Sample records for fuel gas combustion

  1. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  2. Combustion characteristics of gas turbine alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance values for specific heavyend, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. A flame tube combustor modified to duplicate an advanced gas turbine engine combustor was used for the tests. Each fuel was tested at steady-state operating conditions over a range of mass flow rates, fuel-to-air mass ratio, and inlet air temperatures. The combustion pressure, as well as the hardware, were kept nearly constant over the program test phase. Test results were obtained in regards to geometric temperature pattern factors as a function of combustor wall temperatures, the combustion gas temperature, and the combustion emissions, both as affected by the mass flow rate and fuel-to-air ratio. The synthetic fuels were reacted in the combustor such that for most tests their performance was as good, if not better, than the baseline gasoline or diesel fuel tests. The only detrimental effects were that at high inlet air temperature conditions, fuel decomposition occurred in the fuel atomizing nozzle passages resulting in blockage. And the nitrogen oxide emissions were above EPA limits at low flow rate and high operating temperature conditions.

  3. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  4. Combustion of coal-gas fuels in a staged combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T J; McVey, J B; Sederquist, R A; Schultz, D F

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources have been considered for use in industrial gas turbines. Such fuels generally have heating values much lower than the typical gaseous fuel, natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Additionally, coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable NO/sub x/ exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations have indicated that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low NO/sub x/ emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels containing up to 0.8-wt % nitrogen. An experimental program has been conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7% ammonia are presented. The test results permit the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Staged, rich-lean combustion represents the desirable approach to achieve ultra-low NO/sub x/ and CO emissions for coal gas fuels with heating values of 210 kJ/mol (238 Btu/scf) or higher. (2) Lean combustion represents the desirable approach to achieve ultra-low NO/sub x/ and CO emissions for coal gas fuels with low heating values (84 kJ/mol (95 Btu/scf)). (3) Staged combustion has the ability to limit NH/sub 3/ to NO/sub x/ conversion rates to less than 5%. NO/sub x/ emissions below the EPA limit can readily be achieved.

  5. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for todays engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  6. Toward the Impact of Fuel Evaporation-Combustion Interaction on Spray Combustion in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers. Part I: Effect of Partial Fuel Vaporization on Spray Combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amsini Sadiki; W. Ahmadi; Mouldi Chrigui; J. Janicka

    \\u000a This work aims at investigating the impact of the interaction between evaporation process and combustion on spray combustion\\u000a characteristics in gas turbine combustion chambers. It is subdivided into two parts. The first part studies how the evaporation\\u000a process affects the behavior of partially pre-vaporized spray combustion. The second part attempts to answer the question\\u000a how the fuel evaporation process behaves

  7. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms,

  8. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a...Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices. (a) Fuel gas combustion devices subject to SO 2 or H 2...

  9. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a...Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices. (a) Fuel gas combustion devices subject to SO 2 or H 2...

  10. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a...Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices. (a) Fuel gas combustion devices subject to SO 2 or H 2...

  11. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  12. Combustion of liquid fuels in a flowing combustion gas environment at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of fuel droplets in gases which simulate combustion chamber conditions was considered both experimentally and theoretically. The fuel droplets were simulated by porous spheres and allowed to gasify in combustion gases produced by a burner. Tests were conducted for pressures of 1-40 atm, temperatures of 600-1500 K, oxygen concentrations of 0-13% (molar) and approach Reynolds numbers of 40-680. The fuels considered in the tests included methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane and n-decane. Measurements were made of both the rate of gasification of the droplet and the liquid surface temperature. Measurements were compared with theory, involving various models of gas phase transport properties with a multiplicative correction for the effect of forced convection.

  13. A novel gas turbine cycle with hydrogen-fueled chemical-looping combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongguang Jin; Masaru Ishida

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we have proposed a novel gas turbine cycle with hydrogen-fueled chemical-looping combustion, and the system study on two hydrogen-fueled power plants, the new gas turbine cycle and an advanced gas turbine cycle with H2\\/O2 combustion, has been investigated with the aid of exergy principle (EUD methodology). The hydrogen fueled chemical-looping combustion in the new gas turbine cycle

  14. Chemical kinetic modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of sour gas for enhanced oil recovery

    E-print Network

    Bongartz, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of sour gas, a mixture of natural gas (primarily methane (CH 4 )), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), could enable the utilization of large natural gas resources, especially when ...

  15. Internal combustion engines fueled by natural gashydrogen mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Orhan Akansu; Zafer Dulger; Nafiz Kahraman; T. Nejat Veziro?lu

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a survey of research papers on utilization of natural gashydrogen mixtures in internal combustion engines is carried out. In general, HC, CO2, and CO emissions decrease with increasing H2, but NOx emissions generally increase. If a catalytic converter is used, NOx emission values can be decreased to extremely low levels. Consequently, equivalence zero emission vehicles (EZEV) standards

  16. Combustion characteristics of a direct-injection natural gas engine under various fuel injection timings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke Zeng; Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Liangxin Liu; Deming Jiang; Yi Ren; Jinhua Wang

    2006-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a direct-injection natural gas engine under various fuel injection timings were investigated. The results showed that fuel injection timing had a large influence on the engine performance, combustion and emissions and these influences became largely in the case of late injection. Over-late injection would supply insufficient time for the fuelair mixing of the late part of

  17. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  18. Combustion gas properties of various fuels of interest to gas turbine engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Wear, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A series of computations were made using the gas property computational schemes of Gordon and McBride to compute the gas properties and species concentration of ASTM-Jet A and dry air. The computed gas thermodynamic properties in a revised graphical format which gives information which is useful to combustion engineers is presented. A series of reports covering the properties of many fuel and air combinations will be published. The graphical presentation displays on one chart of the output of hundreds of computer sheets. The reports will contain microfiche cards, from which complete tables and graphs can be obtained. The extent of the planned effort and is documented samples of the many tables and charts that will be available on the microfiche cards are presented.

  19. Combustion Gas Properties I-ASTM Jet a Fuel and Dry Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Wear, J. D.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A series of computations was made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for ASTM jet A fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0.

  20. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  1. Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2012-05-09

    Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas???????¢????????????????air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed ???????¢????????????????relative combustion phasing???????¢???????????????). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20???????????????° to 60???????????????°BTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally, heat release return maps were analyzed to demonstrate thermal management strategies as an effective tool to mitigate cyclic combustion variations, especially in dual fuel LTC.

  2. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  3. Graphite fuels combustion off-gas treatment options

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, R.J.; Lords, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Scenarios for burning bulk graphite and for burning crushed fuel particles from graphite spent nuclear fuels have been considered. Particulates can be removed with sintered metal filters. Subsequent cooling would then condense semi-volatile fission products into or onto a particulate. These particulates would be trapped by a second sintered metal filter or downstream packed bed. A packed bed scrub column can be used to eliminate most of the iodine-129 and tritium. A molecular sieve bed is proposed to collect the residual {sup 129}I and other tramp radionuclides downstream (Ruthenium, etc.). Krypton-85 can be recovered, if need be, either by cryogenics or by the KALC process (Krypton Adsorption in Liquid Carbon dioxide). Likewise carbon-14 in the form of carbon dioxide could be collected with a caustic or lime scrub solution and incorporated into a grout. Sulfur dioxide present will be well below regulatory concern level of 4.0 tons per year and most of it would be removed by the scrubber. Carbon monoxide emissions will depend on the choice of burner and start-up conditions. Should the system exceed the regulatory concern level, a catalytic converter in the final packed bed will be provided. Radon and its daughters have sufficiently short half-lives (less than two minutes). If necessary, an additional holdup bed can be added before the final HEPA filters or additional volume can be added to the molecular sieve bed to limit radon emissions. The calculated total effective dose equivalent at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory boundary from a single release of all the {sup 3}, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I in the total fuel mass if 0.43 mrem/year.

  4. Experiments and modelling of natural gas combustion ignited by apilot diesel fuel spray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makame Mbarawa; Brain Edward Milton; Robert Thomas Casey

    2001-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out in order\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009to understand the combustion of natural gas (NG) under diesel cycle\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009conditions. The study used a natural gas\\/air mixture with a pilot\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009diesel fuel spray for ignition in a constant volume combustion chamber.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009The experiments were carried out under conditions as close as possible\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009to those existing in a gas

  5. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen\\/Natural Gas Blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines,

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    PubMed

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-01

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene. PMID:22534092

  7. Comparison of combustion characteristics of ASTM A-1, propane, and natural-gas fuels in an annular turbojet combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of an annular turbojet combustor using natural-gas fuel is compared with that obtained using ASTM A-1 and propane fuels. Propane gas was used to simulate operation with vaporized kerosene fuels. The results obtained at severe operating conditions and altitude relight conditions show that natural gas is inferior to both ASTM A-1 and propane fuels. Combustion efficiencies were significantly lower and combustor pressures for relight were higher with natural-gas fuel than with the other fuels. The inferior performance of natural gas is shown to be caused by the chemical stability of the methane molecule.

  8. Application of neural network in the study of combustion rate of natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhao-Da; Zhou, Chong-Guang; Su, Shi-Chuan; Liu, Zhen-Tao; Wang, Xi-Zhen

    2003-01-01

    In order to predict and improve the performance of natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine (DFE), a combustion rate model based on forward neural network was built to study the combustion process of the DFE. The effect of the operating parameters on combustion rate was also studied by means of this model. The study showed that the predicted results were good agreement with the experimental data. It was proved that the developed combustion rate model could be used to successfully predict and optimize the combustion process of dual fuel engine. PMID:12659230

  9. INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING

    E-print Network

    INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

  10. Low NO sub x heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Combustion technology generation coal gas fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherlock, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion tests of two scaled burners using actual coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are described. The two combustor configurations studied were a ceramic lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannual swirl burner (MASB). The tests were conducted over a range of temperature and pressures representative of current industrial combustion turbine inlet conditions. Tests on the rich lean burner were conducted at three levels of product gas heating values: 104, 197 and 254 btu/scf. Corresponding levels of NOx emissions were 5, 20 and 70 ppmv. Nitrogen was added to the fuel in the form of ammonia, and conversion efficiencies of fuel nitrogen to NOx were on the order of 4 percent to 12 percent, which is somewhat lower than the 14 percent to 18 percent conversion efficiency when src-2 liquid fuel was used. The MASB was tested only on medium btu gas (220 to 270 btu/scf), and produced approximately 80 ppmv NOx at rated engine conditions. Both burners operated similarly on actual coal gas and erbs fuel, and all heating values tested can be successfully burned in current machines.

  11. and Uncertainty in Stationary Natural Gas-fueled Internal Combustion Engine NOx and Total Organic Compounds Emission Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Christopher Frey

    Quantitative methods for characterizing both variability and uncertainty are applied to case studies of emission factors for stationary natural gas-fueled internal combustion engines. NOx and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) emission data sets for lean burn engines were analyzed. Data were available for uncontrolled engines and for engines with pre-combustion chamber (PCC) and \\

  12. Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel chemistries, and produce a wide compositions range of complete stoichiometric products (CSP). The simulated engine conditions combined a typical spark ignition engine compression ratio (11.34) and high intake charge temperatures (500-550 K) that are relevant to NVO HCCI. It was found that over the conditions investigated, all the fuels had overlapping start of combustion (SOC) phasing, despite the wide range in octane number (RON = 0 to 120). The effect of the EGR components CO2 and H2O was to suppress the compression temperature because of their higher heat capacities, which retarded SOC. For a concentration of O2 higher than the stoichiometric amount, or excess O2, there was an effect of advancing SOC for n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, but SOC for ethanol was not advanced. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) for n-heptane was also found to be highly dependent on excess O2, and mild endothermic reaction was observed for cases when excess O2 was not present.

  13. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOEpatents

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  14. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  15. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  16. Reduced mechanism of soot formation -- Application to natural gas-fueled diesel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihara, Y.; Kazakov, A.; Wang, H.; Frenklach, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Stochastic simulations of soot formation were performed for the combustion of natural gas in a glow-assisted direct-injection diesel engine. A simple fluid dynamic method was employed, which describes turbulent mixing by random collision and coalescence of individual fluid cells. The composition of each fluid cell is homogeneous and changes with time under the control of the chemical kinetics. The reaction mechanisms was comprised of three parts, each reduced with a different method, keeping the chemistry and physics as uncompromised as possible. The computational results demonstrate that the model of soot formation, developed and tested on laminar premixed flames, is capable of predicting the right amount of soot produced under the conditions of turbulent combustion. The model predicts that soot mass is mostly gained at rather high temperatures, 2,100--2,400 K, and a narrow range of fuel-air equivalence ratios, 2.6--2.8. The production of soot in diesel combustion was found to be controlled by particle nucleation, mass growth by surface reactions of acetylene, and surface oxidation by OH.

  17. Study of electrostatic modulation of fuel sprays to enhance combustion performance in an aviation gas turbine. Master's thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    The influence of electrostatic and electrohydrodynamic charging on hydrocarbon fuel-spray patterns and droplet atomization was investigated. Research was performed in a combustion environment with an Allison T-56 combustor liner and an unmodified pressure-jet atomizer fuel nozzle. High-voltage probes and a variable-geometry probe-insertion device were developed to assess the effectiveness of probe type and location on fuel-spray modification and modulation. Exhaust-gas

  18. Effect of fuel gas composition in chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carriers. 1. Fate of sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Labiano, F.; de Diego, L.F.; Gayan, P.; Adanez, J.; Abad, A.; Dueso, C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has been suggested among the best alternatives to reduce the economic cost of CO{sub 2} capture using fuel gas because CO{sub 2} is inherently separated in the process. For gaseous fuels, natural gas, refinery gas, or syngas from coal gasification can be used. These fuels may contain different amounts of sulfur compounds, such as H{sub 2}S and COS. An experimental investigation of the fate of sulfur during CH{sub 4} combustion in a 500 W{sub th} CLC prototype using a Ni-based oxygen carrier has been carried out. The effect on the oxygen carrier behavior and combustion efficiency of several operating conditions such as temperature and H{sub 2}S concentration has been analyzed. Nickel sulfide, Ni3S{sub 2}, was formed at all operating conditions in the fuel reactor, which produced an oxygen carrier deactivation and lower combustion efficiencies. However, the oxygen carrier recovered their initial reactivity after certain time without sulfur addition. The sulfides were transported to the air reactor where SO{sub 2} was produced as final gas product. Agglomeration problems derived from the sulfides formation were never detected during continuous operation. Considering both operational and environmental aspects, fuels with sulfur contents below 100 vppm H{sub 2}S seem to be adequate to be used in an industrial CLC plant.

  19. NO x emission reduction in a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 3000 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W Heffel

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes five experiments conducted on a 2-l, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine (ICE) developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm

  20. NO x emission and performance data for a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 1500 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W Heffel

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes six experiments conducted on a 2-liter, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500rpm and each

  1. Low temperature combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate NOx from large bore natural gas fueled engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Biruduganti, M.; Gupta, S.; Sekar, R.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature combustion is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NO{sub x} emissions levels set by the regulatory agencies. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a well known technique to realize low NO{sub x} emissions. However, EGR has many built-in adverse ramifications that negate its advantages in the long term. This paper discusses nitrogen enrichment of intake air using air separation membranes as a better alternative to the mature EGR technique. This investigation was undertaken to determine the maximum acceptable level of nitrogen enrichment of air for a single-cylinder spark-ignited natural gas engine. NO{sub x} reduction as high as 70% was realized with a modest 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving fuel conversion efficiency (FCE). Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance in terms of power density, FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N{sub 2} enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing nitrogen enrichment was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with nitrogen enrichment is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NO{sub x} emissions.

  2. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosli Abu Bakar

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been conside rably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cy linders. Engine conversion technology is well established

  3. An investigation of lean combustion in a natural gas-fueled spark-ignited engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gupta; S. R. Bell; S. T. Tillman

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of natural gas in an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), light-duty, spark-ignited engine being operated in the lean fueling regime and compare the operation with gasoline fueling cases. Data were acquired for several operating conditions of speed, throttle position, air-fuel equivalence ratio, and spark timing for both fuels.

  4. Fine particle collection of an electrostatic precipitator in CO 2-rich gas conditions for oxy-fuel combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bangwoo Han; Hak joon Kim; Yong jin Kim

    2010-01-01

    The collection of particles in CO2-enriched environments has long been important for the capture of CO2 in order to clean gases via oxy-fuel combustion. We here report on the collection characteristics of fine and ultrafine particles using an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. In order to understand the characteristics of particle collection in CO2-rich gas mixtures, the ionic

  5. A comprehensive evaluation of the influence of air combustion and oxy-fuel combustion flue gas constituents on Hg(0) re-emission in WFGD systems.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Gonzlez, Raquel; Daz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martnez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the influence of the main constituents of flue gases from coal combustion (CO2, O2, N2 and water vapor), in air and oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the re-emission of Hg(0) in wet scrubbers. It was observed that the concentration of water vapor does not affect the re-emission of mercury, whereas O2 and CO2 have a notable influence. High concentrations of O2 in the flue gas prevent the re-emission of Hg(0) due to the reaction of oxygen with the metals present in low oxidation states. High concentrations of CO2, which cause a decrease in the pH and the redox potential of gypsum slurries, reduce the amount of Hg(0) that is re-emitted. As a consequence, the high content of CO2 in oxy-fuel combustion may decrease the re-emission of Hg(0) due to the solubility of CO2 in the suspension and the decrease in the pH. It was also found that O2 affects the stabilization of Hg(2+) species in gypsum slurries. The results of this study confirm that the amount of metals present in limestone as well as the redox potential and pH of the slurries in wet desulphurization plants need to be strictly controlled to reduce Hg(0) re-emissions from power plants operating under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. PMID:24887118

  6. Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan Choudhuri

    2011-03-31

    Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

  7. A parametric study on natural gas fueled HCCI combustion engine using a multi-zone combustion model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Yousefzadi Nobakht; R. Khoshbakhi Saray; Arash Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    Homogenous Charge Combustion Ignition (HCCI) is a good method for higher efficiency and to reduce NOx and particulate matter simultaneously in comparison to conventional internal combustion engines. In HCCI engines, there is no direct control method for auto ignition time. A common way to indirectly control the ignition timing in HCCI combustion engines is varying engines parameters which can affect

  8. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  9. Emission characterization and evaluation of natural gas-fueled cogeneration microturbines and internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldo Canova; Gianfranco Chicco; Giuseppe Genon; Pierluigi Mancarella

    2008-01-01

    The increasing diffusion of small-scale energy systems within the distributed generation (DG) paradigm is raising the need for studying the environmental impact due to the different DG solutions in order to assess their sustainability. Addressing the environmental impact calls for building specific models for studying both local and global emissions. In this framework, the adoption of natural gas-fueled DG cogeneration

  10. Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels

    E-print Network

    Chong, Cheng Tung

    2011-11-08

    atomizer are investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) under non-reacting conditions. The droplet size and velocity distribution of biodiesels are compared to conventional fuels. For spray combustion investigations, a generic gas turbine...

  11. Flame combustion of carbonaceous fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Hampton; R. L. Hatch; G. R. James

    1984-01-01

    A method for improving the flame combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The method enables the reduction of oxides of nitrogen generated by the flame combustion, and enables an improvement in boiler efficiency. An ionic sodium or potassium compound, or a combination of them, is supplied with the combustible mixture of fuel and air so as intimately and uniformly to be present

  12. Contribution of solid fuel, gas combustion or tobacco smoke to indoor air pollutant concentrations in Irish and Scottish homes

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S; Garden, C; Coggins, M; Galea, KS; Whelan, P; Cowie, H; Snchez-Jimenz, A; Thorne, PS; Hurley, JF; Ayres, JG

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data describing pollutant levels inside homes that burn solid fuel within developed country settings with most studies describing test conditions or the effect of interventions. This study recruited homes in Ireland and Scotland where open combustion processes take place. Open combustion was classified as coal, peat or wood fuel burning, use of a gas cooker or stove, or where there is at least one resident smoker. 24-hour data on airborne concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in size (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), endotoxin in inhalable dust and carbon dioxide (CO2), together with 23 week averaged concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were collected in 100 houses during the winter and spring of 20092010. The geometric mean of the 24-hour time-weighted-average (TWA) PM2.5 concentration was highest in homes with resident smokers (99?g/m3 much higher than the WHO 24-hour guidance value of 25 ?g/m3. Lower geometric mean 24-hour TWA levels were found in homes that burned coal (7 ?g/m3) or wood (6 ?g/m3) and in homes with gas cookers (7 ?g/m3). In peat-burning homes the average 24-hourPM2.5 level recorded was 11 ?g/m3. Airborne endotoxin, CO, CO2 and NO2 concentrations were generally within indoor air quality guidance levels. PMID:22007695

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from laboratory-scale fires in wildland fuels depend on fire spread mode and phase of combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surawski, N. C.; Sullivan, A. L.; Meyer, C. P.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Polglase, P. J.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental fires were conducted in a combustion wind tunnel facility to explore the role of fire spread mode on the resulting emissions profile from combustion of fine (< 6 mm) Eucalyptus litter fuels. Fires were burnt spreading with the wind (heading fire), perpendicular to the wind (flanking fire) and against the wind (backing fire). Greenhouse gas compounds (i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O) and CO were quantified using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (off-axis ICOS). A dilution system was employed with the off-axis ICOS technique to prevent spectral broadening of the CO emissions peak and to enable simultaneous quantification of N2O and CO. The forward rate of spread was 20 times faster and the Byram fireline intensity was 20 times higher for heading fires compared to flanking and backing fires. Emissions factors calculated using a carbon mass balance technique (along with statistical testing) showed that most of the carbon was emitted as CO2, with heading fires emitting 17% more CO2 than flanking and 9.5% more CO2 than backing fires, and about twice as much CO. Heading fires had less than half as much carbon remaining in combustion residues. Statistically significant differences in CH4 and N2O emissions factors were not found with respect to fire spread mode. Emissions factors calculated per unit of dry fuel consumed showed that combustion phase (i.e. flaming or smouldering) had a statistically significant impact, with CO and N2O emissions increasing during smouldering combustion and CO2 emissions factors decreasing. Findings on the equivalence of different emissions factor reporting methods are discussed along with the impact of our results for emissions accounting. The primary implication of this study is that prescribed fire practices might be modified to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from forested landscapes by the preferential application of flanking and backing fires over heading fires. Future research could involve wind tunnel testing with more realistic fuel architectures and could also quantify particulate emissions with different fire spread modes.

  14. Fuel-Rich Catalytic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Olson, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    Two-stage combustion system reduces particulate emissions. Program on catalytic oxidation of iso-octane demonstrates feasibility of two-stage combustion system for reducing particulate emissions. With fuel-rich (fuel/air equivalence ratios of 4.8 to 7.8) catalytic-combustion preburner as first stage, combustion process free of soot at reactor-outlet temperatures of 1,200 K or less.

  15. Fuel Flexibility in Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.C.; O'Dowd, W.J.; Mathur, M.P. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Walbert, G.F. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology, Inc.)

    2001-11-06

    This poster presents research findings from cofiring studies of various biomass feedstocks such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-treated wood, lumber mill and furniture waste sawdusts, pallets, feedlot biomass (cattle manure), hybrid willow, and switchgrass with several bituminous and subbituminous coals. This research includes evaluation of advanced instrumentation and the study of interrelated combustion/emissions issues, such as char burnout, impacts on SO2, NOx, fine particulate (PM2.5), mercury (Hg) and other trace emissions, as well as issues impacting heat transfer, such as ash deposition slagging/fouling behavior. Biomass cofiring in large industrial and utility coal-fired boilers is a practical approach for increasing renewable energy given the wide availability, capital investment, and established performance of coal-fired boilers for providing efficient, low cost power. Although some utility biomass cofiring is successfully practiced in the U.S. and abroad, establishing long-term reliability and improving economics are still significant needs, along with research to support advanced combustion in future Vision 21 systems. Biomass cofiring in Vision 21 systems may reduce fossil CO2 emissions per MWe at capital and operations/maintenance cost savings relative to other technology options. Because an increasing number (currently 14) states have recently passed legislation establishing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), goals, or set-asides that will impact new power generation by 2009 and beyond, cofiring may broaden the appeal of Vision 21 systems to solve other environmental issues, including reducing landfill requirements. Legislation has been proposed to establish a federal RPS as well as extend IRS Section 29/45 tax credits (e.g., $0.005-0.010/kW-hr) for cofiring residues to supplement existing incentives, such as a $0.015/kW-hr tax credit for closed loop biomass (e.g., energy crops, such as switchgrass, hybrid willow) gasification. In addition, the coproduction/cogeneration concepts embodied in Vision 21 may also lend itself well to the type of utility/industry partnering involved in cofiring approaches. In light of the cost limitations in shipping distance (e.g., 50-100 miles or less) from collection to end-use based on the low energy density of biomass, resource availability is a site-specific consideration. Biomass fuels also exhibit significant differences in fuel characteristics, including volatility and ash chemistry that can also influence cofiring performance. Pilot-scale biomass cofiring tests have been conducted in the 150 kWt Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF). A key aspect of the present work is to examine biomass char conversion for a range of initial particle sizes at various residence times for combustion relative to fuel processing/handling issues. In addition, a number of biomass cofiring R&D as well as full-scale utility demonstrations are providing technical insights to assist in cofiring technology commercialization. The paper will also discuss research plans, including lignin cofiring for ethanol/power co-production, novel concepts involving animal waste utilization, advanced combustion studies, and tri-firing concepts with other fuels.

  16. Flame combustion of carbonaceous fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, W.J.; Hatch, R.L.; James, G.R.

    1984-05-08

    A method for improving the flame combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The method enables the reduction of oxides of nitrogen generated by the flame combustion, and enables an improvement in boiler efficiency. An ionic sodium or potassium compound, or a combination of them, is supplied with the combustible mixture of fuel and air so as intimately and uniformly to be present where and when the flame exists. Preferably the compound is supplied in an aqueous solution, and can be intimately mixed with the fuel, or with the atomizing air or steam, or with the combustion air. The process is useful with both single-stage and staged (multiple-staged) combustion systems.

  17. Combustion Characteristics and Performance of Low-Swirl Injectors with Natural Gas and Alternative Fuels At Elevated Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerer, David Joseph

    Stationary power-generating gas turbines in the United States have historically been fueled with natural gas, but due to its increasing price and the need to reduce carbon emissions, interest in alternative fuels is increasing. In order to effectively operate engines with these fuels their combustion characteristics need be well understood, especially at elevated pressures and temperatures. In this dissertation, the performance of blends of natural gas / methane with hydrogen and carbon dioxide, to simulate syngas and biogas, are evaluated in a model low-swirl stabilized combustor inside an optically accessible high-pressure vessel. The flashback and lean blow out limits, along with pollutant emissions, flow field, and turbulent displacement flame speeds, are measured as a function of fuel composition, pressure, inlet temperature, firing temperature, and flow rate in the range from 1 to 8 atm, 294 to 600K, 1350 to 1950K, and 20 to 60 m/s, respectively. These properties are quantified as a function of the inlet parameters. The lean blow-out limits are independent of pressure and inlet temperature but are weakly dependent on velocity. NOX emissions for both fuels were found to be exponentially dependent upon firing temperature, but emissions for the high-hydrogen flames were consistently higher than those of natural gas flames. The flashback limits for a 90%/10% (by volume) hydrogen/methane mixture increase with velocity and inlet temperature, but decrease with pressure. Correspondingly, the flame position progresses toward the combustor nozzle with increasing pressure and flame temperature, but away with increasing inlet temperature and velocity. Flashback occurred when the leading edge of the flame entered the nozzle. Local displacement turbulent flame speeds scale linearly with the turbulent fluctuating velocities, u', at the leading edge of the flame. Turbulent flame speeds for high-hydrogen fuels are twice that of natural gas for the same inlet conditions. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of using low-swirl combustors as a means to achieve robust, fuel flexible, and low emissions gas turbines in the future. The correlations and design guides developed with the data from this work will aid engineers by providing insight into the performance and optimization of low-swirl stabilized combustors.

  18. Fuels for internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohnhaupt

    1978-01-01

    A liquid fuel for internal combustion engines is disclosed which allows better combustion and increased purity of exhaust gases, especially in terms of CO concentration and freedom from unburned or only partially burned hydrocarbons. The fuel is a conventional hydrocarbon based fuel, like gasoline and diesel oil, containing at least one additive which reduces the surface tension of the liquid

  19. Airfoil cooling hole plugging by combustion gas impurities of the type found in coal derived fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Deadmore; C. E. Lowell

    1979-01-01

    Film cooled airfoils were heated in the Mach 0.3 combustion gases of a burner rig. The flame temperature was varied but the initial leading edge temperature of the airfoil was cooled to 815° C by air whose pressure was then fixed for the duration of the run. The combustion gases were doped with a combination of Fe, Pb, Ca, Na,

  20. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  1. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.

    PubMed

    England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

  2. A Study of Pollutant Formation from the Lean Premixed Combustion of Gaseous Fuel Alternatives to Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fackler, Keith Boyd, Jr.

    The goal of this research is to identify how nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions and flame stability (blowout) are impacted by the use of fuels that are alternatives to typical pipeline natural gas. The research focuses on lean, premixed combustors that are typically used in state-of-the-art natural gas fueled systems. An idealized laboratory lean premixed combustor, specifically the jet-stirred reactor, is used for experimental data. A series of models, including those featuring detailed fluid dynamics and those focusing on detailed chemistry, are used to interpret the data and understand the underlying chemical kinetic reasons for differences in emissions between the various fuel blends. An ultimate goal is to use these data and interpretive tools to develop a way to predict the emission and stability impacts of changing fuels within practical combustors. All experimental results are obtained from a high intensity, single-jet stirred reactor (JSR). Five fuel categories are studied: (1) pure H 2, (2) process and refinery gas, including combinations of H2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8, (3) oxygen blown gasified coal/petcoke composed of H2, CO, and CO2, (4) landfill and digester gas composed of CH4, CO2, and N2, and (5) liquified natural gas (LNG)/shale/associated gases composed of CH4, C2H6, and C3 H8. NOx measurements are taken at a nominal combustion temperature of 1800 K, atmospheric pressure, and a reactor residence time of 3 ms. This is done to focus the results on differences caused by fuel chemistry by comparing all fuels at a common temperature, pressure, and residence time. This is one of the few studies in the literature that attempts to remove these effects when studying fuels varying in composition. Additionally, the effects of changing temperature and residence time are investigated for selected fuels. At the nominal temperature and residence time, the experimental and modeling results show the following trends for NOx emissions as a function of fuel type: 1.) NOx emissions decrease with increasing H2 fuel fraction for combustion of CH4/H2 blends. This appears to be caused by a reduction in the amount of NO made by the prompt pathway involving the reaction of N2 with hydrocarbon radicals as the CH4 is replaced by H2. 2.) For category 2 (the process and refinery blend) and category 5 (the LNG, shale, and associated gases), NOx emissions increase with the addition of C2 and C3 hydrocarbons. This could be due to an increased production of free radicals resulting from increasing CO production when higher molecular weight hydrocarbons are broken down. 3.) For category 3 (the O2 blown gasified coal/petcoke), NOx emissions increase with increasing CO fuel fraction. The reason for this is attributed to CO producing more radicals per unit heat release than H2. When CO replaces H2, an increase in NOx emissions is seen due to an increase in the productivity of the N2O, NNH, and Zeldovich pathways. 4.) For category 4 (the landfill gas) the addition of diluents such as CO2 and N2 at constant air flow produces more NOx per kg of CH4 consumed, and N2 is more effective than CO 2 in increasing the NOx emission index. The increase in emission index appears to be due to an enhancement of the prompt NOx pathway as the diluents are added and the mixture moves towards stoichiometric. In addition, the presence of CO2 as a diluent catalyzes the loss of flame radicals, leading to less NOx formation than when an equivalent amount of N2 is used as a diluent. For a selected set of fuels, detailed spacial reactor probing is carried out. At the nominal temperature and residence time, the experimental results show the following trends for flame structure as a function of fuel type: 1.) Pure H2 is far more reactive in comparison to CH4 and all other pure alkane fuels. This results in relatively flat NO x and temperature profiles; whereas, the alkane fuels drop in both temperature and NOx production in the jet, where more fresh reactor feed gases are present. 2.) For category 2 (the Process and Refinery blends), H 2 addition increases reactivity in the

  3. Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner

    E-print Network

    Collins, William Tristan

    2008-10-14

    measurements, showing that the important trends of NOx and CO are captured in general. The model was extended to high pressure conditions, similar to those in the actual off-gas burner, with the emissions predictions within design limits. The outcome... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 C.3 Off-gas burner input conditions for H2 ? CO ratio sweep. . . . . . . . . . . 168 C.4 High temperature off-gas burner input conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 C.5 CO and NO emissions for equivalence ratio sweep...

  4. BURNER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL FROM LOW-BTU GAS COMBUSTION: VOLUME II. ELEVATED FUEL TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a program to provide quantitative data on combustion emissions from high-temperature low-Btu gas. It complements a recently completed EPA project that evaluated emissions resulting from the burning of ambient-temperature low-Btu gas. The experimental r...

  5. Design of combustion sensory based controller for natural gas engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C O Nwagboso; M A Pendlebury; S K Mukarram

    2004-01-01

    Concern over the ever-increasing stringent emission requirements and rising fuel costs has resulted in closer examination of the control of combustion in internal combustion engines. Natural gas is becoming a viable alternative fuel source, diversifying the transport fuel base, and a fuel potentially offering efficiency and environmental pollution benefits, compared with conventional fuels. Although the potential benefits of the fuel

  6. DISCRIMINATION OF COMBUSTION FUEL SOURCES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPY-PLANAR FIELD ASYMETRIC WAVEFORM ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smoke plumes from cotton, paper, grass and cigarettes and emissions from a gasoline engine were sampled using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds(VOC) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemical compositions were sufficiently ...

  7. Air fuel mixture control apparatus for carbureted internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aono

    1977-01-01

    Air-fuel mixture control apparatus for a carbureted internal combustion engine having air bleed and fuel supply passages comprises a detector for sensing precombustion data such as engine operating parameters and an exhaust gas sensor for providing post-combustion data. The pre-combustion data is used to control the fuel flow rate, while the post-combustion data controls the passage of air through the

  8. An investigation of puff-jet ignition in an internal combustion engine fueled by natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Fisher; J. D. Ridley; P. L. Pitt; R. M. Clements

    1986-01-01

    An electromechanical ignition device, the puff-jet, produces a highly turbulent ignition kernel that reduces ignition delay and burn duration. These properties, which are also exhibited by plasma jet igniters, should enhance the performance of vehicles run exclusively on CNG and facilitate the switch from gasoline to CNG in dual fuel vehicles. Results of preliminary bomb tests of the puff-jet have

  9. Fuel quality combustion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, D. W.; Moses, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    A high pressure research combustor operating over a wide range of burner inlet conditions was used to determine the effects of fuel molecular structure on soot formation. Six test fuels with equal hydrogen content (12.8%) were blended to stress different molecular components and final boiling points. The fuels containing high concentrations (20%) of polycyclic aromatics and partially saturated polycyclic structures such as tetralin, produced more soot than would be expected from a hydrogen content correlation for typical petroleum based fuels. Fuels containing naphthenes such as decalin agreed with the hydrogen content correlation. The contribution of polycyclic aromatics to soot formation was equivalent to a reduction in fuel hydrogen content of about one percent. The fuel sensitivity to soot formation due to the polycyclic aromatic contribution decreased as burner inlet pressure and fuel/air ratio increased.

  10. Effect of degree of fuel vaporization upon emissions for a premixed partially vaporized combustion system. [for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study of the combustion of partially vaporized fuel-air mixtures was performed to assess the impact of the degree of fuel vaporization upon emissions for a premixing-prevaporizing flametube combustor. Data collected in this study showed near linear increases in nitric oxide emissions with decreasing vaporization at equivalence ratios of 0.6. For equivalence ratios of 0.72, the degree of vaporization had very little impact on nitric oxide emissions. A simple mechanism which accounts for the combustion of liquid droplets in partially vaporized mixtures was found to agree with the measured results with fair accuracy with respect to both trends and magnitudes.

  11. Combustion engine for solid and liquid fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, W.

    1986-01-01

    A combustion engine having no piston, a single cylinder, and a dual-action, that is applicable for solid and liquid fuels and propellants, and that functions according to the principle of annealing point ignition is presented. The invention uses environmentally benign amounts of fuel and propellants to produce gas and steam pressure, and to use a simple assembly with the lowest possible consumption and constant readiness for mixing and burning. The advantage over conventional combustion engines lies in lower consumption of high quality igniting fluid in the most cost effective manner.

  12. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lacon, IL)

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  13. Controlling fuel and diluent gas flow for a diesel engine operating in the fuel rich low-temperature-combustion mode

    E-print Network

    Lopez, David M

    2007-01-01

    The flow of a diluent gas supplied to a motoring engine was controlled at a diluent to air mass flow ratios of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. This arrangement was a significant set up for running the engine in the Low-Temperature ...

  14. Combustion stabilization of a spark ignition natural gas engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Goto; Kazuyuki Narusawa

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas is very different from liquid fuels, such as gasoline and diesel fuel, in ignition characteristics, mixture formation process, combustion speed and so on. These characteristics greatly influence the cycle variation in the engine. The influence on lean-burn combustion is larger than that on stoichiometric combustion and the influence has not yet been sufficiently studied. In this paper, several

  15. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels

    E-print Network

    Stratton, Russell William

    2010-01-01

    The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

  16. Industrial gas turbine combustion performance test of DME to use as an alternative fuel for power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Chul Lee; Seok Bin Seo; Jae Hwa Chung; Yong Jin Joo; Dal Hong Ahn

    2009-01-01

    DME (dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3) is both a good alternative fuel for transportation and power generation and an LPG substitute owing to its cleanliness, multi-source productivity and the ease with which it is transported. This study was conducted to verify whether DME is a good fuel for gas turbines and to identify potential problems in fuelling a commercial gas turbine with

  17. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices and flares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...for conducting the relative accuracy evaluations: (i) EPA Method...F and 1 atmosphere). For mass flow meters, use gas compositions...the fuel gas and convert the mass flow to a volumetric flow at...for conducting the relative accuracy evaluations: (i) EPA...

  18. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices and flares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...for conducting the relative accuracy evaluations: (i) EPA Method...F and 1 atmosphere). For mass flow meters, use gas compositions...the fuel gas and convert the mass flow to a volumetric flow at...for conducting the relative accuracy evaluations: (i) EPA...

  19. Studies of oscillatory combustion and fuel vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borman, G. L.; Myers, P. S.; Uyehara, O. A.

    1972-01-01

    Research projects involving oscillatory combustion and fuel vaporization are reported. Comparisons of experimental and theoretical droplet vaporization histories under ambient conditions such that the droplet may approach its thermodynamic critical point are presented. Experimental data on instantaneous heat transfer from a gas to a solid surface under conditions of oscillatory pressure with comparisons to an unsteady one-dimensional model are analyzed. Droplet size and velocity distribution in a spray as obtained by use of a double flash fluorescent method were investigated.

  20. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

    2008-05-15

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  1. Variability in natural gas fuel composition and its effects on the performance of catalytic combustion systems. Final report for period September 18, 1998 - September 17, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Ginter, David; Simchick, Chuck; Schlatter, Jim

    2002-03-01

    Natural gas is composed primarily of methane with small amounts of higher hydrocarbons and diluents, which vary by region and over time. Compositions of natural gas from domestic and worldwide sources were surveyed with respect to content of higher hydrocarbons and diluents. The survey showed slight compositional variability between most of the gases, with a small fraction of them containing significantly larger contents of higher hydrocarbons than the mean. As gas-fired turbines will be used for power generation all over the world, they will need to tolerate operation with fuels with a wide variety of compositions, particularly with respect to the concentration of higher hydrocarbons and diluents. Subscale catalytic combustion modules typical of those used in gas turbine power generation with ultra low emissions of pollutants were tested in a subscale test system with natural gas alone and with added known levels of hydrocarbon compounds and diluents. The range of compositions tested contained the range observed in the survey. Test results were used to calculate the effect of composition on catalyst performance. The compositional variability is of little consequence to the catalyst for most of the gases in the survey, including nearly all of the gases delivered in the U.S. To accommodate the remaining gases, the catalyst inlet temperature must be lowered to maintain combustor durability. These results support commercial acceptance of catalytic combustion systems for use in natural gas fired turbines in distributed power generation with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions.

  2. A detailed kinetic mechanism including methanol and nitrogen pollutants relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Coda Zabetta, Edgardo; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-01-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the simulation of the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels was compiled by assembling selected reaction subsets from existing mechanisms (parents). The mechanism, here referred to as ''AaA,'' includes reaction subsets for the oxidation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), light hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}), and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). The mechanism also takes into account reaction subsets of nitrogen pollutants, including the reactions relevant to staged combustion, reburning, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). The AaA mechanism was validated against suitable experimental data from the literature. Overall, the AaA mechanism gave more accurate predictions than three other mechanisms of reference, although the reference mechanisms performed better occasionally. The predictions from AaA were also found to be consistent with the predictions of its parent mechanisms within most of their range of validity, thus transferring the validity of the parents to the inheriting mechanism (AaA). In parametric studies the AaA mechanism predicted that the effect of methanol on combustion and pollutants is often similar to that of light hydrocarbons, but it also showed that there are important exceptions, thus suggesting that methanol should be taken into account when simulating biomass combustion. To our knowledge, the AaA mechanism is currently the only mechanism that accounts for the chemistry of methanol and nitrogen relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels. (author)

  3. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  4. Oscillating combustion from a premix fuel nozzle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Richards; M. J. Yip

    1995-01-01

    Stringent emissions requirements for stationary gas turbines have produced new challenges in combustor design. In the past, very low NOx pollutant emissions have been achieved through various combustion modifications, such as steam or water injection, or post-combustion cleanup methods such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). An emerging approach to NOx abatement is lean premix combustion. Lean premix combustion avoids the

  5. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  6. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Confer, Gregory L. (Erie, PA); Shen, Zujing (Erie, PA); Hapeman, Martin J. (Edinboro, PA); Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA)

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  7. FUEL RICH SULFUR CAPTURE IN A COMBUSTION ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A refractory-lined, natural gas furnace was used to study fuel rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel rich sulfur species H2S and COS were monitored in a near-continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equipped with a fl...

  8. The effects of spark ignition parameters on the lean burn limit of natural gas combustion in an internal combustion engine

    E-print Network

    Chlubiski, Vincent Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of internal combustion engine ignition parameters on the air-fuel ratio (A/F) lean limit of combustion with compressed natural gas (CNG). Spark electrical characteristics (voltage...

  9. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  10. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  11. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOEpatents

    Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL); Ochs, Thomas Lilburn (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy Ann (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul Chandler (Independence, OR)

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  12. Flameless combustion for hydrogen containing fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Yu; Wang Gaofeng; Lin Qizhao; Ma Chengbiao; Xing Xianjun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, flameless combustion was promoted to suppress thermal-NOx formation in the hydrogen-high-containing fuel combustion. The PSRN model was used to model the flameless combustion in the air for four fuels: H2\\/CH4 60\\/40% (by volume), H2\\/CH4 40\\/60%, H2\\/CH4 20\\/80% and pure hydrogen. The results show that the NOx emissions below 30ppmv while CO emissions are under 50ppmv, which are

  13. Modelin combustion of multicomponent fuel droplets: formulation and application to transportation fuels

    E-print Network

    Vittilapuram Subramanian, Kannan

    2006-04-12

    The quasi-steady, spherically symmetric combustion of multicomponent isolated fuel droplets has been modeled using modified Shvab-Zeldovich variable mechanism. Newly developed modified Shvab-Zeldovich equations have been used to describe the gas...

  14. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  15. Investigation of combustion characteristics of methane-hydrogen fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetkin, A. V.; Suris, A. L.; Litvinova, O. A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical investigations of combustion characteristics of methane-hydrogen fuel used at present in tube furnaces of some petroleum refineries are carried out and possible problems related to change-over of existing furnaces from natural gas to methane-hydrogen fuel are analyzed. The effect of the composition of the blended fuel, associated temperature and emissivity of combustion products, temperature of combustion chamber walls, mean beam length, and heat release on variation in the radiation heat flux is investigated. The methane concentration varied from 0 to 100%. The investigations were carried out both at arbitrary given gas temperatures and at effective temperatures determined based on solving a set of equations at various heat-release rates of the combustion chamber and depended on the adiabatic combustion temperature and the temperature at the chamber output. The approximation dependence for estimation of the radiation heat exchange rate in the radiant chamber of the furnace at change-over to fuel with a greater hydrogen content is obtained. Hottel data were applied in the present work in connection with the impossibility to use approximated formulas recommended by the normative method for heat calculation of boilers to determine the gas emissivity, which are limited by the relationship of partial pressures of water steam and carbon dioxide in combustion products . The effect of the methane-hydrogen fuel on the equilibrium concentration of nitrogen oxides is also investigated.

  16. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  17. Introduction HYBRID FLAME: combustion of a combustible gas and

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Future Work Verify data obtained for methane and aluminum flame Run test with constant equivalence ratioIntroduction HYBRID FLAME: combustion of a combustible gas and dust particles Hybrid Flames: occur may propagate at given conditions Quenching distances: important parameter for flame ignition

  18. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  19. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-print Network

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission and the oil & gas industries. The combustion system used in Solar's products are discussed along- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  20. Effect of air distribution on solid fuel bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, J.T.; Hsu, W.S.; Yo, T.C. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    One important aspect of refuse mass-burn combination control is the manipulation of combustion air. Proper air manipulation is key to the achievement of good combustion efficiency and reduction of pollutant emissions. Experiments, using a small fix-grate laboratory furnace with cylindrical combustion chamber, were performed to investigate the influence of undergrate/sidewall air distribution on the combustion of beds of wood cubes. Wood cubes were used as a convenient laboratory surrogate of solid refuse. Specifically, for different bed configurations (e.g. bed height, bed voidage and bed fuel size, etc.), burning rates and combustion temperatures at different bed locations were measured under various air supply and distribution conditions. One of the significant results of the experimental investigation is that combustion, with air injected from side walls and no undergrate air, provide the most efficient combustion. On the other hand, combustion with undergrate air achieves higher combustion rates but with higher CO emissions. A simple one-dimensional model was constructed to derive correlations of combustion rate as functions of flue gas temperature and oxygen concentration. Despite the fact that the model is one dimensional and many detailed chemical and physical processes of combustion are not considered, comparisons of the model predictions and the experimental results indicate that the model is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bed burning rates.

  1. Distributed swirl combustion for gas turbine application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed E. E. Khalil; Ashwani K. Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Colorless distributed combustion (CDC) has been shown to provide significant improvement in gas turbine combustor performance. Colorless distributed combustion with swirl is investigated here to develop ultra-low emissions of NO and CO, and significantly improved pattern factor. Experimental investigations have been performed using a cylindrical geometry combustor with swirling air injection and axial hot gas exit stream from the combustor.

  2. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. K. Chow; J. F. Durant; B. F. Griffith; L. S. Miemiec; A. A. Levasseur; B. C. Teigen

    1987-01-01

    The ash deposition and performance behavior of a cross-section of coal-water fuels (CWFs) were investigated during comprehensive pilot-scale testing under Task 5 of the Department of Energy's Combustion and Fuel Characterization of Coal-Water Fuels project. The key results from this effort including combustion, furnace slagging, convective pass fouling, fly ash erosion and electrostatic precipitator collection characteristics of the test fuels,

  3. Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Scala; Riccardo Chirone

    2004-01-01

    The fluidized bed combustion of a number of alternative fuels of practical interest has been analyzed by a combination of experimental and modeling techniques. Solid fuels of widely different origin (biomass, agricultural, civil and industrial wastes) have been considered in this work. A lab-scale experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the comminution (fragmentation, attrition) behavior of the fuels. Experimental

  4. Apparatus for combustion of solid particulate fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Whitfield

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for the combustion of solid particulate fuel. It comprises: a stationary grate including a perforated plate for receiving the solid particulate fuel; displaceable means positioned in a plane above the grate, movement of the displaceable means displacing spent solid particulate fuel from the stationary grate. The displaceable means including a rotatable member; and a burning

  5. Fuel control apparatus in internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Miyake, J.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakuma, K.

    1988-05-17

    A fuel control apparatus is an internal combustion engine arranged to increase a quantity of fuel supply uniquely determined on the basis of an engine speed and a quantity of suction air by a predetermined quantity upon detection of acceleration of the internal combustion engine is described comprising: a detection means for detecting acceleration and deceleration of the internal combustion engine; an engine speed operation means for calculating the number of engine resolutions; a calculation means for calculating a continuous acceleration correcting factor representing a quantity to be subtracted from the predetermined quantity in accordance with the value of integration of the number of engine revolutions calculated by the engine speed operation means; and a fuel supply means for supplying fuel to the internal combustion engine in accordance with an output of the calculation means.

  6. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  7. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  8. Control-relevant Modelling and Linear Analysis of Instabilities in Oxy-fuel Combustion

    E-print Network

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    Control-relevant Modelling and Linear Analysis of Instabilities in Oxy-fuel Combustion Dagfinn combustion have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gas turbine cycles for achieving CO2-capture for CO2 sequestration purposes. While combustion instabilities is a problem in modern conventional gas

  9. Techno-economic analysis of sour gas oxy-fuel combustion power cycles for carbon capture and sequestration

    E-print Network

    Chakroun, Nadim Walid

    2014-01-01

    The world's growing energy demand coupled with the problem of global warming have led us to investigate new energy sources that can be utilized in a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions than traditional fossil fuel power ...

  10. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  11. Characteristics and combustion of future hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Dwindling supply of high-quality crude is beginning to manifest itself in the form of crude oils containing higher percentages of aromatic compounds, sulfur, nitrogen, and trace constituents. In the present paper, problems which have arisen with regard to the hydrogen content in jet fuels derived from these crude oil sources are discussed, with particular reference to the effects of varying the fuel properties on the combustion and thermal stability characteristics of a fuel. The importance of knowing how severe the effects of variations in hydrogen content, fuel-bound-nitrogen content, and boiling range are on such combustion phenomena as soot and carbon formation, emissions, and ignition is pointed out.

  12. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

  13. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

  14. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

  15. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

  16. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

  17. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J. (Woodward)

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETLs Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  18. Fuel gas from biodigestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. C.; Wolverton, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Biodigestion apparatus produces fuel gas (primarily methane) for domestic consumption, by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic matter such as aquatic vegetation. System includes 3,786-1 cylindrical container, mechanical agitator, and simple safe gas collector for short term storage.

  19. Characteristics and combustion of future hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in fuel properties that are expected in future hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft are discussed along with the principal properties of 'syncrudes' and the fuels that can be derived from them. The impact that the resultant potential changes in fuel properties may have on combustion and thermal stability characteristics is illustrated and discussed in terms of ignition, soot formation, carbon deposition, flame radiation, and emissions.

  20. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  1. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  2. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fuel economizer for carbureted internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabritz

    1977-01-01

    A fuel economizer for carbureted internal combustion engines comprises a tubular body having open inlet and outlet ends and adapted to be positioned and supported between the carburetor and the intake manifold of the engine. An annular, liquid collecting chamber is defined in the body between the ends thereof for collecting liquid fuel exiting from the carburetor and includes air

  4. Hydrocarbon fuel having improved combustion efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Minezaki, T.

    1981-06-09

    A hydrocarbon fuel is described having very highly improved in combustion efficiency and not generating any harmful substances. It is obtained by adding a compound of organic silicon of the formula, (SiCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/COOH)NO/sub 3/, to an ordinary hydrocarbon fuel, such as gasoline, kerosene or the like.

  5. Apparatus for combustion of solid particulate fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, O.J.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes an apparatus for the combustion of solid particulate fuel. It comprises: a stationary grate including a perforated plate for receiving the solid particulate fuel; displaceable means positioned in a plane above the grate, movement of the displaceable means displacing spent solid particulate fuel from the stationary grate. The displaceable means including a rotatable member; and a burning cap positioned over the stationary grate, the burning cap defining a combustion chamber above the stationary grate. The burning cap including a battle that divided the combustion chamber into a primary half and a secondary half, the burning cap also including an aperture for allowing the particulate fuel to be introduced into the primary half.

  6. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyko, V. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  7. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    PubMed

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency. PMID:25215720

  8. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  9. Instabilities in Lean Gas-Phase Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, K.; Bockhorn, H.; Eigenbrod, Ch.; Emerson, D.; Haldenwang, P.; Hoffmann, F.; Roekaerts, D.; Ronney, P.; Triebel, W.; Tummers, M.

    2005-06-01

    Lean burning is the burning of fuel-air mixtures with less than the chemically- balanced (stoichiometric) mixture. It produces a significant increase in fuel efficiency and reduction in pollution. However, the limits and control of lean burning are still not well understood.This is the motivation behind the study of instabilities in lean gas-phase combustion under microgravity conditions via direct numerical simulations and comparison of the results with experimental data.The goal is to gain fundamental insights in order to identify and understand the intrinsic chemical and fluid dynamical mechanisms responsible for these instabilities.The potential of this microgravity combustion research includes the development of technology that would reduce pollution and fire and explosion hazards, improve hazardous waste incineration and increase efficiency of the conversion of chemical energy to electric power or motive force.The results from this fundamental research will thus benefit chemical engineering and power generation. Its wide range of applications in industry includes lean-burning car engines.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section... Fire Protection 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion engines, except diesels, shall be shut...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section... Fire Protection 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion engines, except diesels, shall be shut...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section... Fire Protection 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion engines, except diesels, shall be shut...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103 Section 57.4103 ...housekeeping 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section... Fire Protection 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion engines, except diesels, shall be shut...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103 Section 56.4103 ...housekeeping 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section... Fire Protection 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion engines, except diesels, shall be shut...

  17. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103 Section 56.4103...housekeeping 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103 Section 57.4103...housekeeping 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103 Section 56.4103...housekeeping 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103 Section 57.4103...housekeeping 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103 Section 56.4103...housekeeping 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103 Section 57.4103...housekeeping 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103 Section 56.4103...housekeeping 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103 Section 57.4103...housekeeping 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before...

  5. Atomization and combustion performance of antimisting kerosene and jet fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleeter, R.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion performance of antimisting kerosene (AMK) containing FM-9 polymer was investigated at various levels of degradation (restoration of AMK for normal use in a gas turbine engine). To establish the relationship of degradation and atomization to performance in an aircraft gas turbine combustor, sprays formed by the nozzle of a JT8-D combustor with Jet A and AMK at 1 atmosphere (atm) (14.1 lb/square in absolute) pressure and 22 C at several degradation levels were analyzed. A new spray characterization technique based on digital image analysis of high resolution, wide field spray images formed under pulsed ruby laser sheet illumination was developed. Combustion tests were performed for these fuels in a JT8-D single can combustor facility to measure combustion efficiency and the lean extinction limit. Correlation of combustion performance under simulated engine operating conditions with nozzle spray Sauter mean diameter (SMD) measured at 1 atm and 22 C were observed. Fuel spray SMD and hence the combustion efficiency are strongly influenced by fuel degradation level. Use of even the most highly degraded AMK tested (filter ratio = 1.2) resulted in an increase in fuel consumption of 0.08% to 0.20% at engine cruise conditions.

  6. Apparatus and method for combusting low quality fuel

    DOEpatents

    Brushwood, John Samuel; Pillsbury, Paul; Foote, John; Heilos, Andreas

    2003-11-04

    A gas turbine (12) capable of combusting a low quality gaseous fuel having a ratio of flammability limits less than 2, or a heat value below 100 BTU/SCF. A high quality fuel is burned simultaneously with the low quality fuel to eliminate instability in the combustion flame. A sensor (46) is used to monitor at least one parameter of the flame indicative of instability. A controller (50) having the sensor signal (48) as input is programmed to control the relative flow rates of the low quality and high quality fuels. When instability is detected, the flow rate of high quality fuel is automatically increased in relation to the flow rate of low quality fuel to restore stability.

  7. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Merritt, Sylvia A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot. Increasing the temperature above this value would remove the soot-free nature of the process. Since all the fuels studied show a similar breakdown of the primary fuel into smaller molecular combustion products, this technique can be applied to all hydrocarbon fuels.

  8. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  9. Future Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2010-01-01

    Today the world is facing three critical problems: (1) high fuel prices, (2) climatic changes, and (3) air pollution. Experts suggest that current oil and gas reserves would suffice to last only a few more decades. Biorenewable liquids are the main substitutes to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel. These fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels; however, some still

  10. Fuel control system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Koshizawa, T.; Yoshimura, H.; Sugimura, T.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes a fuel control system for an internal combustion engine having fuel supply means for metering fuel to be supplied to the engine in response to an electric command given by fuel supply command means. The fuel control system consists of: a step motor for driving a fuel metering member of the fuel supply means; learning means for learning the number of steps required for energizing the step motor to move the fuel metering member from an idle position to a full-load position; computing means for computing the number of steps required for the step motor to reach a target load position by dividing in proportion the learned number of steps by a ratio between a target load value of an electric command from the fuel supply command means and a maximum value of the electric command; and drive means for energizing the step motor to achieve the number of steps computed by the computing means.

  11. Biomass fuel combustion and health*

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, H. W.; Smith, K. R.; Last, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Biomass fuels (wood, agricultural waste, and dung) are used by about half the world's population as a major, often the only, source of domestic energy for cooking and heating. The smoke emissions from these fuels are an important source of indoor air pollution, especially in rural communities in developing countries. These emissions contain important pollutants that adversely affect healthsuch as suspended particulate matter and polycyclic organic matter which includes a number of known carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene, as well as gaseous pollutants like carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Exposure to large amounts of smoke may present a health risk that is of a similar order of magnitude to the risk from tobacco smoke. The effects on health arising from exposure to air pollution are reviewed, based on what has been reported in the literature so far. Further and more detailed information on exposures and on the epidemiological aspects is urgently required. The persons most frequently affected are women who do the cooking for households in rural villages; they suffer from impaired health due to prolonged and repeated contact with these harmful pollutants. When they are pregnant, the developing fetus may also be exposed and this leads to the risk of excess deaths. In the developing countries, exposure to biomass fuel emissions is probably one of the most important occupational health hazards for women. A conservatively estimated 300-400 million people worldwide, mostly in the rural areas of developing countries, are affected by these problems. PMID:3872729

  12. Numerical simulation of combustion processes in a gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicsk, Gyrgy; Hornyk, Anita; Veress, rpd

    2012-11-01

    The type of the fuel, upstream and downstream flow conditions, fuel injection and mixing processes together with the geometry of the combustion chamber have a significant effect on efficiency, power, fuel consumption, noise and emission of the gas turbines. These contributions can be considered also in the virtual prototyping of combustion chambers, by which significant amount of time, cost and capacity can be saved. However, the accuracy of these approaches must be within 5-10% for industrial relevancies. Hence, a three dimensional, turbulent flow and gas phase combustion has been modelled in a tubular combustion chamber of a gas turbine with the main goal of comparing the effect of different combustion models and solid wall boundary conditions with real tests. Four combustion models as Eddy Dissipation Model (EDM), Probability Density Function Flamelet Model (PFM), Burning Velocity Model (BVM) and Fluent Non-Premixed Model (FnPM) have been applied beside using k-? turbulence model in the simulations. Three different incoming mass flows were implemented according to the measurements, which originate from Serag-Eldin and Spalding's paper [1.]. Although natural gas has been used in the real tests, methane combustion has been modelled in the simulations, because the dominant component of the burnt natural gas was methane in 93.63%. The results were examined in 3 cross sections at certain axial distances along radii. The closest results to the measurements were provided by FnPM, most probably due to the more accurate thermal boundary conditions at the solid walls. In that case, the temperature differences between the measurements and the simulations were within the 30% error margin in the 100% of the investigated radius on the average, within 10% in the 98.6% and within the 5% in the 79.1%.

  13. Internal combustion engine fuel rail assembly joint

    SciTech Connect

    Imoehl, W.J.

    1992-04-21

    This patent describes a fuel rail assembly of an internal combustion engine. It comprises a non-metallic fuel rail containing devices that are part of a fuel injection system of the engine, and also comprising a metal tube which is in fluid communication with a fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail and connected with the non-metallic fuel rail by means of a joint, characterized in that the joint comprises a cylindrical metal sleeve that is partially embedded in the non-metallic fuel rail such that a first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail lines an interior end portion of the sleeve and is in fluid communication with the fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail and such that the sleeve lines the interior of a second cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail, the metal tube and the first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail fit together in a sealed manner to place the metal tube in fluid communication with the fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail, the sleeve has another portion that is not embedded in the non-metallic fuel rail, and a retention means coacts with the another axis end segment and with the metal tube to retain the metal tube and the first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail fit together in a sealed manner.

  14. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-03-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  15. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  16. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph T. Yang; Ming-shing Shen

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron

  17. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

  18. The energyclimate challenge: Recent trends in CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Quadrelli; Sierra Peterson

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion is the single largest human influence on climate, accounting for 80% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents trends in world carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion worldwide, based on the estimates of the International Energy Agency (IEA) [IEA, 2006a. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 19712004. International Energy Agency, Paris, France]. Analyzing the drivers

  19. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  20. Combustion Characteristics of a CO2 Mixture Methane & a Microturbine Cogeneration System utilizing Sewage Digester Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi KATAOKA; Teruyuki NAKAJIMA; Takahiro NAKAGAWA; Saburo YUASA

    An attempt has been made to utilize biogas (sewage digester gas) as a fuel for gas turbines. The sewage digester gas utilized had low Btu, constituting 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. Conventional attempts necessitate the optimization of combustion systems to improve flame-holding and other characteristics to enable the use of biogas as gas turbine fuel. The novel approach taken

  1. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

  2. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  3. Reactivity study on a novel hydrogen fueled chemical-looping combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongguang Jin; Masaru Ishida

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the reactivity study on hydrogen fueled chemical-looping combustion, which is capable of making breakthrough in simultaneous contribution to the efficient use of energy and being environmentally benign, has been carried out by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a fixed bed reactor. The hydrogen fueled chemical-looping combustion in the new gas turbine cycle consists of two successive reactions:

  4. Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels; status, successes and problems of the technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion can be used for energy production or incineration for almost any material containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur in a combustible form, whether it be in the form of a solid, liquid, slurry or gas. The technology's fuel flexibility arises from the fact that the fuel is present in the combustor at a low level and is burnt

  5. Fuel Droplet Burning During Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.4MB, 13-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300168.html.

  6. Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    2003-12-30

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

  7. Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

  8. Swirling distributed combustion for clean energy conversion in gas turbine applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed E. E. Khalil; Ashwani K. Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Distributed combustion provides significant performance improvement of gas turbine combustors. Key features of distributed combustion includes uniform thermal field in the entire combustion chamber, thus avoiding hot-spot regions that promote NOx emissions (from thermal NOx) and significantly improved pattern factor. Rapid mixing between the injected fuel and hot oxidizer has been carefully explored for spontaneous ignition of the mixture to

  9. Pressure-gain combustion for gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.; Richards, G.; Janus, M.

    1995-12-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation has been performed to evaluate {open_quotes}pressure-gain{close_quotes} combustion systems for gas turbine applications. Results from the investigation have shown that, due to the oscillatory combustion process, a pressure boost can be achieved for suitable combustor geometries. The pressure gains achieved thus far have been as high as 1 percent. It has also been shown that for some combustor designs operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emissions are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively. It is believed that with optimized designs, further improvements in both pressure gain and emissions may be possible. We have concluded that this technology remains a candidate for improving the efficiency of a gas turbine while reducing pollutant emissions.

  10. Investigation of trapped vortex combustion using hydrogen-rich fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbeeb, Khaled

    The combustion process of a fuel is a challenging subject when it comes to analyze its performance and resultant emissions. The main task of this study is to optimize the selection of a hydrogen-rich fuel based on its performance and emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis is performed to test the combustion performance and emissions from the vortex trapped combustor when natural gas fuel (methane) is replaced with renewable and alternative fuels such as hydrogen and synthesis gas. Correlation graphs for the trapped vortex combustor performance and NOx, CO, and CO2 emissions for various types of fuels with different compositions and heat of combustion values were established. Methane, Hydrogen and 10 different syngas fuels were analyzed in this study using computational fluid dynamics numerical method. The trapped vortex combustor that represents an efficient and compact combustor for flame stability was investigated. The TVC consists of a fore body and two after body disks. These components are all encircled with a Pyrex tube. The purpose of the after body disks is to create the vortex wakes that will enhance the combustion process and minimize the NOx emissions. The TVC CFD model was validated by comparing the CFD model results using propane fuel with existing experimental results that were established in Rome, Italy. The static temperature distribution and NOx, CO emissions, combustor efficiency and total pressure drop results of the three dimensional CFD model were similar to the experimental data. Effects of H2/CO and H2/CH4 ratios and the mass fraction of each constituent of syngas fuels and Hydrogen-Methane fuel mixture on the TVC performance and emissions were investigated. Moreover, the fuel injector Reynolds number and Lower heating values for Methane, Hydrogen and 10 syngas fuels on the TVC performance and emissions were also investigated. Correlation plots for the NOx, CO and CO2 emissions versus the fuel injector Reynolds number and lower heating value were established. These correlation curves can be used as a fair design diagram to optimize the fuel selection process for aerospace and electrical power plant applications.

  11. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  12. Prediction of Combustion Gas Deposit Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.; Zeleznik, F. J.; Gordon, S.

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrated procedure used to predict accurately chemical compositions of complicated deposit mixtures. NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions (CEC) used in conjunction with Computer Program for Calculation of Ideal Gas Thermodynamic Data (PAC) and resulting Thermodynamic Data Base (THDATA) to predict deposit compositions from metal or mineral-seeded combustion processes.

  13. Combustion of liquid-fuel droplets in supercritical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Yang, Vigor; Hsaio, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of liquid-fuel droplet combustion in both subcritical and supercritical environments has been conducted. The formulation is based on the complete conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates variable thermophysical properties, finite-rate chemical kinetics, and a full treatment of liquid-vapor phase equilibrium at the drop surface. The governing equations and associated interfacial boundary conditions are solved numerically using a fully coupled, implicit scheme with the dual time-stepping integration technique. The model is capable of treating the entire droplet history, including the transition from the subcritical to supercritical state. As a specific example, the combustion of n-pentane fuel droplets in air is studied for pressures in the range of 5-140 atm. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influence on fluid transport, gas-liquid interfacial thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibit a considerable change in the combustion mechanism at the critical pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure.

  14. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. The low nitrogen flue gas that results is relatively easy to capture CO{sub 2} from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions.

  15. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen [Department of Energy Processes, SINTEF Energy Research, 7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  16. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Beer; Tim Grant; David Williams; Harry Watson

    2002-01-01

    This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste

  17. Fuel controlling system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, K.; Kanno, Y.; Nishiyama, R.

    1989-03-07

    This patent describes a fuel control system, consisting of means for detecting the quantity of intake air at a predetermined crank angle on the basis of both the quantity of intake air detected by the intake air quantity sensor and the crank angle detected by the crank angle sensor; means for correcting the output of the predetermined intake air quantity detecting means by performing an arithmetic processing using a predetermined certain correction coefficient; means for detecting the number of revolutions, or the output, of the internal combustion engine on the basis of the detected crank angle; and means which judges that the running condition of the vehicle is a very low speed condition when the number of revolutions of the internal combustion engine detected by the revolution detecting means is below a predetermined value and when the vehicle running speed detected by the vehicle speed sensor is within a predetermined range, and which changes the correction coefficient used in the predetermined intake air quantity correcting means when the vehicle and the internal combustion engine are in the very low speed condition, thereby controlling the quantity of fuel to be fed to the engine in the very low speed condition.

  18. Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

  19. Techno-economic analysis of pressurized oxy-fuel combustion power cycle for CO? capture

    E-print Network

    Hong, Jongsup

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new ...

  20. High pressure combustion of liquid fuels. [alcohol and n-paraffin fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures for a number of alcohol and n-paraffin fuels under natural and forced convection conditions. Porous spheres ranging in size from 0.64-1.9 cm O.D. were emloyed to simulate the fuel droplets. The natural convection cold gas tests considered the combustion in air of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane droplets at pressures up to 78 atmospheres. The pressure levels of the natural convection tests were high enough so that near critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol vaporization rates and liquid surface temperature measurements were made of droplets burning in a simulated combustion chamber environment. Ambient oxygen molar concentrations included 13%, 9.5% and pure evaporation. Fuels used in the forced convection atmospheric tests included those listed above for the natural convection tests. The ambient gas temperature ranged from 600 to 1500 K and the Reynolds number varied from 30 to 300. The high pressure forced convection tests employed ethanol and n-heptane as fuels over a pressure range of one to 40 atmospheres. The ambient gas temperature was 1145 K for the two combustion cases and 1255 K for the evaporation case.

  1. Fuel gas desulfurization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph T. Yang; Ming-Shing Shen

    1981-01-01

    A method for removing sulfurous gases such as H.sub.2 S and COS from a fuel gas is disclosed wherein limestone particulates containing iron sulfide provide catalytic absorption of the H.sub.2 S and COS by the limestone. The method is effective at temperatures of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. in particular.

  2. Effect of oxy-combustion flue gas on mercury oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Daz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martnez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-06-17

    This study evaluates the effect of the gases present in a typical oxy-coal combustion atmosphere on mercury speciation and compares it with the mercury speciation produced in conventional air combustion atmospheres. The work was performed at laboratory scale at 150 C. It was found that the minor constituents (SO2, NOx, and HCl) significantly modify the percentages of Hg(2+) in the gas. The influence of these species on mercury oxidation was demostrated when they were tested individually and also when they were blended in different gas compositions, although the effect was different to the sum of their individual effects. Of the minor constituents, NOx were the main species involved in oxidation of mercury. Moreover, it was found that a large concentration of H2O vapor also plays an important role in mercury oxidation. Around 50% of the total mercury was oxidized in atmospheres with H2O vapor concentrations typical of oxy-combustion conditions. When the atmospheres have similar concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, HCl, and H2O, the proportion of Hg(0)/Hg(2+) is similar regardless of whether CO2 (oxy-fuel combustion) or N2 (air combustion) are the main components of the gas. PMID:24877895

  3. Pressuretime characteristics in diesel engine fueled with natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Y. E. Selim

    2001-01-01

    Combustion pressure data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas, and compared to the diesel engine case. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. Experimental investigation on diesel and dual fuel engines revealed the noise generated from combustion in both

  4. The potential for clean energy production using oxy-fuel combustion and integrated pollutant removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Weber, Thomas (Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, Schiller Park, IL 60176).; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-05-01

    Effective remediation of flue gas produced by an oxy-fuel coal combustion process has been proven at bench scale in the course of cooperative research between USDOEs Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. All combustion gas pollutants were captured, including CO2 which was compressed to a liquefied state suitable for sequestration. Current laboratory-scale research and the future of combined oxy-fuel/IPR systems are discussed.

  5. ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES BY AUTOMATED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses on-line measurement of nitrous oxide (N2O) from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. ossil fuel combustion is suspected of contributing to measured increases in the ambient concentrations of N2O. haracterization of N2O emissions from fossil fuel...

  6. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhelst, S.; Wallner, T.; Energy Systems; Ghent Univ.

    2009-12-01

    The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number of manufacturers are now leasing demonstration vehicles to consumers using hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H{sub 2}ICEs) as well as fuel cell vehicles. Developing countries in particular are pushing for H{sub 2}ICEs (powering two- and three-wheelers as well as passenger cars and buses) to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. This article offers a comprehensive overview of H{sub 2}ICEs. Topics that are discussed include fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

  7. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  8. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  9. Synthetic fuel aromaticity and staged combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Longanbach, J. R.; Chan, L. K.; Levy, A.

    1982-11-15

    Samples of middle and heavy SRC-II distillates were distilled into 50 C boiling point range fractions. These were characterized by measurements of their molecular weight, elemental analysis and basic nitrogen content and calculation of average molecular structures. The structures typically consisted of 1 to 3 aromatic rings fused to alicyclic rings with short, 1 to 3 carbon aliphatic side chains. The lower boiling fractions contained significant amounts (1 atom/molecule) of oxygen while the heavier fractions contained so few heteroatoms that they were essentially hydrocarbons. Laboratory scale oxidative-pyrolysis experiments were carried out at pyrolysis temperatures of 500 to 1100 C and oxygen concentrations from 0 to 100 percent of stoichiometry. Analysis of liquid products, collected in condensers cooled with liquid nitrogen showed that aromatization is a major reaction in the absence of oxygen. The oxygen-containing materials (phenolics) seem to be more resistant to thermal pyrolysis than unsubstituted aromatics. Nitrogen converts from basic to nonbasic forms at about 500 C. The nonbasic nitrogen is more stable and survives up to 700 C after which it is slowly removed. A recently constructed 50,000 Btu/hr staged combustor was used to study the chemistry of the nitrogen and aromatics. SRC II combustion was studied under fuel-rich, first-stage conditions at air/fuel ratios from 0.6 to 1.0 times stoichiometric. The chemistry of the fuel during combustion calls for further investigation in order to examine the mechanism by which HCN is evolved as a common intermediate for the formation of the nitrogen-containing gaseous combustion products. 25 references, 45 figures, 25 tables.

  10. An experimental and numerical investigation on hydrogen-hydrocarbon composite fuel combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahsan Reza Choudhuri

    2000-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study on the combustion characteristics of turbulent diffusion flames of natural gas-hydrogen composite fuel is presented. Three mixtures (90--10%, 80--20% and 65--35% by volume) of natural gas and hydrogen were used. The results are compared with the combustion characteristics of a pure natural gas flame. The following parameters were measured: (i) flame stability (blowout velocity, and

  11. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY); Shen, Ming-shing (Rocky Point, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. The iron oxide present in the spent limestone is found to catalyze the regeneration rate of the spent limestone in a reducing environment. Thus both the calcium and iron components may be recycled.

  12. Experimental gas-fired pulse-combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomquist, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on a gas-fired, water-cooled, Helmholtz-type pulse combustion burner are discussed. In addition to the experimental work, information is presented on the evolution of pulse combustion, the types of pulse combustion burners and their applications, and the types of fuels used. Also included is a survey of other pertinent studies of gas-fired pulse combustion. The burner used in the Argonne research effort was equipped with adjustable air and gas flapper valves and was operated stably over a heat-input range of 30,000 to 200,000 Btu/h. The burner's overall heat transfer in the pulsating mode was 22 to 31% higher than when the unit was operated in the steady mode. Important phenomena discussed include (1) effects on performance produced by inserting a corebustor to change tailpipe diameter, (2) effects observed following addition of an air-inlet decoupling chamber to the unit, and (3) occurrence of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas.

  13. In-water gas combustion in linear and annular gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teslenko, V. S.; Drozhzhin, A. P.; Medvedev, R. N.; Batraev, I. S.

    2014-08-01

    A new pulsed-cyclic method of in-water gas combustion was developed with separate feed of fuel gas and oxygen with the focus on development of new technologies for heat generators and submerged propellers. The results of calorimetric and hydrodynamic measurements are presented. In-water combustion of acetylene, hydrogen, and propane was tested with the operation frequency of 2-2.5 Hz and with a linear injector. The combustion dynamics of combustion of stoichiometric mixture with propane (C3H8+5O2) was studied for a bubble near a solid wall; the produced gas bubble continues expansion and oscillations (for the case of linear and annular bubbles). It was demonstrated that gas combustion in annular bubbles produces two same-magnitude pulses of force acting on the wall. The first pulse is produced due to expansion of combustion products, and the second pulse is produced due to axial cumulative processes after bubble collapse. This process shapes an annular vortex which facilitates high-speed convective processes between combustion products and liquid; and this convection produces small-size bubbles.

  14. Extinction of model fuels with anomalous pressure dependence of the combustion velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Marshakov, V.N.; Melik-Gaikazov, G.V.

    1983-09-01

    This article investigates the regimes of combustion of model fuels with a drop in pressure. The following fuel compositions were examined: a reference composition consisting of a model nitroglycerine fuel, nitroglycerine fuel with a 2% additive of lead and copper compounds, and nitroglycerine with the addition of 1% compound of lead. The temperature gradient in the gas near the combustion surface was determined from the temperature profile. The results indicate that when the pressure boundary for the change in combustion mechanisms is crossed during the pressure drop, the conditions for extinguishing the fuel are considerably eased. It is concluded that the investigation of fuel combustion accompanying a pressure drop permits the obtaining of additional data and enables the understanding of the combustion mechanism at constant pressure.

  15. Fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhara

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a rotatable crankshaft and combustion chambers. The system consists of: (a) a device for contracting and expanding the working chamber at a frequency equal to the number of the combustion chamber times the angular frequency of the crankshaft; (b) a device for conducting fuel to the working

  16. Near-Zero NOx Combustion Technology for ATS Mercury 50 Gas Turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Smith

    2004-01-01

    A project to demonstrate a near-zero NOx, catalytic combustion technology for natural gas-fired, industrial gas turbines is described. In a cooperative effort between Solar Turbines Incorporated and Precision Combustion Incorporated (PCI), proof-of-concept rig testing of PCI's fuel-rich catalytic combustion technology has been completed successfully. The primary technical goal of the project was to demonstrate NOx and CO emissions below 5ppm

  17. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  18. Fuel-air supply system for internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trexler; C. H. Sr

    1979-01-01

    A fuel-air supply system for a combustion engine is presented wherein unmixed supplies of liquid fuel and combustion air are heated and after heating are bypassed around the engine's carburetor for delivery to the engine in place of the fuel air mixture from the carburetor when the temperature of the liquid fuel being heated rises to a preselected temperature.

  19. Mercury transformations in coal combustion flue gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2000-01-01

    Mercury chlorination [i.e., formation of HgCl2(g)] is generally assumed to be the dominant mercury-transformation mechanism in coal combustion flue gas. Other potential mechanisms involve mercury interactions with ash particle surfaces where reactive chemical species, oxidation catalysts, and active sorption sites are available to transform Hg0(g) to Hg2+X(g) (e.g., where X is Cl2 or O) as well as Hg0(g) and HgCl2(g)

  20. Evaluation of the potential air pollution from fuel combustion in industrial boilers in Kocaeli, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aykan Karademir

    2006-01-01

    The potential air pollution from the fuel combustion in the uncontrolled industrial boilers in Kocaeli, the most industrialized area in Turkey, was evaluated by using the emission factors determined based on the flue gas measurements conducted at over 100 industrial plants in the area. The emissions were modeled for conventional combustion pollutants by a Gaussian dispersion model to determine the

  1. Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and FTIR component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, C. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; DeMott, P. J.; Sullivan, R. C.; Reardon, J.; Ryan, K. C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Stevens, L.

    2014-04-01

    During the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4, October-November~2012) a~large variety of regionally and globally significant biomass fuels was burned at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particle emissions were characterized by an extensive suite of instrumentation that measured aerosol chemistry, size distribution, optical properties, and cloud-nucleating properties. The trace gas measurements included high resolution mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography, and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the overall experimental design for FLAME-4 including the fuel properties, the nature of the burn simulations, the instrumentation employed, and then focuses on the OP-FTIR results. The OP-FTIR was used to measure the initial emissions of 20 trace gases: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, glycolaldehyde, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. These species include most of the major trace gases emitted by biomass burning and for several of these compounds it is the first time their emissions are reported for important fuel types. The main fuel types included: African grasses, Asian rice straw, cooking fires (open (3-stone), rocket, and gasifier stoves), Indonesian and extratropical peat, temperate and boreal coniferous canopy fuels, US crop residue, shredded tires, and trash. Comparisons of the OP-FTIR emission factors (EF) and emission ratios (ER) to field measurements of biomass burning verify that the large body of FLAME-4 results can be used to enhance the understanding of global biomass burning and its representation in atmospheric chemistry models.

  2. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  3. Combustion process with waste gas purification

    SciTech Connect

    Almlof, G.; Hagqvist, P.

    1983-07-12

    The invention relates to a combustion process with cleansing of the waste gases by compressing, cooling and expanding said gases. The invention provides a continuous process in which highly contaminated low-grade fuels having a high water content can be effectively burned and the waste gases efficiently cleansed, by subjecting the cooled waste gases, together with residual non-desired substances, to a rapid drop in pressure in one or more stages by means of an expansion means, whereat the input drive power of the compressor, required for compressing said gases, is so high that the temperature downstream of the expansion means is sufficiently low for the condensation and precipitation of frozen contaminants in the waste gases, together with ice crystals. The invention can be applied to all forms of combustion plants, primarily combined power and heating plants fired with fuel having a high sulphur and water content.

  4. Fuel NOx production during the combustion of low caloric value fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Colaluca, M.A.; Caraway, J.P. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this investigation is to identify and qualify physical mechanisms and parameters that affect the combustion of low caloric value gases (LCVG) and the formation of NOx pollutants produced form fuel bound nitrogen. Average physical properties of a low caloric value gas were determined from the products of several industrial coal gasifiers. A computer model was developed, utilizing the PHOENICS computational fluid dynamics software to model the combustion of LCVG. The model incorporates a 3-dimensional physical design and is based on typical industrial combustors. Feed stock to the gasifier can be wood, feed stock manure, cotton gin trash, coal, lignite and numerous forms of organic industrial wastes.

  5. Combustion of liquid fuel droplets in supercritical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Yang, Vigor

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of liquid-fuel droplet combustion in both sub- and super-critical environments has been conducted. The formulation is based on the complete conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates finite-rate chemical kinetics and a full treatment of liquid-vapor phase equilibrium at the droplet surface. The governing equations and the associated interface boundary conditions are solved numerically using a fully coupled, implicit scheme with the dual time-stepping integration technique. The model is capable of treating the entire droplet history, including the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state. As a specific example, the combustion of n-pentane fuel droplets in air is studied for pressures of 5-140 atm. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influences on the fluid transport, gas/liquid interface thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibits a significant variation near the critical burning pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass-diffusion rate and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure. The influence of droplet size on the burning characteristics is also noted.

  6. Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine

    E-print Network

    Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

  7. A review on the technical adaptations for internal combustion engines to operate with gas\\/hydrogen mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Escalante Soberanis; A. M. Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    The use of the hydrogen as fuel in the internal combustion engine represents an alternative use to replace the hydrocarbons fuels, which produce during the combustion reaction a pollutes gases. The hydrogen is the most abundant material in the universe and during its combustion with air only produces nitrous oxides (NOx) gas, which can collect and avoid their emission to

  8. A study of natural gas\\/DME combustion in HCCI engines using CFD with detailed chemical kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song-Charng Kong

    2007-01-01

    Combustion characteristics of natural gas and dimethyl ether (DME) mixture in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine were studied numerically. Detailed chemical kinetics with 83 species and 360 reactions was used with an engine CFD code to simulate the combustion process. Operating conditions with different fuel compositions were simulated. Combustion, nitrogen oxides emissions and effects of fuel compositions on

  9. The acoustic model of oscillations of gas combustion in coaxial pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, E. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Kazakova, E. I.

    2014-11-01

    Organization of pulse combustion mode is one of the possible solutions to the problem of energy efficiency installations using hydrocarbon fuel. For grate combustion of solid fuels, in particular, solid industrial wastes are considered to be promising coaxial system, allowing the admission of secondary air to the combustion zone. In this paper we proposed an acoustic model of oscillations of gas when burning solid fuel in the system is coaxially arranged pipes with natural air supply. The description of the motion of the gas in the system during one period of oscillation.

  10. Numerical analysis of supersonic combustion ramjet with upstream fuel injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Savino; Giuseppe Pezzella

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes possible fuel injection scheme for airbreathing engines that use hydrocarbon fuels. The basic idea is to inject fuel at the spike tip of the supersonic inlet to achieve mixing and combustion efficiency with a limited length combustion chamber. A numerical code, able to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in turbulent and reacting flows, is employed to obtain

  11. Introduction Fossil fuel combustion by aviation, shipping and road

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    96 Introduction Fossil fuel combustion by aviation, shipping and road traffic contributes about one. here we summarize some of the first findings. Emissions by transport modes Emissions from fossil fuel to global CO emissions are estimated to be much smaller, likely due to more efficient fuel combustion. Road

  12. Fuel supply control system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, M.

    1988-09-06

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine which is adapted to be supplied with fuel by fuel injection means and in which is part of exhaust gas discharged from the engine proper is adjustable recirculated to a location downstream of a throttle valve in an intake pipe, a fuel supply control system comprising: an engine revolutions per minute (RPM) detecting means for detecting the number of revolutions per minute of the engine; a pressure detecting means for detecting manifold pressure of the intake gases in the portion of the intake pipe downstream of the throttle valve; an oxygen density detecting means for detecting the density of the oxygen in the intake gases in the intake pipe after a part of the engine exhaust gas has been recirculated to the intake pipe downstream of the throttle valve; a memory means for prestoring data determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the engine in the absence of the exhaust gas recirculation and corresponding to respective engine operating conditions which are determined by the manifold pressure of the intake gases downstream of the throttle valve detected by the pressure detecting means and the engine RPM detected by the engine RPM detecting means, the data being classified in a two dimensional manner.

  13. Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrom, T. E.; Battista, R. A.; Maxwell, G. P.

    There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO(x), CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if 'logical' refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO(x); determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

  14. Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Normal Alkane Fuels in a Model Combustor of Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ??, ?; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ???; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

    Effect of kinds of one-component n-alkane liquid fuels on combustion characteristics was investigated experimentally using a model combustor of scramjet engine. The inlet condition of a model combustor is 2.0 of Mach number, up to 2400K of total temperature, and 0.38MPa of total pressure. Five kinds of n-alkane are tested, of which carbon numbers are 7, 8, 10, 13, and 16. They are more chemically active and less volatile with an increase of alkane carbon number. Fuels are injected to the combustor in the upstream of cavity with barbotage nitrogen gas and self-ignition performance was investigated. The result shows that self-ignition occurs with less equivalence ratio when alkane carbon number is smaller. This indicates that physical characteristic of fuel, namely volatile of fuel, is dominant for self-ignition behavior. Effect on flame-holding performance is also examined with adding pilot hydrogen and combustion is kept after cutting off pilot hydrogen with the least equivalence ratio where alkane carbon number is from 8 to 10. These points are discussed qualitatively from the conflict effect of chemical and physical properties on alkane carbon number.

  15. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOEpatents

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  16. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms for combustion of oxygenated fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Fisher; W. J. Pitz; H. J. Curran; C. K. Westbrook

    2000-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and detailed chemical kinetic models have been developed for the combustion of two oxygenates: methyl butanoate, a model compound for biodiesel fuels, and methyl formate, a related simpler molecule. Bond additivity methods and rules for estimating kinetic parameters were adopted from hydrocarbon combustion and extended. The resulting mechanisms have been tested against the limited combustion data available in

  17. Synthetic and Jet Fuels Pyrolysis for Cooling and Combustion Applications.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Synthetic and Jet Fuels Pyrolysis for Cooling and Combustion Applications. N Gascoin1 , G Abraham.e. 5000 km.h-1) and to the combustion heat release. If passive and ablative protections are a way phenomenon (heat and mass transfers, pyrolysis, combustion) in a cooling channel surrounding a SCRamjet

  18. Fuel injected internal combustion engine pollutant control system

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlings, K.R.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel injected internal combustion engine is described comprising: an air intake apparatus having at least one resistance heating element capable of heating air passing therethrough to a temperature within a range of 160/sup 0/F to 180/sup 0/F, and an air temperature sensing means situated downstream of the resistance heating element to control the temperature of the heating element; combustion chamber means including a primary combustion chamber and a contiguous pre-combustion chamber wherein a sparkplug is situated. The combustion chamber means further include a primary intake port to the primary combustion chamber and an auxiliary intake port to the pre-combustion chamber, as well as an exhaust port to the primary combustion chamber, wherein passage of air/fuel or exhaust through the ports is controlled by the selective positioning of a valve respectively positioned adjacent each port; air intake manifold means for directing air from the air intake apparatus to the combustion chamber means; a free-wheeling fan situated within the air intake apparatus to increase the turbulence of the air drawn through the air intake manifold means, whereby mixing of the air and fuel is enhanced to improve combustion within the combustion chamber means; a fuel pump; fuel injector means for directing fuel received from the fuel pump to the air intake manifold means for mixing with air prior to being drawn into the combustion chamber means; a flow constricting valve in the proximity of the fuel injector means inlet, to help vaporize and increase turbulence of the fuel as it enters the fuel heating reservoir; and means for injecting a menthanol/water vapor mixture into the air intake manifold means.

  19. Characteristics and combustion of future hydrocarbon fuels. [aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    As the world supply of petroleum crude oil is being depleted, the supply of high-quality crude oil is also dwindling. This dwindling supply is beginning to manifest itself in the form of crude oils containing higher percentages of aromatic compounds, sulphur, nitrogen, and trace constituents. The result of this trend is described and the change in important crude oil characteristics, as related to aircraft fuels, is discussed. As available petroleum is further depleted, the use of synthetic crude oils (those derived from coal and oil shale) may be required. The principal properties of these syncrudes and the fuels that can be derived from them are described. In addition to the changes in the supply of crude oil, increasing competition for middle-distillate fuels may require that specifications be broadened in future fuels. The impact that the resultant potential changes in fuel properties may have on combustion and thermal stability characteristics is illustrated and discussed in terms of ignition, soot formation, carbon deposition flame radiation, and emissions.

  20. NUMERICAL STUDY OF SPRAY PARAMETRIC EFFECTS ON GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION PERFORMANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Su; C. Q. Zhou

    A numerical study was conducted to determine the effects of fuel spray characteristics on the gas turbine combustion performance including the combustion efficiency and the overall temperature distribution factor (OTDF) at the exit of the combustor using the KIVA-3V code. A model of a typical annular combustor was used in the computations. Operating conditions were varied with inlet pressure from

  1. Combustion and emission characteristics in a gas turbine combustor at different pressure and swirl conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Datta; S. K. Som

    1999-01-01

    The practical challenge in research in the field of gas turbine combustion mainly centres around a clean emission, a low liner wall temperature, a uniform exit temperature distribution for turbomachinery applications along with a fuel economy of the combustion process. An attempt to meet up the challenge has been made in the present paper in developing a computational model based

  2. Investigation of thermal and environmental characteristics of combustion of gaseous fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetkin, A. V.; Suris, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical investigations are fulfilled for some thermal and environmental characteristics of combustion of gaseous fuels used at present in tube furnaces of petroleum refineries. The effect of the fuel composition on these characteristics is shown and probable consequences of the substitution of natural gas to other types of fuels. Methane, ethane, propane, butane, propylene, and hydrogen are considered for comparison, which in most cases are constituents of the composition of the fuel burnt in furnaces. The effect of the fuel type, its associated combustion temperature, combustion product emissivity, temperature of combustion chamber walls, mean beam length, and heat release on the variation in the radiant heat flux within the radiant chamber of furnaces is investigated. The effect of flame characteristics, which are determined by the presence of diffusion combustion zones formed by burners used at present in furnaces for reducing nitrogen oxides emission, is analyzed. The effect of the fuel type on the equilibrium NO concentration is also investigated. The investigations were carried out both at arbitrary given gas temperatures and at effective temperatures dependent on the adiabatic combustion temperature and the temperature at the chamber output and determined based on solving a set of equations at various heat-release rates of the combustion chamber.

  3. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  4. Analysis of Fuel Vaporization, Fuel-Air Mixing, and Combustion in Integrated Mixer-Flame Holders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deur, J. M.; Cline, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Requirements to limit pollutant emissions from the gas turbine engines for the future High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) have led to consideration of various low-emission combustor concepts. One such concept is the Integrated Mixer-Flame Holder (IMFH). This report describes a series of IMFH analyses performed with KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional CFD code for problems involving sprays, turbulence, and combustion. To meet the needs of this study, KIVA-II's boundary condition and chemistry treatments are modified. The study itself examines the relationships between fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, and combustion. Parameters being considered include: mixer tube diameter, mixer tube length, mixer tube geometry (converging-diverging versus straight walls), air inlet velocity, air inlet swirl angle, secondary air injection (dilution holes), fuel injection velocity, fuel injection angle, number of fuel injection ports, fuel spray cone angle, and fuel droplet size. Cases are run with and without combustion to examine the variations in fuel-air mixing and potential for flashback due to the above parameters. The degree of fuel-air mixing is judged by comparing average, minimum, and maximum fuel/air ratios at the exit of the mixer tube, while flame stability is monitored by following the location of the flame front as the solution progresses from ignition to steady state. Results indicate that fuel-air mixing can be enhanced by a variety of means, the best being a combination of air inlet swirl and a converging-diverging mixer tube geometry. With the IMFH configuration utilized in the present study, flashback becomes more common as the mixer tube diameter is increased and is instigated by disturbances associated with the dilution hole flow.

  5. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel-equivalence ratios 5.0 to 8.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Gracia-Salcedo, Carmen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (E.R. greater than 5.0) is a unique technique for preheating a hydrocarbon fuel to temperatures much higher than those obtained by conventional heat exchangers. In addition to producing very reactive molecules, the process upgrades the structure of the fuel by the formation of hydrogen and smaller hydrocarbons and produces a cleaner burning fuel by removing some of the fuel carbon from the soot formation chain. With fuel-rich catalytic combustion as the first stage of a two stage combustion system, enhanced fuel properties can be utilized by both high speed engines, where time for ignition and complete combustion is limited, and engines where emission of thermal NO sub x is critical. Two-stage combustion (rich-lean) has been shown to be effective for NO sub x reduction in stationary burners where residence times are long enough to burn-up the soot formed in the first stage. Such residence times are not available in aircraft engines. Thus, the soot-free nature of the present process is critical for high speed engines. The successful application of fuel-rich catalytic combustion to Jet-A, a multicomponent fuel used in gas turbine combustors, is discusssed.

  6. Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-12-15

    An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

  7. Broad specification fuels combustion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design and development efforts to evolve promising aircraft gas turbine combustor configurations for burning broadened-properties fuels were discussed. Design and experimental evaluations of three different combustor concepts in sector combustor rig tests was conducted. The combustor concepts were a state of the art single-annular combustor, a staged double-annular combustor, and a short single-annular combustor with variable geometry to control primary zone stoichiometry. A total of 25 different configurations of the three combustor concepts were evaluated. Testing was conducted over the full range of CF6-80A engine combustor inlet conditions, using four fuels containing between 12% and 14% hydrogen by weight. Good progress was made toward meeting specific program emissions and performance goals with each of the three combustor concepts. The effects of reduced fuel hydrogen content, including increased flame radiation, liner metal temperature, smoke, and NOx emissions were documented. The most significant effect on the baseline combustor was a projected 33% life reduction, for a reduction from 14% to 13% fuel hydrogen content, due to increased liner temperatures.

  8. Electronic fuel injection control device for internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Takao; T. Kimura

    1988-01-01

    An electronic fuel injection control device for an internal combustion engine having a source of fuel, and electrically operated fuel injection means for effecting fuel supply into the engine from the source of fuel during energization thereof, is described: first detecting means for detecting rotational speed of the engine to produce a first signal indicative of the detected rotational speed;

  9. Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

  10. Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1957-01-01

    Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.

  11. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the spray were measured in the chamber for a stable flame. The experimental results indicate significant preferential vaporization of ethanol over water. Modeling results support this observation and indicate that the vaporization process is best described as the distillation limit mode with enhanced mass transfer by convection. Further, the influence of preferential vaporization on flame stability was investigated. A procedure was developed to evaluate the extent of preferential vaporization and subsequent flame stability of a fuel in aqueous solution. Various water soluble fuels were analyzed via this procedure in order to identify a chemical fuel showing strong preferential vaporization. t-Butanol was identified as having excellent physical and chemical properties, indicating stronger preferential vaporization than ethanol. Flame stability tests were run for aqueous solutions of both t-butanol and ethanol under identical flow conditions. Flame stability was characterized by the blow-off limit. In each comparison, the energy contents in the two solutions were kept the same. For the experiments under high swirl flow conditions (100% swirl flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has slightly lower blow-off limits than 15 wt% ethanol, and 8.3 wt% t-butanol has much lower blow-off limits than 10 wt% ethanol. For the experiments under a low swirl flow condition (50% swirl/50% axial flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has a much lower blow-off limit than 15 wt% ethanol. The time to release the fuel from a droplet was also calculated for both ethanol and t-butanol. For the same size droplet, the time to release t-butanol is much shorter than that of ethanol under the same conditions. Faster release of the fuel from water enhances flame stability, which is consistent with the experimental results. For the oxy-combustion characteristics of low-volatility fuel with high water content, glycerol was chosen as the fuel to study. It is found that self-sustained flame can be obtained for glycerol solution with concentration as high as 60 wt%, when burned in pure O2. However, the flame is lifted far away f

  12. Fossil Fuel Combustion and the Major Sedimentary Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Bertine; Edward D. Goldberg

    1971-01-01

    The combustion of the fossil fuels coal, oil, and lignite potentially can mobilize many elements into the atmosphere at rates, in general, less than but comparable to their rates of flow through natural waters during the weathering cycle. Since the principal sites of fossil fuel combustion are in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, changes in the composition of natural

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  14. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Inst.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

  15. Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

  16. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  17. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  18. New mixture formation technology of direct fuel injection stratified combustion SI engine (OSKA)

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, S.; Onishi, S.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of internal combustion engine has been developed. The new idea incorporates an impinging part in the central piston cavity. The fuel spray is injected against the impinging area, spreads and forms a fuel mixture. Since a comparatively rich fuel mixture, always stays around the impinging part and ignition is accomplished at the center of the rich fuel mixture, steady, instantaneous and high-speed combustion is possible. As the fuel mixture is always formed in the cavity, there is little fuel in the squish area. Therefore, it is possible to prevent end-gas knocking, and in spite of the use of spark ignition, to operate the engine at higher compression ratio than a conventional premixed SI engine. Experiments with methanol fuel showed that BMEP was 1.1MPa and the maximum brake thermal efficiency was 42%. The combustion noise was lower than that of diesel engine. Brief tests with gasoline showed a maximum brake thermal efficency of 36%.

  19. Ceramic-coated components for the combustion zone of natural gas engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Holloman; A. V. Levy

    1992-01-01

    The use of ceramic coatings on the combustion zone surfaces of large,natural gas-fueled,internal com-bustion engines is discussed.\\u000a Unique handling and quality control systems are required for plasma spray-ing thin (0.25 mm,0.0010) in.coatings on up to 48.25(cm19)-in.diameter\\u000a piston crowns and cylinder heads weighing up to(1200 lb).The in-service performance characteristics of two types of natural\\u000a gas-fu-eled combustion engines powering natural gas compressors

  20. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  1. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  2. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Ignition, Combustion and Expansion Processes of Hypergolic Liquid Fuel Combinations at Gas Temperatures up to 3000 K. Thesis - Rhein-Westfalia Technical Coll., 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Harry

    1987-01-01

    The ignition, combustion, and expansion characteristics of hypergolic liquid propellant mixtures in small rocket engines are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown by using the Bray approximation procedure that the reaction H + OH + M = H2O + M (where M is the molecular mass of the gas mixture) has a strong effect on the combustion efficiency. Increases in recombination energies ranging from 30 to 65% were obtained when the rate of this reaction was increased by a factor of 10 in gas mixtures containing 90% oxygen. The effect of aluminum additions and various injection techniques on the combustion process is investigated.

  4. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  5. Polycrystalline-silicon microbridge combustible gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manginell, Ronald Paul

    Catalytic, calorimetric gas detection is the most commonly used method for the detection of combustible gases below the lower-explosive limit (LEL). In this method, the heat of oxidation of a combustible species on a heated catalyst surface is detected by a resistance thermometer in proximity. Conventionally fabricated sensors suffer from high-power consumption (500 mW), slow thermal response (15 sec) and low thermal sensitivity (1-2spC/mW). Fully CMOS-compatible, surface-micromachined polysilicon bridges have been fabricated for use in catalytic, calorimetric gas detection and are characterized by low-power consumption (35 mW), fast response (0.2 msec) and high sensitivity (16spC/mW). The batch fabrication techniques used here significantly increase the manufacturability of these devices as compared with their conventional predecessors, since hand manufacture/sorting conventionally used ate eliminated. A post-processing, post-packaging micro-chemical-vapor-deposition technique was developed for the purpose of selectively depositing catalytic films only in the active area of the sensor. Film microstructure was modified using a pulsed-deposition technique and in situ methods of film growth monitoring were investigated. With a Pt catalyst, ultimate device sensitivity to hydrogen was 100 ppm in air. To predict device response, knowledge of the temperature distribution along a microbridge is required. Both analytical and numerical techniques were used to model this distribution and are in good agreement with measurements obtained by infrared microscopy, For modeling purposes the temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivity of polysilicon at high temperature ({>}300spC) were measured using microbridges outfitted with special high-temperature bond pads. Physical models of thermal and electrical conduction in polysilicon were constructed.

  6. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOEpatents

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  7. Predicting combustion properties of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures

    E-print Network

    Goldsmith, Claude Franklin, III

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, I applied computational quantum chemistry to improve the accuracy of kinetic mechanisms that are used to model combustion chemistry. I performed transition state theory calculations for several reactions ...

  8. FUEL GAS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of continued investigation and further definition of the potential environmental and economic benefits of integrated coal gasification/gas cleanup/combined gas and steam cycle power plants. Reported refinements in plant operating characteristics lower hea...

  9. Combustion fundamentals of pyrolysis oil based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Calabria, R.; Chiariello, F.; Massoli, P. [Istituto Motori CNR, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The combustion behavior of emulsions of pyrolysis oil in commercial diesel oil was studied. The emulsions were different in terms of concentration and size of the dispersed phase. The study was carried out in a single droplet combustion chamber. The size of droplets varied between 400 {mu}m and 1200 {mu}m. They were suspended to a bare thermocouple and, hence, their temperature during combustion was measured. High-speed digital shadowgraphy was used to follow droplets evolution. The main features of the droplet combustion were recognized. The general combustion behavior of emulsions is intermediate with respect to pure PO and commercial diesel oil. Emulsion droplets underwent strong swelling and microexplosion phenomena. However, under the investigated conditions, the microexplosions were ineffective in destroying droplets. The size distribution of the dispersed PO droplets in the range 3-10 {mu}m was not effective either for determining the overall thermal behavior or for the efficacy of the microexplosions. The homogeneous combustion phase resulted identical for emulsions and diesel oil despite the emulsions composition (i.e., concentration of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, as well as the size of the oil droplets in the emulsion) and the different structure of the flame and also its time and spatial evolution. (author)

  10. Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)] [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka [Toyota Motor Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.] [Toyota Motor Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

  11. Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

  12. The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-30

    The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and selection of desirable F-T molecules for use in jet engine simulations, where we should be able to predict the ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of proposed fuel components. These mechanisms include the reactions and chemical species needed to describe high temperature phenomena such as shock tube ignition and flammability behavior, and they will also include low temperature kinetics to describe other ignition phenomena such as compression ignition and knocking. During the past years, our hydrocarbon kinetics modeling group at LLNL has focused a great deal on fuels typical of gasoline and diesel fuel. About 10 years ago, we developed kinetic models for the fuel octane primary reference fuels, n-heptane [1] and iso-octane [2], which have 7 and 8 carbon atoms and are therefore representative of typical gasoline fuels. N-heptane represents the low limit of knock resistance with an octane number of 0, while iso-octane is very knock resistant with an octane number of 100. High knock resistance in iso-octane was attributed largely to the large fraction of primary C-H bonds in the molecule, including 15 of the 18 C-H bonds, and the high bond energy of these primary bonds plays a large role in this knock resistance. In contrast, in the much more ignitable n-heptane, 10 of its 16 C-H bonds are much less strongly bound secondary C-H bonds, leading to its very low octane number. All of these factors, as well as a similarly complex kinetic description of the equally important role of the transition state rings that transfer H atoms within the reacting fuel molecules, were quantified and collected into large kinetic reaction mechanisms that are used by many researchers in the fuel chemistry world.

  13. Performance of low-Btu fuel gas turbine combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, S.; Bowen, J.H.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.

    1995-11-01

    This reports on a project to develop low BTU gas fuel nozzle for use in large gas turbine combustors using multiple fuel nozzles. A rich-quench-lean combustor is described here which reduces the amount of NO{sub x} produced by the combustion of the low BTU gas. The combustor incorporates a converging rich stage combustor liner, which separates the rich stage recirculation zones from the quench stage and lean stage air.

  14. Effective Heat of Combustion for Flaming Combustion of Mediterranean Forest Fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Madrigal; M. Guijarro; C. Hernando; C. Dez; E. Marino

    2011-01-01

    An adapted bench-scale Mass Loss Calorimeter (MLC) device is proposed for evaluating effective heat of rapid flaming combustion\\u000a of fine Mediterranean forest fuels. The MLC apparatus uses a calibrated thermopile to quantify heat release rate (HRR) as\\u000a an alternative to the classical oxygen consumption measurement. A porous holder was used to simulate rapid flaming combustion.\\u000a Average effective heat of combustion

  15. Methodology development of a time-resolved in-cylinder fuel oxidation analysis: Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion study application

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, L.; Guibert, P.; Cavadias, S. [Universite de Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert CNRS UMR 7190, 2 place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 Saint Cyr l'Ecole (France); Dupre, S.; Momique, J.C. [PSA Peugeot Citroen, Centre Technique de Velizy, Route de Gizy, 78943 Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    2008-08-15

    A technique was developed and applied to understand the mechanism of fuel oxidation in an internal combustion engine. This methodology determines the fuel and concentrations of various intermediates during the combustion cycle. A time-resolved measurement of a large number of species is the objective of this work and is achieved by the use of a sampling probe developed in-house. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve with internal N{sub 2} dilution was developed for sampling gases coming from the combustion chamber. Combustion species include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, fuel components, and hydrocarbons produced due to incomplete combustion of fuel. Combustion gases were collected and analyzed with the objectives of analysis by an automotive exhaust analyzer, separation by gas chromatography, and detection by flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry. The work presented was processed in a homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion mode context. (author)

  16. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  17. National Combustion Code Used To Study the Hydrogen Injector Design for Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Norris, Andrew T.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, in the gas state, has been proposed to replace Jet-A (the fuel used for commercial jet engines) as a fuel for gas turbine combustion. For the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen only, water is the only product and the main greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, is not produced. This is an obvious benefit of using hydrogen as a fuel. The situation is not as simple when air replaces oxygen in the combustion process. (Air is mainly a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon. Other components comprise a very small part of air and will not be mentioned.) At the high temperatures found in the combustion process, oxygen reacts with nitrogen, and this produces nitrogen oxide compounds, or NOx--the main component of atmospheric smog. The production of NOx depends mainly on two variables: the temperature at which combustion occurs, and the length of time that the products of combustion stay, or reside, in the combustor. Starting from a lean (excess air) air-to-fuel ratio, the goal of this research was to minimize hot zones caused by incomplete premixing and to keep the residence time short while producing a stable flame. The minimization of these two parameters will result in low- NOx hydrogen combustion.

  18. Ceramic-coated components for the combustion zone of natural gas engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloman, L.; Levy, A. V.

    1992-03-01

    The use of ceramic coatings on the combustion zone surfaces of large,natural gas-fueled,internal com-bustion engines is discussed. Unique handling and quality control systems are required for plasma spray-ing thin (0.25 mm,0.0010) in.coatings on up to 48.25(cm19)-in.diameter piston crowns and cylinder heads weighing up to(1200 lb).The in-service performance characteristics of two types of natural gas-fu-eled combustion engines powering natural gas compressors that had thin zirconia ceramic coatings ap-plied to their combustion zone surfaces are presented. Their performance was measured in the field be-fore and after coating. It was determined that the durability,power output,fuel consumption,exhaust emissions,and other operating characteristics all improved due to ceramic coating of the flame side sur-faces of cylinder heads,power pistons,and valves.

  19. Biomass conversion into fuel gas using circulating fluidised bed technology: the concept improvement and modelling discussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Chen; J Andries; H Spliethoff

    2003-01-01

    Fuel gas production from biomass using circulating fluidised bed technology is presented in our laboratory. This improved technical concept is aiming at producing high quality gas, in terms of low tar level and particulates carried out in the fuel gas, and overall emissions reduction associated with fuel gas combustion, as well as stable and reliable operation with the minimum fluctuations

  20. LOW NOX STRATEGY FOR COMBUSTING HIGH NITROGEN CONTENT FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a multistaged combustion urner (designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficieiicy) for [high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 1.0 MW package boiler. simulator. A low NOx precombustion cham...

  1. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels within porous inert media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Howell; M. J. Hall; J. L. Ellzey

    1996-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels within porous inert media. The interest has been directed by the needs of industry to develop high performance radiant heaters while complying with increasingly stringent emissions regulations. This paper reviews the processes associated with non-catalytic combustion within porous media, and describes related experimental and modeling research.

  2. Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Combustion. 1. Dependence on Fuel

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Combustion. 1. Dependence on Fuel Structural Functionalities H O, olefins, oxygenates, and gasoline using a 23-component surrogate formulation. The 1,3-butadiene emission Gasolineisthemostimportantfuelforindustrializedsocieties and accounts for half of the petroleum consumed in the U.S. Emissions from combustion in gasoline

  3. Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion

    E-print Network

    Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

    2013-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed that has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed at an intermediate portion of the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve actuated by vacuum regulated

  5. Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed in the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve adapted to be actuated by the vacuum regulated by the pressure

  6. Combined simulation of combustion and gas flow in a grate-type incinerator.

    PubMed

    Ryu, C; Shin, D; Choi, S

    2002-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of the thermal flow in the combustion chamber of a solid waste incinerator provides crucial insight into the incinerator's performance. However, the interrelation of the gas flow with the burning waste has not been adequately treated in many CFD models. A strategy for a combined simulation of the waste combustion and the gas flow in the furnace is introduced here. When coupled with CFD, a model of the waste combustion in the bed provides the inlet conditions for the gas flow field and receives the radiative heat flux onto the bed from the furnace wall and gaseous species. An unsteady one-dimensional bed model was used for the test simulation, in which the moving bed was treated as a packed bed of homogeneous fuel particles. The simulation results show the physical processes of the waste combustion and its interaction with the gas flow for various operational parameters. PMID:15143794

  7. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded d...

  8. Solid sorbents for CO2 capture from post-combustion and pre-combustion gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.V.; Robinson, C. Stevens, R.W., Jr.

    2007-03-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is one of the major sources of the greenhouse gas CO2. Pressure swing adsorption/sorption (PSA/PSS) and temperature swing adsorption/sorption (TSA/TSS) are some of the potential techniques that could be utilized for removal of CO2 from fuel gas streams. NETL researchers have developed novel CO2 capture sorbents for both low and moderate temperature applications. A novel liquid impregnated solid sorbent was developed for CO2 removal in the temperature range of ambient to 60 C, which is regenerable at 60-80 C, and is suitable for various reactor configurations. Multi-cycle tests conducted in an atmospheric bench scale reactor with simulated moist flue gas indicated that the sorbent retains its CO2 sorption capacity with CO2 removal efficiency of about 99%. The sorbent was also tested in a high pressure (20 atm) bench scale flow reactor with simulated coal gas. The CO2 sorption capacity at high pressure was higher than that at atmospheric pressure. It was possible to regenerate the sorbent at 20 atm in the presence of water vapor. A novel, regenerable solid sorbent containing mixture of alkali earth and alkali compounds was also developed for CO2 removal at 200-315 C from high pressure gas streams suitable for IGCC systems. The sorbent showed very high capacity for CO2 removal from a gas streams containing 28% CO2 at 200 C and at 20 atm during a lab scale reactor test. Results of the multi-cycle test with the sorbent and potential applications will also be discussed.

  9. [Ecological/hygienic and toxicological evaluation of combustion products of aviation kerosene and liquefied natural gas].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Raznoschikov, V V

    2006-01-01

    Products of kerosene combustion in the present-day aeroengines contain more than 200 compounds of incomplete combustion, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition of fuel and oil. Most of these are strong toxicants for humans. Increase of temperature in the turbine engine combustion chamber led to production of very toxic nitrogen oxides. In search for the ecologically safe and less toxic alternative attention of fuel engineers was drawn to liquefied natural gas which compares well and even excels kerosene in ecological, economic and many other respects. PMID:16999075

  10. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  11. Co-combustion of recycled RDF and PDF fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Manninen, H. [Neste Oy Corporate Technology, Porvoo (Finland); Frankenhaeuser, M. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Energy recovery of used materials can be performed as mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration or as fuel recovery for co-combustion. Recovered fuels are refuse derived fuel (RDF), which is mechanically separated and processed from MSW, and packaging derived fuel (PDF), which is the source separated, processed, dry combustible part of MSW. A one year co-combustion of RDF with peat and coal was carried out in a 65 MW CFB power plant at Kauttua, Finland. The efficiency of the combustion process and the corrosion behavior of the boiler were particular focuses of attention in this study. Five different PDFs were also co-combusted in the same power plant. A wide analytical program was carried out including the solid and gaseous emission measurements. Results were encouraging, showing that RDF and PDFs are technically and economically feasible and environmentally friendly fuels for co-combustion. Low CO emissions showed clean and efficient combustion. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased, because part of the coal was replaced by RDF and PDFs. HCl emissions increased when the chlorine content of the fuel mixture increase, because limestone injection was not used. Heavy metals concentrated to the fly ash in unleachable form. PCDD/F (dioxin) emissions were in the normal power plant level and far below the strictest incineration limit. Long-term co-combustion of 10% RDF did not cause any high temperature chlorine corrosion of the superheater materials (500 C). The results showed that it is useful and technically possible to combine resource and waste management in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in the normal power plants.

  12. Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Pratte

    This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

  13. Experimental Study of Unsupported Nonane fuel Droplet Combustion in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, B. J.; Avedisian, C. T.; Hertzog, D. E.; Berkery, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Soot formation in droplet flames is the basic component of the particulate emission process that occurs in spray combustion. The complexity of soot formation motivates a one-dimensional transport condition which has obvious advantages in modeling. Recent models of spherically symmetric droplet combustion have made this assumption when incorporating such aspects as detailed chemistry and radiation. Interestingly, spherical symmetry does not necessarily restrict the results because it has been observed that the properties of carbon formed in flames are not strongly affected by the nature of the fuel or flaming configuration. What is affected, however, are the forces acting on the soot aggregates and where they are trapped by a balance of drag and thermophoretic forces. The distribution of these forces depends on the transport conditions of the flame. Prior studies of spherical droplet flames have examined the droplet burning history of alkanes, alcohols and aromatics. Data are typically the evolution of droplet, flame, extinction, and soot shell diameters. These data are only now just beginning to find their way into comprehensive numerical models of droplet combustion to test proposed oxidation schemes for fuels such as methanol and heptane. In the present study, we report new measurements on the burning history of unsupported nonane droplets in a convection-free environment to promote spherical symmetry. The far-field gas is atmospheric pressure air at room temperature. The evolution of droplet diameter was measured using high speed cine photography of a spark-ignited, droplet within a confined volume in a drop tower. The initial droplet diameters varied between 0.5 mm and 0.6 mm. The challenge of unsupported droplets is to form, deploy and ignite them with minimal disturbance, and then to keep them in the camera field of view. Because of the difficulty of this undertaking, more sophisticated diagnostics for studying soot than photographic were not used. Supporting the test droplet by a fiber fixes the droplet position but the fiber can perturb the burning process especially for a sooting fuel. Prior studies on heptane showed little evidence for soot formation due to g-droplets of similar size the relationship between sooting and droplet diameter. For nonane droplets we expect increased sooting due to the greater number of carbon atoms. As a sooting droplet burns and its diameter decreases, proportionally less soot should form. This reduced soot, as well as the influence of soot formed earlier in the burning process which collects in a 'shell', on heat transport to the flame offers the potential for a time-varying burning rate. Such an effect was investigated and revealed in results reported here. Speculation is offered for the cause of this effect and its possible relation to soot formation.

  14. Hydrocarbon-fuel/combustion-chamber-liner materials compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of material compatibility experiments using hydrocarbon fuels in contact with copper-based combustion chamber liner materials are presented. Mil-Spec RP-1, n- dodecane, propane, and methane fuels were tested in contact with OFHC, NASA-Z, and ZrCu coppers. Two distinct test methods were employed. Static tests, in which copper coupons were exposed to fuel for long durations at constant temperature and pressure, provided compatibility data in a precisely controlled environment. Dynamic tests, using the Aerojet Carbothermal Test Facility, provided fuel and copper compatibility data under realistic booster engine service conditions. Tests were conducted using very pure grades of each fuel and fuels to which a contaminant, e.g., ethylene or methyl mercaptan, was added to define the role played by fuel impurities. Conclusions are reached as to degradation mechanisms and effects, methods for the elimination of these mechanisms, selection of copper alloy combustion chamber liners, and hydrocarbon fuel purchase specifications.

  15. Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

    1990-04-01

    Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Knock prediction for dual fuel engines by using a simplified combustion model.

    PubMed

    Fei, Shao-mei; Liu, Zhen-tao; Yan, Zhao-da

    2003-01-01

    The present work used a methane-air mixture chemical kinetics scheme consisting of 119 elementary reaction steps and 41 chemical species to develop a simplified combustion model for prediction of the knock in dual fuel engines. Calculated values by the model for natural gas operation showed good agreement with corresponding experimental values over a broad range of operating conditions. PMID:12958720

  17. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  18. Effect of HHO gas on combustion emissions in gasoline engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saed A. Musmar; Ammar A. Al-Rousan

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the emission pollution associated with oil combustion is gaining an increasing interest worldwide. Recently, Browns gas (HHO gas) has been introduced as an alternative clean source of energy. A system to generate HHO gas has been built and integrated with Honda G 200 (197cc single cylinder engine). The results show that a mixture of HHO, air, and gasoline cause

  19. Muffler and exhaust gas purifier for internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignoffo

    1977-01-01

    An internal combustion engine exhaust gas muffler and purifier with segmented hollow shell and removable middle segment are described. The shell has an upstream exhaust gas expansion chamber, a downstream sound-absorbing and sound-collecting chamber, and a middle, removable cartridge receiving housing. The cartridge is filled with small particles of exhaust gas purifying material. 2 claims, 9 figures.

  20. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Fitts, David Orus (Ballston Spa, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Glenville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  1. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D. [Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  2. Mesoscale combustion: a first step towards liquid fueled batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios C. Kyritsis; Subir Roychoudhury; Charles S. McEnally; Lisa D. Pfefferle; Alessandro Gomez

    2004-01-01

    The development of a liquid fueled mesoscale catalytic combustor is presented, based on the coupling of multiplexed electrosprays for liquid fuel dispersion and a stack of catalytic grids. The grids act as a compact catalytic reactor for combustion initiation, stabilization and enhanced conversion, as well as ground electrodes for the electrospray. The combustor has a volume on the order of

  3. Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alt, Otto

    1924-01-01

    Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.

  4. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  5. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  6. MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-05-11

    Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10{sup -5} std cc/sec and 1 x 10{sup -7} std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations [within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL).

  7. Fuel Vapor Pressures and the Relation of Vapor Pressure to the Preparation of Fuel for Combustion in Fuel Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.

  8. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Leto, Anthony (Franklin Lakes, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  9. The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine: a technical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. White; R. R. Steeper; A. E. Lutz

    2006-01-01

    A review is given of contemporary research on the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. The emphasis is on light- to medium-duty engine research. We first describe hydrogen-engine fundamentals by examining the engine-specific properties of hydrogen and surveying the existing literature. Here it will be shown that, due to low volumetric efficiencies and frequent preignition combustion events, the power densities of premixed

  10. Sulphur impacts during pulverised coal combustion in oxy-fuel technology for carbon capture and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

    2011-01-01

    The oxy-fuel process is one of three carbon capture technologies which supply CO2 ready for sequestration the others being post-combustion capture and IGCC with carbon capture. As yet no technology has emerged as a clear winner in the race to commercial deployment. The oxy-fuel process relies on recycled flue gas as the main heat carrier through the boiler and

  11. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Gallant; Jim Franz; Mikhail Alnajjar; John Morse Storey; Samuel Arthur Lewis Sr; Scott Sluder; William C Cannella; Craig Fairbridge; Darcy Hager; Heather Dettman; Jon Luecke; Matthew A. Ratcliff; Brad Zigler

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC\\/MS and \\/u1H\\/\\/u1\\/u3C NMR

  12. Numerical Simulation in Combustion Space of an Oxy-fuel Glass Furnace with Different Jet Angles of Auxiliary Oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinjie Fu; Hailiang Zhang; Junlin Xie; Shuxia Mei

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation in the combustion space of an oxy-fuel glass furnace was carried out. In order to obtain better combustion efficiency, the cases by adding auxiliary oxygen inlet with different jet angles of auxiliary oxygen from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were compared. The gas phase is expressed with two-equation model, while the combustion with non-premixed model and the radiation

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

  14. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Combustion of Automotive Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Silke, E J

    2006-11-10

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of fuels, including olefins and cycloalkanes used in diesel, spark-ignition and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate mixtures of hydrocarbon components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on production of emissions from practical automotive engines.

  15. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  16. Investigation of coal-water slurry fuel combustion in reciprocating, internal combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Choi; S. R. Bell

    1994-01-01

    Coal-water slurry(CWS) engine tests designed to investigate the ignition and combustion processes of the fuel are described\\u000a in this paper. The effects of three different parameters, namely, (a) needle lift pressure, (b) fuel injection timing, and\\u000a (c) percent coal loading in the slurry fuel are studied in detail. Successful operation of the engine using the coal water\\u000a slurry required modifications

  17. Lean stability augmentation study. [on gas turbine combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical conceptual design study and an experimental test program were conducted to investigate techniques and develop technology for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. The use of hot gas pilots, catalyzed flameholder elements, and heat recirculation to augment lean stability limits was considered in the conceptual design study. Tests of flameholders embodying selected concepts were conducted at a pressure of 10 arm and over a range of entrance temperatures simulating conditions to be encountered during stratospheric cruise. The tests were performed using an axisymmetric flametube test rig having a nominal diameter of 10.2 cm. A total of sixteen test configurations were examined in which lean blowout limits, pollutant emission characteristics, and combustor performance were evaluated. The use of a piloted perforated plate flameholder employing a pilot fuel flow rate equivalent to 4 percent of the total fuel flow at a simulated cruise condition resulted in a lean blowout equivalence ratio of less than 0.25 with a design point (T sub zero = 600k, Phi = 0.6) NOx emission index of less than 1.0 g/kg.

  18. Combustion chambers of gas-turbine plants - Heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarev, A. V.; Antonovskii, V. I.

    Results of studies concerned with the convective and radiation heat transfer in the combustion chambers of gas turbines are examined. In particular, the existing methods for cooling flame tubes are analyzed, and heat transfer calculations are carried out for highly augmented combustion chambers. A method is also presented for calculating complex heat transfer in the flame zone for various types of the cooling system. Finally, experimental techniques for studying convective and radiation heat transfer in the combustion chambers of test and commercial gas turbines are discussed.

  19. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1996-07-30

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system is disclosed which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO{sub 2} for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO{sub 2} generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode. 1 fig.

  20. Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Krishnasamy [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ra, youngchul [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

  1. Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

  2. Catalytic Combustion Effects in Internal Combustion Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Jones

    1997-01-01

    A review of the brief history of catalytic combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines suggests that catalytic combustion may aid in fuel ignition, but can also cause increased flame-quenching because of surface catalytic oxidation of unburned fuel in the gas boundary layer. The effect of catalytic combustion on heat transfer measurements in engines is also discussed, with the controversial Woschni

  3. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Tom; Grant, Tim; Williams, David; Watson, Harry

    This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste oil. Biodiesel and ethanol have the lowest exbodied greenhouse gas emissions (in grams greenhouse gases per kilometre travelled). Biodiesel reduces exbodied greenhouse gas emissions from 41% to 51% whereas ethanol reduces emissions by 49-55%. In fact, both emit larger quantities of CO 2 than conventional fuels, but as most of the CO 2 is from renewable carbon stocks that fraction is not counted towards the greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel. The gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG) come next with emissions that range from 88% to 92% of diesel. The emissions of greenhouse gases from diesel are reduced if waste oil is used as a diesel extender, but the processing energy required to generate LSD and ULS in Australia increase their greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel fuel. The extra energy required liquefy and cool LNG means that it has the highest exbodied greenhouse gas emissions of the fuels that were considered.

  4. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L. MacLean; Lester B. Lave

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel\\/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are

  5. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Verhelst; Thomas Wallner

    2009-01-01

    The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts.Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number

  6. Electrostatic fuel conditioning of internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, P. I.

    1982-01-01

    Diesel engines were tested to determine if they are influenced by the presence of electrostatic and magnetic fields. Field forces were applied in a variety of configurations including pretreatment of the fuel and air, however, no affect on engine performance was observed.

  7. ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JR. R. MORENO; D. G. FALLEN BAILEY

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

  8. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  9. Combustion of hydrogen in a two-dimensional duct with step fuel injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, J. M.; Reagon, P. G.; Gooderum, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of hydrogen perpendicularly injected from step fuel injectors into a Mach 2.72, 2100 K vitiated test gas was conducted. The model simulated the flow between the center and side struts of an integrated scramjet module at Mach 7 flight and an altitude of 29 km. Parametric variation included equivalence ratio, fuel dynamic pressure ratio, and area distribution of the model. The overall area ratio of the model was held constant at 2.87. The data analysis indicated that no measurable improvement in mixing or combustion efficiency was obtained by varying the fuel dynamic pressure ratio from 0.79 to 2.45. Computations indicated approximately 80 percent of the fuel was mixed so that it could react; however, only approximately 50 percent of the mixed fuel actually reacted in two test configurations, and 74 percent in later tests where less area expansion of the flow occurred.

  10. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  11. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  12. COMBUSTION ENHANCEMENT OF A GAS FLARE USING ACOUSTICAL EXCITATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. EL BEHERY; A. A. MOHAMAD; M. M. KAMAL

    2005-01-01

    The effect of acoustical excitation on flame stability, trajectory, exhaust emissions, and gas temperatures from a gas flare stack in a crossflow was experimentally investigated. Circular, elliptical, and cup nozzle configurations were examined and compared with a sinusoidal wave excitation. It was found that increasing the pulsation amplitude enhances the combusting efficiency up to the quenching limit. Increasing the Strouhal

  13. A comprehensive combustion model for biodiesel-fueled engine simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakora, Jessica L.

    Engine models for alternative fuels are available, but few are comprehensive, well-validated models that include accurate physical property data as well as a detailed description of the fuel chemistry. In this work, a comprehensive biodiesel combustion model was created for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations, specifically the KIVA3v R2 code. The model incorporates realistic physical properties in a vaporization model developed for multi-component fuel sprays and applies an improved mechanism for biodiesel combustion chemistry. A reduced mechanism was generated from the methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl-9-decenoate (MD9D) mechanism developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was combined with a multi-component mechanism to include n-heptane in the fuel chemistry. The biodiesel chemistry was represented using a combination of MD, MD9D and n-heptane, which varied for a given fuel source. The reduced mechanism, which contained 63 species, accurately predicted ignition delay times of the detailed mechanism over a range of engine-specific operating conditions. Physical property data for the five methyl ester components of biodiesel were added to the KIVA library. Spray simulations were performed to ensure that the models adequately reproduce liquid penetration observed in biodiesel spray experiments. Fuel composition impacted liquid length as expected, with saturated species vaporizing more and penetrating less. Distillation curves were created to ensure the fuel vaporization process was comparable to available data. Engine validation was performed against a low-speed, high-load, conventional combustion experiments and the model was able to predict the performance and NOx formation seen in the experiment. High-speed, low-load, low-temperature combustion conditions were also modeled, and the emissions (HC, CO, NOx) and fuel consumption were well-predicted for a sweep of injection timings. Finally, comparisons were made between the results of biodiesel composition (palm vs. soy) and fuel blends (neat vs. B20). The model effectively reproduced the trends observed in the experiments.

  14. Combustion Properties of Gas-Generating Pyrotechnics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. ENGELEN; M. H. LEFEBVRE; J. DE RUYCK

    2001-01-01

    This work focuses particularly on solid energetic materials designed to produce high-pressure gas for pressurizing or inflating devices. In coot gas generators sodium azide is often used. Unfortunately, this chemical exhibits drawbacks concerning toxicity and yield of gas. Another gas-generating agent is double base propellant, which has traditionally been used in the rocket-industry. However, it delivers toxic and reactive gases

  15. Stratified liquefied petroleum gasdimethyl ether compression ignition engine combustion at various intake valve open timings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Yeom; C Bae

    2010-01-01

    The combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics of compression ignition engine with a variable valve timing device were investigated for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and dimethyl ether (DME) under various LPG injection timing conditions. LPG was used as the main fuel injected directly into the combustion chamber. DME was used as an ignition promoter injected into the intake port. Different LPG

  16. Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

  17. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOEpatents

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  18. High-temperature oxidation of graphite rods with temperature control by combustion gas recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, R.M.

    1980-04-01

    The combustion of graphite (fuel blocks) is of fundamental importance in the fuel reprocessing scheme for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A study was made to evaluate a chunk-type burner for possible application in this reprocessing step. The combustion gases were recycled to allow operation at higher burn rates without an increase in graphite temperature. Graphite rods of two diameters were oxidized with makeup oxygen and recycled stack gases at various gas flow rates in an insulated reactor. Results of this study indicate a strong dependence of oxygen transfer on gas flow rate with little effect resulting from changes in graphite temperature. High carbon monoxide concentrations in the exit gas were not a problem except at oxygen concentrations below approx. 5%. Stable operation of a recycle controlled burner was achieved, avoiding the temperature excursions common in previous graphite burners.

  19. Natural Gas as Motor Fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. l. Lapidus; I. F. Krylov; B. P. Tonkonogov

    2005-01-01

    The necessity of developing and using alternative motor fuels, natural gas and products of its processing in particular, is due to two interrelated basic causes: the rapid depletion of oil reserves on the planet and deterioration of the environmental situation in many, primarily developed, countries.

  20. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-01

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems. PMID:23301852

  1. Dynamic stability, blowoff, and flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion

    E-print Network

    Shroll, Andrew Philip

    2011-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising technology to implement carbon capture and sequestration for energy conversion to electricity in power plants that burn fossil fuels. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to ...

  2. Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Kukwon [ORNL] [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

  3. ShockTube Combustion of High Density Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. BRUPBACHER; M. T. McCALL; M. McCARTY Jr

    1978-01-01

    Shock-tube techniques have been used to determine rates of carbon dioxide production in shock-wave heated mixtures of oxygen and hydrogenated dimers of bicycloheptadiene, components of the high density fuel RJ-S. Reaction profiles generated by this method have demonstrated that the combustion rate of the hydrocarbon vapors increases with fuel and oxygen concentration, but is not affected by the total pressure

  4. Combustion development of a BiFuel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Abianeh; M. Mirsalim; F. Ommi

    2009-01-01

    Environmental improvement and energy issues are increasingly becoming more important as worldwide concerns. Natural gas is\\u000a a good alternative fuel that can help to improve these issues because of its large quantity and clean burning characteristics.\\u000a This paper provides the experimental performance results of a Bi-Fuel engine that uses Compressed Natural Gas as its Primary\\u000a fuel and gasoline as its

  5. Characterization of fuels for atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rowley, D.R.; Perna, M.A. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research Center); Stallings, J.W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Divilio, R.J. (Combustion Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a fuels characterization program for the past several years with the intention of assisting utilities and boiler manufacturers in evaluating fuel quality impact on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) performance. The goal has been to provide an improved framework for making fuel switching decisions and consolidating operating experience. Results from this program include a set of bench-scale testing procedures, a fuel characterization data base, and a performance simulation model that links fuel characteristics to combustion performance. This paper reviews the major results of the fuels characterization program. The testing procedures, data base, and performance simulation models are briefly described and their application illustrated with examples. Performance predictions for the B W 1-ft{sup 2} bench-scale AFBC and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 20 MW(e) AFBC Pilot Plant are compared with actual test data. The relationship of coal rank to combustion is discussed. 11 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  7. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  8. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  9. Corrosion fatigue causes failure of gas turbine combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Elshawesh, F.; Elhoud, A.; Elmendelsi, T. [Petroleum Research Center, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Elwaer, A. [General Electricity Co., Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Planning and Project Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Plates in the combustion chamber case of a gas turbine made of welded alloy 617 (UNS NO6617) and alloy Nimonic 75 (UNS N06075) failed by complete circumferential fracturing at the matrix-welding interface in the UNS N06075 plate. Fatigue cracks were first initiated at the outer subsurface within the intergranularly cracked coarse grains adjacent to the weld and then propagated because of combustion vibration during start-up operation conditions.

  10. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations. PMID:16565750

  11. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report discusses design and operation of a single-nozzle test combustor for studying lean, premixed combustion oscillations from gas turbine fuel nozzles. It was used to study oscillations from a prototype fuel nozzle that produced oscillations during testing in a commercial engine. Similar, but not identical, oscillations were recorded in the test device. Basic requirements of the device design were that the flame geometry be maintained and acoustic losses be minimized; this was achieved by using a Helmholtz resonator as the combustor geometry. Surprisingly, the combustor oscillated strongly at several frequencies, without modification of the resonator. Brief survey of operating conditions suggests that it may be helpful to characterize oscillating behavior in terms of reference velocity and inlet air temperature with the rig backpressure playing a smaller role. The preliminary results do not guarantee that the single-nozzle test device will reproduce arbitrary oscillations that occur on a complete engine test. Nozzle/nozzle interactions may complicate the response, and oscillations controlled by acoustic velocities transverse to the nozzle axis may not be reproduced in a test device that relies on a bulk Helmholtz mode. Nevertheless, some oscillations can be reproduced, and the single-nozzle test device allows both active and passive control strategies to be tested relatively inexpensively.

  12. Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

    2007-07-01

    High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines (AFTUR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iskender Gkalp; Etienne Lebas

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally friendly, gas turbine driven co-generation plants can be located close to energy consumption sites, which can produce their own fuel such as waste process gas or biomass derived fuels. Since gas turbines are available in a large power range, they are well suited for this application. Current gas turbine systems that are capable of burning such fuels are normally

  14. Numerical modeling of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

    1996-07-01

    Major progress was achieved in the last year in advancing the modeling capabilities of hydrogen-fueled engines, both in support of the multi-laboratory project with SNL and LLNL to develop a high-efficiency, low emission powerplant and to provide the engine design tools to industry and research laboratories for hydrogen-fueled engines and stationary power generators. The culmination of efforts on many fronts was the excellent comparison of the experimental data from the Onan engine, operated by SNL.These efforts include the following. An extensive study of the intake flow culminated in a major understanding of the interdependence of the details of the intake port design and the engine operating condition on the emissions and efficiency. This study also resulted in design suggestions for future engines and general scaling laws for turbulence that enables the KIVA results to be applied to a wide variety of operating conditions. The research on the turbulent combustion of hydrogen brought into perspective the effect of the unique aspects of hydrogen combustion and their influence on possible models of turbulent combustion. The effort culminated in a proposed model for turbulent hydrogen combustion that is in agreement with available literature. Future work will continue the development in order to provide a generally predictive model for hydrogen combustion. The application of the combustion model to the Onan experiments elucidated the observed improvement of the efficiency of the engine with the addition of a shroud on the intake valve. This understanding will give guidance to future engine design for optimal efficiency. Finally, a brief summary is given of the extensions and refinements of the KIVA-3 code, in support of future designers of hydrogen-fueled engines.

  15. Evaluation of advanced combustion concepts for dry NO sub x suppression with coal-derived, gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, K. W.; Symonds, R. A.; Notardonato, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The emissions performance of a rich lean combustor (developed for liquid fuels) was determined for combustion of simulated coal gases ranging in heating value from 167 to 244 Btu/scf (7.0 to 10.3 MJ/NCM). The 244 Btu/scf gas is typical of the product gas from an oxygen blown gasifier, while the 167 Btu/scf gas is similar to that from an air blown gasifier. NOx performance of the rich lean combustor did not meet program goals with the 244 Btu/scf gas because of high thermal NOx, similar to levels expected from conventional lean burning combustors. The NOx emissions are attributed to inadequate fuel air mixing in the rich stage resulting from the design of the large central fuel nozzle delivering 71% of the total gas flow. NOx yield from ammonia injected into the fuel gas decreased rapidly with increasing ammonia level, and is projected to be less than 10% at NH3 levels of 0.5% or higher. NOx generation from NH3 is significant at ammonia concentrations significantly less than 0.5%. These levels may occur depending on fuel gas cleanup system design. CO emissions, combustion efficiency, smoke and other operational performance parameters were satisfactory. A test was completed with a catalytic combustor concept with petroleum distillate fuel. Reactor stage NOx emissions were low (1.4g NOx/kg fuel). CO emissions and combustion efficiency were satisfactory. Airflow split instabilities occurred which eventually led to test termination.

  16. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr.; Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  17. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  18. Fuel cycle analysis for fossil energy systems: Coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, W. L.; Carmichael, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    Elements of the fuel cycle for coal combustion in power generation are examined; and information on economics, technological status, energy efficiencies, and environmental issues is reviewed. Overall background information is provided for guidance in identifying issues and establishing needs and priorities for engineering research, development, and demonstration. The elements treated include mining, transportation, coal preparation, direct combustion, and environmental control technology. The treatment used differs from that of usual compendiums in its emphasis on integrated examination and presentation directed primarily toward providing bases for general assessment and for guidance in program development. Emphasis is on program identification as opposed to advocacy.

  19. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  20. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  1. Numerical modeling of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    The planned use of hydrogen as the energy carrier of the future introduces new challenges and opportunities, especially to the engine design community. Hydrogen is a bio-friendly fuel that can be produced from renewable resources and has no carbon dioxide combustion products; and in a properly designed ICE, almost zero NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon emissions can be achieved. Because of the unique properties of hydrogen combustion - in particular the highly wrinkled nature of the laminar flame front due to the preferential diffusion instability - modeling approaches for hydrocarbon gaseous fuels are not generally applicable to hydrogen combustion. This paper reports on the current progress to develop a engine design capability based on KIVA family of codes for hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engines in support of the National Hydrogen Program. A turbulent combustion model, based on a modified eddy-turnover model in conjunction with an intake flow valve model, is found to describe well the efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions of this engine satisfy the Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle (EZEV) standard established by the California Resource Board. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine : a technical review.

    SciTech Connect

    Steeper, Richard R.; White, Christopher M.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2005-05-01

    A review is given of contemporary research on the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. The emphasis is on light- to medium-duty engine research. We first describe hydrogen-engine fundamentals by examining the engine-specific properties of hydrogen and surveying the existing literature. Here it will be shown that, due to low volumetric efficiencies and frequent preignition combustion events, the power densities of premixed or port-fuel-injected hydrogen engines are diminished relative to gasoline-fueled engines. Significant progress has been made in the development of advanced hydrogen engines with improved power densities. We discuss several examples and their salient features. Finally, we consider the overall progress made and provide suggestions for future work.

  3. Numerical analysis of supersonic combustion ramjet with upstream fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savino, Raffaele; Pezzella, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes possible fuel injection scheme for airbreathing engines that use hydrocarbon fuels. The basic idea is to inject fuel at the spike tip of the supersonic inlet to achieve mixing and combustion efficiency with a limited length combustion chamber. A numerical code, able to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in turbulent and reacting flows, is employed to obtain numerical simulations of the thermo-fluidynamic fields at different scramjet flight conditions, at Mach numbers of M=6.5 and 8. The feasibility of the idea of the upstream injection is checked for a simple axisymmetric configuration and relatively small size. The results are discussed in connection with the potential benefits deriving from the use of new ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC).

  4. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  5. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  7. Disturbing effect of free hydrogen on fuel combustion in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, A

    1923-01-01

    Experiments with fuel mixtures of varying composition, have recently been conducted by the Motor Vehicle and Airplane Engine Testing Laboratories of the Royal Technical High School in Berlin and at Fort Hahneberg, as well as at numerous private engine works. The behavior of hydrogen during combustion in engines and its harmful effect under certain conditions, on the combustion in the engine cylinder are of general interest. Some of the results of these experiments are given here, in order to elucidate the main facts and explain much that is already a matter of experience with chauffeurs and pilots.

  8. Two-stage combustion for reducing pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.; Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion and emission results are presented for a premix combustor fueled with admixtures of JP5 with neat H2 and of JP5 with simulated partial-oxidation product gas. The combustor was operated with inlet-air state conditions typical of cruise power for high performance aviation engines. Ultralow NOx, CO and HC emissions and extended lean burning limits were achieved simultaneously. Laboratory scale studies of the non-catalyzed rich-burning characteristics of several paraffin-series hydrocarbon fuels and of JP5 showed sooting limits at equivalence ratios of about 2.0 and that in order to achieve very rich sootless burning it is necessary to premix the reactants thoroughly and to use high levels of air preheat. The application of two-stage combustion for the reduction of fuel NOx was reviewed. An experimental combustor designed and constructed for two-stage combustion experiments is described.

  9. Elimination of abnormal combustion in a hydrogen-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report covers the design, construction, and testing of a dedicated hydrogen-fueled engine. Both part-load and full-load data were taken under laboratory conditions. The engine design included a billet aluminum single combustion chamber cylinder-head with one intake valve, two sodium coiled exhaust valves, and two spark plugs. The cylinder-head design also included drilled cooling passages. The fuel-delivery system employed two modified Siemens electrically actuated fuel injectors, The exhaust system included two separate headers, one for each exhaust port. The piston/ring combination was designed specifically for hydrogen operation.

  10. Gas Sensor Evaluations in Polymer Combustion Product Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Rafael H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic gases produced by the combustion or thermo-oxidative degradation of materials such as wire insulation, foam, plastics, or electronic circuit boards in space shuttle or space station crew cabins may pose a significant hazard to the flight crew. Toxic gas sensors are routinely evaluated in pure gas standard mixtures, but the possible interferences from polymer combustion products are not routinely evaluated. The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed a test system that provides atmospheres containing predetermined quantities of target gases combined with the coincidental combustion products of common spacecraft materials. The target gases are quantitated in real time by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and verified by grab samples. The sensor responses are recorded in real time and are compared to the IR and validation analyses. Target gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride can be generated by the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride), polyimide-fluoropolymer wire insulation, polyurethane foam, or electronic circuit board materials. The kinetics and product identifications for the combustion of the various materials were determined by thermogravimetric-IR spectroscopic studies. These data were then scaled to provide the required levels of target gases in the sensor evaluation system. Multisensor toxic gas monitors from two manufacturers were evaluated using this system. In general, the sensor responses satisfactorily tracked the real-time concentrations of toxic gases in a dynamic mixture. Interferences from a number of organic combustion products including acetaldehyde and bisphenol-A were minimal. Hydrogen bromide in the products of circuit board combustion registered as hydrogen chloride. The use of actual polymer combustion atmospheres for the evaluation of sensors can provide additional confidence in the reliability of the sensor response.

  11. Influence of the addition of hydrogen and of a synthesis gas on the characteristics of the process of combustion of gasoline-air mixtures under conditions typical of internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Migun; A. P. Chernukho; S. A. Zhdanok

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the addition of hydrogen and of a synthesis gas on the basic parameters of combustion of gasoline-air fuel mixtures is investigated theoretically. The possibility of feeding gasoline internal combustion engines with lean fuel mixtures with a concentration of 5 10 vol.% hydrogen is shown; this will greatly improve their ecological purity.

  12. Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NO x Larry W. Horowitz

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NO x Larry W. Horowitz Advanced Study University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (email djj@io.harvard.edu) #12; Abstract. Fossil fuel combustion of fossil fuel combustion on the global distribution of NO x . In the model, we tag fossil fuel NO x and its

  13. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  14. On-line combustion monitoring on dry low NOx industrial gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, S.; James, S.; Goy, C.; Colechin, M. J. F.

    2003-07-01

    To reduce the NOx emissions levels produced by industrial gas turbines most manufacturers have adopted a lean premixed approach to combustion. Such combustion systems are susceptible to combustion-driven oscillations, and much of the installed modern gas turbines continue to suffer from reduced reliability due to instability-related problems. The market conditions which now exist under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements provide a strong driver for power producers to improve the reliability and availability of their generating units. With respect to low-emission gas turbines, such improvements can best be achieved through a combination of sophisticated monitoring, combustion optimization and, where appropriate, plant modifications to reduce component failure rates. On-line combustion monitoring (OLCM) provides a vital contribution to each of these by providing the operator with increased confidence in the health of the combustion system and also by warning of the onset of combustion component deterioration which could cause significant downstream damage. The OLCM systems installed on Powergen's combined cycle gas turbine plant utilize high-temperature dynamic pressure transducers mounted close to the combustor to enable measurement of the fluctuating pressures experienced within the combustion system. Following overhaul, a reference data set is determined over a range of operating conditions. Real-time averaged frequency spectra are then compared to the reference data set to enable identification of abnormalities. Variations in the signal may occur due to changes in ambient conditions, fuel composition, operating conditions, and the onset of component damage. The systems on Powergen's plant have been used successfully to detect each of the above, examples of which are presented here.

  15. Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Scramjets. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Diskin, Glenn S.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2006-01-01

    At flight speeds, the residence time for atmospheric air ingested into a scramjet inlet and exiting from the engine nozzle is on the order of a millisecond. Therefore, fuel injected into the air must efficiently mix within tens of microseconds and react to release its energy in the combustor. The overall combustion process should be mixing controlled to provide a stable operating environment; in reality, however, combustion in the upstream portion of the combustor, particularly at higher Mach numbers, is kinetically controlled where ignition delay times are on the same order as the fluid scale. Both mixing and combustion time scales must be considered in a detailed study of mixing and reaction in a scramjet to understand the flow processes and to ultimately achieve a successful design. Although the geometric configuration of a scramjet is relatively simple compared to a turbomachinery design, the flow physics associated with the simultaneous injection of fuel from multiple injector configurations, and the mixing and combustion of that fuel downstream of the injectors is still quite complex. For this reason, many researchers have considered the more tractable problem of a spatially developing, primarily supersonic, chemically reacting mixing layer or jet that relaxes only the complexities introduced by engine geometry. All of the difficulties introduced by the fluid mechanics, combustion chemistry, and interactions between these phenomena can be retained in the reacting mixing layer, making it an ideal problem for the detailed study of supersonic reacting flow in a scramjet. With a good understanding of the physics of the scramjet internal flowfield, the designer can then return to the actual scramjet geometry with this knowledge and apply engineering design tools that more properly account for the complex physics. This approach will guide the discussion in the remainder of this section.

  16. The effect of air preheating on the combustion of solid fuels on a grate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. M van Kessel; A. R. J Arendsen; P. D. M de Boer-Meulman; G Brem

    2004-01-01

    Combustion of solid fuels on a grate is widely used. Mostly, the combustion behaviour is explained by the classical theory of Rogers. However, that theory cannot explain the combustion process when primary air preheating is applied. Solid fuel grate combustion is studied by experiments in a pot furnace. Experiments with and without primary air heating are described. These are compared

  17. Emission performance and combustion efficiency of a conical fluidized-bed combustor firing various biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Permchart, W; Kouprianov, V I

    2004-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on combustion of three distinct biomass fuels (sawdust, rice husk and pre-dried sugar cane bagasse) in a single fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a conical bed using silica sand as the inert bed material. Temperature, CO, NO and O2 concentrations along the combustor height as well as in flue (stack) gas were measured in the experimental tests. The effects of fuel properties and operating conditions (load and excess air) on these variables were investigated. Both CO and NO axial profiles were found to have a maximum whose location divides conventionally the combustor volume into formation (lower) and reduction (upper) regions for these pollutants. Based on CO emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash, the combustion efficiency of the conical FBC was quantified for the selected biomass fuels fired under different operating conditions. PMID:14643990

  18. Low NOx heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1: Combustion technology generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, H. G.; Carl, D. R.; Vermes, G.; Dezubay, E. A.; Schwab, J. A.; Prothroe, D.

    1981-01-01

    The viability of low emission nitrogen oxide (NOx) gas turbine combustors for industrial and utility application. Thirteen different concepts were evolved and most were tested. Acceptable performance was demonstrated for four of the combustors using ERBS fuel and ultralow NOx emissions were obtained for lean catalytic combustion. Residual oil and coal derived liquids containing fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) were also used at test fuels, and it was shown that staged rich/lean combustion was effective in minimizing the conversion of FBN to NOx. The rich/lean concept was tested with both modular and integral combustors. While the ceramic lined modular configuration produced the best results, the advantages of the all metal integral burners make them candidates for future development. An example of scaling the laboratory sized combustor to a 100 MW size engine is included in the report as are recommendations for future work.

  19. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

    1980-02-27

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

  20. Muffler for exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

    1986-08-26

    A muffler is described for the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine, the muffler having an inlet and an outlet for exhaust gas and further compromising a casing and a cylindrical sound absorbing body comprising a fibrous material and extending through the casing and having an inner cylindrical surface, and a heat resistant paint formed on the inner cylindrical surface, the heat resistant paint having a thickness not in excess of 250 micrometers.

  1. Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas

    E-print Network

    Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

    1990-01-01

    August 1990 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering NITROGEN OXIDES REDUCTION BY STAGED COMBUSTION OF LCV GAS A Thesis by JOSE MANUEL CABRERA SIXTO Approved as to style and content by: Calvin B. Parnell, Jr (Chair of Committee) Wayne A. Le...: Dr. Calvin B. Parnell, Jr. This thesis describes the design, construction and testing of a Low-NO?-stagcd combustor to burn LCV gas derived from agricultural wastes. A cycJone combustor was used as the first stage of the staged combustor. Due...

  2. Blow-by gas heating system for internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ohtaka; Y. Kondo; K. Aoki; M. Kumada; T. Iwashita

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a blow-by gas heating system for a water-cooled internal combustion engine having an engine block, an intake manifold, a crankcase, and an overhead valve cover, and an air inlet port on the valve cover and a crankcase blow-by gas outlet port on the crankcase, with those ports at spaced locations, comprising, conduit means separate from the engine

  3. The Implications of Fossil Fuel Combustion for Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristy E. Ross; Stuart J. Piketh

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion alter the composition of the atmosphere and have been touted as a major cause of climate change. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, for example, has increased by more than 30% since pre-industrial times. Average global surface temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 0.2 C since the late 19th Century, and surface temperature

  4. Grate Furnace Combustion: A Submodel for the Solid Fuel Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. J. A. Van Kuijk; R. J. M. Bastiaans; J. A. Van Oijen; L. P. H. De Goey

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of NOx-formation in biomass fired grate furnaces requires the development of numerical models. To represent the variety in scales\\u000a and physical processes playing a role in the conversion, newly developed submodels are required. Here, a submodel for the\\u000a reverse combustion process in the solid fuel layer on the grate is described. The submodel is shown to give good

  5. Fuel rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Lindgren; D. W. Pershing

    1987-01-01

    A major concern associated with the combustion of coal for heat and electricity is the emission of acid rain precursors, NO\\/sub x\\/ and SO. Dry calcium based sorbent injection is a potential method for reducing SO emissions from existing coal-fired boilers. A great deal of study has been devoted to the fuel lean SO reaction: CaO + SO + 12O

  6. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did not have the diluent requirements of Prototype-1 and was demonstrated at targeted gas turbine conditions. The TVC combustor, Prototype-2, premixes the syngas with air for low emission performance. The combustor was designed for operation with syngas and no additional diluents. The combustor was successfully operated at targeted gas turbine conditions. Another goal of the program was to advance the status of development tools for syngas systems. In Task 3 a syngas flame evaluation facility was developed. Fundamental data on syngas flame speeds and flame strain were obtained at pressure for a wide range of syngas fuels with preheated air. Several promising reduced order kinetic mechanisms were compared with the results from the evaluation facility. The mechanism with the best agreement was selected for application to syngas combustor modeling studies in Task 6. Prototype-1 was modeled using an advanced LES combustion code. The tools and combustor technology development culminate in a full-scale demonstration of the most promising technology in Task 8. The combustor was operated at engine conditions and evaluated against the various engine performance requirements.

  7. Water interaction with laboratory-simulated fossil fuel combustion particles.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, O B; Kireeva, E D; Shonija, N K; Khokhlova, T D

    2009-10-01

    To clarify the impact of fossil fuel combustion particles' composition on their capacity to take up water, we apply a laboratory approach in which the method of deposition of compounds, identified in the particulate coverage of diesel and aircraft engine soot particles, is developed. It is found that near-monolayer organic/inorganic coverage of the soot particles may be represented by three groups of fossil fuel combustion-derived particulate matter with respect to their Hansh's coefficients related to hydrophilic properties. Water adsorption measurements show that nonpolar organics (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) lead to hydrophobization of the soot surface. Acidic properties of organic compounds such as those of oxidized PAHs, ethers, ketones, aromatic, and aliphatic acids are related to higher water uptake, whereas inorganic acids and ionic compounds such as salts of organic acids are shown to be responsible for soot hydrophilization. This finding allows us to quantify the role of the chemical identity of soot surface compounds in water uptake and the water interaction with fossil fuel combustion particles in the humid atmosphere. PMID:19736954

  8. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-08-01

    The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, conbustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Sciences, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for the full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra-fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  9. Exhaust gas detoxication system for a motor vehicle combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    van Busshuysen

    1974-01-01

    An exhaust gas detoxication system for a motor vehicle combustion engine with external ignition is comprised of a distributor, an intake system, a carburetor with a throttle, and an exhaust system with a reactor. An air pump is driven by the engine to deliver secondary air into the exhaust system, and a blowoff valve, arranged in the delivery line, opens

  10. Burning clean fuel gas improves energetic efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andr Fonseca; Manuel L. C. Tavares; Lusa A. C. N. Gomes

    2010-01-01

    One the most critical problems faced by refineries nowadays is the continuous increasing of legislation urging emissions reductions specifically SO2, NOx, and particles. Therefore there is a substantial need for refineries to burn fuel gas instead of fuel oil and avoiding, if possible, the use of imported natural gas. The refinery case study presents a substantial excess of fuel gas

  11. Numerical Analysis of Combustion in a Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Hideto; Tsukasaki, Yukihiro

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) direct injection engine has many advantages for the reduction of CO2 emission. For further improvement of those engines, a numerical simulation technique has been developed for the analysis of combustion process. Prior to an in-cylinder calculation, the wall function was modified to improve the accuracy of the wall heat loss. Then the nozzle-to-cylinder entire calculation was performed. Good agreements were obtained in comparison with the experiment for the behavior of impinging jets. This method was applied to the analysis of the difference of combustion processes between CNG and conventional gasoline direct-injection engines. It is accordingly found that the velocity and the turbulence of in-cylinder gas are increased by the fuel injection into CNG engine and thus the combustion speed is enhanced significantly.

  12. A study of low emissions gas turbine combustions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    Analytical studies have been conducted to determine the best methods of reducing NO(x) emissions from proposed civilian supersonic transports. Modifications to the gas turbine engine combustors and the use of additives were both explored. It was found that combustors which operated very fuel rich or lean appear to be able to meet future emissions standards. Ammonia additives were also effective in removing NO(x), but residual ammonia remained a problem. Studies of a novel combustor which reduces emissions and improves performance were initiated. In a related topic, a study was begun on the feasibility of using supersonic aircraft to obtain atmospheric samples. The effects of shock heating and compression on sample integrity were modeled. Certain chemical species, including NO2, HNO3, and ClONO2 were found to undergo changes to their composition after they passed through shock waves at Mach 2. The use of detonation waves to enhance mixing and combustion in supersonic airflows was also investigated. This research is important to the use of airbreathing propulsion to obtain orbital speeds and access to space. Both steady and pulsed detonation waves were shown to improve engine performance.

  13. Multi-Dimensional Measurements of Combustion Species in Flame Tube and Sector Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda Royce

    1996-01-01

    The higher temperature and pressure cycles of future aviation gas turbine combustors challenge designers to produce combustors that minimize their environmental impact while maintaining high operation efficiency. The development of low emissions combustors includes the reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, smoke, and particulates, as well as the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). In order to better understand and control the mechanisms that produce emissions, tools are needed to aid the development of combustor hardware. Current methods of measuring species within gas turbine combustors use extractive sampling of combustion gases to determine major species concentrations and to infer the bulk flame temperature. These methods cannot be used to measure unstable combustion products and have poor spatial and temporal resolution. The intrusive nature of gas sampling may also disturb the flow structure within a combustor. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is an optical technique for the measurement of combustion species. In addition to its non-intrusive nature, PLIF offers these advantages over gas sampling: high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution, the ability to measure unstable species, and the potential to measure combustion temperature. This thesis considers PLIF for in-situ visualization of combustion species as a tool for the design and evaluation of gas turbine combustor subcomponents. This work constitutes the first application of PLIF to the severe environment found in liquid-fueled, aviation gas turbine combustors. Technical and applied challenges are discussed. PLIF of OH was used to observe the flame structure within the post flame zone of a flame tube combustor, and within the flame zone of a sector combustor, for a variety of fuel injector configurations. OH was selected for measurement because it is a major combustion intermediate, playing a key role in the chemistry of combustion, and because its presence within the flame zone can serve as a qualitative marker of flame temperature. All images were taken in the environment of actual engines during flight, using actual jet fuel. The results of the PLIF study led directly to the modification of a fuel injector.

  14. Experimental study on combustion and emission characteristics of a hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas engine under idling condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiao Deng; Fanhua Ma; Shun Li; Yituan He; Mingyue Wang; Long Jiang; Shuli Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various hydrogen ratios in HCNG (hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas) fuels on combustion and emission characteristics of a turbocharged spark ignition natural gas engine at idling conditions. The experiments were taken at hydrogen fractions of 0%, 30%, 55% and 75% by volume and were conducted under various operating conditions including different excess air ratio

  15. Advantages of repowering with solid-fuel combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.A.; Giermak, E.A.; Khanna, R.D. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Many solid-fuel fired steam generators in the US are approaching the limits of their economic service lives as indicated by their decreasing capacity factor. In most cases, the boiler is the principal component of obsolescence due to highest wear and lowest reliability. The transition from a highly regulated, cost-based electric utility to a more wholesale competitive industry, as well as ever-increasing and costly emission regulation, are accelerating this obsolescence. Even so, these older plants often still have significant remaining value in the form of site location near load centers, facilities and infrastructure, permits, transmission access, water rights, recent upgraded equipment, and other factors. The increasing availability of low cost solid fuels such as petroleum coke and coal beneficiation wastes, combined with the emergence of a number of solid-fuel combustion technologies, has provided power plant operators with the opportunity to leverage the plant`s existing assets to produce low cost base load power through solid-fuel repowering. This paper discusses the technical and business issues associated with repowering existing solid fuel fired steam generators with a number of combustion based technologies.

  16. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled with petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Canakci

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel

  17. Device for fuel delivery to internal combustion engine with vaporization of injected fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Sviridov; A. M. Andreev; V. V. Kozlovsky; A. M. Lukin; E. V. Novikov

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a device for fuel delivery to an internal combustion engine, comprising a vaporizing element whose one section is heated by exhaust gases and the other section is disposed in an intake duct and has an operating surface, a fuel charge being injected onto said surface by an injection nozzle. In this device the operating surface of the vaporizing

  18. Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Klosky, M.K. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

  19. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  20. Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz Advanced Study Program, MA 02138 (email djj@io.harvard.edu) #12;Abstract. Fossil fuel combustion is the largest global source-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and transport to study the impact of fossil fuel combustion

  1. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program. Emissions measurements were obtained over a variety of operating conditions. A kinetics model is formulated to describe the emissions performance. The model is a tool for determining the conditions for low emission performance. The flow field was also modeled using CFD. A first prototype was developed for low emission performance on natural gas. The design utilized the tools anchored to the atmospheric prototype performance. The 1/6 scale combustor was designed for low emission performance in GE's FA+e gas turbine. A second prototype was developed to evaluate changes in the design approach. The prototype was developed at a 1/10 scale for low emission performance in GE's FA+e gas turbine. The performance of the first two prototypes gave a strong indication of the best design approach. Review of the emission results led to the development of a 3rd prototype to further reduce the combustor emissions. The original plan to produce a scaled-up prototype was pushed out beyond the scope of the current program. The 3rd prototype was designed at 1/10 scale and targeted further reductions in the full-speed full-load emissions.

  2. Numerical Simulation in Combustion Space of an Oxy-Fuel Glass Furnace with the First Pair of Burners Arrangement Changed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuxia Mei; Junlin Xie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption and prolong furnace life, numerical simulation in the combustion space of an oxy-fuel float glass furnace was carried out. The gas phase is expressed with k- two-equation model; the combustion is described with non-premixed model; the radiation is expressed with discrete ordinates radiation model. The simulation results agree well with the related reference. The results show

  3. Methods and systems to thermally protect fuel nozzles in combustion systems

    DOEpatents

    Helmick, David Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-17

    A method of assembling a gas turbine engine is provided. The method includes coupling a combustor in flow communication with a compressor such that the combustor receives at least some of the air discharged by the compressor. A fuel nozzle assembly is coupled to the combustor and includes at least one fuel nozzle that includes a plurality of interior surfaces, wherein a thermal barrier coating is applied across at least one of the plurality of interior surfaces to facilitate shielding the interior surfaces from combustion gases.

  4. Water cooled vibrating grate stoker for proven, efficient and reliable combustion of biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Giaier, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy from waste sources and dedicated crops can provide substantial contributions for energy production. Together, these energy technologies are the wave of the future as they offer a localized, decentralized way of meeting electricity and process steam needs. The biomass industry accounts for about 15% of energy production worldwide, according to the National Wood Energy Association. For developing countries, the percentage is much higher. Currently, many types of combustible solid waste products like bark, wood waste, wood chips, sawdust, municipal and industrial refuse, agricultural wastes such as bagasse, spent coffee, etc.; are profitably utilized as excellent fuel sources. Many of these produce less acid gas than the fossil fuels they replace. Additionally, biomass feed stocks can reduce the quantity of carbon dioxide CO{sub 2} over fossil fuel burning since CO{sub 2} is used in the growth cycle of biomass feed stocks. Water cooled grates, both vibrating and stationary, have been used for many years for the combustion of biomass fuels. Both grates have relatively low maintenance and operating costs, thus making each grate a popular choice for a wide variety of applications. This paper chronicles combustion technologies for biomass fuels and the development of the water cooled grate followed by two case histories. The first case describes the conversion of an existing black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing and the second is the installation of the largest biomass fired Independent Power Producing plant in North America.

  5. Combustion of natural gas in high-temperature tunnel kilns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Abbakumov; G. A. Tarakanchikov; G. Sh. Ashkinadze; K. N. Zvyagintsev; E. A. Sinitsyn; A. S. Vasil'ev; E. P. Mezentsev; N. N. Krokhin; A. G. Luzin

    1976-01-01

    Conclusions The positions in the firing zone of a tunnel kiln can be divided into transfer, principal, and fume-laden types in accordance with the characteristics of the combustion of gaseous fuel. Each type of position requires its own system of heating in which account is taken of the characteristics of the heating process. The GTP-3-type burner can be used to

  6. Scaling study of the combustion performance of gasgas rocket injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Cai, Guo-Biao; Jin, Ping

    2011-10-01

    To obtain the key subelements that may influence the scaling of gasgas injector combustor performance, the combustion performance subelements in a liquid propellant rocket engine combustor are initially analysed based on the results of a previous study on the scaling of a gasgas combustion flowfield. Analysis indicates that inner wall friction loss and heat-flux loss are two key issues in gaining the scaling criterion of the combustion performance. The similarity conditions of the inner wall friction loss and heat-flux loss in a gasgas combustion chamber are obtained by theoretical analyses. Then the theoretical scaling criterion was obtained for the combustion performance, but it proved to be impractical. The criterion conditions, the wall friction and the heat flux are further analysed in detail to obtain the specific engineering scaling criterion of the combustion performance. The results indicate that when the inner flowfields in the combustors are similar, the combustor wall shear stress will have similar distributions qualitatively and will be directly proportional to pc0.8dt-0.2 quantitatively. In addition, the combustion peformance will remain unchanged. Furthermore, multi-element injector chambers with different geometric sizes and at different pressures are numerically simulated and the wall shear stress and combustion efficiencies are solved and compared with each other. A multielement injector chamber is designed and hot-fire tested at several chamber pressures and the combustion performances are measured in a total of nine hot-fire tests. The numerical and experimental results verified the similarities among combustor wall shear stress and combustion performances at different chamber pressures and geometries, with the criterion applied.

  7. The origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to determine the impact of alternative fuels on air quality, particularly ozone formation. The objective will be met through three steps: (1) qualitative identification of alternative fuel combustion products, (2) quantitative measurement of specific emission levels of these products, and (3) determination of the fate of the combustion products in the atmosphere. The alternative fuels of interest are methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and LP gas. The role of the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) in this project is two-fold. First, fused silica flow reactor instrumentation is being used to obtain both qualitative identification and quantitative data on the thermal degradation products from the fuel-lean (oxidative), stoichiometric, and fuel-rich (pyrolytic) decomposition of methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. Secondly, a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) apparatus is being used to determine the rates and mechanisms of reaction of selected degradation products under atmospheric conditions. This draft final report contains the results of the second year of the study. The authors initially discuss the results of their flow reactor studies. This is followed by a discussion of the initial results from their LP/LIF studies of the reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with methanol and ethanol. In the coming year, they plan to obtain quantitative data on the oxidation of methyl-t-butyl-ether and reformulated gasoline under fuel-lean, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich conditions. They also plan to conduct a mechanistic analysis of the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde and formaldehyde over an extended temperature range.

  8. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  9. Fuel injection control device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Oba, H.

    1987-08-11

    This patent describes a fuel injection control device for an internal combustion engine including synchronous injection control means for controlling a fuel injection amount synchronously with a signal generated at every predetermined crank angle in the internal combustion engine, asynchronous injection control means for controlling the fuel injection amount according to an output signal from means for detecting a time of acceleration, and injector driving means for driving a fuel injector according to output signals from the synchronous injection control means and the asynchronous injection control means. The improvement described consists of: acceleration starting time detection means for detecting an acceleration starting time; number of engine revolution measuring means for measuring number of engine revolutions from the acceleration starting time; throttle valve angle detection means for detecting that a throttle valve angle is equal to or more than a predetermined angle after start of acceleration; and means for operating the asynchronous injection control means when the number of engine revolution measuring means measures a value equal to or less than a predetermined number of engine revolutions and the throttle valve angle detection means generates a signal equal to or more than a predetermined throttle valve angle signal.

  10. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...50.44 Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions...

  11. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...50.44 Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions...

  12. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...50.44 Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions...

  13. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...50.44 Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions...

  14. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...50.44 Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions...

  15. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California 52.277 Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California 52.277 Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California 52.277 Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California 52.277 Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California 52.277 Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a)...

  20. Combustion Instability in an Acid-Heptane Rocket with a Pressurized-Gas Propellant Pumping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Adelbert O.; Bellman, Donald R.

    1951-01-01

    Results of experimental measurements of low-frequency combustion instability of a 300-pound thrust acid-heptane rocket engine were compared to the trends predicted by an analysis of combustion instability in a rocket engine with a pressurized-gas propellant pumping system. The simplified analysis, which assumes a monopropellant model, was based on the concept of a combustion the delay occurring from the moment of propellant injection to the moment of propellant combustion. This combustion time delay was experimentally measured; the experimental values were of approximately half the magnitude predicted by the analysis. The pressure-fluctuation frequency for a rocket engine with a characteristic length of 100 inches and operated at a combustion-chamber pressure of 280 pounds per square inch absolute was 38 cycles per second; the analysis indicated. a frequency of 37 cycles per second. Increasing combustion-chamber characteristic length decreased the pressure-fluctuation frequency, in conformity to the analysis. Increasing the chamber operating pressure or increasing the injector pressure drop increased the frequency. These latter two effects are contrary to the analysis; the discrepancies are attributed to the conflict between the assumptions made to simplify the analysis and the experimental conditions. Oxidant-fuel ratio had no apparent effect on the experimentally measured pressure-fluctuation frequency for acid-heptane ratios from 3.0 to 7.0. The frequencies decreased with increased amplitude of the combustion-chamber pressure variations. The analysis indicated that if the combustion time delay were sufficiently short, low-frequency combustion instability would be eliminated.

  1. Combustion of ultrafine coal/water mixtures and their application in gas turbines: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toqan, M.A.; Srinivasachar, S.; Staudt, J.; Varela, F.; Beer, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The feasibility of using coal-water fuels (CWF) in gas turbine combustors has been demonstrated in recent pilot plant experiments. The demands of burning coal-water fuels with high flame stability, complete combustion, low NO/sub x/ emission and a resulting fly ash particle size that will not erode turbine blades represent a significant challenge to combustion scientists and engineers. The satisfactory solution of these problems requires that the variation of the structure of CWF flames, i.e., the fields of flow, temperature and chemical species concentration in the flame, with operating conditions is known. Detailed in-flame measurements are difficult at elevated pressures and it has been proposed to carry out such experiments at atmospheric pressure and interpret the data by means of models for gas turbine combustor conditions. The research was carried out in five sequential tasks: cold flow studies; studies of conventional fine-grind CWF; combustion studies with ultrafine CWF fuel; reduction of NO/sub x/ emission by staged combustion; and data interpretation-ignition and radiation aspects. 37 refs., 61 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Fuel-Air Mixing in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. White; Sebastian Kaiser; Michael Roux

    2008-01-01

    Acetone planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to investigate pre-combustion fuel-air mixing in an optically accessible single-cylinder engine fueled with hydrogen. PLIF and PIV are acquired separately in a plane parallel to the piston top ( r-? plane) at a fixed engine speed and crank angle. The experiments include measurements for non-fueled engine operation

  3. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  4. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  5. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  6. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-10-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  7. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine cylinders, relative to gasoline, it would disperse more readily and therefore would mix with air more nearly completely. As a consequence, this fuel would burn more nearly completely (and, hence, more cleanly) than gasoline does. The storage density of this fuel would be similar to that of gasoline, but its energy density would be such that the mileage (more precisely, the distance traveled per unit volume of fuel) would be greater than that of either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Because the pressure needed to maintain the fuel in liquid form would be more nearly constant and generally lower than that needed to maintain compressed natural gas in liquid form, the pressure rating of a tank used to hold this fuel could be lower than that of a tank used to hold compressed natural gas. A mixture of natural gas and gasoline could be distributed more easily than could some alternative fuels. A massive investment in new equipment would not be necessary: One could utilize the present fuel-distribution infrastructure and could blend the gasoline and natural gas at almost any place in the production or distribution process - perhaps even at the retail fuel pump. Yet another advantage afforded by use of a blend of gasoline and natural gas would be a reduction in the amount of gasoline consumed. Because natural gas costs less than gasoline does and is in abundant supply in the United States, the cost of automotive fuel and the demand for imported oil could be reduced.

  8. Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

    1995-04-27

    A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

  9. Broad Specification Fuels Combustion Technology Program, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. P.; Jeroszko, R. A.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of two advanced technology combustor concepts was conducted to evolve and assess their capability for operation on broadened properties fuels. The concepts were based on the results of Phase 1 of the Broad Specification Fuel Combustor Technology Program which indicated that combustors with variable geometry or staged combustion zones had a flexibility of operation that could facilitate operation on these fuels. Emphasis in defining these concepts included the use of single pipe as opposed to duplex or staged fuels systems to avoid the risk of coking associated with the reduction in thermal stability expected in broadened properties fuels. The first concept was a variable geometry combustor in which the airflow into the primary zone could be altered through valves on the front while the second was an outgrowth of the staged Vorbix combustor, evolved under the NASA/P&W ECCP and EEE programs incorporating simplified fuel and air introduction. The results of the investigation, which involved the use of Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel, indicated that in the form initially conceived, both of these combustor concepts were deficient in performance relative to many of the program goals for performance emissions. However, variations of both combustors were evaluated that incorporated features to simulate conceptual enhancement to demonstrate the long range potential of the combustor. In both cases, significant improvements relative to the program goals were observed.

  10. Unburned Gas Temperatures in an Internal Combustion Engine. I:Cars Temperature Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Lucht; Richard E. Teets; Robert M. Green; Richard E. Palmer; Colin R. Ferguson

    1987-01-01

    Broadband,coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of unburned gas temperatures have been performed in an internal combustion engine.The engine is fueled with n-butane and air and is operated under both knocking and non-knocking conditons.Temperatures are determined by fitting calculated CARS spectra to experimentally obtained,cycle-averaged nitrogen CARS spectra.The accuracy of the fitted temperature depends on a number of factors,including the modeling

  11. Combustion characteristics of hydrogenhydrocarbon hybrid fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahsan R Choudhuri; S. R Gollahalli

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study of the flame structure and characteristics of diffusion flames of the mixture of hydrogenhydrocarbon (natural gas and propane) hybrid fuel in a slow co-flowing stream of air is presented. The volumetric content of natural gas and propane in the mixture was varied from 035%. The burner exit Reynolds number was varied from 1503000. Measurements include flame length,

  12. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  13. Combustion-acoustic stability analysis for premixed gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darling, Douglas; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Oyediran, Ayo; Cowan, Lizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Lean, prevaporized, premixed combustors are susceptible to combustion-acoustic instabilities. A model was developed to predict eigenvalues of axial modes for combustion-acoustic interactions in a premixed combustor. This work extends previous work by including variable area and detailed chemical kinetics mechanisms, using the code LSENS. Thus the acoustic equations could be integrated through the flame zone. Linear perturbations were made of the continuity, momentum, energy, chemical species, and state equations. The qualitative accuracy of our approach was checked by examining its predictions for various unsteady heat release rate models. Perturbations in fuel flow rate are currently being added to the model.

  14. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  15. Muffler for exhaust gas from internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

    1987-10-20

    A muffler for exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet for receiving an expelling, respectively, the exhaust gas, (b) a cylindrical sound-absorbing body comprising, (i) a first, perforated pipe having openings formed therein, (ii) a cylindrical porous sound-absorbing material concentrically surrounding the perforated pipe, (iii) and a thin film sandwiched between the perforated pipe and the sound-absorbing material, (c) means for balancing the gas pressure between the space which is surrounded by the first perforated pipe, the thin film and the sound-absorbing material, and the space surrounding the sound-absorbing material, (d) the cylindrical sound-absorbing body being positioned within the casing to cause the exhaust gas flowing from the inlet to the outlet to pass through the first, perforated pipe, (e) at least one partition within the casing defining gas expansion chambers.

  16. Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI Engine Equipped with Variable Valve Timing

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Widespread implementation of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines is presently hindered by stability, control, and load range issues. Although the operable HCCI speed/load range is expanding, it is likely that the initial HCCI engines will rely on conventional combustion for part of the operating cycle. In the present study, we have investigated the role of fuel properties and chemistry on the operation of a spark-assisted gasoline HCCI engine. The engine employed is a single cylinder, 500 cc, port fuel injected research engine, operating near lambda = 1.0 and equipped with hydraulic variable valve actuation. HCCI is initiated by early exhaust valve closing to retain exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. This is also referred to as a 'negative overlap' strategy. A total of 10 custom blended gasolines and three different batches of indolene from two suppliers were run at 5 speed-load combinations and performance was characterized by timing sweeps. Within the quality of the data set, we can say the all fuels provided equivalent combustion and performance characteristics when compared at the same combustion phasing. The fuels did, however, require different degrees of retained exhaust as measured by exhaust valve closing angle to achieve the same combustion phasing. Fuels with higher octane sensitivity were found to ignite more easily or more quickly and to burn more quickly than fuels with lower octane sensitivity. This is an expected result since the engine is naturally aspirated and operates with high compression temperatures due to the high retained exhaust fraction and recompression.

  17. Optimisation of the Gas-Exchange System of Combustion Engines by Genetic Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Marsland, Stephen

    Optimisation of the Gas-Exchange System of Combustion Engines by Genetic Algorithm C. D. Rose, S. R of combustion engine gas-exchange systems still predominantly use trial and error. This paper proposes a new. INTRODUCTION The gas-exchange system is a primary factor in the performance of a combustion engine. Designing

  18. Impact of aviation non-CO? combustion effects on the environmental feasibility of alternative jet fuels.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Russell W; Wolfe, Philip J; Hileman, James I

    2011-12-15

    Alternative fuels represent a potential option for reducing the climate impacts of the aviation sector. The climate impacts of alternatives fuel are traditionally considered as a ratio of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to those of the displaced petroleum product; however, this ignores the climate impacts of the non-CO(2) combustion effects from aircraft in the upper atmosphere. The results of this study show that including non-CO(2) combustion emissions and effects in the life cycle of a Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel can lead to a decrease in the relative merit of the SPK fuel relative to conventional jet fuel. For example, an SPK fuel option with zero life cycle GHG emissions would offer a 100% reduction in GHG emissions but only a 48% reduction in actual climate impact using a 100-year time window and the nominal climate modeling assumption set outlined herein. Therefore, climate change mitigation policies for aviation that rely exclusively on relative well-to-wake life cycle GHG emissions as a proxy for aviation climate impact may overestimate the benefit of alternative fuel use on the global climate system. PMID:22106939

  19. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  20. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  1. Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buckinus, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H.

    1992-08-01

    The combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantageous compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Additionally, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. In this research program, studies of combined Illinois coal and natural gas combustion provide particle ignition, burnout rates and ash characterization, helping clarify the effect of coal and natural gas and identify the controlling parameters and mechanisms. The Drop Tube Furnace Facility allows detailed measurements of coal particle combustion under well-controlled conditions. The combustion characteristics of single coal particles are determined through a novel set of diagnostic techniques including in situ simultaneous measurements of particle morphology, temperature and velocity. The emphasis of the effort in the second quarter of this project was on the understanding of the ignition enhancement, burning rate processes during cofiring, and sulfur retention in the ash.

  2. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  3. Characteristics of soot emitted from combustion of municipal waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Shemwell, B.E.

    2000-07-01

    This manuscript reports on particulate emissions (mainly soot) from laboratory combustion of typical municipal waste plastics, such as poly(styrene)(PS), poly(propylene)(PP), poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA), and poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC). In this experimental study combustion took place in a laboratory-scale, electrically-heated, drop-tube furnace at a gas temperature of 1,500 K, in air. The bulk (global) equivalence ratio, {phi}, was varied in the range of 0.5--1.5 and the gas residence time in the nearly-isothermal radiation zone of the furnace was {approximately}1 sec. The particle emissions were size-classified at the exit of the furnace, using a multi-stage inertial particle impactor. Combustion of PS yielded the highest amounts of soot (most highly agglomerated), several times more than the rest of the polymers. Substantial amounts of soot agglomerates were larger than 10 {micro}m. At this temperature <35% of the soot mass was PM{sub 2.5} (2.5 {micro}m or smaller). Soot yields increased with increasing bulk equivalence ratio in the furnace. The emissions from PE and PP were remarkably similar to each other, but strikingly different than those from PS. These polymers produced very low emissions at {phi} {le} 0.5, but emissions increased drastically with {phi}, and most of the soot was very fine (70--97% of the mass was PM{sub 2.5} depending on {phi}). Emissions from the combustion of PMMA were comparatively low and were the least influenced by the bulk {phi}; 80--95% of the emissions were PM{sub 2.5}. Combustion of PVC yielded relatively low amounts of soot; moreover, only 13--34% of the mass was PM{sub 2.5}. Hence, comparatively, PS produced the highest amounts of fine particulates followed by PP, PE, and PMMA, and then PVC. Burning these materials with excess oxygen drastically reduced the particulate emissions from PE and PP, substantially reduced those from PS, and mildly reduced those from PMMA and PVC.

  4. Combustion Stability Analyses for J-2X Gas Generator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Protz, C. S.; Casiano, M. J.; Kenny, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen rocket engine for upper stage and trans-lunar applications of the Ares vehicles for the Constellation program. This engine, designated the J-2X, is a higher pressure, higher thrust variant of the Apollo-era J-2 engine. Development was contracted to Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in 2006. Over the past several years, development of the gas generator for the J-2X engine has progressed through a variety of workhorse injector, chamber, and feed system configurations. Several of these configurations have resulted in injection-coupled combustion instability of the gas generator assembly at the first longitudinal mode of the combustion chamber. In this paper, the longitudinal mode combustion instabilities observed on the workhorse test stand are discussed in detail. Aspects of this combustion instability have been modeled at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center with several codes, including the Rocket Combustor Interaction Design and Analysis (ROCCID) code and a new lumped-parameter MatLab model. To accurately predict the instability characteristics of all the chamber and injector geometries and test conditions, several features of the submodels in the ROCCID suite of calculations required modification. Finite-element analyses were conducted of several complicated combustion chamber geometries to determine how to model and anchor the chamber response in ROCCID. A large suite of sensitivity calculations were conducted to determine how to model and anchor the injector response in ROCCID. These modifications and their ramification for future stability analyses of this type are discussed in detail. The lumped-parameter MatLab model of the gas generator assembly was created as an alternative calculation to the ROCCID methodology. This paper also describes this model and the stability calculations.

  5. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Franz, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Alnajjar, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Cannella, William C [Chevron, USA; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Hager, Darcy [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Dettman, Heather [CANMET Energy; Luecke, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Zigler, Brad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  6. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of opportunity gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burners aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeecos offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the projects burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the projects technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

  7. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  8. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion - A fuel processor for high-speed propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Rollbuhler, R. James; Lezberg, Erwin A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel was studied over the equivalence ratio range 4.7 to 7.8, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1250 to 1060 K. The process was soot-free and the gaseous products were similar to those obtained in the iso-octane study. A carbon atom balance across the catalyst bed calculated for the gaseous products accounted for about 70 to 90 percent of the fuel carbon; the balance was condensed as a liquid in the cold trap. It was shown that 52 to 77 percent of the fuel carbon was C1, C2, and C3 molecules. The viability of using fuel-rich catalytic combustion as a technique for preheating a practical fuel to very high temperatuers was demonstrated. Preliminary results from the scaled up version of the catalytic combustor produced a high-temperature fuel containing large amounts of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The balance of the fuel was completely vaporized and in various stages of pyrolysis and oxidation. Visual observations indicate that there was no soot present.

  9. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion: A fuel processor for high-speed propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Rollbuhler, R. James; Lezberg, Erwin A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel was studied over the equivalence ratio range 4.7 to 7.8, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1250 to 1060 K. The process was soot-free and the gaseous products were similar to those obtained in the iso-octane study. A carbon atom balance across the catalyst bed calculated for the gaseous products accounted for about 70 to 90 percent of the fuel carbon; the balance was condensed as a liquid in the cold trap. It was shown that 52 to 77 percent of the fuel carbon was C1, C2, and C3 molecules. The viability of using fuel-rich catalytic combustion as a technique for preheating a practical fuel to very high temperatures was demonstrated. Preliminary results from the scaled up version of the catalytic combustor produced a high-temperature fuel containing large amounts of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The balance of the fuel was completely vaporized and in various stages of pyrolysis and oxidation. Visual observations indicate that there was no soot present.

  10. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase IV report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Institute; Sidhu, S.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    As part of the US-DOE`s on-going interest in the use of alternative automotive fuels, the University of Dayton Research Institute has been conducting research on pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion of candidate fuels. This research, under the direction and sponsorship of the NREL, has been concerned primarily with the combustion of compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and ethanol. In the first 24 months of this program, studies of the oxygen rich, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich thermal degradation of these fuels in the temperature range of 300 to 1100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and for reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 s were completed. Trace organic products were identified and quantified for each fuel as a function of temperature. The results of these studies agreed well with the results of tail-pipe emission studies in that the types and quantity of emissions measured in both the laboratory and engine tests were shown to be very similar under certain operating conditions. However, some chemicals were observed in the laboratory studies that were not observed in the engine studies and vice versa. This result is important in that it has implications concerning the origin of these emissions. Experiments concerning the NO perturbed oxidation of methanol, M85, ethanol, and E85 indicated the presence of complex oxidation chemistry. At mild temperatures, NO addition resulted in enhanced fuel conversion. At elevated temperatures, an inhibitory effect was observed through increased yields of both partial oxidation and pyrolysis-type reaction products. Comparison of flow reactor product distributions with engine test results generally indicated improved comparisons when NO was added to the fuel. Analysis of secondary components of alcohol fuels resulted in some unexpected observations. Several previously unidentified species were observed in these experiments which may impact atmospheric reactivity assessments of these fuels.

  11. Evaluation of the use of different hydrocarbon fuels for gas reburning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Bilbao; Angela Millera; Maria U. Alzueta; Lina Prada

    1997-01-01

    Gas reburning is a NOx reduction technique that has been demonstrated to be efficient in different combustion systems. An experimental study of gas reburning performance in the low temperature range (at and under 1100C) has been carried out. An evaluation of the use of different hydrocarbon fuels, such as natural gas, methane, ethane, ethylene and acetylene was performed and the

  12. Combustion characteristics in the transition region of liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cernansky, N. P.; Namer, I.; Tidona, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    A number of important effects have been observed in the droplet size transition region in spray combustion systems. In this region, where the mechanism of flame propagation is transformed from diffusive to premixed dominated combustion, the following effects have been observed: (1) maxima in burning velocity; (2) extension of flammability limits; (3) minima in ignition energy; and (4) minima in NOx formation. A monodisperse aerosol generator has been used to form and deliver a well controlled liquid fuel spray to the combustion test section where measurements of ignition energy have been made. The ignition studies were performed on monodisperse n-heptane sprays at atmospheric pressure over a range of equivalence ratios and droplet diameters. A capacitive discharge spark ignition system was used as the ignition source, providing independent control of spark energy and duration. Preliminary measurements were made to optimize spark duration and spark gap, optimum conditions being those at which the maximum frequency or probability of ignition was observed. Using the optimum electrode spacing and spark duration, the frequency of ignition was determined as a function of spark energy for three overall equivalence ratios (0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) and for initial droplet diameters of 25, 40, 50, 60, and 70 micro m.

  13. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Price

    2008-01-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50

  14. Numerical Simulation in Combustion Space of an Oil Fired Oxy-Fuel Glass Furnace with Different Burner Arrangements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuxia Mei; Junlin Xie; Da Han

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an oil fired oxy-fuel glass furnace was designed, and the numerical simulation in the combustion space of the furnace was carried out. The optimization approach was proposed by comparing two different burner arrangements, opposed and staggered one respectively. The gas phase was expressed with k- two-equation model; the oil drop motion was described with Discrete Phase Model;

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. The two methods developed have...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. he two methods developed have b...

  17. Effect of gas composition on octane number of natural gas fuels. Topical report, December 1991-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kubesh, J.T.

    1992-05-01

    Variations in the composition of natural gas fuels are recognized to have a significant impact on the performance of internal combustion engines. In particular, the knock resistance of the fuel is governed by its gas composition. The octane number is a standard measure of the knock resistance of a fuel, and several gas blends were tested to determine their octane numbers. Octane number of natural gas fuels was found to be dependent on gas composition. Several correlations were found between gas composition and the octane number of a fuel, which allow prediction of the motor octane number if gas composition is known. In particular, a good correlation was found between the hydrogen-carbon ratio of the fuel and the octane number. Correlations were also found between measured motor octane numbers and measured methane numbers, as well as between motor octane numbers and predicted methane numbers.

  18. External combustion engine having a combustion expansion chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony W. Duva

    1993-01-01

    This patent application discloses an external combustion engine having a combustion expansion chamber. The engine includes a combustion chamber for generating a high-pressure, energized gas from a monopropellant fuel, and a cylinder for receiving the energized gas through a rotary valve to perform work on a cylinder disposed therein. A baffle plate is positioned between the combustion area and expansion

  19. Fluidized-bed combustion test of low-quality fuels: Texas lignite and lignite refuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Mei; U. Grimm; J. S. Halow

    1978-01-01

    Samples of Texas lignite from the Wilcox formation were investigated to assess this fuel as a potential feedstock for fluidized bed combustors. Combustion tests were performed over a wide range of operating conditions to develop fluidized bed combustion (FBC) engineering and emissions data on this low-quality fuel. Combustion characteristics observed include: no clinker formation at bed temperature as high as

  20. System for examining burning based on traditional fuel sources for internal-combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, I.P.; Naumov, S.V.; Prostov, V.N.

    1983-11-01

    An experimental system is described for examining stable turbulent combustion of various fuels in a burner having a cylindrical channel. Results are presented on the formation of nitric oxide in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with the addition of water in the burner and in internal-combustion engines.

  1. Paper Number 15736-PA Title Reaction Kinetics of Fuel Formation for In-Situ Combustion

    E-print Network

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    Paper Number 15736-PA Title Reaction Kinetics of Fuel Formation for In-Situ Combustion Authors Abu believed to cause fuel formation for in-situ combustion have been studied and modeled. A thin, packed bed the approach of a combustion front. Analysis of gases produced from the reaction cell revealed that pyrolysis

  2. Combustion Simulation Databases for Real Transportation Fuels: A New Community Collaboration

    E-print Network

    Magee, Joseph W.

    Combustion Simulation Databases for Real Transportation Fuels: A New Community Collaboration T. C, and health benefits that could be derived from improved combustion processes are enormous and well recognized on Combustion Simulation Databases for Real Transportation Fuels to assess needs and opportunities to translate

  3. Greenhouse impact due to the use of combustible fuels: Life cycle viewpoint and relative radiative forcing commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkinen, J.; Palosuo, T.; Holmgren, K.; Savolainen, I. [VTT Technical Research Center Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2008-09-15

    Extensive information on the greenhouse impacts of various human actions is important in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies. The greenhouse impacts of combustible fuels consist not only of combustion emissions but also of emissions from the fuel production chain and possible effects on the ecosystem carbon storages. It is important to be able to assess the combined, total effect of these different emissions and to express the results in a comprehensive way. In this study, a new concept called relative radiative forcing commitment (RRFC) is presented and applied to depict the greenhouse impact of some combustible fuels currently used in Finland. RRFC is a ratio that accounts for the energy absorbed in the Earth system due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations (production and combustion of fuel) compared to the energy released in the combustion of fuel. RRFC can also be expressed as a function of time in order to give a dynamic cumulative picture on the caused effect. Varying time horizons can be studied separately, as is the case when studying the effects of different climate policies on varying time scales. The RRFC for coal for 100 years is about 170, which means that in 100 years 170 times more energy is absorbed in the atmosphere due to the emissions of coal combustion activity than is released in combustion itself. RRFC values of the other studied fuel production chains varied from about 30 (forest residues fuel) to 190 (peat fuel) for the 100-year study period. The length of the studied time horizon had an impact on the RRFC values and, to some extent, on the relative positions of various fuels.

  4. Greenhouse Impact Due to the Use of Combustible Fuels: Life Cycle Viewpoint and Relative Radiative Forcing Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Palosuo, Taru; Holmgren, Kristina; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Extensive information on the greenhouse impacts of various human actions is important in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies. The greenhouse impacts of combustible fuels consist not only of combustion emissions but also of emissions from the fuel production chain and possible effects on the ecosystem carbon storages. It is important to be able to assess the combined, total effect of these different emissions and to express the results in a comprehensive way. In this study, a new concept called relative radiative forcing commitment (RRFC) is presented and applied to depict the greenhouse impact of some combustible fuels currently used in Finland. RRFC is a ratio that accounts for the energy absorbed in the Earth system due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations (production and combustion of fuel) compared to the energy released in the combustion of fuel. RRFC can also be expressed as a function of time in order to give a dynamic cumulative picture on the caused effect. Varying time horizons can be studied separately, as is the case when studying the effects of different climate policies on varying time scales. The RRFC for coal for 100 years is about 170, which means that in 100 years 170 times more energy is absorbed in the atmosphere due to the emissions of coal combustion activity than is released in combustion itself. RRFC values of the other studied fuel production chains varied from about 30 (forest residues fuel) to 190 (peat fuel) for the 100-year study period. The length of the studied time horizon had an impact on the RRFC values and, to some extent, on the relative positions of various fuels. PMID:18521657

  5. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Meier, Gerald H [University of Pittsburgh; Lutz, Bradley [University of Pittsburgh; Jung, Keeyoung [Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Korea; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M [University of Pittsburgh; Pettit, Frederick S [University of Pittsburgh; Zhu, Jingxi [Carnegie Mellon University; Wise, Adam [Carnegie Mellon University; Laughlin, David E. [Carnegie Mellon University; Sridhar, Seetharaman [Carnegie Mellon University

    2013-11-25

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air for ease of capture of CO2 from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N2 with CO2 and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model FeCr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions. Evidence was found for a hreshold for severe attack between 10-4 and 10-3 atm of SO3 at 700C.

  6. Some principles of combustion of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Petrichenko; A. B. Kanishchev; L. A. Zakharov; Bassam Kandakzhi

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the problem of flame propagation rate in combustion of a homogeneous fuel-air mixture in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. It is assumed that the mixture is not overturbulized and that the flame front is spherical. The model used for the phenomenon is based on a turbulent transport mechanism. In the near-wall region the

  7. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  8. Fuel-injection control system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, T.; Hanada, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Shimomura, S.

    1987-11-17

    A fuel-injection control system for an internal combustion engine is described in which a basic pulse width, being calculated from the amount of intake air sucked into an internal combustion engine and the number of engine revolutions, is generated in synchronization with engine revolution, and a series of special injection pulses are generated independently of the generation timing of the basic injection pulse width for revision of engine acceleration. The fuel injection control system comprises: an arithmetic operation means for calculating an engine load from the amount of intake air sucked into the engine and the number of engine revolutions; a judging means for judging whether or not a parameter representative of the engine load is less than a predetermined reference value; a first pulse-generating means adapted to generate a first special injection pulse in response to the amount of the intake air when the judging means judges that the parameter is less than the predetermined reference value; a second pulse-generating means adapted to revise the engine acceleration outside a pulsation range; and a revision-prohibiting means for prohibiting the revision of engine acceleration in the pulsation range of the intake air during a second predetermined period of time exceeding the first predetermined period starting from the generation of the first special injection pulse.

  9. Mach 2 combustion characteristics of hydrogen/hydrocarbon fuel mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Glenn S.; Jachimowski, C. J.; Northam, G. Burton; Bell, Randy A.

    1987-01-01

    The combustion of H2/CH4 and H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 10 to 70 vol pct hydrocarbon at combustor inlet Mach number 2 and temperatures 2000 to 4000 R is investigated experimentally, applying direct-connect test hardware and techniques similar to those described by Diskin and Northam (1987) in the facilities of the NASA Langley Hypersonic Propulsion Branch. The experimental setup, procedures, and data-reduction methods are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Fuel type and mixture are found to have little effect on the wall heating rate measured near the combustor exit, but H2/C2H4 is shown to burn much more efficiently than H2/CH4, with no pilot-off blowout equivalence ratios greater than 0.5. It is suggested that H2/hydrocarbon mixtures are feasible fuels (at least in terms of combustion efficiency) for scramjet SSTO vehicles operating at freestream Mach numbers above 4.

  10. Mach 2 combustion characteristics of hydrogen/hydrocarbon fuel mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Glenn S.; Northam, G. Burton; Bell, Randy A.

    1987-01-01

    The combustion of H2/CH4 and H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 10-70 vol pct hydrocarbon at cumbustor inlet Mach number 2 and temperatures 2000-4000 R is investigated experimentally, applying direct-connect test hardware and techniques similar to those described by Diskin and Northam (1987) in the facilities of the NASA Langley Hypersonic Propulsion Branch. The experimental setup, procedures, and data-reduction methods are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Fuel type and mixture are found to have little effect on the wall heating rate measured near the combustor exit, but H2/C2H4 is shown to burn much more efficiently than H2/CH4, with no pilot-off blowout at equivalence ratios greater than 0.5. It is suggested that H2/hydrocarbon mixtures are feasible fuels (at least in terms of combustion efficiency) for scramjet SSTO vehicles operating at freestream Mach numbers above 4.

  11. Combustion monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This article describes application analysis system to lean-burn engines, engines that feature EGR, or other engines in which unfavorable combustion occurs, to control engine roughness, lower fuel consumption, and reduce NOx emission and combustion inconsistencies among cylinders. The idea of monitoring combustion of an internal combustion engine, and using the obtained data to control combustion, is not new. Two well-known methods have been developed: one involves combustion-pressure analysis, and the other measures ionic currents in combustion gas. Although highly precise analysis can be achieved by the former, there are problems in the installation of combustion pressure sensors, and their durability and cost. There are also problems in installing ionic-current sensors, and the reliability of data obtained from such sensors is questionable. Researchers at Honda R and D Co. and NGK Spark Plug Co. have developed a method which uses spark-plug-voltage analysis for monitoring combustion. Voltage is measured by noncontact sensors in the high-voltage zone near the spark plugs. Monitoring is done in real time by processing waveform data and measuring the ion density. This monitoring system can control combustion during fluctuations of the air/fuel ratio (A/F), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and ignition timing for lean-burn or other conventional engines. By controlling combustion near the lean, EGR, and timing limits, it is possible to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, while maintaining driveability.

  12. Investigation of the combustion characteristics of fuel droplet arrays. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sangiovanni, J. J.

    1980-06-01

    The program was directed at establishing the nature and extent of droplet/droplet interaction and the multicomponent nature of real fuels on the ignition and combustion characteristics of spray flames. A unique free-droplet combustion experiment provided the present investigation with a well-controlled simulation of spray combustion. Various theoretical models were used. Experimental observations indicate that ignition delay times increase sharply by about three-fold when droplet spacings are reduced to less than five droplet diameters. Results of theoretical predictions indicate that as droplet spacing is made smaller, the effect of droplet/droplet interaction on ignition delay becomes increasingly more pronounced for small droplets, low gas phase temperatures, and fuels of low volatility. Although this result suggests that ignition of heavy grades of alternative liquid fuels will be inhibited in dense sprays, other theoretical and experimental results indicate that the addition of a small quantity of a volatile component to a heavy fuel shortens ignition times substantially. Observed burning times show a gradual, but substantial, increase as a result of droplet/droplet interaction; as droplet spacing is decreased from 40 to 5 diameters, burning times increase by about 60%. A compilation of data for an extensive range of experimental parameters show universally that the amount by which droplet/droplet interaction increases burning times depends only on droplet spacing and not on the fuel type or the ambient conditions. Burning times of multicomponent fuel droplets are found to be weighted heavily toward the burning time for the least volatile component. Theoretical predictions demonstrate that this independence of burning times on the initial fuel mixture proportions can be ascribed to liquid phase mass diffusion limitations.

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal Gordon R. Holcomb · Joseph Tylczak-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air for ease of capture of CO2 from for reuse between 10-4 and 10-3 atm of SO3 at 700 °C. Keywords Fireside corrosion Á Oxidation Á Oxy-fuel combustion

  14. Effect of market fuel variation and cetane improvers on CAI combustion in a GDI engine

    E-print Network

    Cedrone, Kevin David

    2010-01-01

    There is continued interest in improving the fuel conversion efficiency of internal combustion engines and simultaneously reducing their emissions. One promising technology is that of Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. ...

  15. Effect of heterogeneous catalyst during combustion of diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefeen, Quamrul

    1999-11-01

    With the increase in number of vehicles using diesel engines, the contributions to environmental pollution made by diesel engines is also on the rise. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, hydrocarbons, and particulates are currently regulated as harmful emissions from diesel engines. Recent technologies to control harmful engine emissions have been almost exclusively directed towards gasoline engines. It is generally held that fuel quality will have to play an important role with all IC engines to meet future stringent regulations. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of heterogeneous catalyst on combustion. Micron sized solid catalyst, suspended in a specific organic peroxide, has been found to promote better combustion by modifying kinetics and changing the thermodynamics of the reactions. The catalyst reduces emissions without dramatically changing the properties of the fuel. The characteristic parameters of a baseline fuel, and the same fuel with the additive, were analyzed. The dosage of additive used was found to be compatible with commercial diesel. Diesel vehicles were driven unloaded at normal road conditions during the experiments. Exhaust emissions were measured when the trucks were at static conditions and the engine running on idle and at 2000 rpm. The gaseous components in the exhaust, O2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and CxH y were monitored. Particulates were trapped on a pre-weighed glass filter. Some of the filters were sent to an independent laboratory for microscopic and elemental analysis of the collected debris. Zinc oxide/peroxide suspended in tert-butyl hydro peroxide were used as the heterogeneous fuel catalyst. This combination increased the cetane rating of a commercial diesel fuel from 45 to a level of 70 depending on treatment ratio. A treatment ratio of one ounce additive per 5 gallons of diesel increased cetane number by an average of 5 points. Road mileage with the additive increased by an average of more than 10%. Gaseous and particulate emissions were reduced by more than 20%. Engine wear decreased due to increased lubricity of the fuel. A decrease in flash point of the diesel may make the additive more suitable at cold weather operation.

  16. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360...Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring 60.4360...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360...Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring 60.4360...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360...Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring 60.4360...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360...Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring 60.4360...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360...Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring 60.4360...total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the...

  1. Vision system for combustion analysis and diagnosis in gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Giancarlo; Corbani, Franco; Graziadio, Mario; Novelli, Giuliano

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the flame vision system developed by CISE, on behalf of Thermical Research Division of ENEL, allowing a non-intrusive analysis and a probabilistic classification of the combustion process inside the gas turbines. The system is composed of a vision probe, designed for working in hostile environments and installed inside the combustion chamber, an optical element housing a videocamera, and a personal computer equipped with a frame grabber board. The main goal of the system is the flames classification in order to evaluate the occurrency of deviation from the optimal combustion conditions and to generate warning messages for power plant personnel. This is obtained by comparing some geometrical features (baricenter, inertia axes, area, orientation, etc.) extracted from flame area of images with templates found out during the training stage and classifying them in a probabilistic way by using a Bayesian algorithm. The vision system, now at the test stage, is intended to be a useful tool for combustion monitoring, has turbines set-up, periodic survey, and for collecting information concerning the burner efficiency and reliability; moreover the vision probe flexibility allows other applications as particle image velocimetry, spectral and thermal analysis.

  2. Numerical prediction of combustion induced vibro-acoustical instabilities in a gas turbine combustor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artur Pozarlik; Jim Kok

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of lean premixed combustion to gas turbine technology reduced the emission of harmful exhaust gas species, but due to the high sensitivity of lean flames to acoustic perturbations, the average life time of gas turbine engines was decreased significantly. Very dangerous to the integrity of the gas turbine structure is the mutual interaction between combustion, acoustics and wall vibration.

  3. Safety considerations in testing a fuel-rich aeropropulsion gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James; Hulligan, David D.

    1991-01-01

    A catalyst containing reactor is being tested using a fuel-rich mixture of Jet A fuel and hot input air. The reactor product is a gaseous fuel that can be utilized in aeropropulsion gas turbine engines. Because the catalyst material is susceptible to damage from high temperature conditions, fuel-rich operating conditions are attained by introducing the fuel first into an inert gas stream in the reactor and then displacing the inert gas with reaction air. Once a desired fuel-to-air ratio is attained, only limited time is allowed for a catalyst induced reaction to occur; otherwise the inert gas is substituted for the air and the fuel flow is terminated. Because there presently is not a gas turbine combustor in which to burn the reactor product gas, the gas is combusted at the outlet of the test facility flare stack. This technique in operations has worked successfully in over 200 tests.

  4. Structural integrity of a gas turbine combustion system subjected to increased dynamic pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Barnes

    1997-01-01

    The effect of combustion dynamic pressure oscillations on the structural integrity of the MS 7001F dry low NO2 (DLN 2) combustion system has been evaluated using ANSYS finite element analyses and high cycle fatigue material data. Analytical results were validated with laboratory measurements on the combustion system subjected to combustion dynamic pressure at actual gas turbine temperature and pressure operating

  5. Muffler for exhaust gas from internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

    1986-09-09

    A muffler is described for exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine comprising, (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet for receiving and expelling, respectively, the exhaust gas, (b) a cylindrical sound-absorbing body comprising, (i) a perforated pipe having openings formed therein, (ii) a cylindrical porous sound-absorbing material concentrically surrounding the perforated pipe, (iii) and a thin film sandwiched between the perforated pipe and the sound absorbing material, (c) means for balancing the gas pressure between the space which is surrounded by the perforated pipe, the thin film and the sound-absorbing material, and the space surrounding the sound-absorbing material, (d) the cylindrical sound-absorbing body being positioned within the casing to cause the exhaust gas flowing from the inlet to the outlet to pass through the perforated pipe, and (e) gas expansion chambers in the casing positioned to cause exhaust gas passing from the inlet to the outlet to enter at least one of the plurality of gas expansion chambers.

  6. Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

    1988-07-19

    This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

  7. Analysis of exhaust waste heat recovery from a dual fuel low temperature combustion engine using an Organic Rankine Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalyan K. Srinivasan; Pedro J. Mago; Sundar R. Krishnan

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the exhaust waste heat recovery potential of a high-efficiency, low-emissions dual fuel low temperature combustion engine using an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Potential improvements in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and specific emissions (NOx and CO2) with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and ORC turbocompounding were quantified over a range of injection timings and engine loads. With hot

  8. Predicting gaseous emissions from small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Fournel, S; Marcos, B; Godbout, S; Heitz, M

    2015-03-01

    A prediction model of gaseous emissions (CO, CO2, NOx, SO2 and HCl) from small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels was developed in order to rapidly assess their potential to be burned in accordance to current environmental threshold values. The model was established based on calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium of reactive multicomponent systems using Gibbs free energy minimization. Since this method has been widely used to estimate the composition of the syngas from wood gasification, the model was first validated by comparing its prediction results with those of similar models from the literature. The model was then used to evaluate the main gas emissions from the combustion of four dedicated energy crops (short-rotation willow, reed canary grass, switchgrass and miscanthus) previously burned in a 29-kW boiler. The prediction values revealed good agreement with the experimental results. The model was particularly effective in estimating the influence of harvest season on SO2 emissions. PMID:25543541

  9. Gas improves hog-fuel boiler performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    One of the boilers at the Harmac Pulp Division of MacMillan Bloedel (MMB) in Nanaimo, British Columbia had a history of somewhat unstable combustion. It was subject to secondary combustion puffs caused by the delayed ignition of combustible gases generated at the grate level. The gases wouldn't ignite until they flowed upward about 15 to 20 feet in the furnace and reached the vicinity of the oil burner. Once they ignited, they produced a large, heavy furnace pressurization or puff. What MMB needed to eliminate the puffs and stabilize operations was an ignition source closer to the grate. That way, the gases would ignite sooner and at a point at which the air supply was adequate. With the help of Inproheat, the Coen Company of Burlingame, CA, the Coen Company of Canada (CBC), and natural gas, MMB was able to achieve its goal. The paper describes the boiler conversion and its performance with natural gas cofiring.

  10. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Combustible Gas Management Leak Test Acceptance Criteria (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    2000-10-10

    The purpose of this document is to support the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's combustible gas management strategy while avoiding the need to impose any requirements for oxygen free atmospheres within storage tubes that contain multi-canister overpacks (MCO). In order to avoid inerting requirements it is necessary to establish and confirm leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs that are adequte to ensure that, in the unlikely event the leak test results for any MCO were to approach either of those criteria, it could still be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the SNF Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCOs or within their surroundings. To support that strategy, this document: (1) establishes combustible gas management functions and minimum functional requirements for the MCO's mechanical seals and closure weld(s); (2) establishes a maximum practical value for the minimum required initial MCO inert backfill gas pressure; and (3) based on items 1 and 2, establishes and confirms leak test acceptance criteria for the MCO's mechanical seal and final closure weld(s).

  11. Device at combustion plants for automatic feeding of fuels within the furnace of the plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lovgren

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for feeding solid fuel through a furnace of a combustion plant, comprising the steps of: positioning solid fuel on a fuel-receiving end of movable grate means, advancing the movable grate means through the furnace from the fuel-receiving end to a fuel-discharging end of the grate means, while combusting the fuel disposed thereon. The grate means is

  12. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  13. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  14. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ?IC= 1-(1/r)^(?-1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r=Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio ?= cP/cV. Typically r= 8, ?= 1.4, and ?IC= 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ?Carnot= 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ?IC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, ?, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-?IC) x?Carnot= 32% for TH= 850 K (exhaust) and TC= 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ?TEG0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ?WH= (1-?IC) x?Carnot x?TEG, and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ?TEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ?WH= 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%.

  15. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of alternate-fuels performance in an external combustion system. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Battista; M. Connelly

    1985-01-01

    As the economic attractiveness of many alternate fuels increases relative to gasoline, the viability of any future automotive power plant may soon depend on the ease with which these alternate fuels can be utilized. It is generally assumed that external-combustion engines are more tolerant of alternate fuels than internal-combustion engines. This study attempted to verify that assumption. The purpose of

  17. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOEpatents

    McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Han, Manbae [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

  19. New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis

    E-print Network

    Nelson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in closed loop combustion control are causing radical changes in the way combustion control systems are implemented. The recent availability of in line flue gas analyzers and microprocessor technology are teaming up to produce...

  20. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vandsburger, U. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Roe, L.A. [Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Objectives are to develop actuators for enhancing the mixing between gas streams, increase combustion stability, and develop hgih-temperature materials for actuators and sensors in combustors. Turbulent kinetic energy maps of an excited jet with co-flow in a cavity with a partially closed exhaust end are given with and without a longitudinal or a transverse acoustic field. Dielectric constants and piezoelectric coefficients were determined for Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics.

  1. A novel gas-droplet numerical method for spray combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Jiang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a non-iterative numerical technique for computing time-dependent gas-droplet flows. The method is a fully-interacting combination of Eulerian fluid and Lagrangian particle calculation. The interaction calculations between the two phases are formulated on a pressure-velocity coupling procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. This procedure eliminates the global iterations required in the conventional particle-source-in-cell (PSIC) procedure. Turbulent dispersion calculations are treated by a stochastic procedure. Numerical calculations and comparisons with available experimental data, as well as efficiency assessments are given for some sprays typical of spray combustion applications.

  2. An investigation into the feasibility of an external combustion, steam injected gas turbine

    E-print Network

    Ford, David Bruce

    1981-01-01

    showing the gas flow path, pressures, and temperatures at the rated operation speed. The gas producer section, includes a two stage compressor driven by a single axial flow turbine, two reverse flow combustion chambers and an accessory drive section... of a Gas Turbine at Off Design Conditions. . . . . 23 Crossover Point for a Gas Turbine 24 Process Flow Diagram for the External Com- bustion Gas Turbine as Tested 10 System Layout for the External Combustion Gas Turbine Test Facility...

  3. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the first quarter, April 1 through June 30, 1995. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasificafion and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel continued at a good pace during the quarter.

  4. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  5. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  9. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  10. Influence of the addition of hydrogen and of a synthesis gas on the characteristics of the process of combustion of gasoline-air mixtures under conditions typical of internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Migun; A. P. Chernukho; S. A. Zhdanok

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the addition of hydrogen and of a synthesis gas on the basic parameters of combustion of gasoline-air fuel\\u000a mixtures is investigated theoretically. The possibility of feeding gasoline internal combustion engines with lean fuel mixtures\\u000a with a concentration of 510 vol.% hydrogen is shown; this will greatly improve their ecological purity.

  11. Combustion gas and NO emission characteristics of hazardous waste mixture particles in a fixed bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Tao; Guangbo Zhao; Rui Sun

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with fixed-bed incinerators were carried out to model the combustion characteristics and gas emission characteristics\\u000a of hazardous waste mixture particles in a grate furnace. The results indicate that combustion can be divided into three stages:\\u000a ignition, main combustion and combustion completion stage. According to the various concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, the main combustion stage can be subdivided

  12. Effect of water blending on bioethanol HCCI combustion with forced induction and residual gas trapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Megaritis; D. Yap; M. L. Wyszynski

    2007-01-01

    There is increased interest worldwide in renewable engine fuels as well as in new combustion technologies. Bioethanol is one of the alternative fuels that have been used successfully in spark ignition engines. A combustion technology that currently attracts a lot of interest is the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which has shown potential for low nitrogen oxides emissions with

  13. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  14. Correlation of knocking characteristics of fuels in an engine having a hemispherical combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1940-01-01

    Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained with having a hemispherical-dome combustion chamber. The five aircraft-engine fuels used have octane numbers varying from 90 to 100 plus 2 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5 1/4-inch by 4 3/4-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.0 to 8.9. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 110 to 310 F. For each set of conditions, the inlet-air pressure was increased until audible knock occurred and then reduced 2 inches of mercury before data were recorded. The results for each fuel can be correlated by plotting the calculated end-gas density factor against the calculated end-gas temperature. Measurements of spark-plugs, cutting off the switch to one spark plug lowered the electrode temperature of that plug from a value of 1,365 F to a value of 957 F. The results indicate that the surface temperatures of combustion-chamber areas which become new sources of ignition markedly increase after ignition.

  15. Muffler for exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

    1986-08-26

    A muffler is described for the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine, consisting of: a casing, a perforated sleeve disposed in the casing, the perforated sleeve having an interior through which the exhaust gas flows and a wall having a plurality of openings, a cylindrical porous sound-absorbing body arranged coaxially with the perforated sleeve on an outer periphery of the perforated sleeve, a cylindrical thin film made of metal, the cylindrical thin film being intimately interposed between the perforated sleeve and the cylindrical porous sound-absorbing body, a space defined between an inner periphery of the casing and an outer periphery of the cylindrical porous sound-absorbing body, and at least one communication passage means for providing a pressure balancing communication between the interior of the perforated sleeve and the space.

  16. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  17. Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2007-03-01

    Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGLs) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical LNG like fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

  18. Effect of Operating Conditions on SO2 and NOx Emissions in Oxy-Fuel Mini-CFB Combustion Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, L.; Tan, Y.; Anthony, E. J.

    Anthropogenic CO2 production is caused primarily by fossil fuel combustion. In consequence, it is increasingly necessary to find ways to reduce these emissions when fossil fuel is used. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) appears to be among the most promising. All of the CCS technologies involve producing a pure stream of CO2 either by concentrating it from the flue gases, or by using pure oxygen as the combustion gas. The latter option, oxy-fuel combustion, has now been well studied for pulverized coal combustion, but hasreceived relatively little attention to date in the case of oxy-fuel circulating fluidized bed combustion. Recently, oxy-fuel CFBC hasbeen examined ina 100 kW pilot plant operating with flue gas recycle at CanmetEnergy. The results strongly support the view that this technology offers all of the advantages of air-fired FBC, with one possible exception. Emissions such as CO or NOx are lower or comparable to air firing. It is possible to switch from air-firing to oxy-firing mode easily, with oxygen concentrations as high as 60-70%, and flue gas recycle levels of 50-60%. Only sulphur capture is poorer. However, this result is not in good agreement with other studies, and the reasons for this discrepancy need further exploration. Here, longer tests have confirmed previous findings from CanmetEnergy with two coals and a petroleum coke. It also appears that changing from direct to indirect sulphation with the petroleum coke improves sulphur capture efficiency, although a similar effect could not be confirmed with coal from these results.

  19. Tungsten carbide synthesized by low-temperature combustion as gas diffusion electrode catalyst

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Tungsten carbide synthesized by low-temperature combustion as gas diffusion electrode catalyst Ping June 2014 Keywords: Low-temperature combustion syn- thesis Tungsten carbide Electrocatalyst Gas diffusion electrode a b s t r a c t Tungsten carbide powder, which is used as the catalyst for a gas

  20. The development of an electrochemical technique for in situ calibrating of combustible gas detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; Lantz, J. B.; Schubert, F. H.

    1976-01-01

    A program to determine the feasibility of performing in situ calibration of combustible gas detectors was successfully completed. Several possible techniques for performing the in situ calibration were proposed. The approach that showed the most promise involved the use of a miniature water vapor electrolysis cell for the generation of hydrogen within the flame arrestor of a combustible gas detector to be used for the purpose of calibrating the combustible gas detectors. A preliminary breadboard of the in situ calibration hardware was designed, fabricated and assembled. The breadboard equipment consisted of a commercially available combustible gas detector, modified to incorporate a water vapor electrolysis cell, and the instrumentation required for controlling the water vapor electrolysis and controlling and calibrating the combustible gas detector. The results showed that operation of the water vapor electrolysis at a given current density for a specific time period resulted in the attainment of a hydrogen concentration plateau within the flame arrestor of the combustible gas detector.