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Sample records for fuel injection pump

  1. Governor for fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yogome, Y.; Itsuki, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shimizu, T.; Hamada, H.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes double-lever type governor for a fuel injection pump comprising: a governor case; a governor lever and a tension lever rotatably supported in the case and operatively associated with each other; a start spring interposed between the governor lever and the tension lever securing a start fuel increment stroke in the governor lever; a fuel regulating rack connected to the governor lever; a supporting shaft mounted in the case supporting both the governor lever and the tension lever for rotation; and a locking mechanism which connects both levers at the time when the start fuel increment stroke of the governor lever becomes zero or approximately zero to be eliminated.

  2. Distribution and regularity of injection from a multicylinder fuel-injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of performance test conducted on a six-cylinder commercial fuel-injection pump that was adjusted to give uniform fuel distribution among the cylinders at a throttle setting of 0.00038 pound per injection and a pump speed of 750 revolutions per minute. The throttle setting and pump speed were then varied through the operating range to determine the uniformity of distribution and regularity of injection.

  3. Preloaded compliant linkage for fuel injection pump rack

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbon, E.S.; Krosney, M.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes in a fuel injection pump system for an internal combustion engine. The improvement comprising: a compliant linkage in the pump rack means positioned between a first portion of the pump rack means engaged by the gear and a second portion thereof which is connected to the plunger means. The linkage comprising a precompressed spring urging the first and second portions of the pump rack means apart from each other with a force greater than the value of load forces acting on the rack means during normal operation in the absence of abnormally strong transient load forces, but less than the driving force produced by the stepper output shaft; whereby the spring remains in its normal precompressed state during normal operation; is additionally compressed when transient load forces occur so as to permit continue normal operation of the gear even though the second portion of the rack means is arrested; and returns to its normal precompressed state when the transient local forces disappear, thus permitting the second portion of the pump rack means to assume its proper controlled position. Herein the first portion of the rack means is pivotable about an axis normal to the length of the pump rack means and is biased toward the gear by a spring.

  4. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  5. The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson; Gardiner, A W

    1923-01-01

    Discussed here is research on a spring activated fuel pump for solid or airless injection with small, high speed internal combustion engines. The pump characteristics under investigation were the interval of fuel injection in terms of degrees of crank travel and in absolute time, the lag between the time the injection pump plunger begins its stroke and the appearance of the jet at the orifice, and the manner in which the fuel spray builds up to a maximum when the fuel valve is opened, and then diminishes.

  6. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1934-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  7. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  8. Hydraulics of Fuel-Injection Pumps for Compression-ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1932-01-01

    Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.

  9. Controlling device for a fuel-quantity adjusting member of a fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eheim, F.; Hofer, G.; Konrath, K.; Straubel, M.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a controlling device for a fuel-quantity adjustment element of a fuel injection pump including an adjusting lever pivotable around a shaft. The adjusting lever is coupled with a fuel-quantity adjusting element, a drag lever pivotable around the shaft of the adjusting lever. The drag lever communicates with the adjusting lever by way of a coupling element. An adjustable governor spring assembly is arranged to act on the drag lever, a stop for stopping the drag lever, further including a device for generating rpm-dependent force transmittable to the drag lever by means of an actuating element thereof and counter to the governor spring assembly, whereby the drag lever and the adjusting lever are coupled for movement together at least at the end of each relative movement effected by the actuating element. The actuating element acts directly upon the drag lever and the adjusting lever during deflection by way of a predetermined relative adjustment distance between the drag lever and the adjusting lever for adjustment by the actuating element, at least one spring arranged between the adjusting lever and a fixed support. At least one spring acts on the adjusting lever to force the adjusting lever into contact with an adjustable stop which is adjustable in dependence from the operating parameters of the combustion engine.

  10. Supercritical fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J.; Cooper, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    a fuel injection system for gas turbines is described including a pair of high pressure pumps. The pumps provide fuel and a carrier fluid such as air at pressures above the critical pressure of the fuel. A supercritical mixing chamber mixes the fuel and carrier fluid and the mixture is sprayed into a combustion chamber. The use of fuel and a carrier fluid at supercritical pressures promotes rapid mixing of the fuel in the combustion chamber so as to reduce the formation of pollutants and promote cleaner burning.

  11. Wear analysis of diesel-engine fuel-injection pumps from military ground equipment fueled with Jet A-1. Interim report Jan-May 91

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, P.I.

    1991-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense has adopted the single fuel for the battlefield concept. During Operation Desert Shield/Storm, Jet A-1 replaced diesel in many applications. A simultaneous increase in fuel injection pump failures was observed during that operation. Prior to its introduction, a number of studies had indicated that JP-8 is compatible with the current fleet of ground equipment. This report forms part of an ongoing study to define the fuel lubricity requirements of ground equipment. The report also details the wear and failure mechanisms observed from used pumps. The results indicate that, although Jet A-1 does increase wear, many other failure mechanisms are also prevalent.

  12. Failure analysis of fuel-injection pumps from generator sets fueled with Jet A-1. Interim report, Nov 90-Jan 91

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, P.I.; Lestz, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) has adopted the single fuel for the battlefield concept. Diesel fuel will be replaced by JP-8/Jet A-1 in compression ignition engines, thereby lowering the fuel logistics burden. These fuels have successfully undergone extensive testing in both the laboratory and in field trials. However, increased failure rates are being reported on a number of fuel-sensitive components during Operation Desert Shield in Saudi Arabia. Five failed Stanadyne rotary fuel injection pumps were returned to the Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility (BFLRF) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for disassembly and post-failure analysis. Particular attention was given to the possible effects of low-lubricity fuel. The results of the investigation indicate that most of the failures may be attributed to causes other than poor fuel lubricity. The reason for failure of specific components in two of the pumps could not be conclusively determines. However, it is believed that they would not have occurred as a result of short-term operation with Jet A-1.

  13. Fakir fuel pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    In designing the Fakir fuel pump, the fundamental idea was to obtain a simple and reliable method of conveying the fuel from a low tank to the carburetor, with the avoidance of the faults of all former methods and the simultaneous warming of the fuel by means of the heat of compression generated. The principle of the Fakir fuel pump rests on the well-known principle of the diaphragm pump, which must be suitably adapted to the present purpose.

  14. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, W.G.

    1959-06-01

    A reactor fuel pump is described which offers long life, low susceptibility to radiation damage, and gaseous fission product removal. An inert-gas lubricated bearing supports a journal on one end of the drive shsft. The other end has an impeller and expansion chamber which effect pumping and gas- liquid separation. (T.R.H.)

  16. Fuel pumping system and method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng ,

    2006-12-19

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  17. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  18. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  19. Fuel injection apparatus for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    De Grazia, T.W. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection adapter for use on a vehicle including a carburetor having a throat, a fuel pump, a throttle and a throttle control lever. In consists of: chamber means adapted for mounting adjacent the carburetor; metering jet means, including an orifice with different size internal diameters and a longitudinal needle movable within the orifice for varying the volume of fuel delivered. Fuel inlet means on the chamber means adapted for connection to the fuel pump; adjustment means mechanically coupled to the throttle lever and responsive to movement to control movement of the metering jet means to vary the amount of fuel delivered by the nozzle means. The adjustment includes an operating lever coupled to the throttle lever, a needle plate coupled to the operating lever and means on the needle plate for engaging the needle; and fuel shutoff means coupled in series with the fuel inlet means for cutting off fuel to the chamber means when the operating lever is moved to a position corresponding to a throttle wide-open position.

  20. Fuel injection valve connection

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, E.S.; Field, M.J.; Penwright, J.L.

    1987-09-15

    A fuel injection valve connection is described which consists of a fuel injection valve having a cylindrical inlet fitting. The fitting has a threaded internal surface and a cylindrical external surface. A fuel connector has a projection with a threaded external surface that mates with the threaded internal surface of the fitting. The connector also has a sleeve with a cylindrical internal surface surrounding the fitting and an O-ring sealingly engaging the internal surface of the sleeve and the external surface of the fitting, whereby the valve may be rotated relative to the connector without breaking the sealing engagement between the valve and the connector, and wherein the connector also has a tab engageable with the injector to prevent unthreading of the valve from the connector.

  1. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    SciTech Connect

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  2. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  3. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  4. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  5. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  6. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  7. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOEpatents

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  8. Port fuel injection and induction system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bishai, M.N.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes an engine having a valve cover with a PVC valve to vent a valve chamber so as to eliminate oil and gas fumes there from and an automotive fuel injection system having a port fuel injector connected to a fuel supply and to an air manifold for injecting an air/fuel mixture into the injector for producing a fuel spray pattern at the outlet of an air induction passage form a throttle body assembly and upstream of an inlet valve to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine characterized by an integral electric motor driven pump assembly means supplying the injection air to the air manifold; the motor pump assembly means having a pump inlet connected to the PVC valve for providing a lubrication mist to the pump during the operation thereof and the motor pump assembly means having a pump outlet connected to the inlet of the air manifold.

  9. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  10. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  11. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  12. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  13. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  14. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  15. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  16. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  17. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  18. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  19. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  20. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  1. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  2. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  3. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  4. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office. PMID:25084413

  5. Effect of Viscosity on Fuel Leakage Between Lapped Plungers and Sleeves and on the Discharge from a Pump-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1935-01-01

    Test data and analysis show that the rate of fuel leakage between a lapped plunger and sleeve varies directly with the density of the fuel, the diameter of the plunger, the pressure producing the leakage, and the cube of the mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve. The rate varies inversely as the length of the lapped fit and the viscosity of the fuel. With a mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve of 0.0001 inch the leakage amounts to approximately 0.2 percent of the fuel injected with gasoline and as low as 0.01 percent with diesel fuel oils. With this mean clearance an effective seal is obtained when the length of the lap is three times the diameter of the lap. The deformation of the sleeve and plunger under pressure is sufficient to change the rate of leakage appreciably from that which would be obtained if the clearance was constant under pressure.

  6. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  7. Evaluation of pumping and fueling requirements for the ITER EDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlberg, W. A.; Attenberger, S. E.

    1994-06-01

    The relationships between fueling (gas injection and pellets of various sizes and velocities), pumping in the divertor chamber (constrained by fuel processing and divertor design), core density (constrained by the desired fusion power and helium ash accumulation), separatrix density (constrained by divertor operation and density limits) and plasma confinement models are examined for the International Engineering Tokamak Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA) for guidance in the definition of design requirements for the pumping and fueling systems. Various combinations of gas and pellet injection are found to meet the constraints for operation at 1,500 MW of fusion power and 1 bar(center dot)l/s (5.3 x 10(exp 22) atoms/s) of DT pumping. Very low pumping reduces fuel processing requirements, but can lead to excessive helium accumulation depending on the particle transport properties. Isotopic tailoring of the fuel sources, e.g., 20-30% of the input fuel stream as tritium pellets and the rest as deuterium gas, can maintain the core fuel species mixture in the optimum range for fusion production (at least a 40-60 mixture) while reducing the tritium concentration in the edge region to 20-30%. This should reduce the tritium inventory in the plasma facing components, since that is typically governed by the fuel density mix near the plasma edge. A high density, low temperature ignited regime supported by deep pellet injection is shown to exist under some low confinement conditions.

  8. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  9. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  10. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  11. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  12. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  13. Pulse-actuated fuel-injection spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Ian; Tatro, Clement A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement spark plug for reciprocating internal combustion engines that functions as a fuel injector and as a spark plug to provide a "stratified-charge" effect. The conventional carburetor is retained to supply the main fuel-air mixture which may be very lean because of the stratified charge. The replacement plug includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic which contracts to act as a pump whenever an ignition pulse is applied to a central rod through the ceramic. The rod is hollow at its upper end for receiving fuel, it is tapered along its lower length to act as a pump, and it is flattened at its lower end to act as a valve for fuel injection from the pump into the cylinder. The rod also acts as the center electrode of the plug, with the spark jumping from the plug base to the lower end of the rod to thereby provide spark ignition that has inherent proper timing with the fuel injection.

  14. Details of the Construction and Production of Fuel Pumps and Fuel Nozzles for the Airplane Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubenetsky, W S

    1936-01-01

    This report presents investigations into the design and construction of fuel pumps for diesel engines. The results of the pump tests on the engines showed that, with a good cut-off, accurate injection, assured by the proper adjustment of the pump elements, there is a decrease in the consumption of fuel and hence an increase in the rated power of the engine. Some of the aspects investigated include: cam profile, coefficient of discharge, and characteristics of the injection system.

  15. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  16. Light weight gas turbine engine fuel pumping technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kassel, J.M.; Birdsall, J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a single high speed centrifugal fuel pump as the only pump in a gas turbine engine fuel system. The characteristics and requirements of the high speed centrifugal fuel pump system are compared with a more traditional fuel pump system. The application of composite technology to the high speed centrifugal pump concept is also reviewed.

  17. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-02-04

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  18. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1983-12-21

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  19. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Oda, H.; Tokushima, T.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a combustion chamber, the system comprising (a) an intake passage for introducing an intake gas into the combustion chamber and provided with an intake valve; (b) a fuel injection valve for injecting fuel into the intake passage in the vicinity of the combustion chamber; (c) operating condition detecting means for detecting the operating condition of the engine and outputting a signal corresponding to the thus detected operating condition; (d) fuel injection amount determining means which receives an output signal of the operating conditions detecting means, thereby determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber, and outputs a signal corresponding to thus determined amount; (e) crankshaft angle detecting means for detecting the rotation angle of the crankshaft; (f) injection timing control means which receives signals from the fuel injection amount determining means and crankshaft angle detecting means, outputs a start signal for actuating the fuel injection valve and a termination signal for terminating the actuation of the fuel injection valve, and actuates the fuel injection valve for the duration between the start and termination signals, thereby supplying an amount of fuel determined by the fuel injection amount determining means; (g) the start and termination signals being set against the crankshaft angle so that the whole fuel injection from the injection valve to the intake passage under light load operation of the engine reaches the combustion chamber substantially in the latter half of the intake stroke before the intake valve is closed.

  20. Multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump

    DOEpatents

    Maier, Eugen; Raney, Michael Raymond

    2004-07-06

    A multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump for a vehicle includes a housing having an inlet and an outlet and a motor disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump also includes a shaft extending axially and disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump further includes a plurality of pumping modules disposed axially along the shaft. One of the pumping modules is a turbine pumping module and another of the pumping modules is a gerotor pumping module for rotation by the motor to pump fuel from the inlet to the outlet.

  1. Plasma Fueling, Pumping, and Tritium Handling Considerations for FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Gentile, C.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Nelson, B.E.

    1999-11-13

    Tritium pellet injection will be utilized on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) for efficient tritium fueling and to optimize the density profile for high fusion power. Conventional pneumatic pellet injectors, coupled with a guidetube system to launch pellets into the plasma from the high, field side, low field side, and vertically, will be provided for fueling along with gas puffing for plasma edge density control. About 0.1 g of tritium must be injected during each 10-s pulse. The tritium and deuterium will be exhausted into the divertor. The double null divertor will have 16 cryogenic pumps located near the divertor chamber to provide the required high pumping speed of 200 torr-L/s.

  2. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  3. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement. 183.566...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is...

  4. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement. 183.566...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is...

  5. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement. 183.566...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is...

  6. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement. 183.566...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is...

  7. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement. 183.566...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is...

  8. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  9. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  10. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  11. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  12. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  13. Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D.

    1995-04-01

    A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

  14. Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D.

    1997-04-01

    A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle.combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14 percent control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {minus}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

  15. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOEpatents

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  16. Fuel injection system uses air-bled nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Gayler, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    A microprocessor-controlled fuel injection system known as ''Pijet'' has been developed by researchers at Piper FM Ltd. It is explained that air and fuel are mixed in the fuel injectors and the mixture is distributed to each cylinder via ''natural selection.'' The system consists of integrated primary pressure pump and pressure relief valve; control box, integrated with the throttle valve housing and containing throttle angle sensor and fuel metering slot valve; solenoid-operated fuel metering pulser and fuel accumulator; fuel injectors; electronic control module; engine speed sensor; and engine, air temperature, and barometric pressure sensors. It is pointed out that the Pijet system has been used successfully in a number of European and Japanese cars ranging from 1.1 to 2.0 L with operating mileage from 5000 to 30,000 miles. The application of inertia-ram tuned induction systems has shown maximum torque increases of 10-15% with a torque spread increase of 1200 rpm into the low speed range.

  17. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOEpatents

    Upatnieks, Ansis

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  18. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.22 Fuel-injection system. This system shall be so constructed that the quantity of fuel injected can be controlled at a desired maximum value and shall be...

  19. HEAT PUMPS: SUBSTITUTES FOR OUTMODED FOSSIL-FUELED SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the state-of-the-art relative to development, capacity, and adequacy of the heat pump as a potential replacement for outmoded fossil-fueled heating and cooling systems in the residential and commercial sector. Projections are made of the rate at which heat pump...

  20. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  1. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  2. Fuel injection assembly for gas turbine engine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Candy, Anthony J. (Inventor); Glynn, Christopher C. (Inventor); Barrett, John E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injection assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor, including at least one fuel stem, a plurality of concentrically disposed tubes positioned within each fuel stem, wherein a cooling supply flow passage, a cooling return flow passage, and a tip fuel flow passage are defined thereby, and at least one fuel tip assembly connected to each fuel stem so as to be in flow communication with the flow passages, wherein an active cooling circuit for each fuel stem and fuel tip assembly is maintained by providing all active fuel through the cooling supply flow passage and the cooling return flow passage during each stage of combustor operation. The fuel flowing through the active cooling circuit is then collected so that a predetermined portion thereof is provided to the tip fuel flow passage for injection by the fuel tip assembly.

  3. Fuel Vapor Pressures and the Relation of Vapor Pressure to the Preparation of Fuel for Combustion in Fuel Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.

  4. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  5. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2011-07-01

    To increase the number of ethanol blends available in the United States, several states have 'blender pumps' that blend gasoline with flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) fuel. No specification governs the properties of these blended fuels, and little information is available about the fuels sold at blender pumps. No labeling conventions exist, and labeling on the blender pumps surveyed was inconsistent.; The survey samples, collected across the Midwestern United States, included the base gasoline and FFV fuel used in the blends as well as the two lowest blends offered at each station. The samples were tested against the applicable ASTM specifications and for critical operability parameters. Conventional gasoline fuels are limited to 10 vol% ethanol by the U.S. EPA. The ethanol content varied greatly in the samples. Half the gasoline samples contained some ethanol, while the other half contained none. The FFV fuel samples were all within the specification limits. No pattern was observed for the blend content of the higher ethanol content samples at the same station. Other properties tested were specific to higher-ethanol blends. This survey also tested the properties of fuels containing ethanol levels above conventional gasoline but below FFV fuels.

  6. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95-2

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Alleman, T. L.

    2014-05-01

    With the increasing fuel diversity in the marketplace, the Coordinating Research Council and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a survey of mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs) in the market. A total of 73 fuel samples were collected from 20 retail stations. To target Class 4 volatility, the fuel samples were collected primarily in the midwestern United States in the month of February. Samples included the gasoline (E0), Flex Fuel, and every MLEB that was offered from each of the 20 stations. Photographs of each station were taken at the time of sample collection, detailing the pump labeling and configuration. The style and labeling of the pump, hose, and dispenser nozzle are all important features to prevent misfueling events. The physical location of the MLEB product relative to the gasoline product can also be important to prevent misfueling. In general, there were many differences in the style and labeling of the blender pumps surveyed in this study. All samples were analyzed for volatility and ethanol content. For the MLEB samples collected, the fuels tended to be lower in ethanol content than their indicated amount; however, the samples were all within 10 vol% of their indicated blend level. One of the 20 Flex Fuel samples was outside of the allowable limits for ethanol content. Four of the 20 Flex Fuel samples had volatility below the minimum requirement for Class 4.

  7. Fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Freyer, E.; Steinwart, J.; Will, P.

    1981-01-06

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes an air suction pipe, a throttle valve located in the pipe, and a member, upstream of the throttle valve, which is actuatable by air flowing through the suction pipe so as to move a piston valve to dose a quantity of fuel to a fuel injection nozzle. The system includes a duct which bypasses the throttle valve, the duct having a valve which closes the duct when the throttle valve is closed and when the engine is above the idling speed. Dosing of fuel is thereby stopped during coasting of a vehicle, leading to decreased fuel consumption.

  8. 54. Interior of launch support building, fuel transfer pump at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Interior of launch support building, fuel transfer pump at lower left, instrument air compressor at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. View from southwest to northeast of fuel oil pump station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of fuel oil pump station, showing cooling towers to right. The tops of liquid nitrogen storage tanks A & B can be seen above the station roof. In the foreground, left to right, can be seen the covers for diesel fuel tanks no's 9 (structure #819), 8 (#818), 7 (#817), and 6 (#816). At right of center, next to the station, are no's 1 (#803) and 2 (#804). In the distant background are no's 3 (#806), 4 (#807), 5 (#808). No's 3 and 4 are 12,000-gallon tanks, the rest hold 50,000 gallons each - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fuel Oil Pump Station, In Limited Access Area between Service Roads A & D, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. Self-sustaining fuel purging fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.R.; Koblish, T.R.

    1994-01-11

    A fuel injector system for a combustor of a gas turbine engine includes first and second fuel injectors rendered operative to discharge fuel to the combustor during a high power regime of engine operation and rendered non-operative during a lower power regime of engine operation. The first and second fuel injectors include respective first and second fuel discharge passages in fuel flow communication to one another and to the combustor via associated fuel discharge lips to sustain a flame region. The first and second fuel injectors are operatively associated with respective first and second air discharge means having air discharge lips for discharging air to the combustor for sustaining the flame region therein. When the fuel injectors are rendered non-operative, different pneumatic pressures are established at the fuel discharge lips to purge fuel from the fuel injectors to the combustor. 26 figs.

  11. Effects of Fuel Temperature on Injection Process and Combustion of Dimethyl Ether Engine.

    PubMed

    Guangxin, Gao; Zhulin, Yuan; Apeng, Zhou; Shenghua, Liu; Yanju, Wei

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of fuel temperature on the injection process in the fuel-injection pipe and the combustion characteristics of compression ignition (CI) engine, tests on a four stroke, direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine were conducted. Experimental results show that as the fuel temperature increases from 20 to 40 °C, the sound speed is decreased by 12.2%, the peak line pressure at pump and nozzle sides are decreased by 7.2% and 5.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the injection timing is retarded by 2.2 °CA and the injection duration is extended by 0.8 °CA. Accordingly, the ignition delay and the combustion duration are extended by 0.7 °CA and 4.0 °CA, respectively. The cylinder peak pressure is decreased by 5.4%. As a result, the effective thermal efficiency is decreased, especially for temperature above 40 °C. Before beginning an experiment, the fuel properties of DME, including the density, the bulk modulus, and the sound speed were calculated by "ThermoData." The calculated result of sound speed is consistent with the experimental results. PMID:23918238

  12. The cryogenic diffusion pump; An advanced design for fusion reactor primary pumping and fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmerich, J.L. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports on a re-evaluation of the characteristics of the intermediate flow regime with simultaneous thermal accommodation has shown the full potential of the Cryogenic Diffusion Pump for Fusion Reactor applications. A device with a characteristic diameter of 1m will have a pumping speed of 150m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1} for Deuterium at an inlet pressure of 2 {times} 10{sup 2}Pa (Reactor Burn phased) and 400m{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1} at an inlet pressure of 0.1 Pa (Reactor Dwell phase). Simultaneously, it separates impurities, Hydrogen isotopes and Helium and compresses the Helium. The Helium compression ratio (already proven to be {ge}25 for 3% Helium in D{sub 2}) can be further enhanced by additional D{sub 2} or He driven Diffusion Pump and Ejector stages. The latter feature will also simplify pumping requirements for the Helium Glow Discharge scenario: recirculation of Helium at 0.1 Pa (driven by D{sub 2} or He Ejector) and simultaneous removal of DT and impurities by cryocondensation requires no mechanical pump at all or only small turbomolecular-drag pump combinations of He jet drive. The design offers superior tritium compatibility: all metal, fully bakeable, it avoids use of absorbers and argon for helium pumping, thereby reducing overall tritium inventory both in the pump itself and by replacing major fuel clean-up facilities. The advantages of using the Cryogenic Diffusion Pump in a Fusion Reactor Vacuum System are discussed in detail.

  13. Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser injection seeding system

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.L.; Rahn, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    We have designed and tested a compact injection seeding system consisting of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator and a permanent-magnet Faraday isolator. With active resonator frequency stabilization, this system permits highly reliable single-axial-mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser over a period of hours. The system is capable of injection seeding both stable and unstable resonator designs and is suitable for injection seeding commercial lasers with only minor modifications.

  14. Lean direct wall fuel injection method and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kyung J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel combustion chamber, and a method of and a nozzle for mixing liquid fuel and air in the fuel combustion chamber in lean direct injection combustion for advanced gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines. Liquid fuel in a form of jet is injected directly into a cylindrical combustion chamber from the combustion chamber wall surface in a direction opposite to the direction of the swirling air at an angle of from about 50.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a tangential line of the cylindrical combustion chamber and at a fuel-lean condition, with a liquid droplet momentum to air momentum ratio in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.12. Advanced gas turbines benefit from lean direct wall injection combustion. The lean direct wall injection technique of the present invention provides fast, uniform, well-stirred mixing of fuel and air. In addition, in order to further improve combustion, the fuel can be injected at a venturi located in the combustion chamber at a point adjacent the air swirler.

  15. Elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation of high pressure common-rail fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pimao; Zhang, Youtong; Li, Tieshuan; Xie, Lizhe

    2015-03-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73% at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92% at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  16. Heat Transfer to Fuel Sprays Injected into Heated Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selden, Robert F; Spencer, Robert C

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study made of the influence of several variables on the pressure decrease accompanying injection of a relatively cool liquid into a heated compressed gas. Indirectly, this pressure decrease and the time rate of change of it are indicative of the total heat transferred as well as the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the injected liquid. Air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide were used as ambient gases; diesel fuel and benzene were the injected liquids. The gas densities and gas-fuel ratios covered approximately the range used in compression-ignition engines. The gas temperatures ranged from 150 degrees c. to 350 degrees c.

  17. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOEpatents

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  18. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  19. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  20. System and method for injecting fuel

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2012-12-04

    According to various embodiments, a system includes a staggered multi-nozzle assembly. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly includes a first fuel nozzle having a first axis and a first flow path extending to a first downstream end portion, wherein the first fuel nozzle has a first non-circular perimeter at the first downstream end portion. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly also includes a second fuel nozzle having a second axis and a second flow path extending to a second downstream end portion, wherein the first and second downstream end portions are axially offset from one another relative to the first and second axes. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly further includes a cap member disposed circumferentially about at least the first and second fuel nozzles to assemble the staggered multi-nozzle assembly.

  1. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  2. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    York, William David

    2012-10-23

    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  3. Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Samuel L I; Corcoran, Bill; Lundström, Carl; Tipsuwannakul, Ekawit; Sygletos, Stylianos; Ellis, Andrew D; Tong, Zhi; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A

    2013-06-17

    An injection locking-based pump recovery system for phase-sensitive amplified links, capable of handling 40 dB effective span loss, is demonstrated. Measurements with 10 GBd DQPSK signals show penalty-free recovery of a pump wave, phase modulated with two sinusoidal RF-tones at 0.1 GHz and 0.3 GHz, with 64 dB amplification. The operating power limit for the pump recovery system is experimentally investigated and is governed by the noise transfer and phase modulation transfer characteristics of the injection-locked laser. The corresponding link penalties are explained and quantified. This system enables, for the first time, WDM compatible phase-sensitive amplified links over significant lengths. PMID:23787639

  4. Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser injection seeding system.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, R L; Rahn, L A

    1986-03-01

    We have designed and tested a compact injection seeding system consisting of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator and a permanent-magnet Faraday isolator. With active resonator frequency stabilization, this system permits highly reliable single-axial-mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser over a period of hours. The system is capable of injection seeding both stable and unstable resonator designs and is suitable for injection seeding commercial lasers with only minor modifications. PMID:18231224

  5. Vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with injection laser pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, D. L., Jr.; McInerney, J. G.; Raja, M. Y. A.; Schaus, C. F.; Brueck, S. R. J.

    1990-05-01

    Continuous-wave GaAs/GaAlAs edge-emitting diode lasers were used to pump GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with resonant periodic gain (RPG) at room temperature. Pump threshold as low as 11 mW, output powers as high as 27 mW at 850 nm, and external differential quantum efficiencies of about 70 percent were observed in GaAs/AlGaAs surface -emitters; spectral brightness 22 times that of the pump laser was also observed. Output powers as high as 85 mW at 950 nm and differential quantum efficiencies of up to 58 percent were recorded for the InGaAs surface-emitting laser. This is the highest quasi-CW output power ever reported for any RPG VCSEL, and the first time such a device has been pumped using an injection laser diode.

  6. Thermostructural analysis of a scramjet fuel-injection strut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieting, A. R.; Thornton, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a thermal/structural design analysis study of a fuel injection strut for an airframe integrated hydrogen cooled scramjet are presented. It is indicated that a feasible thermal/structural concept has been identified for the static load conditions and that thermal stresses dominate the response. It is suggested that the response of the concept to dynamic loads be investigated.

  7. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements...

  8. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements...

  9. Two-stage, hydraulic-assisted fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, D.H.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle for internal combustion engines including, in combination, a nozzle body means having a fuel inlet means at one end and a fuel injection spray orifice means at its opposite spray outlet end with a discharge passage means interconnecting the inlet means to the spray orifice means; a valve seat in the passage means upstream of the spray orifice means, a spring chamber means in the nozzle body means intermediate the ends, a pressure actuated injection valve in the nozzle body movable relative to the valve seat and having one end extending into the spring chamber means; a first spring means and second spring means in the spring chamber means operatively connected to each other and to the injection valve to effect the opening of the injection valve in two stages is controlled by the first spring means; and the second spring means with a first stage opening as controlled by the first spring and a second state opening as controlled by both the first and second spring. A valve controlled orifice passage means is in flow communication at one end with the discharge passage means and at its opposite end with the spring chamber means.

  10. [Cost benefits of intensive insulin therapy using injections, external pumps and implantable pumps].

    PubMed

    Selam, J L; Haardt, M J; Berne, C; Dorange, C; Lanoe, J L; Bethoux, J P; Slama, G

    1993-12-01

    Since feasibility is now proven, cost-efficacy of external sub-cutaneous (EXT) and implantable programmable (IMP) insulin pumps needs to be compared to those of intensified conventional insulin therapy (CONV). Only metabolic efficacy and short-term direct costs are easily evaluable. We (WHO-CSII Study) and others have shown that glycemic control and severe hypoglycemia risk are slightly improved, while ketoacidosis risk and costs are aggravated with EXT vs CONV. We (CEDIT Study) and others have shown that glycemic control, mild and severe hypoglycemic risks are improved, with no increase in ketoacidosis rates although a doubling in costs with IMP vs CONV. Rigid interpretation of the above data would limit indications of insulin pumps to patients experiencing frequent hypoglycemias while on intensified conventional insulin therapy. PMID:8206188

  11. Some Characteristics of Fuel Sprays at Low-injection Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, Va., to determine some of the characteristics of the fuel sprays obtained from an 0.008-inch and a 0.020-inch open nozzle when injection pressures from 100 to 500 pounds per square inch were used. Fuel oil and gasoline were injected into air at densities of atmospheric land 0.325 pound per cubic foot. It was found that the penetration rate at these low pressures was about the same as the rate obtained with higher pressures. Spray cone-angles were small and individual oil drops were visible in all the sprays. Gasoline and fuel oil sprays had similar characteristics.

  12. 125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Singh, U N; Barnes, N P; Petros, M

    1998-05-15

    We describe a diode-pumped, room-temperature Ho:Tm:YLF power oscillator with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 0.03. A Q -switched output energy of as much as 125 mJ at 6 Hz with a pulse width of 170 ns was obtained. Single-frequency, nearly transform-limited operation of the laser was achieved by injection seeding. Laser performance as a function of laser rod temperature and pump intensity was also investigated. The high power and high beam quality of this laser make it well suited for use as a coherent wind lidar transmitter on a space platform. PMID:18087340

  13. Fuel injection valve having a burnished guide bore and seat

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, I.; Takaoka, Y.

    1987-03-24

    A method is described of producing a fuel injection valve which comprises a main fuel injection valve body; a valve rod slidable in the body and having an end with a valve body; and a valve seat-forming member attached to the main fuel injection valve body with the valve rod guidably received therein; the valve seat forming member having an interior including a guide bore for guiding opening and closing displacements of the valve rod. The guide bore has a uniform diameter throughout its entire length. A valve seat connected to the guide bore by an intermediate connecting portion, the valve seat having a smaller diameter than that of the guide bore and a fuel discharge port formed in continuation of the valve seat. The method comprises: forming a starting bore in the valve seat-forming member by boring, the starting bore having a straight, rectilinear bore portion leading into a lower tapered bore portion, and thereafter concurrently forming the guide bore and the valve seat from the starting bore by simultaneously subjecting the surfaces of the straight, rectilinear portion of the lower tapered bore portion of the starting bore to a burnishing operation by a single and common burnishing tool. This leaves a non-barnished portion between the burnished guide bore and the burnished valve seat, the non-burnished portion forming the intermediate connecting portion which provides a smoothly stepped configuration from the guide bore to the valve seat.

  14. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  15. Numerical Study of a Fuel Centrifugal Pump with Variable Impeller Width for Aero-engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Guan, Huasheng; Ye, Zhifeng

    2015-12-01

    As typical pump with large flow rate and high reliability, centrifugal pumps in fuel system of aero-engines mostly regulate flow rate by flow bypass, which leads to low efficiency and large fuel temperature rise especially at low flow rate. An innovative fuel centrifugal pump with variable impeller width is a more effective way to regulate flow rate than flow bypass. To find external characteristics of the centrifugal pump with variable impeller width proposed in this paper, flow domain within the pump is simulated numerically and some primary performance parameters and their correlation are analyzed. Results show that flow rate of the pump can be regulated by variable impeller width and that efficiency for this scheme is higher than that for flow bypass. The higher outlet static pressure the pump runs at, the wider range of flow rates can be obtained with stronger nonlinear relationship between flow rate and impeller width.

  16. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  17. Injection chaining of diode-pumped single-frequency ring lasers for free-space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, E. A. P.; Kane, T. J.; Wallace, R. W.; Cornwell, D. M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A high-power three-stage laser suitable for use in a space communication system has been built. This laser uses three diode-pumped Nd:YAG oscillators coherently combined using the technique of injection chaining. All three oscillators are in one compact and permanently aligned package, and are actively frequency locked to provide CW single frequency output. The three stages provide the redundancy desirable for space communications.

  18. 30 CFR 57.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped with a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped with a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  2. Development of a fuel injected two-stroke gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Plohberger, D.; Mikulic, L.A.; Landfahrer, K.

    1988-01-01

    AVL's development of a semi-direct injected two-stroke engine employed a carburetted 250cc production motorcycle engine as a baseline. Special emphasis was placed on the investigation of fuel jet and scavenge flow interactions. To evaluate the scavenge flow pattern, a steady flow test procedure was developed and applied. The results of scavenging system optimization were confirmed by subsequent engine tests which showed significant gains in power output. Completion of the first phase of the research program resulted in the development of a semi-direct injection system using currently available automotive low pressure manifold injection system components. Compared to the original carburetted engine, significant improvements were demonstrated, including a 30% reduction of fuel consumption, a reduction of up to 60% in hydrocarbon emissions and up to 70% in carbon monoxide emission, averaged over the engine's speed and load range. Engine BMEP and power characteristics were maintained and improved. In addition, the critical idle operating conditions were improved significantly by stabilizing the combustion with minimized cyclic variations. The results of thermodynamic cycle analyses, based both on engine test measurements and on calculations, are presented. Finally, the paper compares the semi-direct and direct injection systems and presents an outlook based on some of the results of the current phase of AVL's low emission two-stroke engine research program.

  3. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19

    While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces

  4. Electric Fuel Pump Condition Monitor System Using Electricalsignature Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D [Knoxville, TN; Cox, Daryl F [Knoxville, TN; Welch, Donald E [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-09-13

    A pump diagnostic system and method comprising current sensing probes clamped on electrical motor leads of a pump for sensing only current signals on incoming motor power, a signal processor having a means for buffering and anti-aliasing current signals into a pump motor current signal, and a computer having a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting motor current signatures from the motor current signal to determine pump health using integrated motor and pump diagnostic parameters.

  5. Novel application-oriented transient fuel model of a port fuel injection S. I. engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cunlei; Zhang, Jianlong; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-03-01

    Most researches on transient fuel control of port fuel injection S.I. engine are carried out from the perspective of advanced mathematical theories. When it comes to practical control, there exist many limitations although they are more intelligent. In order to overcome the fuel wetting effect of PFI engine, the application-oriented transient fuel control is studied by analyzing the key parameters which are closely related with the engine transient characteristics. Both validity and simplicity are taken into consideration. Based on the fuel wall-wetting theory and popular fuel compensation strategy, short-term transient fuel(STF) and long-term transient fuel(LTF), as well as their individual decay approaches, are introduced. STF is to compensate the drastic fuel film loss caused by sudden throttle change, while the function of LTF is to compensate the fuel film loss by manifold air pressure( p) fluctuation. Each of them has their respective pros and cons. The engine fuel mass and air mass are also calculated for air-fuel ratio(AFR) according to ideal gas state equation and empirical equations. The vehicle acceleration test is designed for model validation. The engine experiences several mild and heavy accelerations corresponding to the gear change during vehicle acceleration. STF and LTF control are triggered reliably. The engine transient fuel control simulation adopts the same inputs as the test to ensure consistency. The logged test data are used to check the model output. The results show that the maximum fuel pulse width(FPW) error reaches 2 ms, and it only occurs under engine heavy acceleration condition. The average FPW error is 0.57 ms. The results of simulation and test are close overall, which indicates the accuracy of steady and transient fuel. The proposed research provides an efficient approach not only suitable for practical engineering application, but also for AFR prediction, fuel consumption calculation, and further studies on emission control.

  6. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  7. The effect of maximum open height on operating characteristics of polymer injected pump poppet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. C.; Chen, X. D.; Deng, H. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Reciprocating polymer injected pump is the key injection equipment of tertiary oil recovery, the poppet valve in it exists the problem of large vibration noise, low efficiency and short life when transportation high viscosity medium. So the CFD technique is adopted to simulate and analyze the inner flow fields of fluid end poppet valve. According to the practical structure of the poppet valve, a simplified 2D axis-symmetry geometry model of the flow field is established. Combined with pump speed, plunger stroke and plunger diameter, given the boundary condition of the inlet valve, then the numerical simulation of flow field under six different maximum open heights is done depending on software Fluent. The relationship between open height to valve gap flow velocity, hydraulic loss and lag angle is obtained. The results indicate that, with the increase of open height, the valve gap flow velocity decreases, inlet outlet pressure differential decreases and hydraulic loss decreases. But the lag angle is continuously increasing with the increase of maximum open height, the valve has a good work performance when the open height is 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3mm, but when it reaches 3.5mm, the valve performance becomes poor. The study can offer certain reference to understand operating characteristics of poppet valve, help to reduce the hydraulic losses and raise volume efficiency of the pump.

  8. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-04-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity (T) and storativity (S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  9. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  10. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann; DeLancey, James Peter; Primus, Roy James; Pintgen, Florian Peter

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  12. Spray Penetration with a Simple Fuel Injection Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Harold E; Beardsley, Edward G

    1926-01-01

    The purpose of the tests covered by this report was to obtain specific information on the rate of penetration of the spray from a simple injection nozzle, having a single orifice with a diameter of 0.015 inch when injecting into compressed gases. The results have shown that the effects of both chamber and fuel pressures on penetration are so marked that the study of sprays by means of high-speed photography or its equivalent is necessary if the effects are to be appreciated sufficiently to enable rational analysis. It was found for these tests that the negative acceleration of the spray tip is approximately proportional to the 1.5 power of the instantaneous velocity of the spray tip.

  13. Spin-injection optical pumping of molten cesium salt and its NMR diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-15

    Nuclear spin polarization of cesium ions in the salt was enhanced during optical pumping of cesium vapor at high magnetic field. Significant motional narrowing and frequency shift of NMR signals were observed by intense laser heating of the salt. When the hyperpolarized salt was cooled by blocking the heating laser, the signal width and frequency changed during cooling and presented the phase transition from liquid to solid. Hence, we find that the signal enhancement is mostly due to the molten salt and nuclear spin polarization is injected into the salt efficiently in the liquid phase. We also show that optical pumping similarly induces line narrowing in the solid phase. The use of powdered salt provided an increase in effective surface area and signal amplitude without glass wool in the glass cells.

  14. Spin-injection optical pumping of molten cesium salt and its NMR diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear spin polarization of cesium ions in the salt was enhanced during optical pumping of cesium vapor at high magnetic field. Significant motional narrowing and frequency shift of NMR signals were observed by intense laser heating of the salt. When the hyperpolarized salt was cooled by blocking the heating laser, the signal width and frequency changed during cooling and presented the phase transition from liquid to solid. Hence, we find that the signal enhancement is mostly due to the molten salt and nuclear spin polarization is injected into the salt efficiently in the liquid phase. We also show that optical pumping similarly induces line narrowing in the solid phase. The use of powdered salt provided an increase in effective surface area and signal amplitude without glass wool in the glass cells.

  15. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  16. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  17. Measurements of Fuel Distribution Within Sprays for Fuel-Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1937-01-01

    Two methods were used to measure fuel distribution within sprays from several types of fuel-injection nozzles. A small tube inserted through the wall of an air tight chamber into which the sprays were injected could be moved about inside the chamber. When the pressure was raised to obtain air densities of 6 and 14 atmospheres, some air was forced through the tube and the fuel that was carried with it was separated by absorbent cotton and weighed. Cross sections of sprays from plain, pintle, multiple-orifice, impinging-jets, centrifugal, lip, slit, and annular-orifice nozzles were investigated, at distances of 1, 3, 5, and 7 inches from the nozzles.

  18. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John; Klemm, Jim; Abbott, Royce; Overman, Nick; Pack, Spencer; Winebrenner, Audra

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  19. A review of contamination related hydraulic pump problems in Japanese injection molding, extrusion and rubber molding industries

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira

    1997-12-31

    It is known that contamination of hydraulic oil is one of the major factors causing hydraulic pump problems. Many test reports on contaminant sensibility of hydraulic pumps have been published with new oil and standard dusts but the results of these tests could not guarantee to predict in-service performance. This report describes three cases investigated. The first investigation was done on hydraulic pumps used for injection molding machines application. The causes of pump problems were examined by analysis of maintenance records. The second investigation was performed to determine overhaul frequency of hydraulic pumps used for aluminum extruders. By introducing a new method of hydraulic oil management which reduces oil oxidation products, pump life was extended from 3,000 to 15,000 hours. The third investigation was done to determine the relationship between pump problems and contamination levels of hydraulic oils of 411 rubber molding machines for 20 months. The results showed that pump problems appeared at half the recommended oil lifetimes for these fluids. These studies showed that the cause of pump problems was clogging of suction strainers leading to pump cavitation. The clogged strainers were washed with several different solvents to identify the causes of suction strainer clogging. Clogging of suction strainers was attributable to sticky oxidation products of hydraulic oils. Electrostatic oil cleaners removed not only micron range solid particles bu also submicron size particles. Hydraulic pump problems have been substantially reduced by introducing this new method of contamination control.

  20. An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavipour, S. G.; Dupont, E.; Fathololoumi, S.; Chan, C. W. I.; Lindskog, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Aers, G.; Laframboise, S. R.; Wacker, A.; Hu, Q.; Ban, D.; Liu, H. C.

    2013-05-01

    We designed and demonstrated a terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirect pump injection to the upper lasing state and phonon scattering extraction from the lower lasing state. By employing a rate equation formalism and a genetic algorithm, an optimized active region design with four-well GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As cascade module was obtained and epitaxially grown. A figure of merit which is defined as the ratio of modal gain versus injection current was maximized at 150 K. A fabricated device with a Au metal-metal waveguide and a top n+ GaAs contact layer lased at 2.4 THz up to 128.5 K, while another one without the top n+ GaAs lased up to 152.5 K (1.3ℏω /kB). The experimental results have been analyzed with rate equation and nonequilibrium Green's function models. A high population inversion is achieved at high temperature using a small oscillator strength of 0.28, while its combination with the low injection coupling strength of 0.85 meV results in a low current. The carefully engineered wavefunctions enhance the quantum efficiency of the device and therefore improve the output optical power even with an unusually low injection coupling strength.

  1. Stratospheric Injection of Reflective Aerosols or Particles by Means of Aviation Fuel Additives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, J.

    2007-12-01

    Various suggestions have been made for stratospheric aerosols or particles to simulate the observed cooling effect of major volcanic eruptions. The best known is the detailed proposal of Paul Crutzen for sulphur dioxide. Also extensively discussed is diatomous earth, injected as individual diatoms. (Silica particles originating as marine shells.) This paper describes the selection and preliminary testing of chemicals that might be used as aviation fuel additives to distribute these two products, sulphur dioxide and micron sized silica particles, from a high flying commercial or military aircraft. The two chemicals tested are dimethyl sulphide to produce sulphur dioxide and tetra ethyl silicate to produce silica particles. In a closed glass jar both of these chemicals are indistinguishable from jet aviation fuel. Both are clear, colourless, oily liquids. Both dissolve in aviation fuel in any proportion. Solutions of each of these chemicals have been burned in a paraffin blowlamp as a simple simulation of a jet engine combustion chamber. Observation of the combustion suggests that the desired chemicals are produced and that the silica particles are of smoke or mist (micron) size. It is suggested that the solutions would probably have no detrimental effects on the fuel tanks, pipes, pumps or combustion chambers of the jet engine. This paper includes general facts about jet engines, aviation fuel, aircraft fuel systems and flight plans which may not be known to climate scientists. Also briefly considered are the health consequences of silica particles in the stratosphere. No tests have been done on a jet engine. Suggestions are made on the type of tests that would be needed by an organization having engine static test facilities.

  2. Superluminescence from an optically pumped molecular tunneling junction by injection of plasmon induced hot electrons

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kai; Wang, Xiao; Kern, Andreas M; Adler, Hilmar; Peisert, Heiko; Chassé, Thomas; Zhang, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Summary Here, we demonstrate a bias-driven superluminescent point light-source based on an optically pumped molecular junction (gold substrate/self-assembled molecular monolayer/gold tip) of a scanning tunneling microscope, operating at ambient conditions and providing almost three orders of magnitude higher electron-to-photon conversion efficiency than electroluminescence induced by inelastic tunneling without optical pumping. A positive, steadily increasing bias voltage induces a step-like rise of the Stokes shifted optical signal emitted from the junction. This emission is strongly attenuated by reversing the applied bias voltage. At high bias voltage, the emission intensity depends non-linearly on the optical pump power. The enhanced emission can be modelled by rate equations taking into account hole injection from the tip (anode) into the highest occupied orbital of the closest substrate-bound molecule (lower level) and radiative recombination with an electron from above the Fermi level (upper level), hence feeding photons back by stimulated emission resonant with the gap mode. The system reflects many essential features of a superluminescent light emitting diode. PMID:26171286

  3. Superluminescence from an optically pumped molecular tunneling junction by injection of plasmon induced hot electrons.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kai; Wang, Xiao; Kern, Andreas M; Adler, Hilmar; Peisert, Heiko; Chassé, Thomas; Zhang, Dai; Meixner, Alfred J

    2015-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate a bias-driven superluminescent point light-source based on an optically pumped molecular junction (gold substrate/self-assembled molecular monolayer/gold tip) of a scanning tunneling microscope, operating at ambient conditions and providing almost three orders of magnitude higher electron-to-photon conversion efficiency than electroluminescence induced by inelastic tunneling without optical pumping. A positive, steadily increasing bias voltage induces a step-like rise of the Stokes shifted optical signal emitted from the junction. This emission is strongly attenuated by reversing the applied bias voltage. At high bias voltage, the emission intensity depends non-linearly on the optical pump power. The enhanced emission can be modelled by rate equations taking into account hole injection from the tip (anode) into the highest occupied orbital of the closest substrate-bound molecule (lower level) and radiative recombination with an electron from above the Fermi level (upper level), hence feeding photons back by stimulated emission resonant with the gap mode. The system reflects many essential features of a superluminescent light emitting diode. PMID:26171286

  4. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging. Final report, July 1990-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, N.J.; Barkhimer, R.L.; Steinmeyer, D.C.; Kelly, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine. Electronic fuel injection, Turbocharging, Diesel combustion, Cold starting, Flame photography.

  5. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  6. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  7. Gravity gradiometry difference measurement as a tool for monitoring pumping and injection; forward modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, R.; Edwards, A.

    1997-08-01

    Gravity gradiometry forward models have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL) that can characterize gravity gradient changes with the development of a cone of depression or injection mound in water table aquifers. Difference measurements at long time intervals reduce delayed drainage effects and eliminate the need for determining an initial density structure. Qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the gradient signal to determine changes in groundwater distribution with injection or pumping may be possible, particularly if the time varying nature of the signal is of interest. Gravity gradiometer instruments (such as the Gravity Gradient Survey System) have progressed to the point where the complete second order gravity gradient tensor can be measured with an instrument noise level of less than 1 Eotvos (0.1 microgals/meter). Modeling indicates direct gravity measurements for the injection mound perched aquifier case could produce similar signal to noise ratios. However gravity gradients provide 5 independent measurements and due to the common mode nature of the instruments are less susceptible to other effects (tide, latitude, elevation, etc.). The gradients also provide a sharper image of the edge of the anomaly. The systematic identification and removal of specific retention, rainfall and subsidence or uplift effects may be required to make gradiometry difference imaging practical for field use.

  8. Piezoceramic multilayer actuators for fuel injection systems in automotive area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Carsten; Steinkopff, Thorsten; Wolff, Andreas; Lubitz, Karl

    2000-06-01

    Cofired multilayer piezoceramic actuators as extremely fast valve driving elements will lead to a significant progress in the field of fuel injection systems. A careful adaptation of the component performance to the system demands, an extraordinary high reliability, and competitive low production costs are prerequisites for this large-scale industrial application. With proper material selection as basis, conventional multilayer technology has to be substantially extended in order to achieve large stack volumes, to avoid degradation effects during cofiring and nevertheless to meet the target costs. Under large-signal driving conditions, the static and dynamic behavior of the component is essentially influenced by driving pulse shape, clamping force, and stiffness of the load. Linear FE methods are employed to calculate the performance criteria of different actuator designs. Moreover, a FE-implementation using a micromechanical domain switching model was developed in order to describe the strongly nonlinear material behavior. Together with a quantitative estimation of crack initiation and propagation by means of fracture mechanics, these methods can give valuable hits for controlling the effects of fatigue and deterioration which may limit the operating life time. In order to optimize the interaction of the electrical and mechanical parts in the injection system, dynamic models of piezoelectric components must be provided. A nonlinear model of the stack actuator has been developed for the analysis software MATLAB/SIMULINK. Special attention has been paid to the hysteresis properties.

  9. Injection locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollemann, G.; Peik, E.; Rusch, A.; Walther, H.

    1995-09-15

    Injection locking in the quasi-three-level laser system Nd:YAG {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2}--{sup 4}{ital I}{sub 9/2} at 946 nm is reported. The master and slave oscillators are pumped by laser diodes. The master oscillator is frequency stabilized to a high-finesse cavity, resulting in a laser linewidth of less than 10 Hz. Using intracavity frequency doubling of the slave oscillator, we achieve a single-mode output power of 60 mW at 473 nm. The laser radiation was frequency quadrupled, resulting in an UV power of 0.55 mW at 236.5 nm. The laser system was used to excite a strongly forbidden In{sup +} transition, proposed as a new optical frequency standard. {copyright} 1995 Optical Society of America

  10. Injection seeded, diode pumped regenerative ring Nd:YAG amplifier for spaceborne laser ranging technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Degnan, John J.; Krebs, Danny J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1992-01-01

    A small, all solid state, regenerative ring amplifier designed as a prototype for space application is discussed. Novel features include dual side pumping of the Nd:YAG crystal and a triangular ring cavity design which minimizes the number of optical components and losses. The amplifier is relatively small (3 ns round trip time) even though standard optical elements are employed. The ring regeneratively amplifies a 100 ps single pulse by approximately 10(exp 5) at a repetition rate of 10 to 100 Hz. The amplifier is designed to be injection seeded with a pulsed, 100 ps laser diode at 1.06 microns, but another Nd:YAG laser system supplying higher pulse energies was employed for laboratory experiment. This system is a prototype laser oscillator for the Geoscience Laser Ranging System (GLRS) platform. Results on measurements of beam quality, astigmatism, and gain are given.

  11. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  12. Planar near-nozzle velocity measurements during a single high-pressure fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüßler, Raimund; Gürtler, Johannes; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of modern Diesel engines, the high-pressure fuel injections have to be optimized. This requires continuous, time-resolved measurements of the fuel velocity distribution during multiple complete injection cycles, which can provide a deeper understanding of the injection process. However, fuel velocity measurements at high-pressure injection nozzles are a challenging task due to the high velocities of up to 300 m/s, the short injection durations in the range and the high fuel droplet density especially near the nozzle exit. In order to solve these challenges, a fast imaging Doppler global velocimeter with laser frequency modulation (2D-FM-DGV) incorporating a high-speed camera is presented. As a result, continuous planar velocity field measurements are performed with a measurement rate of 200 kHz in the near-nozzle region of a high-pressure Diesel injection. The injection system is operated under atmospheric surrounding conditions with injection pressures up to 1400 bar thereby reaching fuel velocities up to 380 m/s. The measurements over multiple entire injection cycles resolved the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the fuel velocity, which occur especially for low injection pressures. Furthermore, a sudden setback of the velocity at the beginning of the injection is identified for various injection pressures. In conclusion, the fast measurement system enables the investigation of the complete temporal behavior of single injection cycles or a series of it. Since this eliminates the necessity of phase-locked measurements, the proposed measurement approach provides new insights for the analysis of high-pressure injections regarding unsteady phenomena.

  13. Compatibility of Paclitaxel injection diluent with two reduced-phthalate administration sets for the acclaim pump.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q A; Trissel, L A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the compatibility of paclitaxel admixtures with the two reduced-phthalate administration sets designed for use with the Acclaim Infusion Control Device. The first is a nitroglycerin set composed of polyethylene tubing, while the second is made using tris(2-ethyl-hexyl) trimellitate (TOTM)-plasticized polyvinyl chloride tubing. Both sets utilize a diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-plasicized pumping segment. The potential for extraction of DEHP from the pumping segments and TOTM plasticizer from the plastic matrix by the Cremophor EL surfactant present in the paclitaxel injection was evaluated. Diethylhexyl phthalate and TOTM plasticizer extraction was tested using the paclitaxel diluent at concentrations equivalent to 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL over three-hour and four-day infusions. All samples were prepared in triplicate in polyolefin bags of 5% dextrose injection and deliverd through the administration sets into glass collection flasks. Both DEHP and TOTM content were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic methods. None of the admixtures delivered rapidly over three hours or slowly over four days through the TOTM-plasticized set exhibited any detectable TOTM. Similarly, no DEHP was detected in the effluent form either set with the simulated 0.3-mg/mL admixtures delivered over three hours. The simulated 1.2-mg/mL admixture delivered over three hours yielded only a barely detectable, but not quantifiable, trace of DEHP. However, slow delivery of both concentrations over four days through both sets resulted in leached DEHP in concentrations ranging from about 30 to 150 micrograms/mL at both one and four days. The two reduced-phthalate administration sets tested in this study are suitable for the administration of paclitaxel infusions of short duration, for up to three hours. However, the sets cannot be recommended for administration over longer-duration delivery times ranging from one to four days due to leaching of

  14. Photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fiber with weak signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan-Nan, Liu; Yu-Hong, Liu; Jia-Min, Li; Xiao-Ying, Li

    2016-07-01

    We study the photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fibers with weak coherent signal injection by measuring the intensity correlation functions of individual signal and idler fields. The experimental results show that the intensity correlation function of individual signal (idler) field decreases with the intensity of signal injection. After applying narrow band filter in signal (idler) band, the value of decreases from 1.9 ± 0.02 (1.9 ± 0.02) to 1.03 ± 0.02 (1.05 ± 0.02) when the intensity of signal injection varies from 0 to 120 photons/pulse. The results indicate that the photon statistics changes from Bose–Einstein distribution to Poisson distribution. We calculate the intensity correlation functions by using the multi-mode theory of four-wave mixing in fibers. The theoretical curves well fit the experimental results. Our investigation will be useful for mitigating the crosstalk between quantum and classical channels in a dense wavelength division multiplexing network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11527808), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2014CB340103), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120032110055), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 14JCQNJC02300), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China, and the Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China (Grant No. B07014).

  15. Numerical investigation of the impact of asymmetric fuel injection on shock train characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Bin; Chang, Juntao; Jiao, Xiaoliang; Bao, Wen; Yu, Daren

    2014-12-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the impact of asymmetric fuel injection on shock train characteristics using the commercial-code FLUENT. The asymmetry of fuel injection is examined by changing the fuel flow rates of the upper and lower wall fuel injectors. The numerical approach solves the two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, supplemented with a k-ω model of turbulence. As a result, different ways of fuel injections will always lead to shock train transitions, with the variations of shock train structure, strength and leading edge position. For symmetric fuel injection, the flowfield of the isolator is quite asymmetric with the boundary layer of the upper wall side developing much stronger than that of the lower wall, which is due to the heterogeneity of the incoming flow. Regarding to asymmetric fuel injection with more of lower wall side, though the pressures in the combustor are nearly the same, the first shock of the shock train converts between 'Distinct symmetric X type shock' and 'Obscure and weaker asymmetric shock' and the shock train leading edge moves upstream with the increase of the asymmetry level. With regard to asymmetric fuel injection with more of upper wall side, 'incomplete asymmetric X type shock' occurs and the shock train structures keep nearly the same with low level of fuel injection asymmetry. Unexpected results like unstart will happen when increasing the level of fuel injection asymmetry. And the isolator will come back to normal state by decreasing the differential of upper and lower wall sides fuel injections.

  16. Ferromagnetic Resonance Spin Pumping and Electrical Spin Injection in Silicon-Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Y.; Odenthal, P. M.; Adur, R.; Beardsley, J.; Swartz, A. G.; Pelekhov, D. V.; Flatté, M. E.; Kawakami, R. K.; Pelz, J.; Hammel, P. C.; Johnston-Halperin, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the measurement of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR-)driven spin pumping and three-terminal electrical spin injection within the same silicon-based device. Both effects manifest in a dc spin accumulation voltage Vs that is suppressed as an applied field is rotated to the out-of-plane direction, i.e., the oblique Hanle geometry. Comparison of Vs between these two spin injection mechanisms reveals an anomalously strong suppression of FMR-driven spin pumping with increasing out-of-plane field Happz . We propose that the presence of the large ac component to the spin current generated by the spin pumping approach, expected to exceed the dc value by 2 orders of magnitude, is the origin of this discrepancy through its influence on the spin dynamics at the oxide-silicon interface. This convolution, wherein the dynamics of both the injector and the interface play a significant role in the spin accumulation, represents a new regime for spin injection that is not well described by existing models of either FMR-driven spin pumping or electrical spin injection.

  17. Ferromagnetic Resonance Spin Pumping and Electrical Spin Injection in Silicon-Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pu, Y; Odenthal, P M; Adur, R; Beardsley, J; Swartz, A G; Pelekhov, D V; Flatté, M E; Kawakami, R K; Pelz, J; Hammel, P C; Johnston-Halperin, E

    2015-12-11

    We present the measurement of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR-)driven spin pumping and three-terminal electrical spin injection within the same silicon-based device. Both effects manifest in a dc spin accumulation voltage V_{s} that is suppressed as an applied field is rotated to the out-of-plane direction, i.e., the oblique Hanle geometry. Comparison of V_{s} between these two spin injection mechanisms reveals an anomalously strong suppression of FMR-driven spin pumping with increasing out-of-plane field H_{app}^{z}. We propose that the presence of the large ac component to the spin current generated by the spin pumping approach, expected to exceed the dc value by 2 orders of magnitude, is the origin of this discrepancy through its influence on the spin dynamics at the oxide-silicon interface. This convolution, wherein the dynamics of both the injector and the interface play a significant role in the spin accumulation, represents a new regime for spin injection that is not well described by existing models of either FMR-driven spin pumping or electrical spin injection. PMID:26705647

  18. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  19. Modeling the effects of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate shape on diesel engine combustion and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Daniel Kelly

    1998-11-01

    The effect of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate-shaping on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied using KIVA a multidimensional computational fluid dynamics code. Auxiliary gas injection (AGI) is the injection of a gas, in addition to the fuel injection, directly into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The objective of AGI is to influence the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce emissions of pollutants (soot and NO x). In this study, the accuracy of modeling high speed gas jets on very coarse computational grids was addressed. KIVA was found to inaccurately resolve the jet flows near walls. The cause of this inaccuracy was traced to the RNG k - ɛ turbulence model with the law-of-the-wall boundary condition used by KIVA. By prescribing the lengthscale near the nozzle exit, excellent agreement between computed and theoretical jet penetration was attained for a transient gas jet into a quiescent chamber at various operating conditions. The effect of AGI on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied by incorporating the coarse grid gas jet model into a detailed multidimensional simulation of a Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of AGI timing, composition, amount, orientation, and location were investigated. The effects of AGI and split fuel injection were also investigated. AGI was found to be effective at reducing soot emissions by increasing mixing within the combustion chamber. AGI of inert gas was found to be effective at reducing emissions of NOx by depressing the peak combustion temperatures. Finally, comparison of AGI simulations with experiments were conducted for a TACOM-LABECO engine. The results showed that AGI improved soot oxidation throughout the engine cycle. Simulation of fuel injection rate-shaping investigated the effects of three injection velocity profiles typical of unit-injector type, high-pressure common-rail type, and accumulator-type fuel injectors in the Caterpillar 3401 heavy

  20. [Study on the performance of piezoelectric micro pump for insulin injection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijing; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xinyuan

    2015-01-01

    In terms of performance of piezoelectric micro pump, this paper explores the piezoelectric ceramic plate in different wave driven micro pump flow rate. The conclusion is that the square wave voltage gets the biggest micro pump velocity. The velocity and pressure of the micro pump is almost linear relationship, and having nothing to do with the different inner diameter pipes. The piezoelectric micro pump's stability is not good and exists attenuation. PMID:26027300

  1. Effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the gain and the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    The effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the ultrafast gain and the phase recovery dynamics of electrically-driven quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers is numerically investigated by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain and the phase recovery responses are calculated with respect to the additional optical pumping power. Increasing the additional optical pumping power can significantly accelerate the ultrafast phase recovery, which cannot be done by increasing the injection current density.

  2. Fracture control of H-O engine components. [titanium tin alloy fuel pump impellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made to obtain the material characterization and fatigue crack propagation data necessary to establish the salient characteristics of a Ti-6Al-2.5Sn(ELI) alloy fuel pump impeller to be used in a cryogenic service environment. Testing variables considered were: coupon orientation, frequency, load range ratio, and temperature. Data analysis correlated crack propagation data from conventional laboratory coupons with data from a parallel sided rotating disk used to model rotor stresses. Four major design recommendations when bore regions of fuel pump impellers to be operated in cryogenic environments are to be relatively highly stressed are discussed.

  3. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  4. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  5. Airblast fuel injection with adjustable valve cracking pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.M.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes an airblast fuel injector having injector body means for forming an inner air chamber with a downstream air discharge orifice, an outer air chamber with a downstream air discharge orifice and an annular fuel chamber between the inner and outer air chambers with a downstream fuel discharge orifice. The injector body means forming a passage between the annular fuel chamber and an upstream fuel inlet chamber, a valve seat member adjustably received in the passage and having a fuel bore for receiving fuel from the fuel inlet chamber and terminating in a fuel discharge port, and an arcuate spring valve disposed on the injector body means and including a cantilever end portion overlying the fuel discharge port and biased against the valve seat member over the fuel discharge port when fuel pressure is below a minimum value and operable when fuel pressure exceeds a selected value to allow fuel flow discharge from the fuel discharge port to the annular fuel chamber. The valve seat member being adjustable in position in the passage relative to the cantilever end portion of the valve from the exterior of the injector body means to adjust the valve opening pressure.

  6. A Comparison of Fueling with Deuterium Pellet Injection from Different Locations on the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Gohil, P.; Houlberg, W.A.; Hsieh, C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Parks, P.B.

    1999-06-14

    Initial pellet injection experiments on DIII-D with high field side (HFS) injection have demonstrated that deeper pellet fuel deposition is possible even with HFS injected pellets that are significantly slower than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) (outer midplane) location. A radial displacement of the pellet mass shortly after or during the ablation process is consistent with the observed mass deposition profiles measured shortly after injection. Vertical injection inside the magnetic axis shows some improvement in fueling efficiency over LFS injection and may provide an optimal injection location for fueling with high speed pellets.

  7. Data from pumping and injection tests and chemical sampling in the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, S.M.; Janik, C.J.; Long, D.C.; Solbau, R.D.; Lienau, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A seven-week pumping and injection tests in the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon, in 1983 provided new information on hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The Open-File Data Report on the tests includes graphs of water levels measured in 50 wells, temperature measurement in 17 wells , daily air-temperatures in relation to discharge of thermal water from more than 70 pumped and artesian wells, tables of monthly mean air temperatures and estimates of discharges of thermal water during a normal year, and tables of chemical and isotopic analyses on samples from 12 wells. The water-level measurements reflect the effects of pumping, injection, and recovery over about 1.7 square miles of the hot-well area of Klamath Falls. The pumped well, City Well No 1, and the injection well at the Klamath County Museum are components of a proposed District Heating Plan. The study was funded principally under contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Stanford University, and the Oregon Institute of Technology, with coordination and chemical sampling provided under the Geothermal Research Program, U.S. Geological Survey. Support was received from the City of Klamath Falls, Klamath County Chamber of Commerce, Citizens for Responsible Geothermal Development, and many citizen volunteers. (USGS)

  8. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  9. IET. Fuel transfer pumping building (TAN625). Elevations, foundation. Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Fuel transfer pumping building (TAN-625). Elevations, foundation. Detail of access stairway to coupling station. Ralph M. Parsons 902-a-ANY-620-625-A&S 414. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0625-00-693-106971 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., “Request for Environmental Information,” and in compliance with 7 CFR part 1940, subpart G of this title... project components in a manner consistent with the requirements of 7 CFR part 3015. (h) Equipment... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps D Appendix...

  11. Plasma technology for increase of operating high pressure fuel pump diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovev, R. Y.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Adigamov, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a change in the service life of high pressure fuel pumps of diesel engines on the working surface of the plunger which a wear resistant dielectric plasma coatings based on silicon oxycarbonitride. Such coatings possess high wear resistance, chemical inertness and low friction.

  12. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  13. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  14. Fuel-lubricity requirements for diesel-injection systems. Interim report, Sep 90-Feb 91

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, P.I.; Lestz, S.J.

    1991-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense has adopted the single fuel for the battlefield concept. Diesel fuel will be replace by JP-8/Jet A-1, which has both lower lubricity and viscosity. Currently, the tribological requirements of fuel-lubricated components in the injection system are unknown. As a result, no widely approved lubricity test or standard exists. Similar problems are currently faced in commercial applications where low-sulfur/aromatic fuels are being introduced. The present study details the wear mechanisms likely to exist with low lubricity fuels, with particular reference to injection equipment known to be fuel sensitive. The wear mechanism was found to ba a function of contact severity and may not be uniquely defined by a single test. A number of potentially viable lubricity tests is suggested, and fuel/additive components are recommended for wear reduction.

  15. Off-design analysis of a gas turbine powerplant augmented by steam injection using various fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Results are compared using coal derived low and intermediate heating valve fuel gases and a conventional distillate. The results indicate that steam injection provides substantial increases in both power and efficiency within the available compressor surge margin. The results also indicate that these performance gains are relatively insensitive as to the type of fuel. Also, in a cogeneration application, steam injection could provide some degree of flexibility by varying the split between power and process steam.

  16. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  17. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment. PMID:27267738

  18. Experimental Study of Injection Characteristics of a Multi-hole port injector on various Fuel Injection pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahednejad, E.; Ommi, F.; Nekofar, K.

    2013-04-01

    The structures of the port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. All these spray characteristics are determined by particular injector design and operating conditions. In this paper, an experimental study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and spray characteristics of a injector with multi-disc nozzle (SAGEM,D2159MA). A comparison was made on injection characteristics of the multi-hole injectors and its effects on various fuel pressure and temperature. The distributions of the droplet size and velocity and volume flux were characterized using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. Through this work, it was found that the injector produces a finer spray with a wide spray angle in higher fuel pressure and temperature.

  19. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods

    DOEpatents

    Seidel, Bobby R.; Tracy, Donald B.; Griffiths, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  20. Insulin pump therapy, multiple daily injections, and cardiovascular mortality in 18 168 people with type 1 diabetes: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cederholm, Jan; Eliasson, Björn; Rawshani, Araz; Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Zethelius, Björn; Avdic, Tarik; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Jendle, Johan; Gudbjörnsdóttir, Soffia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long term effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump therapy) on cardiovascular diseases and mortality in people with type 1 diabetes. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Diabetes Register, Sweden 2005-12. Participants 18 168 people with type 1 diabetes, 2441 using insulin pump therapy and 15 727 using multiple daily insulin injections. Main outcome measures Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for the outcomes, with stratification of propensity scores including clinical characteristics, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, treatments, and previous diseases. Results Follow-up was for a mean of 6.8 years until December 2012, with 114 135 person years. With multiple daily injections as reference, the adjusted hazard ratios for insulin pump treatment were significantly lower: 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.83) for fatal coronary heart disease, 0.58 (0.40 to 0.85) for fatal cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease or stroke), and 0.73 (0.58 to 0.92) for all cause mortality. Hazard ratios were lower, but not significantly so, for fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease. Unadjusted absolute differences were 3.0 events of fatal coronary heart disease per 1000 person years; corresponding figures were 3.3 for fatal cardiovascular disease and 5.7 for all cause mortality. When lower body mass index and previous cardiovascular diseases were excluded, results of subgroup analyses were similar to the results from complete data. A sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounders in all individuals showed that an unmeasured confounders with hazard ratio of 1.3 would have to be present in >80% of the individuals treated with multiple daily injections versus not presence in those treated with pump therapy to invalidate the significantly lower hazard ratios for fatal cardiovascular disease. Data on patient education and

  1. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  3. J-2X Fuel Pump Impeller Seal Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmauch, Preston B.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The J-2X engine was originally designed for the upper stage of the previously cancelled Crew Launch Vehicle. Although the Crew Launch Vehicle was cancelled the J-2X engine, which is currently undergoing hot-fire testing, may be used on future programs. The J-2X engine is a direct descendent of the J-2 engine which powered the upper stage during the Apollo program. Many changes including a thrust increase from 230K to 294K lbf have been implemented in this engine. The rotor-dynamic stability of the fuel turbopump is highly dependent on the tangential velocity of the fluid as it enters the the front face impeller seal. Rotor-dynamic analysis predicts that a much lower tangential velocity will be required for stability than was needed for previous engines. The geometry at the seal entrance for this engine is very complex and vastly different than previous engines. In order to better determine the fluid dynamics and tangential velocity in this seal several CFD simulations were performed. The results of these simulations show that for this seal geometry a great reduction in the tangential velocity is to be expected. The simulations also provided insight into methods that could be employed to drive the swirl velocity to near zero. Unsteady and time-averaged results of several simulations will be presented.

  4. Integrated Fuel Injection and Mixing System with Impingement Cooling Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel B. (Inventor); Harvey, Rex J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert R. (Inventor); Laing, Peter (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An atomizing injector includes a metering set having a swirl chamber, a spray orifice and one or more feed slots etched in a thin plate. The swirl chamber is etched in a first side of the plate and the spray orifice is etched through a second side to the center of the swirl chamber. Fuel feed slots extend non-radially to the swirl chamber. The injector also includes integral swirler structure. The swirler structure includes a cylindrical air swirler passage, also shaped by etching, through at least one other thin plate. The cylindrical air swirler passage is located in co-axial relation to the spray orifice of the plate of the fuel metering set such that fuel directed through the spray orifice passes through the air swirler passage and swirling air is imparted to the fuel such that the fuel has a swirling component of motion. At least one air feed slot is provided in fluid communication with the air swirler passage and extends in non-radial relation thereto. Air supply passages extend through the plates of the metering set and the swirler structure to feed the air feed slot in each plate of the swirler structure.

  5. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  6. Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for

  7. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-03-24

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes a plurality of tube assemblies, wherein each of the tube assemblies includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. Each tube assembly includes a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream portion to the downstream portion or from the upstream portion through the downstream portion. At least one injection system is coupled to at least one tube assembly of the plurality of tube assemblies. The injection system includes a fluid supply member that extends from a fluid source to the downstream portion of the tube assembly. The fluid supply member includes a first end portion located in the downstream portion of the tube assembly, wherein the first end portion has at least one first opening for channeling fluid through the tube assembly to facilitate reducing a temperature therein.

  8. An Optical and Computational Investigation on the Effects of Transient Fuel Injections in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Nicholas

    The effects of transient rate-of-injection profiles on high-pressure fuel jets have been studied in an optically accessible internal combustion engine. High-speed optical imaging measurements were applied over a range of ambient conditions, fuel types, and injection parameters. The optical data demonstrate that during the early part of the injection, while the liquid core of the jet is disintegrating, penetration is functionally linked to the orifice exit velocity up until a downstream distance hypothesized to be the jet breakup length. The jets then transition to a mixing dominated penetration behavior further downstream. Therefore, for cases that exhibit transient rate-of-injection (ROI) profiles, quasi-steady correlations for penetration have poor agreement with the empirical data. The lack of agreement between models using quasi-steady approximations and the high-speed experimental data, and the experimental evidence of liquid core physics impacting the transient jet penetration, motivated the development of a new 1-D model that integrates liquid core penetration physics and eliminates quasi-steady approximations. The new 1-D modeling methodology couples the transport equations for the evolution of the liquid core of the jet and the surrounding sheath of droplets resulting from breakup. The results of the model are validated against the aforementioned optical transient jet measurements. Finally, experimental results for two jet fuels and a diesel fuel are studied with the aid of the model. Differences in fuel properties cause the diesel fuel jet to transition from an incomplete spray to a complete spray later than the jet fuels during the transient injection process. Increasing ambient density causes the transition to happen earlier during the injection transient for all three fuels. The ignition delay and liftoff length appeared to be relatively unaffected by the late transition from incomplete to complete spray at low ambient density and low injection

  9. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  10. Study on Improving Partial Load by Connecting Geo-thermal Heat Pump System to Fuel Cell Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    Hydrogen piping, the electric power line, and exhaust heat recovery piping of the distributed fuel cells are connected with network, and operational planning is carried out. Reduction of the efficiency in partial load is improved by operation of the geo-thermal heat pump linked to the fuel cell network. The energy demand pattern of the individual houses in Sapporo was introduced. And the analysis method aiming at minimization of the fuel rate by the genetic algorithm was described. The fuel cell network system of an analysis example assumed connecting the fuel cell co-generation of five houses. When geo-thermal heat pump was introduced into fuel cell network system stated in this paper, fuel consumption was reduced 6% rather than the conventional method

  11. Experiment on fuel injection in high-enthalpy flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, Hideyuki; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Sato, Kazuo; Itoh, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Shuichi

    2001-04-01

    An experiment of inert gas injection into a high enthalpy hypersonic air flow is described. Gaseous helium at room temperature was injected transversely through four (phi) 1.5 mm circular sonic injectors at a spacing of 20 mm, which was located 28 mm downstream from a backward-facing step of 4 mm height. The experiment was carried out in the high enthalpy shock tunnel HIEST under the free stream test condition at Mach number of 6.5 and at the velocity of 4 km/s. The purpose of the experiment was to examine transient behavior of the helium jet mixing with the test air flow. Sequential Schlieren flow visualization with high-speed CCD camera of 1 (mu) sec exposure time have been used. Pitot pressure profile in the helium jet was measured at three stream-wise location. The measurements showed that the helium jet reached to the steady state in less than 2 msec, which was within HIEST test duration.

  12. Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Bin

    Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in vortex-driven combustors using a direct liquid fuel injection strategy was theoretically established and experimentally demonstrated in this dissertation work. Droplet size measurements revealed that with pulsed fuel injection management, fuel droplet size could be modulated periodically. Consequently, desired heat release fluctuation could be created. If this oscillatory heat release is coupled with the natural pressure oscillation in an out of phase manner, combustion instabilities can be suppressed. To identify proper locations of supplying additional liquid fuel for the purpose of achieving control, the natural heat release pattern in a vortex-driven combustor was characterized in this study. It was found that at high Damkohler number oscillatory heat release pattern closely followed the evolving vortex front. However, when Damkohler number became close to unity, heat release fluctuation wave no longer coincided with the coherent structures. A heat release deficit area was found near the dump plane when combustor was operated in lean premixed conditions. Active combustion instability suppression experiments were performed in a dump combustor using a controlled liquid fuel injection strategy. High-speed Schlieren results illustrated that vortex shedding plays an important role in maintaining self-sustained combustion instabilities. Complete combustion instability control requires total suppression of these large-scale coherent structures. The sound pressure level at the excited dominant

  13. Time-delayed behaviors of transient four-wave mixing signal intensity in inverted semiconductor with carrier-injection pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Gao, Shen; Xiang, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    An analytical expression of transient four-wave mixing (TFWM) in inverted semiconductor with carrier-injection pumping was derived from both the density matrix equation and the complex stochastic stationary statistical method of incoherent light. Numerical analysis showed that the TFWM decayed decay is towards the limit of extreme homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in atoms and the decaying time is inversely proportional to half the power of the net carrier densities for a low carrier-density injection and other high carrier-density injection, while it obeys an usual exponential decay with other decaying time that is inversely proportional to half the power of the net carrier density or it obeys an unusual exponential decay with the decaying time that is inversely proportional to a third power of the net carrier density for a moderate carrier-density injection. The results can be applied to studying ultrafast carrier dephasing in the inverted semiconductors such as semiconductor laser amplifier and semiconductor optical amplifier.

  14. Mixing enhancement in a scramjet combustor using fuel jet injection swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesberg, Sonja M.

    The scramjet engine has proven to be a viable means of powering a hypersonic vehicle, especially after successful flights of the X-51 WaveRider and various Hy-SHOT test vehicles. The major challenge associated with operating a scramjet engine is the short residence time of the fuel and oxidizer in the combustor. The fuel and oxidizer have only milliseconds to mix, ignite and combust in the combustion chamber. Combustion cannot occur until the fuel and oxidizer are mixed on a molecular level. Therefore the improvement of mixing is of utmost interest since this can increase combustion efficiency. This study investigated mixing enhancement of fuel and oxidizer within the combustion chamber of a scramjet by introducing swirl to the fuel jet. The investigation was accomplished with numerical simulations using STAR-CCM+ computational fluid dynamic software. The geometry of the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility was used to model the isolator, combustor and nozzle of a scramjet engine for simulation purposes. Experimental data from previous research at the facility was used to verify the simulation model before investigating the effect of fuel jet swirl on mixing. The model used coaxial fuel jet with a swirling annular jet. Single coaxial fuel jet and dual coaxial fuel jet configurations were simulated for the investigation. The coaxial fuel jets were modelled with a swirling annular jet and non-swirling core jet. Numerical analysis showed that fuel jet swirl not only increased mixing and entrainment of the fuel with the oxidizer but the mixing occurred further upstream than without fuel jet swirl. The burning efficiency was calculated for the all the configurations. An increase in burning efficiency indicated an increase in the mixing of H2 with O2. In the case of the single fuel jet models, the maximum burning efficiency increase due to fuel injection jet swirl was 23.3%. The research also investigated the possibility that interaction between two

  15. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  16. Atomization of liquid fuels. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, R

    1925-01-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a nozzle to inject fuel into an engine. The design of the nozzle is open, without any compulsory or automatic stop-valve. The fuel injection is regulated simply by the pressure and the adjustment of the fuel pump.

  17. 76 FR 8661 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...-14-07, Amendment 39-15602 (73 FR 39574), for certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...-07, Amendment 39-15602 (73 FR 39574), and adding the following new AD: Lycoming Engines...

  18. A Comparison of Fuel Sprays from Several Types of Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the tests results of a series of tests made of the sprays from 14 fuel injection nozzles of 9 different types, the sprays being injected into air at atmospheric density and at 6 and 14 times atmospheric density. High-speed spark photographs of the sprays from each nozzle at each air density were taken at the rate of 2,000 per second, and from them were obtained the dimensions of the sprays and the rates of spray-tip penetration. The sprays were also injected against plasticine targets placed at different distances from the nozzles, and the impressions made in the plasticine were used as an indication of the distribution of the fuel within the spray. Cross-sectional sketches of the different types of sprays are given showing the relative sizes of the spray cores and envelopes. The characteristics of the sprays are compared and discussed with respect to their application to various types of engines.

  19. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Fuel Injection into an Accelerating, Turning Flow with a Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colcord, Ben James

    Deliberate continuation of the combustion in the turbine passages of a gas turbine engine has the potential to increase the efficiency and the specific thrust or power of current gas-turbine engines. This concept, known as a turbine-burner, must overcome many challenges before becoming a viable product. One major challenge is the injection, mixing, ignition, and burning of fuel within a short residence time in a turbine passage characterized by large three-dimensional accelerations. One method of increasing the residence time is to inject the fuel into a cavity adjacent to the turbine passage, creating a low-speed zone for mixing and combustion. This situation is simulated numerically, with the turbine passage modeled as a turning, converging channel flow of high-temperature, vitiated air adjacent to a cavity. Both two- and three-dimensional, reacting and non-reacting calculations are performed, examining the effects of channel curvature and convergence, fuel and additional air injection configurations, and inlet conditions. Two-dimensional, non-reacting calculations show that higher aspect ratio cavities improve the fluid interaction between the channel flow and the cavity, and that the cavity dimensions are important for enhancing the mixing. Two-dimensional, reacting calculations show that converging channels improve the combustion efficiency. Channel curvature can be either beneficial or detrimental to combustion efficiency, depending on the location of the cavity and the fuel and air injection configuration. Three-dimensional, reacting calculations show that injecting fuel and air so as to disrupt the natural motion of the cavity stimulates three-dimensional instability and improves the combustion efficiency.

  1. Development of an Impinging-jet Fuel-injection Valve Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Hemmeter, G H

    1931-01-01

    During an investigation to determine the possibilities and limitations of a two-stroke-cycle engine and ignition, it was necessary to develop a fuel injection valve nozzle to produce a disk-shaped, well dispersed spray. Preliminary tests showed that two smooth jets impinging upon each other at an angle of 74 degrees gave a spray with the desired characteristics. Nozzles were built on this basis and, when used in fuel-injection valves, produced a spray that fulfilled the original requirements. The spray is so well dispersed that it can be carried along with an air stream of comparatively low velocity or entrained with the fuel jet from a round-hole orifice. The characteristics of the spray from an impinging-jet nozzle limits its application to situations where wide dispersion is required by the conditions in the engine cylinder and the combustion chamber.

  2. Space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel pump aft platform seal cavity flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, S. A.; Keeton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    A general purpose, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code named PHOENICS, developed by CHAM Inc., is used to model the flow in the aft-platform seal cavity in the high pressure fuel pump of the space shuttle main engine. The model is used to predict the temperatures, velocities, and pressures in the cavity for six different sets of boundary conditions. The results are presented as input for further analysis of two known problems in the region, specifically: erratic pressures and temperatures in the adjacent coolant liner cavity and cracks in the blade shanks near the outer diameter of the aft-platform seal.

  3. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  4. Performance of a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine Using Multiple Orifice Fuel Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Foster, H H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.

  5. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  6. Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-08-20

    A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

  7. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  8. Performance of a Fuel-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Using a Hydrogenated Safety Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the performance of a single-cylinder test engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel. The safety fuel has a flash point of 125 degrees f. (Cleveland open-dup method), which is high enough to remove most of the fire hazard, and an octane number of 95, which permits higher compression ratios to be used than are permissible with most undoped gasolines.

  9. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  10. Effect of Moderate Air Flow on the Distribution of Fuel Sprays After Injection Cut-0ff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1935-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.

  11. Effect of pumping with injection of sodium hyaluronate and the other factors related to outcome in patients with non-reducing disk displacement of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Goto, S; Kasahara, T; Kawamura, H; Motegi, K

    2001-06-01

    We retrospectively examined the effect of pumping with injection of sodium hyaluronate into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the other factors influencing outcome in patients with non-reducing disk displacement of the TMJ. Fifty-nine patients underwent pumping with injection of sodium hyaluronate into the TMJ. As control, 62 patients were observed without any treatment. Both groups were observed for 12 months. The relation between outcome and the following clinical characteristics was also studied: sex, age, range of motion for maximal mouth opening, TMJ pain, TMJ noise, tenderness of masticatory muscles, locking duration, intercuspal occlusions, angle of posterior slope of articular eminence and degenerative bony changes of the condyle. Logistic regression analysis revealed that pumping with injection of sodium hyaluronate was related to a good outcome. Clinical characteristics of presentation significantly related to a good outcome were a large maximal mouth opening, a short locking duration, and a steep posterior slope of articular eminence. We conclude that pumping with injection of sodium hyaluronate into the TMJ is an effective treatment method for non-reducing disk displacement of the TMJ and that some clinical characteristics also influence outcome. PMID:11420900

  12. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density,more » heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.« less

  13. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-15

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  14. Atomization and vaporization characteristics of airblast fuel injection inside a venturi tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, H.; Chue, T.-H.; Lai, M.-C.; Tacina, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and numerical characterization of the capillary fuel injection, atomization, dispersion, and vaporization of liquid fuel in a coflowing air stream inside a single venturi tube. The experimental techniques used are all laser-based. Phase Doppler analyzer was used to characterize the atomization and vaporization process. Planar laser-induced fluorescence visualizations give good qualitative picture of the fuel droplet and vapor distribution. Limited quantitative capabilities of the technique are also demonstrated. A modified version of the KIVA-II was used to simulate the entire spray process, including breakup and vaporization. The advantage of venturi nozzle is demonstrated in terms of better atomization, more uniform F/A distribution, and less pressure drop. Multidimensional spray calculations can be used as a design tool only if care is taken for the proper breakup model, and wall impingement process.

  15. Atomization and vaporization characteristics of airblast fuel injection inside a venturi tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Chue, T.-H.; Lai, M.-C.; Tacina, R. R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the experimental and numerical characterization of the capillary fuel injection, atomization, dispersion, and vaporization of liquid fuel in a coflowing air stream inside a single venturi tube. The experimental techniques used are all laser-based. Phase Doppler analyzer was used to characterize the atomization and vaporization process. Planar laser-induced fluorescence visualizations give good qualitative picture of the fuel droplet and vapor distribution. Limited quantitative capabilities of the technique are also demonstrated. A modified version of the KIVA-II was used to simulate the entire spray process, including breakup and vaporization. The advantage of venturi nozzle is demonstrated in terms of better atomization, more uniform F/A distribution, and less pressure drop. Multidimensional spray calculations can be used as a design tool only if care is taken for the proper breakup model, and wall impingement process.

  16. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  17. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  18. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  19. Discharge characteristics of a simulated unit injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Edred T

    1938-01-01

    Rate-of-discharge curves that show the discharge characteristics of an injection system having a very short fuel passage are presented. The rate of discharge closely follows the rate of displacement of the injection-pump plunger for open nozzles in which the maximum calculated pressures at the orifice do not exceed a certain value, which is dependent on the particular injection pump. With small orifices and high pump speeds, the rate of discharge does not follow the rate of plunger displacement because the higher discharge pressure results in increased leakage with corresponding decrease in discharge rate. The rate of discharge is not directly related to the rate of plunger displacement with automatic injection valves having closed nozzles. The types of pump check valve tested did not control the rate of cut-off or the discharge rate but they did affect the injection lag. Use of the short fuel passage eliminated the formation of secondary discharges.

  20. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirm deep carbon injection by the biological pump.

    PubMed

    Agusti, S; González-Gordillo, J I; Vaqué, D; Estrada, M; Cerezo, M I; Salazar, G; Gasol, J M; Duarte, C M

    2015-01-01

    The role of the ocean as a sink for CO2 is partially dependent on the downward transport of phytoplankton cells packaged within fast-sinking particles. However, whether such fast-sinking mechanisms deliver fresh organic carbon down to the deep bathypelagic sea and whether this mechanism is prevalent across the ocean requires confirmation. Here we report the ubiquitous presence of healthy photosynthetic cells, dominated by diatoms, down to 4,000 m in the deep dark ocean. Decay experiments with surface phytoplankton suggested that the large proportion (18%) of healthy photosynthetic cells observed, on average, in the dark ocean, requires transport times from a few days to a few weeks, corresponding to sinking rates (124-732 m d(-1)) comparable to those of fast-sinking aggregates and faecal pellets. These results confirm the expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean. PMID:26158221

  1. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirm deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    PubMed Central

    Agusti, S.; González-Gordillo, J. I.; Vaqué, D.; Estrada, M.; Cerezo, M. I.; Salazar, G.; Gasol, J. M.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the ocean as a sink for CO2 is partially dependent on the downward transport of phytoplankton cells packaged within fast-sinking particles. However, whether such fast-sinking mechanisms deliver fresh organic carbon down to the deep bathypelagic sea and whether this mechanism is prevalent across the ocean requires confirmation. Here we report the ubiquitous presence of healthy photosynthetic cells, dominated by diatoms, down to 4,000 m in the deep dark ocean. Decay experiments with surface phytoplankton suggested that the large proportion (18%) of healthy photosynthetic cells observed, on average, in the dark ocean, requires transport times from a few days to a few weeks, corresponding to sinking rates (124–732 m d−1) comparable to those of fast-sinking aggregates and faecal pellets. These results confirm the expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean. PMID:26158221

  2. Investigation of spray characteristics for flashing injection of fuels containing dissolved air and superheated fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Chen, L. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The flow, atomization and spreading of flashing injector flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (jet/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon II) were considered. The use of a two stage expansion process separated by an expansion chamber, ws found to be beneficial for flashing injection particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  3. Significance of chamber pressure to complex multi-phase physics in jet engine fuel injection processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Rainer; Oefelein, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Injection processes in jet engines at chamber pressures in excess of the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid fuel are not well understood. Under some conditions, a distinct two-phase interface may not exist anymore which eliminates the presence of classical spray atomization phenomena. A comprehensive model for jet engine fuel injections is derived to quantify the conditions under which the interfacial dynamics transition to diffusion-dominated mixing processes without surface tension. At certain conditions, the model shows two-phase interfaces with substantially increased thicknesses and distinctively reduced mean free paths in comparison to ambient pressure conditions. Then, the underlying assumptions of a distinct two-phase interface do not apply anymore and the interface along with its surface tension is shown to deteriorate as it broadens substantially. As a consequence of this physical complexity, the conceptual view of spray atomization and evaporation as an appropriate model for jet engine injection processes is, contrary to conventional wisdom, questionable at certain operating conditions. Instead, a Large Eddy Simulation using a dense-fluid approximation is applied which takes the complex thermo-physics of real-fluid behavior into account.

  4. Gasoline composition for reducing intake valve deposits in port fuel injected engines

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, R.P.; Riley, M.J.; Millay, H.D.

    1991-04-09

    This patent describes an unleaded fuel composition. It comprises a major amount of hydrocarbon base fuel of the gasoline boiling range containing an effective amount to reduce intake valve deposits in electronic port fuel injected engines of a mixture of about 2.5 ppmw or higher of basic nitrogen based on the fuel composition in the form of an oil soluble aliphatic alkylene polyamine containing at least one olefinic polymer chain attached to at least one nitrogen or carbon atom of the alkylene radical connecting the amino nitrogen atoms and the polyamine having a molecular weight in the range of from about 600 to about 10,000 and from about 75 ppmw to about 125 ppmw based on the fuel composition of at least one component selected from a polymer of a C{sub 2} to C{sub 6} monoolefin, the corresponding hydrogenated polymer or copolymer, an oil soluble poly(oxyalkylene) alcohol, glycol or polyol or a mono or di ether thereof, which has the formula R{sub 1}-O-(R{sub 2}O){sub n}-R{sub 3} wherein R{sub 1} and R{sub 3} each independently is a hydrogen atom or an aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or mononuclear aromatic hydrocarbon group of up to 40 carbon atoms, R{sub 2} represents an alkylene group and n is an integer of at least 7, a naphthenic or paraffinic oil having a viscosity of 100{degrees}C.

  5. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  6. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    IRSHAD, Abdul Razaq; SASAKI, Taihei; KUBO, Tomoaki; ODASHIMA, Naoyuki; KATANO, Keiji; OSAWA, Takeshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3– < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively). PMID:26052155

  7. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirms deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustí, Susana; González-Gordillo, Jose I.; Vaqué, Dolors; Estrada, Marta; Cerezo, Maria I.; Salazar, Guillem; Gasol, Josep M.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep-sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean.

  8. Spin current injection by spin Seebeck and spin pumping effects in yttrium iron garnet/Pt structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, G. L.; Vilela-Leão, L. H.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is reported an investigation of pure spin current injection in Pt strips deposited on yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films by means of the spin pumping (SPE) and spin Seebeck (SSE) effects. Both effects were characterized by measuring the DC voltage created along the Pt strips by means of the inverse spin Hall effect (VISHE). SPE and SSE are simultaneously activated by exciting the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of the YIG film at the same time that a temperature gradient is created along the sample length. While the FMR signal is little affected by the temperature gradient, the voltage measured at the Pt strip placed at the lower temperature end exhibits a very challenging behavior. The voltage excited by the FMR uniform mode increases by six times as the temperature difference (ΔT) between the two ends of the YIG slab changes from 0 to 12 K. In contrast the VISHE generated by other magnetostatic spin-wave modes decreases to zero as ΔT varies from 0 to 12 K.

  9. An Investigation of the Characteristics of Steel Diaphragms for Automatic Fuel-Injection Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F

    1926-01-01

    This research on steel diaphragms was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, as a part of a general investigation on fuel injection engines for aircraft. The work determined the load-deflection, load- deformation and hysteresis characteristics for single diaphragms having thicknesses from 0.00s inch to 0.012 inch, and for similar diaphragms tested in multiple having total thicknesses from 0.012 inch to 0.180 inch. The elastic limit loads and deflections, and rupture points of single diaphragms were also determined. Some work was done on diaphragms having central orifices in order to determine the effect of orifice diameter upon the load deflection characteristics.

  10. Mixing of an Airblast-atomized Fuel Spray Injected into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The injection of a spray of fuel droplets into a crossflow of air provides a means of rapidly mixing liquid fuel and air for combustion applications. Injecting the liquid as a spray reduces the mixing length needed to accommodate liquid breakup, while the transverse injection of the spray into the air stream takes advantage of the dynamic mixing induced by the jet-crossflow interaction. The structure of the spray, formed from a model plain-jet airblast atomizer, is investigated in order to determine and understand the factors leading to its dispersion. To attain this goal, the problem is divided into the following tasks which involve: (1) developing planar imaging techniques that visualize fuel and air distributions in the spray, (2) characterizing the airblast spray without a crossflow, and (3) characterizing the airblast spray upon injection into a crossflow. Geometric and operating conditions are varied in order to affect the atomization, penetration, and dispersion of the spray into the crossflow. The airblast spray is first characterized, using imaging techniques, as it issues into a quiescent environment. The spray breakup modes are classified in a liquid Reynolds number versus airblast Weber number regime chart. This work focuses on sprays formed by the "prompt" atomization mode, which induces a well-atomized and well-dispersed spray, and which also produces a two-lobed liquid distribution corresponding to the atomizing air passageways in the injector. The characterization of the spray jet injected into the crossflow reveals the different processes that control its dispersion. Correlations that describe the inner and outer boundaries of the spray jet are developed, using the definition of a two-phase momentum-flux ratio. Cross-sections of the liquid spray depict elliptically-shaped distributions, with the exception of the finely-atomized sprays which show kidney-shaped distributions reminiscent of those obtained in gaseous jet in crossflow systems. A droplet

  11. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels. PMID:21627159

  12. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (Ω pilot ∼ 0.2-0.6 and Ω overall ∼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant Ω pilot (> 0.5), increasing Ω overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing Ω overall (at constant Ω pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  13. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  14. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  15. Influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on in-flame soot particles in an automotive-size diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon

    2014-07-15

    The current understanding of soot particle morphology in diesel engines and their dependency on the fuel injection timing and pressure is limited to those sampled from the exhaust. In this study, a thermophoretic sampling and subsequent transmission electron microscope imaging were applied to the in-flame soot particles inside the cylinder of a working diesel engine for various fuel injection timings and pressures. The results show that the number count of soot particles per image decreases by more than 80% when the injection timing is retarded from -12 to -2 crank angle degrees after the top dead center. The late injection also results in over 90% reduction of the projection area of soot particles on the TEM image and the size of soot aggregates also become smaller. The primary particle size, however, is found to be insensitive to the variations in fuel injection timing. For injection pressure variations, both the size of primary particles and soot aggregates are found to decrease with increasing injection pressure, demonstrating the benefits of high injection velocity and momentum. Detailed analysis shows that the number count of soot particles per image increases with increasing injection pressure up to 130 MPa, primarily due to the increased small particle aggregates that are less than 40 nm in the radius of gyration. The fractal dimension shows an overall decrease with the increasing injection pressure. However, there is a case that the fractal dimension shows an unexpected increase between 100 and 130 MPa injection pressure. It is because the small aggregates with more compact and agglomerated structures outnumber the large aggregates with more stretched chain-like structures. PMID:24933154

  16. Multiple Daily Injections OR Insulin Pump Therapy: Choosing the Best Option for Your Patient-An Evidence-based Approach.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mamta; Choudhary, Pratik

    2015-10-01

    Achieving optimal glucose control with minimal hypoglycemia and minimizing the impact of diabetes on quality of life are the aims of management of type 1 diabetes. The main therapeutic options for patients include multiple daily injections (MDI) and continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy (CSII). It is important to differentiate fixed dose MDI with more flexible use, based on carbohydrate counting and structured education programmes, often termed functional insulin therapy (FIT), shown to deliver better outcomes. A significant proportion of patients can achieve optimal glucose control with either therapy, and for those who are unable to achieve desired glucose control with MDI, there is a large body of observational data showing CSII enables them to reduce HbA1c and hypoglycemia, with associated improvements in diabetes-related quality of life. However, in many healthcare systems, guidelines restrict the use of CSII on the basis of cost, with only 20-35 % of patients with type 1 diabetes across Europe using CSII. Although data support improved glucose control and quality of life with CSII, we must recognize that insulin pump therapy is not for everyone and has some downsides such as being attached to a device or issues with cannulas. When we sit down with our patients, we have a responsibility to support those patients with the therapeutic strategy that is best suited to them. In this paper, we review some of the literature that informs this decision-making, highlighting areas where CSII offers clear benefits and also some areas where it may not be appropriate. PMID:26338287

  17. Comprehensive Structural Dynamic Analysis of the SSME/AT Fuel Pump First-Stage Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed structural dynamic analysis of the Pratt & Whitney high-pressure fuel pump first-stage turbine blades has been performed to identify the cause of the tip cracking found in the turbomachinery in November 1997. The analysis was also used to help evaluate potential fixes for the problem. Many of the methods available in structural dynamics were applied, including modal displacement and stress analysis, frequency and transient response to tip loading from the first-stage Blade Outer Gas Seals (BOGS), fourier analysis, and shock spectra analysis of the transient response. The primary findings were that the BOGS tip loading is impulsive in nature, thereby exciting many modes of the blade that exhibit high stress at the tip cracking location. Therefore, a proposed BOGS count change would not help the situation because a clearly identifiable resonance situation does not exist. The recommendations for the resolution of the problem are to maintain the existing BOGS count, eliminate the stress concentration in the blade due to its geometric design, and reduce the applied load on the blade by adding shiplaps in the BOGS.

  18. Some Factors Affecting the Reproducibility of Penetration and the Cut-Off of Oil Sprays for Fuel-injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in connection with a general research on fuel-injection for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the factors controlling the reproducibility of spray penetration and secondary discharges after cut-off. The development of single sprays from automatic injection valves was recorded by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. The effect of two types of injection valves, injection-valve tube length, initial pressure in the injection-valve tube, speed of the injection control mechanism, and time of spray cut-off, on the reproducibility of spray penetration, and on secondary discharges were investigated. It was found that neither type of injection valve materially affected spray reproducibility. The initial pressure in the injection-valve tube controlled the reproducibility of spray penetrations. An increase in the initial pressure or in the length of the injection-valve tube slightly increased the spray penetration within the limits of this investigation. The speed of the injection-control mechanism did not affect the penetration. Analysis of the results indicates that secondary discharges were caused in this apparatus by pressure waves initiated by the rapid opening of the cut-off valve. The secondary discharges were eliminated in this investigation by increasing the length of the injection-valve tube. (author)

  19. Effect of sunflower oil on a diesel fuel system

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, H.; Schunk, S.; Pratt, G.

    1982-05-01

    A typical farm tractor diesel fuel system (injection pump, fuel lines, filters and injectors) was tested on a test stand at various temperatures using sunflower oil, diesel fuel, and mixtures of the two as fuels. Measurements taken included fuel volume delivered by the injector line pressure at the injector, pressure drop across the filter, transfer pump pressure, and fuel injection timing. Results indicate that low percentages of sunflower oil may be used successfully in the system under summer conditions. Design changes to the system may be necessary for higher percentages of sunflower oil and cold conditions.

  20. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  1. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A; Pihl, Josh A; Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  2. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order to prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.

  3. Regression rate study of porous axial-injection, endburning hybrid fuel grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Matthew A.

    This experimental and theoretical work examines the effects of gaseous oxidizer flow rates and pressure on the regression rates of porous fuels for hybrid rocket applications. Testing was conducted using polyethylene as the porous fuel and both gaseous oxygen and nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Nominal test articles were tested using 200, 100, 50, and 15 micron fuel pore sizes. Pressures tested ranged from atmospheric to 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 207 kPa to 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests, and oxidizer injection velocities ranged from 35 m/s to 80 m/s for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 7.5 m/s to 16.8 m/s for the nitrous oxide tests. Regression rates were determined using pretest and posttest length measurements of the solid fuel. Experimental results demonstrated that the regression rate of the porous axial-injection, end-burning hybrid was a function of the chamber pressure, as opposed to the oxidizer mass flux typical in conventional hybrids. Regression rates ranged from approximately 0.75 mm/s at atmospheric pressure to 8.89 mm/s at 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and 0.21 mm/s at 207 kPa to 1.44 mm/s at 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests. The analytical model was developed based on a standard ablative model modified to include oxidizer flow through the grain. The heat transfer from the flame was primarily modeled using an empirically determined flame coefficient that included all heat transfer mechanisms in one term. An exploratory flame model based on the Granular Diffusion Flame model used for solid rocket motors was also adapted for comparison with the empirical flame coefficient. This model was then evaluated quantitatively using the experimental results of the gaseous oxygen tests as well as qualitatively using the experimental results of the nitrous oxide tests. The model showed agreement with the experimental results indicating it has potential for giving insight into the flame structure in this motor configuration

  4. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLED SINGLE-LAYER PZT FOR PIEZO STACK IN FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2010-01-01

    Poled single-layer PZT has been characterized in as-extracted and as-received states. PZT plate specimens in the former were extracted from a stack. Flexure strength of PZT was evaluated by using ball-on-ring and 4-point bend tests. Fractography showed that intergranular fractures dominated the fracture surface and that volume pores were the primary strength-limiting flaws. The electric field effect was investigated by testing the PZT in open circuit and coercive field levels. An asymmetrical response on the biaxial flexure strength with respect to the electric field direction was observed. These experimental results will assist reliability design of the piezo stack that is being considered in fuel injection system.

  6. Effects of fuel injection on mixing and upstream interactions in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qiuya

    Scramjet engine performance has been studied experimentally and computationally almost under steady-state conditions. Transients of the airflow and fueling in the scramjet's isolator or combustor create important fluid-dynamic/ combustion interactions. Spark schlieren photography was employed to study the effects of pressure rise in the combustion chamber on the isolator flow at three conditions with isolator entrance Mach number of 1.6, 1.9 and 2.5, covering the range of dual-mode combustion and transition to full scramjet operation. Heat release through combustion in the model scramjet was simulated by incrementally blocking the flow exit until upstream-interaction was induced and a shock train formed in the isolator. Theoretical predictions of the pressure rise in the isolator under separated flow conditions were calculated, which agreed well with the experimental data. The prediction is sensitive to the accurate modeling of the isolator inlet conditions and the correct selection of wall friction coefficient. Gaseous helium and argon have been transversely injected into a Mach 1.6 airflow simulating a light and a heavy fuel injection behind a thin triangular pylon placed upstream, in the isolator, which has a negligible impact on pressure losses. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to observe the penetration and mixing in the test section at three cross-sections including the recirculation region and beyond. Results were compared to the no-pylon cases, which showed the presence of the pylon resulted in improving both penetration and spreading of the jet. Simulation for shock wave/ boundary-layer interaction was conducted in Fluent for case of M=1.9 at 60% blockage by using k-ε RNG model with two different near wall treatments. In both cases, the shock ran out of isolator before the computation converged, this is different from experimental results. Proper actual wall friction force may have a very important effect on the computation, which needs

  7. Fast batch injection analysis system for on-site determination of ethanol in gasohol and fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Polyana F; Marra, Mariana C; Munoz, Rodrigo A A; Richter, Eduardo M

    2012-02-15

    A simple, accurate and fast (180 injections h(-1)) batch injection analysis (BIA) system with multiple-pulse amperometric detection has been developed for selective determination of ethanol in gasohol and fuel ethanol. A sample aliquot (100 μL) was directly injected onto a gold electrode immersed in 0.5 mol L(-1) NaOH solution (unique reagent). The proposed BIA method requires minimal sample manipulation and can be easily used for on-site analysis. The results obtained with the BIA method were compared to those obtained by gas-chromatography and similar results were obtained (at 95% of confidence level). PMID:22340122

  8. Pressure Regulator With Internal Ejector Circulation Pump, Flow and Pressure Measurement Porting, and Fuel Cell System Integration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An advanced reactant pressure regulator with an internal ejector reactant circulation pump has been developed to support NASA's future fuel cell power systems needs. These needs include reliable and safe operation in variable-gravity environments, and for exploration activities with both manned and un manned vehicles. This product was developed for use in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power plant reactant circulation systems, but the design could also be applied to other fuel cell system types, (e.g., solid-oxide or alkaline) or for other gas pressure regulation and circulation needs. The regulator design includes porting for measurement of flow and pressure at key points in the system, and also includes several fuel cell system integration options. NASA has recognized ejectors as a viable alternative to mechanical pumps for use in spacecraft fuel cell power systems. The ejector motive force is provided by a variable, high-pressure supply gas that travels through the ejector s jet nozzle, whereby the pressure energy of the fluid stream is converted to kinetic energy in the gas jet. The ejector can produce circulation-to-consumption-flow ratios that are relatively high (2-3 times), and this phenomenon can potentially (with proper consideration of the remainder of the fuel cell system s design) be used to provide completely for reactant pre-humidification and product water removal in a fuel cell system. Specifically, a custom pressure regulator has been developed that includes: (1) an ejector reactant circulation pump (with interchangeable jet nozzles and mixer sections, gas-tight sliding and static seals in required locations, and internal fluid porting for pressure-sensing at the regulator's control elements) and (2) internal fluid porting to allow for flow rate and system pressure measurements. The fluid porting also allows for inclusion of purge, relief, and vacuum-breaker check valves on the regulator assembly. In addition, this regulator could also

  9. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  10. Molecular Cluster Injection for High-Density Fueling on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Stotler, D. P.

    2010-11-01

    LTX is designed to reduce global recycling, by reducing the neutral hydrogen density in the plasma edge with a liquid lithium wall. Gas-based fueling systems, such as wall-mounted gas puffers or supersonic gas injectors, are ill-suited for use in a low-recycling plasma, as they source a significant amount of gas into the plasma edge. Following experiments on the HL-2A tokamak by Yao, et al. (Nucl. Fusion 47(2007) 1399), a Molecular Cluster Injector (MCI) was designed to supply a high-density, collimated fueling source for LTX. When operated with H2 backing pressures of 50-150psia, a 4ms MCI pulse produces molecular densities of 1-4x10^16 cm-3 at distances over 20cm from the nozzle, and supplies a particle flux of 340-775 torr-lit/s, sufficient to replace the predicted LTX particle inventory. The H2 density profiles are consistent with flows that produce molecular clusters of a few hundred molecules each, which is expected to improve neutral penetration into the plasma core, relative to pure gas-phase injection. The neutral penetration into LTX plasmas will be diagnosed by a fast visible camera with an Hα filter, as well as microwave interferometry.