were made in two reactors at varying process conditions with various coal types. The effects of pressure, oxygen concentration and gas temperature on the temperature and size distributions of pulverised coals are presented. As a second application a fibre-optic probe is used for measurements in fluidised bed combustion. This method allows to determine the temperatures of the fluidised bed and individual fuel particles wherever these deviate from the bed temperature and statistical determination of the particle size distribution within the population of observed particles. The experiments at two fluidised bed reactors demonstrated that the technique is applicable to fluidised bed reactors from laboratory scale to industrial scale.

Joutsenoja, Timo

202

Removal of SOx, NOx, and particulate from combusted carbonaceous fuels  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a method for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate from the products of combusted carbonaceous fuels. Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate are currently discharged to the atmosphere as flue gas in quantities highly detrimental to the environment. Potassium compounds, as are found in agricultural grade potash, are dispersed throughout the combustion products at the exit of the combustion zone of boilers. The potassium compounds decompose as a result of combustion temperatures in excess of their melting points. The potassium, as an ionic vapor, reacts with the sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases present, to form potassium sulfates, potassium nitrites and potassium nitrates. When the combined products stream, traversing the boiler equipment train, cool sufficiently, the potassium, present in excess, condenses as potassium oxide on the surfaces of the particles present. The larger particles are removed from the non-condensed vapor and gas by the centrifugal and gravitational forces exerted within cyclones. The smaller particles are removed from the non-chargable vapor and gases by the electrostatic charge and attraction created within the precipitator. The dry particles discharged from the cyclones and precipitator are ready for ultimate end use as potash fertilizer without further treatment. The flue gas atmospheric emissions contain only trace quantities of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate.

Dayen, W.R.

1985-09-10

203

Gas turbine combustion of a minimally cleaned, coal-derived low-BTU gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the joint GE\\/DoE Water-Cooled Components Test Program,¹ a series of tests were performed involving the combustion of a minimally cleaned low-Btu coal gas in a pressurized gas turbine simulator. The fuel gas was produced in a 1-ton\\/hr advanced fixed-bed gasifier using Illinois number6 coal, and filtered of particulate in a full-pressure, full-temperature cyclone separator. The resulting product

J. C. Blanton; D. P. Smith

1985-01-01

204

Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

205

Biomass fuel combustion and health*  

PubMed Central

Biomass fuels (wood, agricultural waste, and dung) are used by about half the world's population as a major, often the only, source of domestic energy for cooking and heating. The smoke emissions from these fuels are an important source of indoor air pollution, especially in rural communities in developing countries. These emissions contain important pollutants that adversely affect health—such as suspended particulate matter and polycyclic organic matter which includes a number of known carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene, as well as gaseous pollutants like carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Exposure to large amounts of smoke may present a health risk that is of a similar order of magnitude to the risk from tobacco smoke. The effects on health arising from exposure to air pollution are reviewed, based on what has been reported in the literature so far. Further and more detailed information on exposures and on the epidemiological aspects is urgently required. The persons most frequently affected are women who do the cooking for households in rural villages; they suffer from impaired health due to prolonged and repeated contact with these harmful pollutants. When they are pregnant, the developing fetus may also be exposed and this leads to the risk of excess deaths. In the developing countries, exposure to biomass fuel emissions is probably one of the most important occupational health hazards for women. A conservatively estimated 300-400 million people worldwide, mostly in the rural areas of developing countries, are affected by these problems.

de Koning, H. W.; Smith, K. R.; Last, J. M.

1985-01-01

206

Device for admitting exhaust gases and fuel-air mixtures into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A device is proposed for the supply of operating air-fuel mixtures including exhaust gases to internal combustion engines. Between the opening periods of the inlet valves of an internal combustion engine, precisely dispensed quantities of recirculated exhaust gas are pre-stored in the intake channel directly upstream of the inlet valve whereby a stratification of exhaust gas and fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber of the engine is obtained.

Eckert, K.; Britsch, H.; Linder, E.; Muller, K.; Polach, W.

1984-10-09

207

Experimental investigation of the prevaporized premixed (vpl) combustion process for liquid fuel lean combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concept for the preparation of liquid fuels for an environmentally benign combustion process has been developed. This concept, called ‘VPL’ (Vaporized Premixed Lean) combustion, consists of:1.a separate fuel flash vaporizer in which the liquid fuel is converted to the gaseous state;2.a static mixing device for homogeneous mixing of fuel vapor and combustion air;3.a burner in premixed mode, thus

Ming Wei; Yunhong Wang; Lothar Reh

2002-01-01

208

Fuel combustion system and method of operation for an Otto-cycle internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method of combusting a predetermined combustible mixture of fuel and air in an Otto-cycle internal combustion engine including a main combustion chamber, first control valve means for admitting the combustible mixture into the main combustion chamber, an auxiliary combustion chamber, second control valve means for opening and blocking fluid communication between the main combustion chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber. It comprises: admitting the combustible mixture into the main combustion chamber during an intake phase of the cycle; compressing and thereby pressurizing the combustible mixture in the main combustion chamber during a compression phase of the cycle; opening the second control valve means at a predetermined time during a latter portion of the compression phase in order to admit a portion of pressurized combustible mixture into the auxiliary combustion chamber; igniting the portion of combustible mixture admitted to the auxiliary combustion chamber and thereby forming expanding burning gases; directing the expanding burning gases from the auxiliary combustion chamber into the main combustion chamber in order to penetrate and cause ignition and burning of the remaining pressurized combustible mixture in the main combustion chamber; and closing the second control valve means at a predetermined time prior to about the beginning of the next compression phase.

Bailey, J.M.

1991-11-26

209

Polycrystalline-silicon microbridge combustible gas sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic, calorimetric gas detection is the most commonly used method for the detection of combustible gases below the lower-explosive limit (LEL). In this method, the heat of oxidation of a combustible species on a heated catalyst surface is detected by a resistance thermometer in proximity. Conventionally fabricated sensors suffer from high-power consumption (˜500 mW), slow thermal response (˜15 sec) and

Ronald Paul Manginell

1997-01-01

210

Gas turbines fired by solid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steadily increasing energy requirements have spurred a search for new methods of generating energy from low-cost, abundant fuels. The development of a gas-turbine system equipped for the direct combustion of such fuels is now underway in the U.S. A one-megawatt pilot plant has been operating for over a year, using a fluidized bed to burn coal. The plant has also

Wade

1976-01-01

211

Coal-burning gas turbine combustion system for reducing turbine erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas-fluidized ground coal, and coal dust slurried with fuel oil, are supplied to a reverse flow cyclone combustor which provides the functions of combustion and particulate removal. Coal dust borne by the fluidizing gas is passed through a cyclone scrubber utilizing fuel oil, and the resulting slurry is introduced into the combustor adjacent the inner surface of the combustor wall.

1978-01-01

212

Fuel and water vaporizer for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combination with a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine, and fuel supply, an apparatus is described for injecting a fuel mixture of vaporized fuel, fuel, steam and air into the engine carburetor which consists of: heated means for vaporizing fuel comprising: a closed chamber having a fuel inlet, a vapor outlet, a perforated septum lying horizontally across the lower half of

1986-01-01

213

Multi-fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders is described. It consists of: a first fuel injection pump means having a plurality of fuel outlets for delivering a first fuel in a predetermined cycle under a pressure higher than a predetermined value; a second fuel injection pump means having a single fuel outlet and

Susono

1987-01-01

214

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion which consists of base fuel and water doped with or without a trace content of surfactant are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamental mechanism relevant to the micro-explosion phenomena leading to the secondary atomization which is not common to the combustion of pure fuel. Described at first are the kinetic

T. Kadota; H. Yamasaki

2002-01-01

215

Numerical analysis of supersonic combustion ramjet with upstream fuel injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes possible fuel injection scheme for airbreathing engines that use hydrocarbon fuels. The basic idea is to inject fuel at the spike tip of the supersonic inlet to achieve mixing and combustion efficiency with a limited length combustion chamber. A numerical code, able to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in turbulent and reacting flows, is employed to obtain

Raffaele Savino; Giuseppe Pezzella

2003-01-01

216

Effects of highly-heated fuel on diesel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of highly heated fuel on diesel combustion were studied experimentally in a rapid compression machine. A pure fuel, dodecane, heated up to and beyond its critical temperature, was injected into a diesel combustion chamber with the air charge at a compression ratio of 18.2 to 1. The ignition delay was found to decrease with the increase of fuel

G. J. Walsh; W. K. Cheng

1985-01-01

217

Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station  

SciTech Connect

A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

Not Available

1982-03-01

218

The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Inst.

1998-05-01

219

An evaluation of detailed reaction mechanisms for hydrogen combustion under gas turbine conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical kinetics in hydrogen combustion for elevated pressures have recently become more relevant because of the implementation of hydrogen as a fuel in future gas turbine combustion applications, such as IGCC or IRCC systems. The aim of this study is to identify a reaction mechanism that accurately represents H2\\/O2 kinetics over a large range of conditions, particularly at elevated pressures

Jochen Ströhle; Tore Myhrvold

2007-01-01

220

On-Line Measurement of Nitrous Oxide from Combustion Sources by Automated Gas Chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses on-line measurement of nitrous oxide (N2O) from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. Fossil fuel combustion is suspected of contributing to measured increases in the ambient concentrations of N2O. Characterization of N2O...

J. V. Ryan W. P. Linak

1992-01-01

221

NUMERICAL STUDY OF SPRAY PARAMETRIC EFFECTS ON GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical study was conducted to determine the effects of fuel spray characteristics on the gas turbine combustion performance including the combustion efficiency and the overall temperature distribution factor (OTDF) at the exit of the combustor using the KIVA-3V code. A model of a typical annular combustor was used in the computations. Operating conditions were varied with inlet pressure from

K. Su; C. Q. Zhou

222

Catalytic relight coating for gas turbine combustion chamber and method of application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas turbine combustion chamber is described having a wall with an inner surface exposed to the combustion chamber flame, and a coating of a catalytic material on the surface over a large enough area thereof to cause reignition of the fuel-air mixture after flame-out.

W. C. Pfefferle; M. J. Bak

1986-01-01

223

Effect of air preheating and fuel moisture on combustion characteristics of corn straw in a fixed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out on a one-dimensional bench combustion tests rig. The effect of air preheating and moisture level in the fuel on combustion characteristics of corn straw was investigated. The bed temperature distribution and the mass loss of fuel and gas components such as O2, CO, CO2 and NO were measured in the bed. The average burning rate and

Wei Zhao; Zhengqi Li; Guangbo Zhao; Fangshi Zhang; Qunyi Zhu

2008-01-01

224

Advanced bioreactor concepts for gaseous substrates: Conversion of synthesis gas to liquid fuels and removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from coal combustion gases. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the proposed research program was the development and demonstration of a new generation of gaseous substrate-based bioreactors for the production of liquid fuels from coal synthesis gas and the removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} species from coal combustion flue gas. This study addressed the further investigation of optimal bacterial strains, growth media and kinetics for the biocatalytic conversion of coal synthesis gas to liquid fuel such as ethanol and the reduction of gaseous flue gas constituents. The primary emphasis was on the development of advanced bioreactor systems coupled with innovative biocatalytic systems that will provide increased productivity under controlled conditions. It was hoped that this would result in bioprocessing options that have both technical and economic feasibility, thus, ensuring early industrial use. Predictive mathematical models were formulated to accommodate hydrodynamics, mass transport, and conversion kinetics, and provide the data base for design and scale-up. The program was separated into four tasks: (1) Optimization of Biocatalytic Kinetics; (2) Development of Well-mixed and Columnar Reactors; (3) Development of Predictive Mathematical Models; and (4) Industrial Demonstration. Research activities addressing both synthesis gas conversion and flue gas removal were conducted in parallel by BRI and ORNL respectively.

Kaufman, E.N.; Selvaraj, P.T.

1997-10-01

225

Gas turbine containing an additional combustion gas compressor  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine containing an additional combustion gas compressor and a gearing drive which, on the one hand, is rotatably connected by means of a rigid coupling and an axial bearing with the gas turbine and, on the other hand, is rotatably connected by means of a further rigid coupling with the combustion gas compressor. Furthermore, the gearing drive serves to drive a generator by means of a power take-off shaft. The gears of the gearing drive possess helical teeth. For thrust compensation purposes the drive gear of the gearing drive is provided with pressure plates, and the helical teeth of the gears are designed such that a force acting upon the pressure plates and resulting from the thrust of the combustion gas compressor is reduced by the axial component of the helical teeth.

Zaba, T.

1983-04-26

226

Method and apparatus for fuel metering in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A fuel control system for an internal combustion engine with correction for optimum values based on a variety of factors. Characteristic engine data is stored in preferably digital memories with capabilities for interpolation. Upon addressing the engine data fields with input signals related to current operational variables, for example the accelerator pedal position , the control system derives therefrom a nominal air flow rate which is used as the reference value in a control loop that sets the amount of recycled exhaust gas and the fresh air flow. As the actual air flow rate approaches the reference value, the fuel flow is adjusted to insure correct mixtures at all times. In another embodiment, the fuel is supplied on demand but cannot exceed a maximum value except under special override conditions. Several other embodiments and variants are presented.

Becker, W.; Boehringer, A.; Eisele, H.

1982-11-23

227

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines.  

SciTech Connect

The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number of manufacturers are now leasing demonstration vehicles to consumers using hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H{sub 2}ICEs) as well as fuel cell vehicles. Developing countries in particular are pushing for H{sub 2}ICEs (powering two- and three-wheelers as well as passenger cars and buses) to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. This article offers a comprehensive overview of H{sub 2}ICEs. Topics that are discussed include fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

Verhelst, S.; Wallner, T.; Energy Systems; Ghent Univ.

2009-12-01

228

Combustion Light Gas Gun Technology Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Combustion Light Gas Gun, or CLGG, has been investigated for over ten years. During this time, the research has shown that the technology provides a minimum of 30% more muzzle energy than advanced solid propellent guns which translates to significant ...

D. Kruczynski D. Massey R. Milligan E. Vigil B. Landers

2007-01-01

229

Study of Relationship between Combustion Characteristics and Carbon Bond Structures in Marine Diesel Fuel Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine diesel fuel oil is expected to become more widely used for marine diesel engines in the future, because its low sulphur content is helpful in meeting regulatory requirements concerning exhaust gas emissions. However, cases of poor combustion in marine generator diesel engines have been reported even when the properties of the marine diesel fuel oil remain within the specifications

Takaaki Hashimoto; Senichi Sasaki

230

THERMAL LOADING AND TEMPEARTURE DISTRIBUTION OF A PRE COMBUSTION CHAMBER DIESEL ENGINE RUNNING ON GASOIL \\/ NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat flux and temperature distribution were carried out in the combustion chamber of a pre-combustion chamber diesel engine running on dual fuel of diesel and natural gas. The test rig consists of a pre- combustion chamber single cylinder diesel engine fully equipped for temperature measurements across different points in the cylinder head, cylinder liner and other critical areas of the

Mohamed Y. E. Selim

231

Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Normal Alkane Fuels in a Model Combustor of Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of kinds of one-component n-alkane liquid fuels on combustion characteristics was investigated experimentally using a model combustor of scramjet engine. The inlet condition of a model combustor is 2.0 of Mach number, up to 2400K of total temperature, and 0.38MPa of total pressure. Five kinds of n-alkane are tested, of which carbon numbers are 7, 8, 10, 13, and 16. They are more chemically active and less volatile with an increase of alkane carbon number. Fuels are injected to the combustor in the upstream of cavity with barbotage nitrogen gas and self-ignition performance was investigated. The result shows that self-ignition occurs with less equivalence ratio when alkane carbon number is smaller. This indicates that physical characteristic of fuel, namely volatile of fuel, is dominant for self-ignition behavior. Effect on flame-holding performance is also examined with adding pilot hydrogen and combustion is kept after cutting off pilot hydrogen with the least equivalence ratio where alkane carbon number is from 8 to 10. These points are discussed qualitatively from the conflict effect of chemical and physical properties on alkane carbon number.

??, ?; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ???; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

232

Methodology development of a time-resolved in-cylinder fuel oxidation analysis: Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion study application  

SciTech Connect

A technique was developed and applied to understand the mechanism of fuel oxidation in an internal combustion engine. This methodology determines the fuel and concentrations of various intermediates during the combustion cycle. A time-resolved measurement of a large number of species is the objective of this work and is achieved by the use of a sampling probe developed in-house. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve with internal N{sub 2} dilution was developed for sampling gases coming from the combustion chamber. Combustion species include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, fuel components, and hydrocarbons produced due to incomplete combustion of fuel. Combustion gases were collected and analyzed with the objectives of analysis by an automotive exhaust analyzer, separation by gas chromatography, and detection by flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry. The work presented was processed in a homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion mode context. (author)

Nowak, L.; Guibert, P.; Cavadias, S. [Universite de Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert CNRS UMR 7190, 2 place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 Saint Cyr l'Ecole (France); Dupre, S.; Momique, J.C. [PSA Peugeot Citroen, Centre Technique de Velizy, Route de Gizy, 78943 Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

2008-08-15

233

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

The ash deposition and performance behavior of a cross-section of coal-water fuels (CWFs) were investigated during comprehensive pilot-scale testing under Task 5 of the Department of Energy's Combustion and Fuel Characterization of Coal-Water Fuels project. The key results from this effort including combustion, furnace slagging, convective pass fouling, fly ash erosion and electrostatic precipitator collection characteristics of the test fuels, are summarized in this report. Data were obtained on twelve different CWFs as well as three baseline pulverized coals. Three coal types were fired at different levels of coal beneficiation to assess the effects of coal cleaning on performance. Five CWFs prepared from the same feed coal by different manufactures were tested to assess the effects of slurry processing. CWFs prepared from both standard grind and microfine grind coals were evaluated. In addition a microfine CWF was fired at fuel temperatures up to 220{degree}F to evaluate the effect of thermal atomization on performance. 8 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

Chow, O.K.; Durant, J.F.; Griffith, B.F.; Miemiec, L.S.; Levasseur, A.A.; Teigen, B.C.

1987-07-01

234

Self-oscillations of an unstable fuel combustion in the combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The form of the self-oscillations of a vibrating combustion of a fuel in the combustion chamber of a liquidpropellant rocket engine, caused by the fuel-combustion lag and the heat release, was determined. The character of change in these self-oscillations with increase in the time of the fuel-combustion lag was investigated.

Gotsulenko, V. V.; Gotsulenko, V. N.

2013-01-01

235

3D numerical simulation of fuel injection and combustion phenomena in Di diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the calculations of combustion phenomena in DI diesel engines are performed by modifying the KIVA program so as to be applicable to multi-hole nozzles and arbitrary patterns of injection rate. The thermophysical and thermochemical properties of gasoline are altered to those diesel fuel. In order to investigate the ability of this modified program, the calculations are compared with the experiments on single cylinder engines. The calculation for the heavy duty DI diesel engine is performed with this diesel combustion program. From this calculation results the gas flow, spray shapes, air-fuel mixing process, and combustion in this engine are investigated.

Takenaka, Y.; Aoyagi, Y.; Tsuji, Y.; Joko, I.

1989-01-01

236

Carbonation of fly ash in oxy-fuel CFB combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-fuel combustion of fossil fuel is one of the most promising methods to produce a stream of concentrated CO2 ready for sequestration. Oxy-fuel FBC (fluidized bed combustion) can use limestone as a sorbent for in situ capture of sulphur dioxide. Limestone will not calcine to CaO under typical oxy-fuel circulating FBC (CFBC) operating temperatures because of the high CO2 partial

Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E. J. Anthony

2008-01-01

237

NUMERICAL STUDY OF PARAMETRIC EFFECTS ON GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION NOx EMISSIONS USING A REDUCED MECHANISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical study was conducted to determine the effects of combustion condition parameters, including inlet temperature and pressure, fuel spray characteristics on NOx emissions in gas turbine combustion using the KIVA-3V code. Log-normal spray distribution was assumed for the simulation of real fuel spray distributions at injection. A simplified mechanism with 17-species and 26-step was employed for chemical reactions of

K. SU; C. Q. ZHOU

238

Combustion of ultrafine coal\\/water mixtures and their application in gas turbines: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using coal-water fuels (CWF) in gas turbine combustors has been demonstrated in recent pilot plant experiments. The demands of burning coal-water fuels with high flame stability, complete combustion, low NO\\/sub x\\/ emission and a resulting fly ash particle size that will not erode turbine blades represent a significant challenge to combustion scientists and engineers. The satisfactory solution

M. A. Toqan; S. Srinivasachar; J. Staudt; F. Varela; J. M. Beer

1987-01-01

239

Low NOx Combustion of DME by Means of Flue Gas Recirculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the fundamental characteristics of DME (Dimethyl Ether) combustion aiming at development of low-NOx combustion technology with flue gas recirculation, FGR. The flue gas is recirculated into the combustion chamber to reduce the oxygen concentration and to suppress the combustion gas temperature, so that NOx emission is significantly reduced. The fuel gas recirculation at high mixing ratio, however, may lead to unstable combustion of conventional fuels, methane or city gas. On the other hand, DME has very high potential of applicability for the flue gas recirculation even at high mixing ratio because of its high burning velocity and low ignition temperature. Combustion tests were conducted with laboratory-scale 11kW combustor. The maximum FGR ratio is 85% at the initial air ratio of 1.5 with preheated diluted air about 600K. The NOx emission reduced to 13ppm at 0%-O2, which corresponds to about 9% of NOx emission at FGR=0%. The stable combustion is sustained even in the low oxygen concentration by preheating diluted-air up to near the auto-ignition temperature of DME. Finally, the effect of the flue gas recirculation on the NOx and CO emission is discussed with reference to the industrial-scale water-tube boilers.

Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Ozawa, Mamoru; Terada, Shinya; Iio, Takenori

240

The combustion of liquid fuels using a porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present observations of the progress in liquid fuels combustion technology strongly suggest that utilization of a porous medium burner is a promising approach for future applications. The porous medium burner for liquid fuels is more advantageous than the conventional open spray flame burner for several reasons. These include enhanced evaporation of droplet spray owing to regenerative combustion characteristics, low emission

Sumrerng Jugjai; Narongsak Wongpanit; Thawatchai Laoketkan; Sorawut Nokkaew

2002-01-01

241

Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the

Krishnasamy Anand; youngchul Ra; Rolf Reitz; Bruce G Bunting

2011-01-01

242

Solid fuel combustion technology for the Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of fluidized bed combustion has been reviewed with emphasis on its potential application to industrial power or heating plants and to alternative fuels. This technology is ready for commercialization and there is strong evidence of its high adaptability to a large variety of fuels, including biomass and industrial wastes. Coal-oil slurry combustion also is being developed and

1977-01-01

243

Fossil Fuel Combustion and the Major Sedimentary Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of the fossil fuels coal, oil, and lignite potentially can mobilize many elements into the atmosphere at rates, in general, less than but comparable to their rates of flow through natural waters during the weathering cycle. Since the principal sites of fossil fuel combustion are in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, changes in the composition of natural

K. K. Bertine; Edward D. Goldberg

1971-01-01

244

Chemical-looping combustion using syngas as fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel, avoiding direct contact between air and fuel. Thus, CO2 and H2O are inherently separated from the rest of the flue gases and the carbon dioxide can be obtained in a pure form without the use of an

Tobias Mattisson; Francisco García-Labiano; Bernhard Kronberger; Anders Lyngfelt; Juan Adánez; Hermann Hofbauer

2007-01-01

245

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication

1987-01-01

246

Controlling Cyclic Combustion Variations in Lean-Fueled Spark-Ignition Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under conditions of lean fueling or high exhaust gas recirculation, interactions between residual cylinder gas and freshly injected fuel and air produce undesirable combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines. The resulting dynamics can be described as noisy bifurcations of a nonlinear map and are complicated by cylinder-to-cylinder coupling. We discuss the key dynamic features relevant to control and demonstrate simple feedback control of a multi-cylinder test vehicle.

Daw, C. S.; Green, J. B.; Wagner, R. M.; Finney, C. E. A.; Davis, L. I.; Feldkamp, L. A.; Hoard, J. W.; Yuan, F.; Connolly, F. T.

2002-07-01

247

Controlling Cyclic Combustion Variations in Lean-Fueled Spark-Ignition Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under conditions of lean fueling or high exhaust gas recirculation, interactions between residual cylinder gas and freshly injected fuel and air produce undesirable combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines. The resulting dynamics can be described as noisy bifurcations of a nonlinear map and are complicated by cylinder-to-cylinder coupling. We discuss the key dynamic features relevant to control and demonstrate simple feedback

C. S. Daw; J. B. Green; R. M. Wagner; C. E. A. Finney; L. I. Davis; L. A. Feldkamp; J. W. Hoard; F. Yuan; F. T. Connolly

2002-01-01

248

Development of Sampling and Analytical Methods for the Measurement of Nitrous Oxide from Fossil Fuel Combustion Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. The tw...

J. V. Ryan S. A. Karns

1993-01-01

249

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the Department of Energy initiated a comprehensive effort in 1982 to develop the necessary performance and cost data and to assess the commercial viability of coal-water fuels (CWFs) as applied to representative utility and industrial units. The effort comprised six tasks beginning with coal resource evaluation and culminating in the assessment of the technical and economic consequences of switching representative commercial units from oil to state-of-the-art CWF firing. Extensive bench, pilot and commercial-scale tests were performed to develop necessary CWF combustion and fireside performance data for the subsequent boiler performance analyses and retrofit cost estimates. Discussions on transport, rheology, combustion properties, and ash characterization are included. 11 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Chow, O.K.; Patel, R.L.; Levasseur, A.A.

1987-07-01

250

Transient Spray Combustion Computations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many practical combustion devices involves direct injection of liquid fuel into the combustion chamber, e.g., gas turbine engines, diesel engines, rockets and ramjet engines, and furnaces. Typically, the fuel is of sufficiently low volatility that vaporiz...

W. A. Sirignano

1986-01-01

251

Method and apparatus for recovery of combustible gas from waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus is disclosed for recovery of combustible gas formed from combustible refuse or vegetable matter in an enclosed space from which the combustible gas is collected. Water can be injected into the apparatus and the decay process initiated and promoted by activating a heating element projecting upwardly from the base of the apparatus into the material undergoing

Ricks

1980-01-01

252

Mercury transformations in coal combustion flue gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury chlorination [i.e., formation of HgCl2(g)] is generally assumed to be the dominant mercury-transformation mechanism in coal combustion flue gas. Other potential mechanisms involve mercury interactions with ash particle surfaces where reactive chemical species, oxidation catalysts, and active sorption sites are available to transform Hg0(g) to Hg2+X(g) (e.g., where X is Cl2 or O) as well as Hg0(g) and HgCl2(g)

Kevin C. Galbreath; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2000-01-01

253

LIEKKI and JALO: Combustion and fuel conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LIEKKI and JALO are well conceived and structured programs designed to strengthen Finland's special needs in combustion and gasification to utilize a diversity of fuels, increase the ratio of electrical to heat output, and to support the export market. Started in 1988, these two programs provide models of how universities, Technical research center's laboratories (VTT's), and industry can collaborate successfully in order to achieve national goals. The research is focused on long term goals in certain targeted niche areas. This is an effective way to use limited resources. The niche areas were chosen in a rational manner and appear to be appropriate for Finland. The LIEKKl and JALO programs have helped pull together research efforts that were previously more fragmented. For example, the combustion modeling area still appears fragmented. Individual project objectives should be tied to program goals at a very early stage to provide sharper focusing to the research. Both the LIEKKl and JALO programs appear to be strongly endorsed by industry. Industrial members of the Executive Committees were very supportive of these programs. There are good mechanisms for technology transfer in place, and the programs provide opportunities to establish good interfaces between industrial people and the individual researchers. The interest of industry is shown by the large number of applied projects that are supported by industry. This demonstrates the relevancy of the programs. There is a strong interaction between the JALO program and industry in black liquor gasification.

Grace, Thomas M.; Renz, Ulrich; Sarofim, Adel F.

254

Ignition combustion pre-chamber for internal combustion engines with constant stoichiometric air-fuel mixture at ignition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal combustion engine including at least one combustion chamber and a pre-chamber in fluid communication with the combustion chamber, a method of providing combustion within the combustion chamber. It comprises charging the combustion chamber with a first mixture of air and fuel having a lean ratio of air-to-fuel; charging the pre-chamber with a further mixture of

1992-01-01

255

Fuel rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment  

SciTech Connect

A major concern associated with the combustion of coal for heat and electricity is the emission of acid rain precursors, NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/. Dry calcium based sorbent injection is a potential method for reducing SO/sub 2/ emissions from existing coal-fired boilers. A great deal of study has been devoted to the fuel lean SO/sub 2/ reaction: CaO + SO/sub 2/ + 12O/sub 2/ ..-->.. CaSO/sub 4/ The fuel rich analogies: CaO + H/sub 2/S ..-->.. CaS + H/sub 2/O, CaO + COS ..-->.. CaS + CO/sub 2/ are kinetically faster than the SO/sub 2/ reaction. The fuel rich reactions have not been extensively studied particularly under combustion conditions. In this study a refraction lined, down fired natural gas furnace was used to study fuel rich sulfur capture as a function of sulfur concentration (750-3000 ppm), molar ratio of calcium to sulfur (CaS = 1 to 4), residence time (0.30 to 0.65 sec), quench rate (450 to 900/sup 0/Fsec), stoichiometric ratio in the rich zone (SR = 0.65, 0.75), and sorbent type (Marblehead hydrate and Fredonia carbonate). The fuel rich sulfur species H/sub 2/S and COS were monitored in a near continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) and an automatic sampling system which sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel rich zone, 25% excess air was added and the ultimate fuel lean capture was measured using a continuous SO/sub 2/ monitor. Under fuel rich conditions calcium utilization increases with increasing sulfur concentration and decreasing CaS. The results on the lean side are very typical of lean capture data reported by others; i.e. the calcium utilization is weakly dependent on CaS and sulfur concentration.

Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.

1987-01-01

256

An integrated power generation system combining solid oxide fuel cell and oxy-fuel combustion for high performance and CO 2 capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated power generation system combining solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and oxy-fuel combustion technology is proposed. The system is revised from a pressurized SOFC-gas turbine hybrid system to capture CO2 almost completely while maintaining high efficiency. The system consists of SOFC, gas turbine, oxy-combustion bottoming cycle, and CO2 capture and compression process. An ion transport membrane (ITM) is used

Sung Ku Park; Tong Seop Kim; Jeong L. Sohn; Young Duk Lee

2011-01-01

257

High Pressure Combustion Test Facility for Gas Turbine Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new high pressure combustion test facility was constructed in the National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo, to assist the national project for developing a high efficiency combined cycle gas turbine. It enables continuous combustion tests by an air mass flo...

T. Tamaru K. Shimodaira S. Horiuchi T. Saito S. Hayashi

1984-01-01

258

Plasma ignition of combustion in a supersonic flow of fuel-air mixtures: Simulation problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental approaches to tackling the problems of plasma ignition of supersonic combustion in fuel-air mixtures\\u000a of various compositions are discussed. Discharge types useful for this purpose are considered. The feasibility of reaching\\u000a a substantial gain in energy in the initiation of combustion by non-equilibrium gas-discharge plasma is particularly interesting.

I. V. Kochetov; A. P. Napartovich; S. B. Leonov

2006-01-01

259

Chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling for combustion of solid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) is a novel method to burn solid fuels in gas-phase oxygen without the need for an energy intensive air separation unit. The carbon dioxide from the combustion is inherently separated from the rest of the flue gases. CLOU is based on chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and involves three steps in two reactors, one air reactor where

Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt; Henrik Leion

2009-01-01

260

Calcium-based sorbents behaviour during sulphation at oxy-fuel fluidised bed combustion conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphur capture by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO2 concentration. In oxy-fuel combustion in fluidised beds (FB), CO2 concentration in the flue gas may be enriched up to 95%. Under so high CO2 concentration, different from that in conventional coal combustion with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined

Francisco García-Labiano; Aránzazu Rufas; Luis F. de Diego; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Pilar Gayán; Alberto Abad; Juan Adánez

2011-01-01

261

Performance of low-Btu fuel gas turbine combustors  

SciTech Connect

This reports on a project to develop low BTU gas fuel nozzle for use in large gas turbine combustors using multiple fuel nozzles. A rich-quench-lean combustor is described here which reduces the amount of NO{sub x} produced by the combustion of the low BTU gas. The combustor incorporates a converging rich stage combustor liner, which separates the rich stage recirculation zones from the quench stage and lean stage air.

Bevan, S.; Bowen, J.H.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.

1995-11-01

262

Transient and translating gas jet modeling for pressure gain combustion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major mechanisms governing the mixing process of a gas injected into a long confined chamber is analyzed when there's a relative motion between the two. Such applications arise in a wave rotor combustor (WRCVC) where the moving combustion chambers receive gas from stationary injectors for fueling and ignition. Counter rotating vortices govern the mixing process in such problems, which moves

Sameera Devsritha Wijeyakulasuriya

2011-01-01

263

Further applications of the Lucas fan spray fuel injection combustion system  

SciTech Connect

ASME paper 79-gt-175 presented the design philosophy upon which Lucas fan spray fuel injection combustion systems for small gas turbines is based. Included were results from a system designed for an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (apu) and capable of operating with avaiation kerosene, gas oil and marine diesel fuels. Since the publication of the above paper there has been further development of the system and application of the design to a range of engines. The present paper reviews the design philosophy for fan spray combustion systems and describes its application to a unit for a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) engine with combustion loadings greater than five times that of the initial application covered by paper 79-gt-175. The design concept is described together with results from, (a) flow visualisation, (b) testing at combustion loading values between 6 and 24 kg/s pa /sup 1.8/m/sup 3/ over a range of air to fuel ratios from 50/1 to 300/1, and (c) light-ups over a range of conditions from sea level static to 15 km at 1.6 flight mach no. With fuel fed to various configurations of fuel injector i.e. all six injectors, three equispaced, three grouped together and one only. The fuel used was mainly aviation kerosene with a check at a 290 kw condition using gas oil.

Carr, E.

1985-01-01

264

Highjacking of Hard-Earned Energy Savings Through The Backdoor—Combustion Air Requirements in Fossil Fuel Installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels—coal, fuel oil, natural gas, etc.—used in space heating, cooling, processing, and power plants require an appropriate amount of air for complete combustion. It is quite normal to provide some amount of excess air to ensure this process so that there are absolutely no unburnt or partially burnt fuel elements in the exhaust, as would be indicated by carbon

Gary Krishnan

2012-01-01

265

Diazido alkanes and diazido alkanols as combustion modifiers for liquid hydrocarbon ramjet fuels  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to liquid-hydrocarbon jet fuels and more particularly to azido additives to liquid-hydrocarbon ramjet fuels. In most liquid-fueled combustors such as the ramjet, the fuel is directly introduced into the upstream flow section of the combustion chamber in the form of sprays of droplets. These droplets subsequently mix with the external gas, heat up, gasify, combust, and thereby release heat to provide the propulsion energy. It is therefore obvious that the rates of gasification and mixing would closely affect the chemical heat release rate and, consequently, such important performance parameters as combustion efficiency and the tendency to exhibit combustion instability. Accordingly, and object of this invention is to provide a new, improved jet fuel and provide new additives for jet fuels. A further object of this invention is to provide a more-efficient jet fuel and reduce the ignition time for jet fuels. Still, a further object of this invention is to improve the mixing characteristics of the jet-fuel spray.

Miller, R.S.

1986-07-03

266

Multiphase CFD-based models for chemical looping combustion process: Fuel reactor modeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a flameless two-step fuel combustion that produces a pure CO2 stream, ready for compression and sequestration. The process is composed of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors. The air reactor which is a conventional circulating fluidized bed and the fuel reactor which is a bubbling fluidized bed. The basic principle is to avoid the direct contact of air and fuel during the combustion by introducing a highly-reactive metal particle, referred to as oxygen carrier, to transport oxygen from the air to the fuel. In the process, the products from combustion are kept separated from the rest of the flue gases namely nitrogen and excess oxygen. This process eliminates the energy intensive step to separate the CO2 from nitrogen-rich flue gas that reduce the thermal efficiency. Fundamental knowledge of multiphase reactive fluid dynamic behavior of the gas–solid flow is essential for the optimization and operation of a chemical looping combustor. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase CFD-based models have not been adapted to chemical looping combustion processes in the open literature. In this study, we have developed the reaction kinetics model of the fuel reactor and implemented the kinetic model into a multiphase hydrodynamic model, MFIX, developed earlier at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Simulated fuel reactor flows revealed high weight fraction of unburned methane fuel in the flue gas along with CO2 and H2O. This behavior implies high fuel loss at the exit of the reactor and indicates the necessity to increase the residence time, say by decreasing the fuel flow rate, or to recirculate the unburned methane after condensing and removing CO2.

Jung, Jonghwun (ANL); Gamwo, I.K.

2008-04-21

267

Fluidized bed combustion and desulfurization of a heavy liquid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and theoretical study on the combustion and desulfurization of liquid fuels in fluidized beds is proposed in the paper.Tests with a high sulfur liquid fuel (Egyptian mazut) have been performed in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor equipped with a special fuel injector at different operating conditions. Limestone is used as sorbent at various Ca\\/S ratio. The experiments evidenced

Francesco Miccio; Farouk M. Okasha

2005-01-01

268

Air to fuel ratio control system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air to fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine having a fixed venturi type carburetor is disclosed. The air to fuel ratio control system comprises a device for extracting an atmospheric pressure within a venturi or a pressure corresponding to a relieved venturi vacuum, a device for extracting a static fuel pressure downstream of a main jet

Y. Nishimura; Y. Oyama

1980-01-01

269

Jet fuel droplet combustion with and without the convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of stationary JP8 and JP8+100 fuel droplets were studied in low convectional environments for the first time. Although usage of these fuels is quite broad and significant, their fundamental physical properties are not well provided. Our goal is to provide practical parameters such as burning rate constants, burning times of jet fuel droplets by the use of the spherical

J. H. Bae; C. T. Avedisian

2002-01-01

270

Effect of flow field for colorless distributed combustion (CDC) for gas turbine combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorless distributed combustion (CDC) investigated here is focused on gas turbine combustion applications due to its significant benefits for, much reduced NOx emissions and noise reduction, and significantly improved pattern factor. CDC is characterized by distributed reaction zone of combustion which leads to uniform thermal field and avoidance of hot spot regions to provide significant improvement in pattern factor, lower

Vaibhav K. Arghode; Ashwani K. Gupta

2010-01-01

271

Effective Heat of Combustion for Flaming Combustion of Mediterranean Forest Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adapted bench-scale Mass Loss Calorimeter (MLC) device is proposed for evaluating effective heat of rapid flaming combustion\\u000a of fine Mediterranean forest fuels. The MLC apparatus uses a calibrated thermopile to quantify heat release rate (HRR) as\\u000a an alternative to the classical oxygen consumption measurement. A porous holder was used to simulate rapid flaming combustion.\\u000a Average effective heat of combustion

J. Madrigal; M. Guijarro; C. Hernando; C. Díez; E. Marino

2011-01-01

272

New Findings on Combustion Behavior of Oxygenated Synthetic Diesel Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

New results were obtained on pollutants evolution during the combustion of four oxygenated fuels, whichwere compared with n-tetradecane and n-octane combustion. Three different techniques were adopted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine, equipped with optical accesses: two-colour pyrometry for the measurement of in-cylinder soot loading, high speed cinematography for the visualization and analysis of spray and combustion, fast

C. BEATRICE; C. BERTOLI; N. D. GIACOMO

1998-01-01

273

Ongoing development of a low-emission industrial gas turbine combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments performed on laboratory- and full-scale gas-turbine combustors to test the feasibility of meeting proposed federal emission standards demonstrated that by uniformly mixing gaseous fuel and primary-zone air prior to combustion and burning the fuel leanly (equivalence ratio <1.0), an industrial gas turbine could meet the proposed emission standards. The characteristic narrow range of flame stability obtained with lean premix

V. M. Sood; J. R. Shekleton

1980-01-01

274

MATERIALS PERFORMANCE OF FERRITIC STEEL IN COMBUSTION GASES FOR HEAT EXCHANGER APPLICATIONS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferritic steels have been recognized as candidates for their applications in heat exchangers used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells balance of plant. Combustion gases flowing through those heat exchangers can be very corrosive. Therefore, the National Energy Technology Laboratory determined materials performance of commercial S43000 stainless steel exposed to a simulated combustion gas at 800 °C. The exposure experiments were

M. Moroz; T. A. Adler; P. E. King

2008-01-01

275

Liquid Fuel Combustion Using Porous Inert Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion using porous inert media (PIM) offers benefits such as high power density, stable operation over a wider turndown ratio, homogeneous product gases, lower combustion noise and reduced emissions of NOx, CO, particulates, etc. Much of the previous...

A. K. Agrawal S. R. Gollahalli

2006-01-01

276

Fuel-Rich Solid Propellant Boron Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single particle boron ignition and combustion models developed in earlier phases of this program have been utilized and extended to treatment of boron cloud ignition, oxidizer depletion effects on cloud combustion time, laminar flame speeds in boron dust ...

J. Komar M. K. King R. S. Fry

1984-01-01

277

An overview of synthetic fuel combustion issues and research activities  

SciTech Connect

With the reduction in the availability of conventional hydrocarbons for fuels in the transportation, utility and industrial sectors, there is need to include fuels produced from low hydrogento-carbon ratio sources, such as coal, shale oil and tar sands. Various processes are being developed to produce coal-derived liquids, solids and gases, oil from shale and heavy oils from tar sands. It has been established that the cost and energy intensive requirements to refine these syncrudes to a hydrogen-carbon ratio and boiling range more typical of conventional fuels is very large. Therefore, there is a large economic driving force for the design, development and implementation of combustion equipment capable of burning synthetic fuels of widely varying properties in a thermally efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. Concurrently, the need to conserve energy and to control pollutant emissions is also forcing improvements in combustion efficiency and reductions in pollutant emissions of existing energy-conversion devices using present-day fuels including heavy and residual oils. The requirements on the design of combustion equipment to meet these objectives will be severe and will demand substantial improvements in our ability to understand the combustion process and its controlling parameters. Many recent studies have considered the combustion of synthetic fuels. The problem is that current combustor technology has evolved slowly, is based upon empirical methods, and contains little consideration for fuel flexibility. The situation is particularly acute now because of the present uncertainties in fuel supplies and the corresponding uncertainties in design for fuel flexibility.

Boni, A.A.; Bienstock, D.; Edelman, R.B.; Fischer, J.

1982-03-01

278

Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR.

Daw, C. Stuart; Finney, Charles E. A.

2011-04-01

279

Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01

280

Effect of preheating on liquid fuel evaporation on combustion in a model combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combustion model for a sprayed liquid fuel is developed, starting from the assumption that combustion of an individual drop is impossible, and the droplets are completely entrained in the moving medium. The model gives the a flame length close to that observed experimentally. It is established that the preheat time of the droplet is roughly the same as its

S. A. Zaitsev; V. R. Kuznetsov; G. M. Kuntsev

1991-01-01

281

LOW NOX STRATEGY FOR COMBUSTING HIGH NITROGEN CONTENT FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of a multistaged combustion urner (designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficieiicy) for [high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 1.0 MW package boiler. simulator. A low NOx precombustion cham...

282

GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and\\/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In

D. M. Bachovchin; R. A. Newby P. G. A. Cizmas

2004-01-01

283

Performance of a flameless combustion furnace using biogas and natural gas.  

PubMed

Flameless combustion technology has proved to be flexible regarding the utilization of conventional fuels. This flexibility is associated with the main characteristic of the combustion regime, which is the mixing of the reactants above the autoignition temperature of the fuel. Flameless combustion advantages when using conventional fuels are a proven fact. However, it is necessary to assess thermal equipments performance when utilizing bio-fuels, which usually are obtained from biomass gasification and the excreta of animals in bio-digesters. The effect of using biogas on the performance of an experimental furnace equipped with a self-regenerative Flameless burner is reported in this paper. All the results were compared to the performance of the system fueled with natural gas. Results showed that temperature field and uniformity are similar for both fuels; although biogas temperatures were slightly lower due to the larger amount of inert gases (CO(2)) in its composition that cool down the reactions. Species patterns and pollutant emissions showed similar trends and values for both fuels, and the energy balance for biogas showed a minor reduction of the efficiency of the furnace; this confirms that Flameless combustion is highly flexible to burn conventional and diluted fuels. Important modifications on the burner were not necessary to run the system using biogas. Additionally, in order to highlight the advantages of the Flameless combustion regime, some comparisons of the burner performance working in Flameless mode and working in conventional mode are presented. PMID:19944602

Colorado, A F; Herrera, B A; Amell, A A

2009-11-26

284

Thermal transformations of a support for fuel combustion catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural, textural and mechanical properties of a honeycomb ceramic support based on environmentally safe natural raw materials, calcined at various temperatures have been studied. Optimal formation conditions of the support for fuel combustion catalysts have been determined.

N. A. Prokudina; V. A. Sazonov; Y. R. Ismagilov; V. A. Ushakov

1995-01-01

285

Vibrational Relaxation in the Products of Hydrocarbon Fuel Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oscillating relaxation time in the combustion products of a hydrocarbon fuel as it flows from a nozzle under supersonic flow conditions was calcualted. For certain components the duration of the oscillating relaxation is comparable to the characterist...

V. N. Arkhipov

1972-01-01

286

Time dependent flame propagation through premixed and liquid fuel-air combustible mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsteady one dimensional combustion of fuel vapor, premixed gas and monodisperse spray in a stagnant, oxidizing environment were investigated using one step second order reaction kinetics. The governing equations were simplified and solved numerically for each specific problem. Two different approaches were used to formulate the liquid phase equations. The first method treated the liquid phase as continuous media. A

Vural

1982-01-01

287

Cogeneration system with low N0 sub x combustion of liquid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a cogeneration system for the production of electricity and carbon dioxide with low NOâ combustion of liquid fuel. It comprises a high- pressure steam boiler, a porous fiber burner within the boiler, a countercurrent heat exchanger connected to receive the flow of flue gas from the boiler, an air blower connected to the heat exchanger for the

Garbo

1991-01-01

288

Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka [Toyota Motor Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.

1998-12-31

289

Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Efficiencies in advanced power generation systems such as integrated gasification combined cycle, pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification fuel cells can be maximized by feeding hot fuel gas or flue gas to the power block. However, advanced gas turbines have strict particulate requirements to minimize wear on the blades due to the close tolerances used to maximize the efficiency of the turbomachinery. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells also have strict particulate requirements to prevent blinding of the electrodes. Therefore, one of the main barriers to developing these advanced power generation systems is the removal of particulates in a hot gas stream. Although the development of several high temperature/pressure PCD systems has been ongoing for the past several years, long term operation under realistic conditions for advanced power generation has been limited. The demonstration of reliable operation is critical to the commercialization of PCD technology for advanced power generation. The conceptual design of the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Project was expanded to include additional modules to better address the scope of the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE/METC. The expanded test facility, referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility, will provide a flexible test location in which the development of advanced power system components, the evaluation of advanced turbine and fuel cell configurations, and the integration and control issues of these systems. The facility is intended to provide direct support for upcoming DOE demonstrations of power generation technologies utilizing hot stream cleanup and will provide a resource for rigorous testing and performance assessment of hot stream cleanup devices now being developed with the support of DOE/METC.

Sears, R.E.; Griswold, G.H.; Fankhanel, M.O.; Kastner, C.E.; Pontium, D.H.

1992-11-01

290

Scholarly research program in fuel analysis and combustion research. Final report, September 1987-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

A total of 40 individually funded tasks were performed under this effort. These tasks were concerned with many fuel analysis and combustion research, conducted for the Fuels Branch (WL/POSF), Lubrications Branch (WL/POSL) and other Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate Laboratories. This report is a compilation of 1-2 page summaries from each of the tasks. More information on each task is available in the technical reports, journal articles, letter reports or informal information listed for the project. Although the subjects covered under this contract are too varied to list here, the most often addressed areas were research topics in gas chromatography and related instrumentation, thermal stability testing and methods development, lubrications research and combustion studies.... Chemometrics flames, Fuel analysis, Mass spectrometry, Shelf Life, CARS, Thermal stability, P-Hydrogen detector, Gas chromatography, Atomic emission, High density fuel, System for Thermal Diagnostic Studies (STDS).

Striebich, R.C.

1993-02-01

291

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01

292

Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.  

PubMed

A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends. PMID:15288277

Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

2004-12-01

293

Synthetic fuel performance, combustion, and emissions from a light-duty DI diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

Two synthetic Diesel fuels, one derived from oil shale and the other from tar sands, were compared to a petroleum-based number-two Diesel fuel. These fuels were tested in a single-cylinder, air-cooled, direct-injected, light-duty Diesel engine. Comparisons were made on the bases of performance, combustion characteristics, gas-phase emissions (including aldehyde) and particulate emissions. The aldehyde emissions were measured using the DNPH method with a gas-chromatographic finish, while the mutagenic activity of the particulate emissions soluble organic fraction was assayed using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test.

Hankins, K.E.; Crouse, M.E.; Litzinger, T.A.; Lestz, S.S.

1986-01-01

294

Modeling of liquid fuel combustion in fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed to simulate combustion of liquid fuel in fluidized bed. The hydrodynamic description of the bed is based on modified two-phase theory of fluidization where the bed is assumed to consist of three phases. A jet-bubble phase which is fuel highly rich bubbles formed at the fuel injector, a distributor-bubble phase which is fuel free

F. Okasha

2007-01-01

295

Fuel combustion test in constant volume combustion chamber with built-in adaptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion tests of pre-mixture of methane and air in constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) have been carried out by means\\u000a of flame propagation photo and gas pressure measurement, the effects of CVCC body temperature, intake pressure of pre-mixture\\u000a of methane and air, equivalence ratio and location of the built-in adaptor have been investigated. The whole combustion chamber\\u000a can be divided

HongGuang Zhang; XiaoLei Bai; DongSoo Jeong; GyuBack Cho; SuJin Choi; JinSoo Lee

2010-01-01

296

Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation  

SciTech Connect

We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL

2011-01-01

297

Behavior of easily ionizable additives in the combustion wave of a solid, plasma-producing fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion products of solid, plasma-producing fuels (SPF) are used as the working medium in pulsed geophysical MHD generators [i]. To ensure the required specific electrical conductivity of the gas at the entry into the MHD channel (50-70 mho\\/m), easily ionizable additives (IA) are introduced into the composition of such fuels. These additives usually consist of nitates of cesium, or

V. A. Novikov; V. M. Polonskii; S. I. Yakovlev

1990-01-01

298

Reduction of fuel side costs due to biomass co-combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and influence of co-combustion of woody biomass on the fuel side costs is discussed for three hard coal power plants located in Berlin, Germany. Fuel side costs are defined as the costs resulting from flue gas cleaning and by-products. To have reliable data, co-firing tests were conducted in two power plants (i.e. slag tap furnace and circulating fluidising

Andrea Wils; Wolfgang Calmano; Peter Dettmann; Martin Kaltschmitt; Holger Ecke

299

Sulphur impacts during pulverised coal combustion in oxy-fuel technology for carbon capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxy-fuel process is one of three carbon capture technologies which supply CO2 ready for sequestration – the others being post-combustion capture and IGCC with carbon capture. As yet no technology has emerged as a clear winner in the race to commercial deployment. The oxy-fuel process relies on recycled flue gas as the main heat carrier through the boiler and

Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2011-01-01

300

Developments in integrated pollutant removal for low-emission oxy-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

A complete coal combustion and flue gas treatment scheme was designed, constructed, and operated at bench scale as a product of cooperative research between US DOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. The combustion gas generated using this oxy-fuel coal combustion process was effectively captured using an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process. Supporting laboratory-scale research focuses on elements of IPR such as extraction of particulates, SO2, and mercury, and on the character of the liquid and vapor phase compositions for the CO2 - N2 - O2 mixture at the temperature and pressure conditions found at the end of the process. Future pilot-scale work will be necessary to generate economic and engineering data that will apply to full-scale oxy-fuel/IPR systems.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Summers, Cathy A.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Ochs, Thomas L.

2005-09-01

301

Apparatus for controlling the ratio of air to fuel quantity in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is proposed which serves to control the ratio of air to fuel quantity of the operational mixture to be introduced into the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine. The actual fuel quantity supplied via an injection apparatus and the actual air quantity supplied via the intake manifold of the engine are measured and processed in a control apparatus into a correction adjusting variable. The apparatus further functions with exhaust recirculation, with the aspirated fresh air quantity being dosed and the remnant filling of the gaseous filling introduced into the combustion chambers of the engine is replaced by recirculated exhaust gas. For the purpose of dosing the fresh air, a symmetrical throttle valve is disposed in the intake manifold, whose position is transferred by means of pneumatic servomotor to a second throttle device, by means of which finally the quantity of the recirculated exhaust gas is determined.

Walz, L.; Wessel, W.

1981-12-22

302

CO2 and H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion for zero-emission power  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for zero-emission power generation systems. These systems are intended to produce power without releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. One method to achieve this goal is to produce hydrogen from the gasification of fossil or biomass fuels. Using various membrane and reforming technologies, the carbon in the parent fuel can be shifted to CO2 and removed from the fuel stream, followed by direct CO2 sequestration. The hydrogen fuel can be used directly in gas turbines fitted with low-NOx combustors. A second approach to producing zero-emission power is to replace the nitrogen diluent that accompanies conventional combustion in air with either CO2 or H2O. In this concept, CO2 or H2O is added to oxygen to control combustion temperatures in oxygen–fuel reactions. In the absence of nitrogen, the primary combustion products for any hydrocarbon under lean conditions are then simply CO2 and H2O. Thus, merely cooling the exhaust stream condenses the water and produces an exhaust of pure CO2, ready for sequestration. The dilute oxy-fuel combustion strategy can be incorporated in power cycles that are similar to Brayton or Rankine configurations, using CO2 or H2O as the primary diluent respectively. While the relativemerits of the various strategies to zero-emission power are the subject of various technical and economic studies, very little work has focused on defining the combustion issues associated with the dilute oxy-fuel option. In this paper, the expected combustion performance of CO2 and H2O diluted systems are compared. Experimental results from a high-pressure oxy-fuel combustor are also presented.

G A Richards; K H Casleton; B T Chorpening

2005-01-01

303

Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Ignition, Combustion and Expansion Processes of Hypergolic Liquid Fuel Combinations at Gas Temperatures Up to 3000 Deg K.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ignition, combustion, and expansion characteristics of hypergolic liquid propellant mixtures in small rocket engines are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown by using the Bray approximation procedure that the reaction H + OH + M = H2O...

H. Schulz

1987-01-01

304

Combustion characteristics of the LO2/GCH4 fuel-rich preburners for staged combustion cycle rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion characteristics of Liquid Oxygen (LO2)/Gaseous Methane (GCH4) fuel rich preburners were experimentally studied using subscale hardware. Three types of preburners with coaxial type propellant injection elements were designed and fabricated, and were used for hot fire testing. LO2 was used as oxidizer, and GCH4 at room temperature was used as fuel. The tests were conducted at chamber pressures ranging from 6.7 to 11.9 M Pa, and oxidizer to fuel ratios ranged from 0.16 to 0.42. The test results, which include combustion gas temperature T(sub c), characteristic velocity C(sup *) and soot adhesion data, are presented. The T(sub c) efficiency and the C(sup *) efficiency were found to be a function of oxidizer to fuel ratio and chamber pressure. These efficiencies are correlated by an empirical correlation parameter which accounts for the effects of oxidizer to fuel ratio and chamber pressure. The exhaust plumes were colorless and transparent under all tests conditions. There was some soot adhesion to the chamber wall, but no soot adhesion was observed on the main injector simulator orifices. Higher temperature igniter gas was required to ignite the main propellants of the preburner compared with that of the LO2/Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) propellants combination.

Ono, Fumiei; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masaki

1991-09-01

305

Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan

2001-01-01

306

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the

F. W. Staub; S. G. Kimura; C. L. Spiro; M. W. Horner

1988-01-01

307

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the

F. W. Staub; S. G. Kimura; C. L. Spiro; M. W. Horner

1989-01-01

308

Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels. PMID:11219694

Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

309

A parametric study of CO 2\\/N 2 gas separation membrane processes for post-combustion capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capture of CO2 from flue gases produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in air is referred to as post-combustion capture. Chemisorbent processes are considered to be the most feasible method and are already at an advanced stage of development, but gas separation membranes are attracting more and more attention as a possible alternative. This paper describes a

Li Zhao; Ernst Riensche; Reinhard Menzer; Ludger Blum; Detlef Stolten

2008-01-01

310

Fuel injection system for internal-combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injection system is described for internal combustion engines, comprising a rotary valve device which is driven in synchronism with a came shaft of the engine to distribute high pressure fuel to unit injectors of the engine and has a rotary spool rotating in a housing having fuel supply port means and fuel metering grove means in the housing. This is disposed in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the spool for metering the amount of fuel injection each formed on the circumference. The fuel metering groove means includes independent divisions, one for each unit injector.

Kizawa, H.

1987-07-07

311

A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach

Youngchul Ra; Rolf D. Reitz

2011-01-01

312

Combustion of sprayed liquid fuel in a swirling flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physicomathematical model and results of numerical studies of aerodynamics and combustion of liquid fuel in a coaxial swirling flow of a gaseous oxidizer are presented. The characteristics of liquid-fuel spraying by a centrifugal injector were determined on the basis of experimental data obtained under isothermal conditions. The influence of flow swirling on the burner characteristics is analyzed.

V. A. Arkhipov; O. V. Matvienko; V. F. Trofimov

2005-01-01

313

Fuel system modifications to improve boiler combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal fired boiler for the Indian River Power Station has proven itself a reliable boiler. However, combustion problems have caused swings in tube metal temperatures, throttle pressure, flame carry over, and has resulted in high levels of unburned carbon in the bottom ash and flyash. A combustion improvement program was implemented to address these problems. Extensive testing and retrofit

M. L. Crisler; P. A. Wagner

1990-01-01

314

Effect of Two-Stage Injection on Unburned Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Smokeless Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion with UltraHigh Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from smokeless low-temperature diesel combustion (LTC) with ultra-high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be attributed to lowered combustion temperatures as well as to under-mixing of fuel-rich mixture along the combustion chamber walls, overly mixed fuel-lean mixture at the spray tails, and fuel missing the piston bowl and entering the squish zones.

T Li; M Suzuki; H Ogawa

2010-01-01

315

Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution  

SciTech Connect

A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

1993-06-29

316

A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels  

SciTech Connect

Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D. [Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2011-01-15

317

Stirling Engine Natural Gas Combustion Demonstration Program. Final report, October 1989January 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling engine may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven

W. Ernst; J. Moryl; G. Riecke

1991-01-01

318

Polycrystalline-silicon microbridge combustible gas sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic, calorimetric gas detection is the most commonly used method for the detection of combustible gases below the lower-explosive limit (LEL). In this method, the heat of oxidation of a combustible species on a heated catalyst surface is detected by a resistance thermometer in proximity. Conventionally fabricated sensors suffer from high-power consumption (˜500 mW), slow thermal response (˜15 sec) and low thermal sensitivity (1-2sp°C/mW). Fully CMOS-compatible, surface-micromachined polysilicon bridges have been fabricated for use in catalytic, calorimetric gas detection and are characterized by low-power consumption (35 mW), fast response (0.2 msec) and high sensitivity (16sp°C/mW). The batch fabrication techniques used here significantly increase the manufacturability of these devices as compared with their conventional predecessors, since hand manufacture/sorting conventionally used ate eliminated. A post-processing, post-packaging micro-chemical-vapor-deposition technique was developed for the purpose of selectively depositing catalytic films only in the active area of the sensor. Film microstructure was modified using a pulsed-deposition technique and in situ methods of film growth monitoring were investigated. With a Pt catalyst, ultimate device sensitivity to hydrogen was 100 ppm in air. To predict device response, knowledge of the temperature distribution along a microbridge is required. Both analytical and numerical techniques were used to model this distribution and are in good agreement with measurements obtained by infrared microscopy, For modeling purposes the temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivity of polysilicon at high temperature ({>}300sp°C) were measured using microbridges outfitted with special high-temperature bond pads. Physical models of thermal and electrical conduction in polysilicon were constructed.

Manginell, Ronald Paul

319

Spray Characterization of Gas-to-Liquid Synthetic Jet Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years, development of alternative jet fuels is gaining importance owing to the demand for cleaner combustion. In addition to having energy density that matches those of conventional fuels, alternate jet fuels need to possess vital qualities such as rapid atomization and vaporization, quick re-ignition at high altitude, less emission, and poses ease of handling. The fuel preparatory steps (atomization and vaporization) and mixing in a combustion chamber play a crucial role on the subsequent combustion and emission characteristics. Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) synthetic jet fuel obtained from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has grabbed the global attention due to its cleaner combustion characteristics as a result of the absence of aromatics and sulphur. As a part of an on-going joint effort between Texas A&M at Qatar (TAMUQ), Rolls-Royce (UK), and German Aerospace Laboratory (DLR), a spray characterization experimental facility is set up at TAMUQ to study the spray characteristics of GTL fuel and highlights the influence of change in fuel composition on the spray characteristics. In this work, spray characteristics such as droplet size, velocity, and distribution of different GTL fuel blends is investigated and compared with the spray characteristics of conventional JetA1 fuel.

Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

2011-11-01

320

Investigation of coal-water slurry fuel combustion in reciprocating, internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-water slurry(CWS) engine tests designed to investigate the ignition and combustion processes of the fuel are described\\u000a in this paper. The effects of three different parameters, namely, (a) needle lift pressure, (b) fuel injection timing, and\\u000a (c) percent coal loading in the slurry fuel are studied in detail. Successful operation of the engine using the coal water\\u000a slurry required modifications

G. H. Choi; S. R. Bell

1994-01-01

321

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Combustion of Automotive Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of fuels, including olefins and cycloalkanes used in diesel, spark-ignition and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate mixtures of hydrocarbon components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on production of emissions from practical automotive engines.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Silke, E J

2006-11-10

322

Changes in combustion behavior of liquid fuels due to the addition of small amounts of ammonia borane or nano aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both ammonia borane and nano aluminum as additives to liquid fuels are investigated. Both fundamental droplet combustion experiments and experiments using an unstable liquid rocket combustor are used to study the effects these additives on the combustion behavior. The liquid fuels consist of ethanol and JP-8. The droplet experiments consist of both visual and OH high speed planar laser–induced fluorescence measurements. Simple combustion models are incorporated as well to provide further understanding. It is found that ammonia borane increases the regression rate of a single ethanol droplet. Evidence indicates that hydrogen gas is released throughout the combustion process of the droplet and influences the combustion behavior notably. Laser diagnostics indicate that changes in flame structure occur. The other components of ammonia borane affect the combustion behavior of the droplet, especially near the end of the droplet lifetime, causing the droplet to shatter. Nano aluminum has very little impact on the combustion behavior of single fuel droplets of JP-8 and ethanol. Nano aluminum is observed to combust only when a surfactant, Neodol, is present which produces gas generation and bubble formation within the droplet. Combustor experiments show similar trends as the droplet combustion experiments. Ammonia borane has a notable impact on the combustion stability of the system allowing it to be unstable for more combustor geometries. It is shown that ammonia borane addition produces a bimodal unsteady energy release within the combustor while the neat fuel does not. This combustion behavior allows for the increased amount of unstable combustor geometries. Nano aluminum has a small impact on the combustion stability of the system causing pressure oscillations to increase.

Pfeil, Mark A.

323

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

Not Available

1991-09-01

324

Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines  

SciTech Connect

The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

Anand, Krishnasamy [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ra, youngchul [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2011-01-01

325

Irradiated liquid fuel, method of decrease of proportion in noxious ingredients in exhaust gas and method of reduction of fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention provides a liquid fuel irradiated with low radioactivity, method of decreasing the content proportion of noxious ingredients in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine, and a method of reduction of fuel consumption by irradiation of liquid fuel with low radioactivity. The irradiated liquid fuel reduces the content proportion of noxious ingredients in the exhaust gas, increases

1980-01-01

326

Pulsed Corona Discharges for Tar Removal from Biomass Derived Fuel Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To supply combustion engines or gasturbines with fuel gas obtained from biomass gasification, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas. Also the production of chemicals by processes such as Fisher-Tropsch requires a high gas quality. Especially heavy aromatic hydrocarbons (“tars”) must be removed. In this work, we give an overview of our investigations on tar removal by pulsed corona

A. J. M. Pemen; S. A. Nair; K. Yan; E. J. M. van Heesch; K. J. Ptasinski; A. A. H. Drinkenburg

2003-01-01

327

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale,

J. Cairelli; D. Horvath

1981-01-01

328

Fuel and air supply system for combustion based power sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the components of a fuel and air supply system for a micro combustor. Liquid gas from a fuel cartridge is regulated by a micro valve, ejected from a nozzle, and then supplied, with air, to a micro combustor. The valve is composed of a largely-deformable corrugated diaphragm regulating fuel gas and two electrostatic valves controlling the corrugated

Daisuke Satoh; Shuji Tanaka; Masayoshj Esashi

2005-01-01

329

Group combustion of liquid fuel in laminar spray jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the global configuration, detailed structure, and combustion characteristic of sprays under various firing conditions represented by various principal parameters including group combustion number, fuel-air mass ratio, Reynolds number, and spray angle. A system of conservation equations of spray flames in an axisymmetric configuration is solved by a finite-difference method for n-Butylbenzen (CââHââ). An extensive spray sensitivity

1982-01-01

330

Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy–fuel flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy–fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO2\\/O2 and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer–combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of

Mario Ditaranto; Joergen Hals

2006-01-01

331

Fuel injected internal combustion engine pollutant control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel injected internal combustion engine is described comprising: an air intake apparatus having at least one resistance heating element capable of heating air passing therethrough to a temperature within a range of 160°F to 180°F, and an air temperature sensing means situated downstream of the resistance heating element to control the temperature of the heating element; combustion chamber means

Rawlings

1987-01-01

332

The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine: a technical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given of contemporary research on the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. The emphasis is on light- to medium-duty engine research. We first describe hydrogen-engine fundamentals by examining the engine-specific properties of hydrogen and surveying the existing literature. Here it will be shown that, due to low volumetric efficiencies and frequent preignition combustion events, the power densities of premixed

C. M. White; R. R. Steeper; A. E. Lutz

2006-01-01

333

REDUCED KINETICS AND COUPLING FUNCTIONS FOR CALCULATING CO AND NO EMISSIONS IN GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduced chemical-kinetic mechanism consisting of two global steps for fuel oxidation and an additional step for NO production is proposed as the minimal chemistry description for calculating CO and NO emissions in gas-turbine combustion. Carbon monoxide is seen to emerge as the main intermediate during the fuel-oxidation process, which takes place in two steps: fast partial hydrocarbon oxidation to

ALAIN LÉPINETTE; AMABLE LIÑÁN; BENIGNO LÁZARO; ANTONIO L. SÁNCHEZ

2005-01-01

334

Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

1980-02-27

335

Solid Fuel Combustion Chamber. Tenth Progress Report, Ninth Phase, July-December 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress in developing a combustion chamber to study flow and combustion processes in solid fuel grains is outlined. An analytical study of laminar channel flows; computational modeling of flow and combustion, employing algebraic finite element methods; c...

H. Wittenberg P. A. O. G. Korting C. W. M. Vandergeld J. B. Vos T. Wijchers

1987-01-01

336

MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10{sup -5} std cc/sec and 1 x 10{sup -7} std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations [within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL).

SHERRELL, D.L.

1999-05-11

337

Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue-gas  

SciTech Connect

Combustion sources, including those using coal for fuel, contribute a significant fraction of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. Recent field studies have shown that current flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems are relatively ineffective in controlling elemental mercury, which is a major component of the mercury emissions for many systems. Research at Argonne National Laboratory has been focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury in existing FGC systems. For dry processes, these studies have included evaluation of activated carbons and investigation of sorbents based upon chemical pretreatment of low-cost mineral substrates. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, the studies have looked at the effects of improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into more soluble species that can be easily absorbed.

Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

1995-12-01

338

Experimental study of oxy-fuel combustion and sulfur capture in a mini-CFBC  

SciTech Connect

Oxy-fuel technology uses effectively pure oxygen for fossil fuel combustion in order to obtain a highly concentrated CO{sub 2} stream, suitable for direct compression and sequestration. It is an effective technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere from large point sources such as power generation plants. Oxy-fuel FBC technology has the combined advantage of producing high CO{sub 2} concentration flue gas and allowing excellent fuel flexibility. In addition, with external cooling of the recirculated solids, the flue gas recirculation ratio can be reduced. CETC-Ottawa has carried out oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustion with flue gas recirculation on its modified mini-CFBC. The mini-CFBC has an internal diameter of 100 mm and internal height of 5000 mm. Both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were fired. Limestone was premixed with coal and fed to the mini-CFBC. Recirculated solids were cooled in the return leg of the mini-CFBC. The bed temperature was controlled at about 850{sup o}C, while the oxygen concentration in the primary gas was about 25% and in the secondary gas was about 50%. With flue gas recycle, the CO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas reached 82-90%. Sulfur capture efficiency and CO and NOx concentrations were also measured and were all at acceptable levels. The transition from air firing to oxy-fuel firing was a fast and relatively smooth process, and operation of the mini-CFBC under oxy-fuel firing conditions was similar to that of air firing. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

L. Jia; Y. Tan; C. Wang; E.J. Anthony [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2007-12-15

339

Internal combustion engine exhaust gas monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

To detect substantial deviation of operation of the engine with fuel-air mixtures from stoichiometric relationships, particularly extended operation under very lean or enriched supply mixtures, the exhaust gases are conducted past a first sensor which provides a clearly defined voltage jump upon change of the exhaust gases between reducing and oxidizing state; and, additionally, to a second exhaust gas sensor and preferably to a third sensor, the second and third sensors being, respectively, responsive to the oxygen level in the exhaust gases and to the CO (or hydrocarbon) level in the exhaust gases, respectively, and additionally modifying the relative proportion of fuel and air of the mixture being fed to the engine.

Baresel, D.

1980-03-25

340

Method and apparatus for utilizing gaseous and liquid fuels in an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing both a liquid fuel and a gaseous fuel with a minimum change in a standard internal combustion engine. The gaseous and liquid fuels are fed from separate fuel supplies with the flow of fuels being controlled in response to engine load so that at engine idle only gaseous fuel is supplied and combusted by

Welsh

1983-01-01

341

Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

1996-12-31

342

Ignition and combustion study of JP-8 fuel in a supersonic flowfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ignition and combustion process of fuels in a supersonic combustion chamber plays an important role in the design of hypersonic propulsion system. However, it is a quite complicated process, due to the large variation of inlet air velocity, temperature, oxygen concentration, and shocks in the supersonic combustion chamber. The purpose of this paper is to observe the ignition delay and combustion phenomenon of the JP-8 fuel droplets in a supersonic flowfield experimentally. A shock tube is used as a basic test facility to create a high-speed and high-temperature flowfield as a supersonic combustor. In the experiments, several test parameters are controlled, such as shock velocity, gas temperature, fuel droplet size and distance, initial fuel temperature, and oxygen concentration, etc. The test results show the influence of these parameters on ignition delay, ignition limitation, and detonation. The most important factor in the experiment is the initial fuel temperature effect, which is influenced by the altitude variation during a flight.

Char, J. M.; Liou, W. J.; Yeh, J. H.; Chiu, C. L.

1996-11-01

343

Apparatus for controlling recirculated exhaust gas quantities in self-igniting internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for controlling recirculated exhaust gas quantities in self-igniting internal combustion engines which have a fuel injection pump. Two parameters, the rpm (preferably via the rpm-dependent suction chamber pressure) and the position of the quantity-adjusting device, are obtained from the fuel injection pump and delivered to a performance-graph memory in which a control value for the recirculated exhaust gas quantity is stored in accordance with these parameters. A recirculated exhaust gas quantity control device is actuated in accordance with the recalled control value.

Eheim, F.

1982-06-08

344

Correlating the effects of ash elements and their association in the fuel matrix with the ash release during pulverized fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

During pulverized fuel combustion, inorganic elements such as alkalis, sulfur, chlorine, calcium and magnesium, as well as a range of minor elements are partly released into the gas phase. These gas-borne species can nucleate, coagulate and condense to form either aerosol particles or sticky layers on ash particles, leading to ash deposition and corrosion problems in power utilities. Furthermore, the

Kalpit V. Shah; Mariusz K. Cieplik; Christine I. Betrand; Willem L. van de Kamp; Hari B. Vuthaluru

2010-01-01

345

Improved fuel injector for a gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine is described including: a rotatable turbine wheel; an annular combustor located about the turbine wheel and including an annular combustion space; a nozzle disposed about the turbine wheel and extending between the same and the combustor to direct gases of combustion from the combustor to drive the turbine wheel; a plurality of spaced air blast tubes extending into the combustor and having exit ends oriented generally circumferentially to the annular combustion space at locations remote from the nozzle; and fuel injectors for at least some of the air blast tubes, each comprising a simple tube of capillary cross section having an open end within the corresponding air blast tube near the exit end thereof, and an integral projection at the open end and bent to intersect the path of fuel flowing and angled generally tangentially to the annular combustion space.

Sledd, M.W.; Shekleton, J.R.

1993-06-22

346

The effect of air preheating on the combustion of solid fuels on a grate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of solid fuels on a grate is widely used. Mostly, the combustion behaviour is explained by the classical theory of Rogers. However, that theory cannot explain the combustion process when primary air preheating is applied. Solid fuel grate combustion is studied by experiments in a pot furnace. Experiments with and without primary air heating are described. These are compared

L. B. M van Kessel; A. R. J Arendsen; P. D. M de Boer-Meulman; G Brem

2004-01-01

347

Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C1–C4 saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of

Peter S. Veloo; Ning Liu; Fokion N. Egolfopoulos

2011-01-01

348

Alternative fuels for reciprocating internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the year 2000 world petroleum demand will have outstripped supply. These circumstances compel the search for fuels not derived from petroleum, which usually are referred to as alternative fuels. Results of several investigations have shown that hydrogen-fueled Otto cycle engines are efficient because of hydrogen's high flame speed and because they can operate at very lean equivalence ratios. However,

N. E. Gallopoulos

1978-01-01

349

Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

2012-03-15

350

Characterization of Pollution Outflow From India and Arabia: Biomass Burning and Fossil Fuel Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One objective of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX 1999) was to character- ize the chemical composition of pollution outflow from South Asia. Real-time single particle analysis (ATOFMS, Univ. of California-Riverside), CO analysis (Nondisper- sive Infrared Gas Filter Correlation Photometer, Univ. of Maryland) and fast-response VOC measurements (PTR-MS, Univ. of Innsbruck) measurements were performed onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown. Gas phase and aerosol chemical compo- sition of encountered air parcels changed according to their geographic origin traced by backtrajectory analysis (continental air from Arabia and India; maritime air). The relative strength of combustion related pollution sources (biomass burning (BB) vs. fossil fuel (FF) combustion) was determined from the relative abundance of differ- ent tracers: acetonitrile (BB), CO (BB and FF), submicron particles containing car- bon but no potassium (FF), submicron particles containing carbon and potassium (BB and coal combustion), submicron particles containing carbon, potassium and lithium (coal combustion). Arabian air clearly reflected the signature of fossil fuel combustion, while air from the Indian subcontinent was strongly influenced by biomass burning.

Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Stehr, J. W.; Dickerson, R. R.; Guazzotti, S. A.; Coffee, K.; Prather, K. A.

351

Status and perspectives of catalytic combustion for gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of the status and of the perspectives of catalytic combustion for gas turbines. First the development activities of catalytic combustion systems carried out in the last few years are reported. Then the relevant characteristics of PdO supported catalysts and of transition metal-substituted hexaaluminates (HAs), that have been most extensively considered for this application, are addressed.

Pio Forzatti; Ingegneria Chimica; G. Natta

2003-01-01

352

Condensed phase decomposition and gas phase combustion of hydrazinium nitroformate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a series of experiments on the condensed phase decomposition and the gas phase combustion of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF). The experiments include SEM analysis of quenched samples that showed evidence of the formation of a foam layer. FTIR spectrometry and mass spectrometry provide details on species formation during decomposition and combustion. The analysis of the

O. E. Dragomir; M. J. Tummers; E. H. van Veen; A. E. D. M. van der Heijden; D. J. E. M. Roekaerts

2009-01-01

353

Two-stage slagging combustor design for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a full-size combustor for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine engine which has been designed and fabricated. The design is based on extensive work completed through one-tenth scale combustion tests. Testing of the combustion hardware will be completed with a high pressure air supply in a combustion test facility before the components are integrated with the gas

L. H. Cawell; R. T. LeCren; C. E. Tenbrook

1992-01-01

354

40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires...1) Your municipal waste combustion unit combusts a single-item...unit can cofire coal, fuel oil, natural gas, or other nonmunicipal... (e) Hazardous waste combustion units. Your unit is...

2009-07-01

355

40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires... (1) The municipal waste combustion unit combusts a single-item...can co-fire coal, fuel oil, natural gas, or other nonmunicipal... (e) Hazardous waste combustion units. Units are...

2010-07-01

356

40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires...1) Your municipal waste combustion unit combusts a single-item...unit can cofire coal, fuel oil, natural gas, or other nonmunicipal... (e) Hazardous waste combustion units. Your unit is...

2010-07-01

357

Ammonia chemistry in oxy-fuel combustion of methane  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of NH{sub 3} during oxy-fuel combustion of methane, i.e., at high [CO{sub 2}], has been studied in a flow reactor. The experiments covered stoichiometries ranging from fuel rich to very fuel lean and temperatures from 973 to 1773 K. The results have been interpreted in terms of an updated detailed chemical kinetic model. A high CO{sub 2} level enhanced formation of NO under reducing conditions while it inhibited NO under stoichiometric and lean conditions. The detailed chemical kinetic model captured fairly well all the experimental trends. According to the present study, the enhanced CO concentrations and alteration in the amount and partitioning of O/H radicals, rather than direct reactions between N-radicals and CO{sub 2}, are responsible for the effect of a high CO{sub 2} concentration on ammonia conversion. When CO{sub 2} is present as a bulk gas, formation of NO is facilitated by the increased OH/H ratio. Besides, the high CO levels enhance HNCO formation through NH{sub 2}+CO. However, reactions NH{sub 2}+ O to form HNO and NH{sub 2}+H to form NH are inhibited due to the reduced concentration of O and H radicals. Instead reactions of NH{sub 2} with species from the hydrocarbon/methylamine pool preserve reactive nitrogen as reduced species. These reactions reduce the NH{sub 2} availability to form NO by other pathways like via HNO or NH and increase the probability of forming N{sub 2} instead of NO. (author)

Mendiara, Teresa; Glarborg, Peter [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

2009-10-15

358

Gas condensates as diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data of Table 1 show that the distillation curve of the gas condensate from the Yangi-Kazgan field matches that of A-72 gasoline; the Gazli condensate corresponds to light TS-I jet fuel; the Urtabulak, Gazli-Neft', and Urengoi condensates correspond to wide-cut jet fuel; the Kultak, Zevardy, l~barek, and Shurtan condensates correspond to wide-cut engine fuel. It will be noted that

A. A. Kukushkin; V. S. Azev; G. N. Gerasimova; V. M. Aprelenko; A. I. Kirsanov

1985-01-01

359

Oxy-fuel combustion systems for pollution free coal fired power generation  

SciTech Connect

Jupiter Oxygen's patented oxy-fuel combustion systems1 are capable of economically generating power from coal with ultra-low emissions and increased boiler efficiency. Jupiter's system uses pure oxygen as the combustion agent, excluding air and thus nitrogen, concentrating CO2 and pollutants for efficient capture with near zero NOx production, reducing exhaust mass flow, and increasing radiant heat transfer. Flue-gas recirculation rates can be varied to add flexibility to new boiler designs using this technology. Computer modeling and thermal analysis have identified important design considerations in retrofit applications.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Dietrich (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Gross, Alex (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Dogan, Cindy; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William (CoalTeck LLC); Schoenfeld, Mark (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.)

2004-01-01

360

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

JR. R. MORENO; D. G. FALLEN BAILEY

1989-01-01

361

Design and off-design analyses of a pre-combustion CO 2 capture process in a natural gas combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a cycle designed for capturing the greenhouse gas CO2 in a natural gas combined cycle power plant has been analyzed. The process is a pre-combustion CO2 capture cycle utilizing reforming of natural gas and removal of the carbon in the fuel prior to combustion in the gas turbine. The power cycle consists of a H2-fired gas turbine

Lars Olof Nord; Rahul Anantharaman; Olav Bolland

2009-01-01

362

NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded d...

363

Aerothermal Analysis for Gas Turbine Combustion Liner Cooling Slots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerothermal analysis for gas turbine combustion liner cooling slots is presented. A finite-volume numerical analysis method for the solution of three-dimensional incompressible steady Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinate system is use...

H. Toh Y. Sato Y. Ando M. Kawai

1989-01-01

364

On-line measurement of nitrous oxide from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. Rept. for Jun 90-Jun 92  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses on-line measurement of nitrous oxide (N2O) from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. Fossil fuel combustion is suspected of contributing to measured increases in the ambient concentrations of N2O. Characterization of N2O emissions from fossil fuel combustion and associated pollution control systems has been hindered by the generation of N2O from nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and moisture present in the sample vessel while samples await analysis. To truly assess N2O emissions from fossil fuel combustion, a real-time or near real-time measurement technique is required. To accomplish this, a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector was configured and automated. The system is capable of detection levels below ambient concentrations and a practical quantifying range of 0.1 to 200 ppm. A precolumn backflushing system negates the effects of interferents present in fossil fuel combustion emissions. The automated system, capable of one on-line measurement every 8 minutes, has been used to evaluate N2O emissions from a variety of combustion sources, fuels, and post-combustion pollution control techniques.

Ryan, J.V.; Linak, W.P.

1992-01-01

365

ITSL coal liquid as a combustion turbine fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of low-hydrogen content distillate fuels produced from coal differ from those of conventional petroleum distillates. The differences include; increased flame emissivity which contributes to higher combustor liner temperature, and increased fuel-bound nitrogen which contributes to higher NO\\/sub x\\/ emission. This paper presents the results of a laboratory test program to evaluate the emissions and combustor performance characteristics

K. L. Rieke; H. G. Lew; W. C. Rovesti

1987-01-01

366

Sonically Enhanced Combustion of Coal Water Slurry Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was performed to demonstrate that a high intensity acoustic field can enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during CWSF (coal water slurry fuel) combustion. It was carried out in a 300,000 Btu\\/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to

Prakash Ramachandran

1990-01-01

367

Creep\\/Corrosion of Two Nickel Alloys in Combustion Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel 201 and Inconel 600 have been creep and corrosion tested in combustion gas and in an inert atmosphere consisting of\\u000a argon. At constant temperature, nickel exhibited an improved creep resistance in combustion gas relative to that in argon,\\u000a probably due to a hardening effect caused by the in-diffusion of impurities along creep dislocations. Creep increased the\\u000a corrosion attacks on

J. K. Solberg; H. Thon

1983-01-01

368

Creep\\/corrosion of two nickel alloys in combustion gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel 201 and Inconel 600 have been creep and corrosion tested in combustion gas and in an inert atmosphere consisting of\\u000a argon. At constant temperature, nickel exhibited an improved creep resistance in combustion gas relative to that in argon,\\u000a probably due to a hardening effect caused by the in-diffusion of impurities along creep dislocations. Creep increased the\\u000a corrosion attacks on

J. K. Solberg; H. Thon

1983-01-01

369

Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

2009-04-08

370

Large Eddy Simulation of the Fuel Injection in Scramjet Combustion Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel injection in a typical scramjet combustion chamber is a very challenging flow to characterise either in ex- perimental or computational studies. It involves multi- species compressible turbulent features with complex coherent flow structures arising as a result of sonic fuel injection transverse or inclined to the free-stream supersonic flow. In this paper the fuel injection in the HyShot- II combustion chamber is studied using an Implicit LES method employing a modified very high order accurate numerical method. To gain accurate mean inflow boundary conditions, a thermally perfect gas formulation has been employed in preliminary simulations of the inlet ramp and cowl configuration. The results of these simulations are presented and validated against wind tunnel data.

Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, B. J. R.; Drikakis, D.

2011-08-01

371

Split vapor\\/liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A split vapor\\/liquid fuel supply system is described for an internal combustion engine having: an intake manifold leading to at least one combustion chamber, a fuel tank holding a liquid hydrocarbon fuel supply, a carburetor connected to the fuel supply for feeding fuel to the engine, air supply means for supplying engine intake air to the carburetor for mixing with

La Pan

1987-01-01

372

Compressed gas fuel storage system  

DOEpatents

A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

2001-01-01

373

Characterization of fuels for atmospheric fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a fuels characterization program for the past several years with the intention of assisting utilities and boiler manufacturers in evaluating fuel quality impact on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) performance. The goal has been to provide an improved framework for making fuel switching decisions and consolidating operating experience. Results from this program include a set of bench-scale testing procedures, a fuel characterization data base, and a performance simulation model that links fuel characteristics to combustion performance. This paper reviews the major results of the fuels characterization program. The testing procedures, data base, and performance simulation models are briefly described and their application illustrated with examples. Performance predictions for the B W 1-ft{sup 2} bench-scale AFBC and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 20 MW(e) AFBC Pilot Plant are compared with actual test data. The relationship of coal rank to combustion is discussed. 11 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

Daw, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rowley, D.R.; Perna, M.A. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research Center); Stallings, J.W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Divilio, R.J. (Combustion Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

374

Fuel oil evaporation in swirling hot gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the limit on combustion generated pollutants is becoming more strict, a potentially ecological as well as economical new technology to decrease combustion generated pollutants by liquid fuel combustion is to adopt a fuel pre-vaporized, premixed combustion. This paper presents a study on the liquid fuel vaporizing and mixing processes. An effective method for the calculation of turbulent two phase

Baifang Zuo; E. Van Den Bulck

1998-01-01

375

A dual fuel dry low NO sub x combustion system for industrial combustion turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on large industrial combustion turbines required to meet increasingly stringent emission targets. To address these evolving needs, a development program for a Dual Fuel Dry Low NOâ Combustor that combines the experience and background of Westinghouse Electric Corporation and Aero and Industrial Technology, LTD (AIT) has commenced. The phased program includes component tests on module elements over

R. J. Antos; S. E. Mumford; J. Winter

1991-01-01

376

Combustion of refuse-derived fuel in a fluidised bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a medium to maximise the resources recovery from municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution in industrialised countries. RDF is a value added material with a higher calorific value and a homogeneous particle size. The main objective of this study was to investigate the RDF combustion characteristics and the associated pollutant emissions in a

Francisco D. Hernandez-Atonal; Changkook Ryu; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

2007-01-01

377

Method of determining heat losses due to incomplete fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedures are to periodically take a sample of fuel combustion products, the sample including solid and gaseous phases; to separate the sample into two parts, one of which includes a solid and a gaseous phase; and the other, a gaseous phase; to determine an oxygen concentration C⁠in each of the parts of the sample; to heat the parts

B. A. Milovidov; I. B. Kaplunov; N. V. Kaplunova

1986-01-01

378

Gas only nozzle fuel tip  

DOEpatents

A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

Bechtel, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Fitts, David Orus (Ballston Spa, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Glenville, NY)

2002-01-01

379

Movable combustion system for a gas turbine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustor assembly for a gas turbine. It comprises a combustor having an outer liner disposed about an axis and a cover adjacent one end of the outer liner, a centerbody carried by the cover and carrying an inner liner about the axis and inside of and radially spaced from the outer liner; means carried by the assembly for supplying fuel within the combustor; means for supplying air within the combustor; means forming a venturi adjacent an opposite end of the outer liner, and including a portion of the centerbody defining a gap forming part of the venturi; and means external to the combustor and connected to the centerbody for moving the centerbody in an axial direction for adjusting the size of the-venturi gap.

Ford, J.E.; Myers, A.

1992-06-30

380

System for optimizing the fuel consumption of an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

Optimum fuel consumption in an internal combustion engine driving a hydrostatic transmission having a continuously variable gear ratio is achieved by first applying the signal derived from the gas pedal directly to the transmission ratio regulator and, secondly, by controlling the fuel consumption of the engine in response to the gas pedal signal as follows: first, the signal from the gas pedal is multiplied by a signal signifying the output speed of the transmission. The so-formed desired power signal is applied to a storage which furnishes a desired engine speed signal in response thereto. The desired speed signal is compared to the actual engine speed and the resulting error signal, after amplification and integration, is applied to a unit controlling the fuel supply of the engine.

Maurer, F.

1981-08-04

381

Fluidized bed combustion of alternate fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology offers the opportunity combust a broader range of fuels than previously possible with other technologies. FBC boilers are currently being used throughout the world to dispose of a wide range of solid and semi-solid waste fuels, including municipal and industrial solid wastes and sludges, agricultural wastes, and coal mining or cleaning wastes. FBCs can also accommodate cofiring waste fuels in units designed for coal or other solid fuels with relative ease compared to conventional technology. The capacity and experience base for coal-fired FBCs has increased in recent years so that utility-scale reheat units of 200-300 MWe in size are now commercially available, and larger units are now being considered. As utilities install fluidized bed boilers to generate power, it is anticipated that many will at some point consider cofiring one or more waste fuels either together or with coal to reduce the quantity and cost of the primary fuel, and in many cases, help offset the environmental impact of other disposal options such as landfills. In order to assist the industry in their evaluations, this report summarizes the fuel characteristics, experience base, and technical issues associated with burning selected fuels using FBC technology, including: Municipal Solid Wastes; Biomass; Sewage Sludge; Paper Manufacturing and Recycling Wastes; Scrap Tires; and Automobile Wastes.

Howe, W.C.; Divilio, R.J. [Combustion Systems, Inc., Aptos, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

382

Fast-burn combustion chamber design for natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper compares the performance and emissions of the UBC Squish-Jet fast-burn combustion chamber with a baseline bowl-in-piston (BIP) chamber. It was found that the increased turbulence generated in the fastburn combustion chambers resulted in 5 to 10% faster burning of the air-fuel mixture compared to a conventional BIP chamber. The faster burning was particularly noticeable

R. L. Evans; J. Blaszczyk

1998-01-01

383

Elimination of abnormal combustion in a hydrogen-fueled engine  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the design, construction, and testing of a dedicated hydrogen-fueled engine. Both part-load and full-load data were taken under laboratory conditions. The engine design included a billet aluminum single combustion chamber cylinder-head with one intake valve, two sodium coiled exhaust valves, and two spark plugs. The cylinder-head design also included drilled cooling passages. The fuel-delivery system employed two modified Siemens electrically actuated fuel injectors, The exhaust system included two separate headers, one for each exhaust port. The piston/ring combination was designed specifically for hydrogen operation.

Swain, M.R.; Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

1995-11-01

384

Fuel metering device for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A device for metering fuel in an internal combustion engine which comprises sensors for operating parameters, an acceleration detecting stage with a subsequently connected pulse generating stage as well as a pulse lengthening stage, and a fuel metering system wherein the acceleration detecting stage is indirectly and/or directly associated with at least one of a plurality of components including an oscillation stopper (To prevent renewed triggering in case of an oscillation-carrying input signal), a blocking stage (For unequivocal and secure triggering), a repetition stopper (To avoid multiple triggering during gradual and longer-term signal rises), and a switching suppressor (To prevent a voltage rise after a switching step from being evaluated as an instance of acceleration) so that the device serves to operate the acceleration enrichment of the fuel-air mixture for the internal combustion engine with a minimum of disturbance thereby attaining optimum acceleration processes.

Bertsch, R.; Drews, U.; Horbelt, M.; Schnurle, H.

1980-12-23

385

Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

1990-10-01

386

Numerical analysis of supersonic combustion ramjet with upstream fuel injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes possible fuel injection scheme for airbreathing engines that use hydrocarbon fuels. The basic idea is to inject fuel at the spike tip of the supersonic inlet to achieve mixing and combustion efficiency with a limited length combustion chamber. A numerical code, able to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in turbulent and reacting flows, is employed to obtain numerical simulations of the thermo-fluidynamic fields at different scramjet flight conditions, at Mach numbers of M=6.5 and 8. The feasibility of the idea of the upstream injection is checked for a simple axisymmetric configuration and relatively small size. The results are discussed in connection with the potential benefits deriving from the use of new ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC).

Savino, Raffaele; Pezzella, Giuseppe

2003-09-01

387

The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine : a technical review.  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of contemporary research on the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. The emphasis is on light- to medium-duty engine research. We first describe hydrogen-engine fundamentals by examining the engine-specific properties of hydrogen and surveying the existing literature. Here it will be shown that, due to low volumetric efficiencies and frequent preignition combustion events, the power densities of premixed or port-fuel-injected hydrogen engines are diminished relative to gasoline-fueled engines. Significant progress has been made in the development of advanced hydrogen engines with improved power densities. We discuss several examples and their salient features. Finally, we consider the overall progress made and provide suggestions for future work.

Steeper, Richard R.; White, Christopher M.; Lutz, Andrew E.

2005-05-01

388

Experience with dry low-NO[sub x] combustion in medium-size gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Inc. last year entered full production for engines equipped with dry combustion SoLoNo[sub x] combustors to reduce exhaust emissions. This technology represents both actual production machinery as well as ongoing development programs that have been in work over the past several years. A discussion of the current status of SoLoNo[sub x] engine programs reveals that although the SoLoNO[sub x] product offerings to date have been for applications with natural gas fuel, both dual-fuel and liquid-fuel versions are in active development and are expected to be available for the market by mid-1995. 3 figs.

Wadman, B.

1994-11-01

389

Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOEpatents

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1980-01-01

390

Numerical modeling of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

Major progress was achieved in the last year in advancing the modeling capabilities of hydrogen-fueled engines, both in support of the multi-laboratory project with SNL and LLNL to develop a high-efficiency, low emission powerplant and to provide the engine design tools to industry and research laboratories for hydrogen-fueled engines and stationary power generators. The culmination of efforts on many fronts was the excellent comparison of the experimental data from the Onan engine, operated by SNL.These efforts include the following. An extensive study of the intake flow culminated in a major understanding of the interdependence of the details of the intake port design and the engine operating condition on the emissions and efficiency. This study also resulted in design suggestions for future engines and general scaling laws for turbulence that enables the KIVA results to be applied to a wide variety of operating conditions. The research on the turbulent combustion of hydrogen brought into perspective the effect of the unique aspects of hydrogen combustion and their influence on possible models of turbulent combustion. The effort culminated in a proposed model for turbulent hydrogen combustion that is in agreement with available literature. Future work will continue the development in order to provide a generally predictive model for hydrogen combustion. The application of the combustion model to the Onan experiments elucidated the observed improvement of the efficiency of the engine with the addition of a shroud on the intake valve. This understanding will give guidance to future engine design for optimal efficiency. Finally, a brief summary is given of the extensions and refinements of the KIVA-3 code, in support of future designers of hydrogen-fueled engines.

Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

1996-07-01

391

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOEpatents

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25

392

Chemical Looping Combustion System-Fuel Reactor Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process in which an oxygen carrier is used for fuel combustion instead of air or pure oxygen as shown in the figure below. The combustion is split into air and fuel reactors where the oxidation of the oxygen carrier and the reduction of the oxidized metal occur respectively. The CLC system provides a sequestration-ready CO2 stream with no additional energy required for separation. This major advantage places combustion looping at the leading edge of a possible shift in strict control of CO2 emissions from power plants. Research in this novel technology has been focused in three distinct areas: techno-economic evaluations, integration of the system into power plant concepts, and experimental development of oxygen carrier metals such as Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Ca. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase fluid dynamics modeling for CLC is not available in the open literature. Here, we have modified the MFIX code to model fluid dynamic in the fuel reactor. A computer generated movie of our simulation shows bubble behavior consistent with experimental observations.

Gamwo, I.K.; Jung, J. (ANL); Anderson, R.R.; Soong, Y.

2007-04-01

393

Numerical modeling of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

The planned use of hydrogen as the energy carrier of the future introduces new challenges and opportunities, especially to the engine design community. Hydrogen is a bio-friendly fuel that can be produced from renewable resources and has no carbon dioxide combustion products; and in a properly designed ICE, almost zero NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon emissions can be achieved. Because of the unique properties of hydrogen combustion - in particular the highly wrinkled nature of the laminar flame front due to the preferential diffusion instability - modeling approaches for hydrocarbon gaseous fuels are not generally applicable to hydrogen combustion. This paper reports on the current progress to develop a engine design capability based on KIVA family of codes for hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engines in support of the National Hydrogen Program. A turbulent combustion model, based on a modified eddy-turnover model in conjunction with an intake flow valve model, is found to describe well the efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions of this engine satisfy the Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle (EZEV) standard established by the California Resource Board. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A.

1996-12-31

394

Sonically Enhanced Combustion of Coal Water Slurry Fuel.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was performed to demonstrate that a high intensity acoustic field can enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during CWSF (coal water slurry fuel) combustion. It was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1400 Hz. Combustion efficiency was improved when the extent of burnout was well below 100% and when the droplet size distribution was relatively coarse. The maximum improvement in burnout was 7.9%, under the coarsest atomization conditions investigated. Results from modelling show that sonically enhanced heat transfer plays a negligible role in improving the rate of combustion of CWSF. However, such enhancement may well be important for other applications (e.g. spray drying) involving longer drying times and/or small steady slip velocities. The application of a sonic field improves the rate of combustion of CWSF mainly through increased mass transfer rates, the enhancement being greatest for relatively coarse atomization. It is commonly accepted that the largest particles of fuel are the most likely to avoid full burnout in a practical combustor and thus contribute to erosion, slagging, and fouling via inertial mechanisms. By acting preferentially on these particles, operational difficulties can be minimized.

Ramachandran, Prakash

1990-01-01

395

Sonically enhanced combustion of coal water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was performed to demonstrate that a high intensity acoustic field can enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during CWSF (coal water slurry fuel) combustion. It was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1,400 Hz. Combustion efficiency was improved when the extent of burnout was well below 100% and when the droplet size distribution was relatively coarse. The maximum improvement in burnout was 7.9%, under the coarsest atomization conditions investigated. Results from modelling show that sonically enhanced heat transfer plays a negligible role in improving the rate of combustion of CWSF. However, such enhancement may well be important for other applications (e.g. spray drying) involving longer drying times and/or small steady slip velocities. The application of a sonic field improves the rate of combustion of CWSF mainly through increased mass transfer rates, the enhancement being greatest for relatively coarse atomization. It is commonly accepted that the largest particles of fuel are the most likely to avoid full burnout in a practical combustor and thus contribute to erosion, slagging, and fouling via inertial mechanisms. By acting preferentially on these particles, operational difficulties can be minimized.

Ramachandran, P.

1990-01-01

396

Greenhouse impact due to the use of combustible fuels: life cycle viewpoint and relative radiative forcing commitment.  

PubMed

Extensive information on the greenhouse impacts of various human actions is important in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies. The greenhouse impacts of combustible fuels consist not only of combustion emissions but also of emissions from the fuel production chain and possible effects on the ecosystem carbon storages. It is important to be able to assess the combined, total effect of these different emissions and to express the results in a comprehensive way. In this study, a new concept called relative radiative forcing commitment (RRFC) is presented and applied to depict the greenhouse impact of some combustible fuels currently used in Finland. RRFC is a ratio that accounts for the energy absorbed in the Earth system due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations (production and combustion of fuel) compared to the energy released in the combustion of fuel. RRFC can also be expressed as a function of time in order to give a dynamic cumulative picture on the caused effect. Varying time horizons can be studied separately, as is the case when studying the effects of different climate policies on varying time scales. The RRFC for coal for 100 years is about 170, which means that in 100 years 170 times more energy is absorbed in the atmosphere due to the emissions of coal combustion activity than is released in combustion itself. RRFC values of the other studied fuel production chains varied from about 30 (forest residues fuel) to 190 (peat fuel) for the 100-year study period. The length of the studied time horizon had an impact on the RRFC values and, to some extent, on the relative positions of various fuels. PMID:18521657

Kirkinen, Johanna; Palosuo, Taru; Holmgren, Kristina; Savolainen, Ilkka

2008-06-03

397

Greenhouse Impact Due to the Use of Combustible Fuels: Life Cycle Viewpoint and Relative Radiative Forcing Commitment  

PubMed Central

Extensive information on the greenhouse impacts of various human actions is important in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies. The greenhouse impacts of combustible fuels consist not only of combustion emissions but also of emissions from the fuel production chain and possible effects on the ecosystem carbon storages. It is important to be able to assess the combined, total effect of these different emissions and to express the results in a comprehensive way. In this study, a new concept called relative radiative forcing commitment (RRFC) is presented and applied to depict the greenhouse impact of some combustible fuels currently used in Finland. RRFC is a ratio that accounts for the energy absorbed in the Earth system due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations (production and combustion of fuel) compared to the energy released in the combustion of fuel. RRFC can also be expressed as a function of time in order to give a dynamic cumulative picture on the caused effect. Varying time horizons can be studied separately, as is the case when studying the effects of different climate policies on varying time scales. The RRFC for coal for 100 years is about 170, which means that in 100 years 170 times more energy is absorbed in the atmosphere due to the emissions of coal combustion activity than is released in combustion itself. RRFC values of the other studied fuel production chains varied from about 30 (forest residues fuel) to 190 (peat fuel) for the 100-year study period. The length of the studied time horizon had an impact on the RRFC values and, to some extent, on the relative positions of various fuels.

Palosuo, Taru; Holmgren, Kristina; Savolainen, Ilkka

2008-01-01

398

Comparison of Different Global Reaction Mechanisms for MILD Combustion of Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of nitrogen oxides from fossil fuel combustion are a major environmental problem because they have been shown to contribute to the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. MILD (Moderate and Intensive Low oxygen Dilution) combustion is a promising technology to decrease pollutant emissions and to improve combustion efficiency. A combination of air preheating and fuel dilution with combustion

Ju Pyo Kim; Uwe Schnell; Günter Scheffknecht

2008-01-01

399

Cord-wood gasification and gas combustion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate to farmers and potential manufacturing interests a cord wood combustion system for providing thermal energy for curing flue-cured tobacco. Two stage combustion technology which offers advantages of clean and efficient combustion and a modulatable output was utilized. In 1980 a 1.0 GJ/h cord wood gasifier-combustor was designed and tested. Two-staged combustion of cord wood up to a diameter of 15 cm was achieved with a net energy efficiency of 70 to 80%. Modulation of the system output was demonstrated and a clean exhaust verified. The major problems encountered were loading wood into the hot gasifier on a continuous basis and control of the unit when modulating.

Payne, F.A.

1983-01-05

400

Numerical Analysis of Combustion in a Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) direct injection engine has many advantages for the reduction of CO2 emission. For further improvement of those engines, a numerical simulation technique has been developed for the analysis of combustion process. Prior to an in-cylinder calculation, the wall function was modified to improve the accuracy of the wall heat loss. Then the nozzle-to-cylinder entire calculation was performed. Good agreements were obtained in comparison with the experiment for the behavior of impinging jets. This method was applied to the analysis of the difference of combustion processes between CNG and conventional gasoline direct-injection engines. It is accordingly found that the velocity and the turbulence of in-cylinder gas are increased by the fuel injection into CNG engine and thus the combustion speed is enhanced significantly.

Nomura, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Hideto; Tsukasaki, Yukihiro

401

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2011-03-22

402

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2007-11-06

403

Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr.; Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2006-04-25

404

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2008-11-04

405

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

Not Available

1992-09-01

406

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition\\/erosion\\/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled

Wenglarz

1994-01-01

407

System evaluation and LBTU fuel combustion studies for IGCC power generation  

SciTech Connect

The integration of gas turbines and combined cycle systems with advances in coal gasification and gas stream cleanup systems will result in economically viable IGCC systems. Optimization of IGCC systems for both emission levels and cost of electricity is critical to achieving this goal. A technical issue is the ability to use a wide range of coal and petroleum-based fuel gases in conventional gas turbine combustor hardware. In order to characterize the acceptability of these syngases for gas turbines, combustion studies were conducted with simulated coal gases using full-scale advanced gas turbine (7F) combustor components. It was found that NO{sub x} emissions could be correlated as a simple function of stoichiometric flame temperature for a wide range of heating values while CO emissions were shown to depend primarily on the H{sub 2} content of the fuel below heating values of 130 Btu/scf (5,125 kJ/NM{sup 3}) and for H{sub 2}/CO ratios less than unity. The test program further demonstrated the capability of advanced can-annular combustion systems to burn fuels from air-blown gasifiers with fuel lower heating values as low as 90 Btu/scf (3,548 kJ/NM{sup 3}) at 2,300 F (1,260 C) firing temperature. In support of ongoing economic studies, numerous IGCC system evaluations have been conducted incorporating a majority of the commercial or near-commercial coal gasification systems coupled with F series gas turbine combined cycles. Both oxygen and air-blown configurations have been studied, in some cases with high and low-temperature gas cleaning systems. It has been shown that system studies must start with the characteristics and limitations of the gas turbine if output and operating economics are to be optimized throughout the range of ambient operating temperature and load variation.

Cook, C.S.; Corman, J.C.; Todd, D.M. [GE Power Generation, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-10-01

408

Fuel regenerated non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell in which water is decomposed.

1977-01-01

409

Fuel regenerated non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell

1977-01-01

410

Fuel regenerating non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell

1977-01-01

411

Impact of aviation non-CO? combustion effects on the environmental feasibility of alternative jet fuels.  

PubMed

Alternative fuels represent a potential option for reducing the climate impacts of the aviation sector. The climate impacts of alternatives fuel are traditionally considered as a ratio of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to those of the displaced petroleum product; however, this ignores the climate impacts of the non-CO(2) combustion effects from aircraft in the upper atmosphere. The results of this study show that including non-CO(2) combustion emissions and effects in the life cycle of a Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel can lead to a decrease in the relative merit of the SPK fuel relative to conventional jet fuel. For example, an SPK fuel option with zero life cycle GHG emissions would offer a 100% reduction in GHG emissions but only a 48% reduction in actual climate impact using a 100-year time window and the nominal climate modeling assumption set outlined herein. Therefore, climate change mitigation policies for aviation that rely exclusively on relative well-to-wake life cycle GHG emissions as a proxy for aviation climate impact may overestimate the benefit of alternative fuel use on the global climate system. PMID:22106939

Stratton, Russell W; Wolfe, Philip J; Hileman, James I

2011-11-22

412

Apparatus for controlling the air-fuel quantity ratio in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed for controlling the ratio of air to fuel quantity of the operational mixture to be introduced into the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine which includes an air flow rate meter moving under differential pressure against a constant hydraulic restoring force, which air flow rate meter adjusts a metering cross section in a supply line leading to a fuel injection pump, with the pressure drop at the metering cross section being maintained constant with the aid of a differential pressure valve. The air flow rate meter is part of a known apparatus which controls the fuel component in accordance with the quantity of aspirated air and also controls the component of exhaust gas to be fed back. The hydraulic restoring pressure for the air flow rate meter is drawn via a throttle from the supply side of a supply pump which supplies the injection pump with fuel under an rpm-dependent pressure and with a quantity of fuel intended for flushing and the pressure downstream of the throttle is maintained at a constant value by means of a pressure maintenance valve. The working chambers of the injection pump communicate only with either the injection lines or the fuel supply line controlled by the air flow rate meter, so that the control result is not adulterated by the flushing quantity or by a shutoff quantity. In this manner, the injection pump and the control device can be supplied with fuel and with pressure fluid by means of a single supply pump.

Stumpp, G.

1981-08-18

413

DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

2002-03-01

414

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

Pratte, John

415

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Han, Manbae [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

2009-01-01

416

Fundamentals of nitric oxide formation in fossil fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of fossil fuels in large stationary furnaces causes the emission of nitrogen oxides, a large fraction of which arise from the nitrogen-containing components in the fuel, producing a major pollution problem which is expected to increase severely in the future. The results reported in this paper are part of those obtained from a continuing study to determine the mechanism by which these oxides may form. Because studies have shown that most of the nitrogen in heavy oils is in the form of heterocycles and it is believed that the nitrogen components of coal are similar, pyridine was selected as representative of these components. It was assumed that the radical fragments formed during pyridine pyrolysis or rich, low temperature oxidation would be similar to those obtained from the same reactions of fossil fuels that occur during the pre-flame stages of combustion. Later experiments emphasized HCN oxidation since several studies indicated that it was the key volatile, nitrogen-containing intermediate formed during nitrogen combustion. In addition, HCN used with several fuel additives allowed a greater control of the chemical nature of the reaction environment.

Houser, T.J.; McCarville, M.E.; Zhou-Ying, G.

1986-04-01

417

Micropollutants emission from refuse derived fuel combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work, fly ash and solid residues produced by an incinerator of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) have been analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and heavy metals. Furthermore, the content of that species in the f...

C. Di Palo M. Coronidi M. Zagaroli P. Zamora

1993-01-01

418

Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries.

Kunihiko Namba; Tamio Ida

2010-01-01

419

Certain features of the combustion of liquid fuel in fuel-spray furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme of the sequential course of evaporation and mixture-formation processes is used to generalize experimental data on the combustion of liquid fuel (fuel oil and solar oil) in the furnaces of steam boilers. Computational relationships are obtained that make it possible to determine the principal parameters of the process.

Yu. I. Khavkin; Yu. Z. Nekhamkin; K. K. Tyukin

1983-01-01

420

Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass,

Battelle

2003-01-01

421

Autoignition and Combustion of Natural Gas in a 4 Stroke HCCI Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is regarded as the next generation combustion regime in terms of high thermal efficiency and low emissions. It is difficult to control autoignition timing and combustion duration because they are controlled primarily by the chemical kinetics of fuel-air mixture. In this study, it was investigated the characteristics of autoignition and combustion of natural gas in a 4 stroke HCCI engine. And also, to clarify the influence of n-butane on autoignition and combustion of natural gas, it was changed the blend ratio of n-butane from 0mol% to 10mol% in methane/n-butane/air mixtures. Autoignition strongly depends on in-cylinder gas temperature. Autoignition of natural gas occurs when in-cylinder gas temperature reaches in a range of 1000±100K under this experimental condition. To realize high thermal efficiency and low CO emissions, it is necessary to prepare operation conditions that maximum cycle temperature is over 1500K. Autoignition temperature is 25K lower by increasing n-butane blend ratio of 10%. As the blend ratio of n-butane increases, the maximum cycle temperature increases, and THC, CO emissions reduce.

Jun, Daesu; Ishii, Kazuaki; Iida, Norimasa

422

Performance of a Flameless combustion furnace using biogas and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flameless combustion technology has proved to be flexible regarding the utilization of conventional fuels. This flexibility is associated with the main characteristic of the combustion regime, which is the mixing of the reactants above the autoignition temperature of the fuel. Flameless combustion advantages when using conventional fuels are a proven fact. However, it is necessary to assess thermal equipments performance

A. F. Colorado; B. A. Herrera; A. A. Amell

2010-01-01

423

Corrosion fatigue causes failure of gas turbine combustion chamber  

SciTech Connect

Plates in the combustion chamber case of a gas turbine made of welded alloy 617 (UNS NO6617) and alloy Nimonic 75 (UNS N06075) failed by complete circumferential fracturing at the matrix-welding interface in the UNS N06075 plate. Fatigue cracks were first initiated at the outer subsurface within the intergranularly cracked coarse grains adjacent to the weld and then propagated because of combustion vibration during start-up operation conditions.

Elshawesh, F.; Elhoud, A.; Elmendelsi, T. [Petroleum Research Center, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Elwaer, A. [General Electricity Co., Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Planning and Project Dept.

1997-07-01

424

Gas-phase entropy generation during transient methanol droplet combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model was used to investigate gas-phase entropy generation during transient methanol droplet combustion in a low-pressure, zero-gravity, air environment.A comprehensive formulation for the entropy generation in a multi-component reacting flow is derived. Stationary methanol droplet combustion in a low ambient temperature (300 K) and a nearly quiescent atmosphere was studied and the effect of surface tension on entropy generation

Daniel N. Pope; Vasudevan Raghavan; George Gogos

2010-01-01

425

Fuel Gas Production from Solid Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Processes developed and demonstrated to utilize the organic portion of refuse as a supplemental fuel are reviewed. Pyrolysis, the combustion of material in an oxygen deficient environment, is a potential waste disposal technique which produces one or more...

D. L. Wise S. E. Sadek R. G. Kispert

1974-01-01

426

Theory of turbulent combustion of a homogeneous fuel mixture at high reynolds numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model representations of the mechanics of combustion are used extensively in analyzing turbulent combustion. Two limit cases of combustion corresponding to the characteristic scales of turbulence L, which is much greater or much less compared to the thickness of the normal laminar combustion front in the fuel mixture under consideration bn, are distinguished [1]. In the first case (L>> bn)

V. L. Zimont

1979-01-01

427

The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase IV report  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US-DOE`s on-going interest in the use of alternative automotive fuels, the University of Dayton Research Institute has been conducting research on pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion of candidate fuels. This research, under the direction and sponsorship of the NREL, has been concerned primarily with the combustion of compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and ethanol. In the first 24 months of this program, studies of the oxygen rich, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich thermal degradation of these fuels in the temperature range of 300 to 1100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and for reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 s were completed. Trace organic products were identified and quantified for each fuel as a function of temperature. The results of these studies agreed well with the results of tail-pipe emission studies in that the types and quantity of emissions measured in both the laboratory and engine tests were shown to be very similar under certain operating conditions. However, some chemicals were observed in the laboratory studies that were not observed in the engine studies and vice versa. This result is important in that it has implications concerning the origin of these emissions. Experiments concerning the NO perturbed oxidation of methanol, M85, ethanol, and E85 indicated the presence of complex oxidation chemistry. At mild temperatures, NO addition resulted in enhanced fuel conversion. At elevated temperatures, an inhibitory effect was observed through increased yields of both partial oxidation and pyrolysis-type reaction products. Comparison of flow reactor product distributions with engine test results generally indicated improved comparisons when NO was added to the fuel. Analysis of secondary components of alcohol fuels resulted in some unexpected observations. Several previously unidentified species were observed in these experiments which may impact atmospheric reactivity assessments of these fuels.

Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Institute; Sidhu, S.K. [and others

1997-06-01

428

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

429

OXYFUEL COMBUSTION OF LOW CALORIFIC BLAST FURNACE GAS FOR STEEL REHEATING FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot trials at MEFOS have proven that a new S3 blast furnace gas (BFG)-oxyfuel burner can give high performance, low NOx, low cost reheating for the steel industry. The S3 burner has been developed by AGA-Linde based on REBOX® flameless combustion technology with the optional use of a booster fuel. This burner was tested in a series of trials in

John Niska; Anders Rensgard

430

Unburned Gas Temperatures in an Internal Combustion Engine. I:Cars Temperature Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadband,coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of unburned gas temperatures have been performed in an internal combustion engine.The engine is fueled with n-butane and air and is operated under both knocking and non-knocking conditons.Temperatures are determined by fitting calculated CARS spectra to experimentally obtained,cycle-averaged nitrogen CARS spectra.The accuracy of the fitted temperature depends on a number of factors,including the modeling

Robert P. Lucht; Richard E. Teets; Robert M. Green; Richard E. Palmer; Colin R. Ferguson

1987-01-01

431

Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in

Bin Pang

2005-01-01

432

A review of investigations on liquid fuel combustion in porous inert media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of a porous medium for combustion of liquid fuels is proved to be a promising approach for future applications. The porous medium burner for liquid fuels is more advantageous than the conventional open spray flame burner for several reasons; these include enhanced evaporation of droplet spray owing to regenerative combustion characteristics, low emission of pollutants, high combustion intensity with

M. Abdul Mujeebu; M. Z. Abdullah; M. Z. Abu Bakar; A. A. Mohamad; M. K. Abdullah

2009-01-01

433

Parameters pertinent to low-temperature combustion of wooden fuel for modern power-generating installations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from an investigation into combustion of wooden and charcoal particles at relatively low temperatures are presented. Combustion modes are determined, and the effect the fuel reaction properties have on the thermal treatment and combustion process is evaluated. The results are compared with well-known figures on fossil fuels and with the data calculated using the classic diffusion-kinetic model.

Silin, V. E.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

2008-08-01

434

Effects of middle distillate fuel properties on residential oil combustion characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program has been developed at the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory to provide refiners with combustion information and limitations on the use of such fuels in residential combustion systems. Fuels are analyzed for their chemical compositions and aromatic contents, as well as viscosity, density, carbon residue, distillation range, flash point, pour point, aniline point, refractive index and average molecular

S. W. Lee; A. C. S. Hayden

1986-01-01

435

Combustion of PMMA in a solid fuel ramjet  

SciTech Connect

The combustion behaviour of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in a solid fuel ramjet was investigated using a connected pipe test facility. At pressures below 0,6 MPa almost no soot is formed, the flame is blueish and the regression rate appears to be primarily controlled by convection. At higher pressures, soot is formed and radiative heat transfer appears to be increasingly important. As a result, the regression rate becomes pressure dependant, while the effect of mass flux on regression rate decreases. Oxygen content in the air and air inlet temperature also affect combustion behaviour. No grain size effect on regression rate is noticed. Spectroscopic measurements demonstrated the presence of OH, C/sub 2/ and CH in the combustion chamber. The combustion efficiency varied between 70 and 76% and can be increased by increasing the size of the aft mixing chamber, the fuel grain length or the oxygen content in the air. Cold flow computer calculations were performed and showed good agreement with experimentally obtained results.

Korting, P.A.O.G.; Van der Geld, C.W.M.; Vos, J.B.; Wijchers, T.; Nina, M.N.R.

1986-01-01

436

Experimental study of the ignition of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and stabilization of their combustion by an arc discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ignition of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and stabilization of their combustion by an arc discharge in a supersonic air flow are investigated experimentally. The discharge parameters and flame characteristics (ignition time lag) are determined. It is shown that the average energy deposited in the flow by the igniter is five orders of magnitude less than the kinetic energy of the main gas flow.

Bityurin, V. A.; Velikodnyi, V. Yu.; Tolkunov, B. N.; Bykov, A. A.; Dyrenkov, A. V.; Popov, V. V.

2012-12-01

437

Acoustic Emissions Reveal Combustion Conditions: Turbulent-flame acoustic emissions change with air/fuel ratio variations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The acoustic emissions from turbulent gas flames may be useful both for the diagnosis of combustion processes and for fuel/air control. An experimental study has ide...

1984-01-01

438

DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. he two methods developed have b...

439

DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. The two methods developed have...

440

Low emissions combustor development for an industrial gas turbine to utilize LCV fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced coal-based power generation systems such as the British Coal Topping Cycle offer the potential for high-efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component of the Topping cycle program is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at a turbine inlet temperature of 1,260 C (2,300

G. J. Kelsall; M. A. Smith; M. F. Cannon

1994-01-01

441

Electronically controlled fuel metering system for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An electronically controlled fuel metering system is disclosed for an internal combustion engine, in which a multiplicative correction is made during warmup and acceleration in accordance with the formula K=(1+FM1(n, t1).FM2())(1+FBA1(n, t1).FBA2()). One exemplary embodiment illustrates a possibility for realizing the correction value formation by circuitry means; in addition, exemplary values are given for individual performance graphs and characteristic curves.

Denz, H.; Barho, H.

1984-04-03

442

Catalyst composition for improving combustion efficiency of liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect

A solid ceramic catalyst is described for improving the combustion efficiency of liquid fuels, comprising: silica and alumina as a major ingredients and containing thorium oxide, uranium oxide (U[sub 2]O[sub 3]), rare earth oxide, iron oxide (Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]), titanium oxide (TiO[sub 2]), calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxide, and phosphorus pentoxide.

Nam, Y.W.

1993-08-31

443

Catalyst composition for improving combustion efficiency of liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid ceramic catalyst is described for improving the combustion efficiency of liquid fuels, comprising: silica and alumina as a major ingredients and containing thorium oxide, uranium oxide (U[sub 2]O[sub 3]), rare earth oxide, iron oxide (Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]), titanium oxide (TiO[sub 2]), calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxide, and phosphorus pentoxide.

Nam

1993-01-01

444

The Implications of Fossil Fuel Combustion for Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion alter the composition of the atmosphere and have been touted as a major cause of climate change. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, for example, has increased by more than 30% since pre-industrial times. Average global surface temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 ± 0.2 ºC since the late 19th Century, and surface temperature

Kristy E. Ross; Stuart J. Piketh

445

Fuel-Air Mixing in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetone planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to investigate pre-combustion fuel-air mixing in an optically accessible single-cylinder engine fueled with hydrogen. PLIF and PIV are acquired separately in a plane parallel to the piston top ( r-? plane) at a fixed engine speed and crank angle. The experiments include measurements for non-fueled engine operation

Christopher M. White; Sebastian Kaiser; Michael Roux

2008-01-01

446

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, conbustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Sciences, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for the full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra-fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-08-01

447

Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injection pump having a hydraulic injection onset adjustment apparatus is proposed in which a supplementary variation of the injection onset is obtained by means of the variation of the pressure deviating from proportionality. The pressure control valve used has a throttle connection between the pressure chamber and the spring chamber. The variation of the pressure is obtained by means of controlling the discharge channel of the spring chamber, by means of a control slide exposed to the pump pressure, whose restoring spring is variable in accordance with engine characteristics.

Laufer, H.

1983-01-04

448

Control device for fuel-injected internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A control device is disclosed for the fuel supply system of a fuel-injected internal combustion engine provided with a correcting device, which changes the adjusting path and/or the full load position of the fuel quantity adjusting member of the fuel metering device in dependence on operational values the operation of which is made visible by means of a signal indicator. The adjusting member of the correcting device is provided with opposed walls either of which is arranged to cooperate with a stop which is connected to the electrical circuit of the signal indicator, with the stop being mounted in the governor housing in such a manner that it is electrically insulated therefrom.

Lang, T.; Zoske, K.

1980-03-11

449

Device at combustion plants for automatic feeding of fuels within the furnace of the plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for feeding solid fuel through a furnace of a combustion plant, comprising the steps of: positioning solid fuel on a fuel-receiving end of movable grate means, advancing the movable grate means through the furnace from the fuel-receiving end to a fuel-discharging end of the grate means, while combusting the fuel disposed thereon. The grate means is

Lovgren

1986-01-01

450

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals (or chars) derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Also, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program addresses the contributions and the mechanisms of cofiring natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization.

Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

451

Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed to study the influence of dual-fuel combustion characteristics on the exhaust emissions and combustion performance in a diesel engine fueled with biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel. In this work, the combustion pressure and the rate of heat release were evaluated under various conditions in order to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics for single-fuel (diesel and biodiesel) and

Seung Hyun Yoon; Chang Sik Lee

2011-01-01

452

Development of an aeroderivative gas turbine DLE combustion system  

SciTech Connect

GE embarked on the detailed design of a new gas-fired, premixed combustion system for its family of aeroderivative gas turbines. This new lean premixed system, sometimes referred to as a dry low-NO[sub x], or a dry low-emissions combustion system, will reduce the emissions of NO[sub x] to less than 25 ppm. The emissions of other pollutants, such as CO, unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and particulates are also expected to be extremely low. The effects of engine operating conditions and combustor film cooling on emissions and lean flame stability were also studied in some detail. 4 figs.

Leonard, G.; Stegmaier, J. (GE Aircraft Engine Business, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1993-05-01

453

Exhaust gas recirculation control system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system is disclosed for particular application to a diesel engine, which includes a combination of a fuel injection pump having a movable fuel amount determining element whose position regulates the amount of fuel injected, a conversion device having a fixed orifice and a variable orifice provided downstream of the fixed orifice and whose effective opening

1981-01-01

454

Sulfur removal by sorbent injection in secondary combustion zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in an apparatus for combustion of sulfur-containing particulate carbonaceous fuel. Oxidizer gas and particulate fuel are introduced into a substantially cylindrical primary combustion chamber. The input velocities, mass-flow rates and combustion temperatures are regulated to minimize the concentration of volatilized and liquid slag in the output gaseous products of combustion. The walls of the combustion

A. L. F. Egense; J. D. Kuenzly

1989-01-01

455

Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties  

SciTech Connect

The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

Gallant, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Franz, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Alnajjar, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Cannella, William C [Chevron, USA; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Hager, Darcy [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Dettman, Heather [CANMET Energy; Luecke, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Zigler, Brad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2009-01-01

456

Combustion Properties of Gas-Generating Pyrotechnics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses particularly on solid energetic materials designed to produce high-pressure gas for pressurizing or inflating devices. In coot gas generators sodium azide is often used. Unfortunately, this chemical exhibits drawbacks concerning toxicity and yield of gas. Another gas-generating agent is double base propellant, which has traditionally been used in the rocket-industry. However, it delivers toxic and reactive gases

K. ENGELEN; M. H. LEFEBVRE; J. DE RUYCK

2001-01-01

457

Cord wood gasification and gas combustion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1.0 Gj\\/hr cord wood gasifier-combustor was designed and tested. Two-staged combustion of cord wood up to a diameter of 15.2 cm was achieved with a net energy efficiency of 70 to 80%. Modulation of the system output was demonstrated. The major problem encountered was loading wood into the hot gasifier on a continuous basis. ref.

F. A. Payne; J. G. Alphin; J. M. Bunn

1981-01-01

458

Gas turbine combustion: Prospects and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas turbines, first postulated and conceptually analyzed during the first decade of the twentieth century, became engineering reality in the late 1930s. During the last 50 years, aircraft gas turbine technology has developed gradually and continuously. The two families of gas turbines, aircraft and stationary, share a certain similarity, although their design requirements are significantly different. Both cases, however, incorporate

A. K. Gupta

1997-01-01

459

Hot gas ignition temperatures of hydrocarbon fuel vapor-air mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminar hot air jets of ¹\\/â to ³\\/â-inch diameter were employed to determine the hot gas ignition temperatures of various combustible vapor-air mixtures. The combustibles were n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane, a hydrocarbon jet fuel (JP-6) and an adipate ester aircraft engine oil (MIL-L-7808). Minimum ignition temperatures occurred at a fuel-air weight ratio of about 0.5 and were not greatly sensitive to

R. J. Cato; J. M. Kuchta

1965-01-01

460

Effect of the PLAZMAZER plasma ignition system on the fuel combustion regimes in combustion chambers of engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economically efficient method of combatting toxic products of incomplete fuel combustion in engines and other movable and\\u000a stationary power installations by means of pulsed automatic control of the ignition and combustion processes carried out by\\u000a the PLAZMAZER system is proposed. A new concept of the occurrence of motor knock in internal combustion engines with external\\u000a carburetion, the stiff operating

V. P. Vovk; A. A. Egorov; V. N. Shkatulo

1999-01-01

461

Development and validation of a multi-zone combustion model for performance and nitric oxide formation in syngas fueled spark ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a zero-dimensional, multi-zone combustion model is presented for predicting the performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions of a spark ignition (SI) engine. The model is validated against experimental data from a multi-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged and aftercooled, SI gas engine running with syngas fuel. This alternative fuel, the combustible part of which consists mainly of CO and H2

C. D. Rakopoulos; C. N. Michos

2008-01-01

462

Spontaneous Combustion and Underground Gasification of Coal: Coal-Combustion Gas. Part I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many experimental results lead to the belief that the gas constituents of coal combustion relate to reaction temperature. Therefore, it is hoped that this fact can be applied to methods for the early-stage detection and observation of the spontaneous comb...

T. Yanagimoto M. Komatsu A. Tomisaki

1967-01-01

463

Combustion characteristics of coal-derived liquid fuels in a 300 kilowatt hot-wall furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a comprehensive and systematic research program on coal-derived liquid fuel (CDL) combustion using The Pennsylvania State University Fuels and Combustion Laboratory hot-wall process furnace are reported. This study represents the first time flames of these alternative liquid fuels have been characterized with such a device. The physical (ignition characteristics; flame color, length, and shape; thermal efficiency; heat

Ogunsola

1983-01-01

464

Generating vapor of a volatile normally liquid fuel and operating an internal combustion engine therewith  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified internal combustion engine useful as a power plant in automotive vehicles is operated on an admixture of air and fuel vapor. An apparatus is disclosed for generating the fuel vapor from a volatile normally liquid fuel of the type useful in operating a conventional internal combustion engine having a prior art carburetor. Apparatus is also disclosed for safely

Lowe

1981-01-01

465

Evaluation of alternate-fuels performance in an external combustion system. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the economic attractiveness of many alternate fuels increases relative to gasoline, the viability of any future automotive power plant may soon depend on the ease with which these alternate fuels can be utilized. It is generally assumed that external-combustion engines are more tolerant of alternate fuels than internal-combustion engines. This study attempted to verify that assumption. The purpose of

R. A. Battista; M. Connelly

1985-01-01

466

Progress in the development of combustion kinetics databases for liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the present situation regarding chemical kinetic databases for the simulation of the combustion of liquid fuels. Past work in the area is summarized. Much is known about the reactions of the smaller fragments from combustion processes. In order to describe real liquid fuels there is the need for an understanding of how the larger organic fuels are

Wing Tsang

2004-01-01

467

Reduced bed agglomeration by co-combustion biomass with peat fuels in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion is an energy conversion technology that is very suitable for biomass combustion because of its fuel flexibility and low process temperatures. However, agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems. To prevent or at least reduce this, peat has been suggested as an additive to the main fuels. Nevertheless, the characteristics of peat fuels vary and

Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Marcus Oehman; Dan Bostroem

2005-01-01

468

Fast-burn combustion chamber design for natural gas engines  

SciTech Connect

The work presented in this paper compares the performance and emissions of the UBC Squish-Jet fast-burn combustion chamber with a baseline bowl-in-piston (BIP) chamber. It was found that the increased turbulence generated in the fastburn combustion chambers resulted in 5 to 10% faster burning of the air-fuel mixture compared to a conventional BIP chamber. The faster burning was particularly noticeable when operating with lean air-fuel mixtures. The study was conducted at a 1.7 mm clearance height and 10.2:1 compression ratio. Measurements were made over a range of air-fuel ratios from stoichiometric to the lean limit. At each operating point all engine performance parameters, and emissions of nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were recorded. At selected operating points a record of cylinder pressure was obtained and analyzed off-line to determine mass-burn rate in the combustion chamber. Two piston designs were tested at wide-open throttle conditions and 2000 rpm to determine the influence of piston geometry on the performance and emissions parameters. The UBC squish-jet combustion chamber design demonstrates significantly better performance parameters and lower emission levels than the conventional BIP design. Mass-burn fraction calculations showed a significant reduction in the time to burn the first 10% of the charge, which takes approximately half of the time to burn from 10 to 90% of the charge.

Evans, R.L.; Blaszczyk, J. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-01-01

469

Evaluation of alternate-fuels performance in an external combustion system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As the economic attractiveness of many alternate fuels increases relative to gasoline, the viability of any future automotive power plant may soon depend on the ease with which these alternate fuels can be utilized. It is generally assumed that external-combustion engines are more tolerant of alternate fuels than internal-combustion engines. This study attempted to verify that assumption. The purpose of the Alternate-Fuels Performance Evaluation Program was to evaluate and compare the impact of burning six different liquids fuels in an external-combustion system. Testing was conducted in the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) combustion performance rig, which duplicates the external heat system (EHS) of a Stirling engine. The program expanded the range of fuels evaluated over previous studies conducted at Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI). The specific objective was to determine the optimal combustion stoichiometry considering the performance parameters of combustion efficiency, temperature profile, exhaust emissions, and burner wall temperature. 14 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

Battista, R.A.; Connelly, M.

1985-12-01

470

Combustible gas control in severe accidents  

SciTech Connect

General Atomics (GA) is developing two legal-weight truck casks for shipping spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels from existing and proposed reactor facilities to a repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The GA-4 cask is designed to carry four PWR spent-fuel assemblies with a design-basis burnup level of 35 GWd/tonne U and a 10-yr cooling time. The GA-9 cask is designed to carry nine BWR spent-fuel assemblies with a design-basis burnup level of 30 GWd/tonne U and a 10-yr cooling time.

Sum, E.; Dove, W.G. (ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States))

1993-01-01

471

Critical evaluation of Jet-A spray combustion using propane chemical kinetics in gas turbine combustion simulated by KIVA2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet-A spray combustion has been evaluated in gas turbine combustion with the use of propane chemical kinetics as the first approximation for the chemical reactions. Here, the numerical solutions are obtained by using the KIVA-2 computer code. The KIVA-2 code is the most developed of the available multidimensional combustion computer programs for application of the in-cylinder combustion dynamics of internal

H. L. Nguyen; S.-J. Ying

1990-01-01

472

Study on the ignition of a fuel droplet in high temperature stagnant gas  

SciTech Connect

This study aimed to clarify the effects of the fuel vapor, which had evaporated in advance and formed combustible mixture around the condensed phase, on the ignition of a fuel droplet under the gas dynamic compression. A soap bubble was utilized to make a heterogeneously distributed fuel vapor pocket in oxidizer gas which offered a model of the vapor cloud around the fuel droplet. Induction periods for the onset of strong emission were measured for fuel droplets, and the models and their ignition processes were examined precisely by means of the interferometric measurement of the fuel concentration field.

Yoshizawa, Y.; Tomita, M.; Kawada, H.

1981-07-01

473

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-05-01

474

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1995-04-27

475

Simplified IGCC with hot fuel gas combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental testing and data analysis performed for simulated simplified IGCC system components have been completed. Earlier papers presented the program description and preliminary testing operations. This paper presents a review of the testing accomplishments and the results of data analysis. An air blown, fixed-bed coal gasifier, and downstream cyclone particle separator were found to retain or remove coal ash particles

1985-01-01

476

Autoignition and combustion of water-fuel emulsion during its injection into heated air. III. Completeness of combustion of fuel oil M-40  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the completeness of combustion of liquid fuel during its pulsed injection into heated air on the parameters\\u000a of the medium and delivery conditions was established experimentally and it is shown that emulsification of the fuel does\\u000a not affect the integral completeness of combustion. Therefore, an increase of fuel economy of diesel engines on converting\\u000a them to a

A. A. Buzukov; B. P. Timoshenko

1995-01-01