Science.gov

Sample records for fuel pilot plant

  1. Safeguards techniques in a pilot conditioning plant for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, E.; Rudolf, K.; Weh, R. )

    1991-01-01

    The pilot conditioning plant at Gorleben, Germany, is designed as a multi-purpose plant. Its primary task is the conditioning of spent fuel assemblies into a form suitable for final disposal. As a pilot plant, it allows furthermore for the development and testing of various conditioning techniques. In terms of international safeguards, the pilot conditioning plant is basically considered an item facility. Entire fuel assemblies enter the plant in transport casks, whereas bins filled with fuel rods or canisters containing cut fuel rods leave the facility in final disposal packages (e.g. POLLUX). Each POLLUX final disposal package content is uniquely correlated to a definite number of fuel assemblies which have entered the conditioning process. For this type of facility, containment/surveillance (C/S) should take over the major role in nuclear material safeguards. This paper discusses the safeguards at the Gorleben plant.

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort

    2005-03-01

    The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

  3. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, W.F.; Speer, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The strontium Semiworks Pilot Fuel Reprocessing Plant at the Hanford Site in Washington State was decommissioned by a combination of dismantlement and entombment. The facility contained 9600 Ci of Sr-90 and 10 Ci of plutonium. Process cells were entombed in place. The above-grade portion of one cell with 1.5-m- (5-ft-) thick walls and ceilings was demolished by means of expanding grout. A contaminated stack was remotely sandblasted and felled by explosives. The entombed structures were covered with a 4.6-m- (15-ft-) thick engineered earthen barrier. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the

  6. Enzymes desulfurizing diesel fuel in pilot plant tests

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-05-15

    Energy BioSystems Corp., The Woodlands, Texas, is collecting data from a new 5 b/d, continuous-operation, biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) pilot plant. Hurdles to commercialization are catalyst activity, stability, and fermentation yield. Since 1990, however, Energy BioSystems Corp. (EBC) has made great strides in improving all three of these factors. The BDS process uses enzymes to remove organically bound sulfur from petroleum streams at mild temperatures and atmospheric pressure. Objectives of the pilot plant studies include: validating and refining the computer simulations used to control the process and establishing the process design basis. So far, the results from pilot plant operations have met expectations. The projected 45% desulfurization rate has been achieved, within a few percent. This rate was simply the target for the initial evaluation experiments, and that the process is capable of desulfurizing almost to extinction.

  7. Experience with the combustion of alternate fuels in a CFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Probst, S.G.; Wu, S.; Edvardsson, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    A circulating fluidized bed pilot plant has been operated for several years in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, by Tampella Power Corporation to test the combustion characteristics of many different types of fuels. The fuels tested at the facility include: bituminous and anthracite coals; bituminous (gob) and anthracite (culm) waste; fluid and delayed petroleum coke; Colorado and Israel oil shales; tire derived fuel (TDF); refuse derived fuel (RDF); paper mill sludge and bark; and refinery process off-gas. Each of these fuels presented special fuel and ash handling problems that needed to be addressed before successful testing could be accomplished; these problems are more urgent on the pilot scale than in the commercial scale due to the corresponding reduction in equipment size. Each of these fuels also behaved differently in terms of combustion characteristics and gaseous emissions, as would be expected on the basis of their vastly different physical and chemical properties. This paper describes the major experiences obtained during the pilot plant testing of each of these alternative fuels, including summaries of the tested fuels and their measured emissions, limestone performance when applicable, and practical considerations.

  8. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott Francis; Sprinkle, James K.

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  9. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, William A.; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd; Gerspacher, Regan

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 1-5 g/s fuel feeding system for pilot scale FBG was designed, built and tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple conveying stages improve pressure balancing, flow control and stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary conveyor stage reduced output irregularity from 47% to 15%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic air sparging effective in dealing with poor flow ability of MBM powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic injection port plugs with char at gasification temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50 mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle

  10. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Campbell, William A; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd; Gerspacher, Regan

    2012-06-01

    A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle reduced the output irregularity further to 13%, with an air supply of 50 slpm as the minimum air supply to drive this injector. After commissioning of this final system to the FBG reactor, the injection nozzle was found to plug with char however, and was subsequently removed from the system. Final operation of the reactor continues satisfactorily with the two screw conveyors operating at matching pressure with the fluidized bed, with the output rate of the system estimated based on system characteristic equations, and confirmed by static weight measurements made before

  11. Development of 1000 kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) pilot plant and 250 kW stack

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Kenichi

    1999-07-01

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is expected to be ready for commercial use early in the next century. This new power generation system has a higher thermal efficiency and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. IHI has participated in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry's New Sunshine Program since 1993. Since joining the program, IHI has undertaken the development of the MCFC stack and 1,000 kW class power generation system under the supervision of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization and the MCFC Research Association. The development outline of the 1,000 kW MCFC pilot plant constructed at the Kawagoe test site and the present development stage of the plant control system and the 250 kW stacks developed and manufactured by IHI are described here.

  12. Workshop on instrumentation and analyses for a nuclear fuel reprocessing hot pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, S.M.; Feldman, M.J.; Wymer, R.G.; Hoffman, D.

    1980-05-01

    In order to assist in the study of instrumentation and analytical needs for reprocessing plants, a workshop addressing these needs was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from May 5 to 7, 1980. The purpose of the workshop was to incorporate the knowledge of chemistry and of advanced measurement techniques held by the nuclear and radiochemical community into ideas for improved and new plant designs for both process control and inventory and safeguards measurements. The workshop was athended by experts in nuclear and radiochemistry, in fuel recycle plant design, and in instrumentation and analysis. ORNL was a particularly appropriate place to hold the workshop since the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is centered there. Requirements for safeguarding the special nuclear materials involved in reprocessing, and for their timely measurement within the process, within the reprocessing facility, and at the facility boundaries are being studied. Because these requirements are becoming more numerous and stringent, attention is also being paid to the analytical requirements for these special nuclear materials and to methods for measuring the physical parameters of the systems containing them. In order to provide a focus for the consideration of the workshop participants, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) being designed conceptually by the CFRP was used as a basis for consideration and discussions.

  13. The Pilot Conditioning Plant Gorleben

    SciTech Connect

    Willax, H.O.; Lahr, H.

    1995-12-31

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the feasibility of direct disposal of spent fuel elements has been examined and their safety aspects evaluated in the years between 1979 and 1985. In an assessment of the results, the Federal Government concluded that the technology of direct disposal has to be developed. According to this decision in April 1986, there was the application for the erection and operation of the Pilot Conditioning Plant (PKA) for the conditioning of spent fuel elements and other radioactive waste. Since February 1990, the PKA has been under construction and the hot commissioning will be in 1997.

  14. Intro to NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant

    ScienceCinema

    Magrini, Kim

    2014-06-10

    NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant converts biomass into higher hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.NREL is researching biomass pyrolysis. The lab is examining how to upgrade bio-oils via stabilization. Along with this, NREL is developing the engineering system requirements for producing these fuels and chemicals at larger scales.

  15. Intro to NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Magrini, Kim

    2013-09-27

    NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant converts biomass into higher hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.NREL is researching biomass pyrolysis. The lab is examining how to upgrade bio-oils via stabilization. Along with this, NREL is developing the engineering system requirements for producing these fuels and chemicals at larger scales.

  16. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  17. An integrated 45L pilot microbial fuel cell system at a full-scale wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Hiegemann, Heinz; Herzer, Daniel; Nettmann, Edith; Lübken, Manfred; Schulte, Patrick; Schmelz, Karl-Georg; Gredigk-Hoffmann, Sylvia; Wichern, Marc

    2016-10-01

    A 45-L pilot MFC system, consisting of four single-chamber membraneless MFCs, was integrated into a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and operated under practical conditions with the effluent of the primary clarifier for nine months to identify an optimal operational strategy for stable power output and maximum substrate based energy recovery (Normalized Energy Recovery, NER). Best results with the MFC were obtained at a hydraulic retention time of 22h with COD, TSS and nitrogen removal of 24%, 40% and 28%, respectively. Mean NER of 0.36kWhel/kgCOD,deg and coulombic efficiency of 24.8% were reached. Experimental results were used to set up the first described energy balance for a whole WWTP with an integrated MFC system. Energetic calculations of the model WWTP showed that energy savings due to reduced excess sludge production and energy gain of the MFC are significantly higher than the loss of energy due to reduced biogas production. PMID:27351707

  18. INTERIOR PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT SECOND FLOOR DEPICTING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT SECOND FLOOR DEPICTING DETAIL OF SHIELDED CAVE (CPP-640) LOOKING SOUTHWEST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM NORTH. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-40-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 7/2006 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. ARCHITECTURAL ROOF PLAN AND WESTSOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL ROOF PLAN AND WEST-SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111680. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111681. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Pilot Plant Makes Oxygen Difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F.; Lawton, Emil A.

    1989-01-01

    Pilot plant makes oxygen difluoride highly-energetic, space-storable oxidizer not made commercially. Designed to handle reactants, product, and byproduct, most of which highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic. Oxygen difluoride evolves continuously from reactor containing potassium hydroxide in water at 10 degree C. Collection tanks alternated; one filled while other drained to storage cylinder. Excess OF2 and F2 dissipated in combustion of charcoal in burn barrel. Toxic byproduct, potassium fluoride, reacted with calcium hydroxide to form nontoxic calcium fluoride and to regenerate potassium hydroxide. Equipment processes toxic, difficult-to-make substance efficiently and safely.

  2. PILOT PLANT EXPLORATION OF SLOW RATE FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives to conventional coagulation water filtration plants (those that utilize coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration) may be appropriate for some small water utilities. One such alternative is slow rate filtration. This paper describes pilot plant studies ...

  3. Pilot-plant testing of materials proposed for use as NWCF feed and fuel nozzle caps. [New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Birrer, S.A.

    1980-12-01

    Results of a series of tests performed on materials proposed for use at New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) fuel and feed nozzle caps are described. Results show that Haynes Alloys 25 and 188 and Inconel Alloys 617, 625, and 690 have acceptable corrosion and erosion rates based upon the high-temperature oxidation, erosion, and corrosion tests conducted.

  4. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  5. Coal log pipeline pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Lenau, C.W.; Burkett, W.

    2000-07-01

    After 8 years of extensive R and D in the new technology of coal log pipeline (CLP), a pilot plant is being built to demonstrate and test a complete CLP system for coal transportation. The system consists of a coal log fabrication plant, a 3,000-ft-length, 6-inch-diameter underground pipeline loop to transport 5.4-inch diameter coal logs, a log injection/ejection system, a pump bypass, a reservoir that serves as both the intake and the outlet of the CLP systems, an instrumentation system that includes pressure transducers, coal log sensors, and flowmeters, and an automatic control system that includes PLCs and a central computer. The pilot plant is to be completed in May of Year 2000. Upon completion of construction, the pilot plant will be used for running various types of coal, testing the degradation rate of drag reduction in CLP using Polyox (polyethylene oxide), testing the reliability of a special coal log sensor invented at the University of Missouri, testing the reliability and the efficiency of the pump-bypass system for pumping coal log trains through the pipe, and testing various hardware components and software for operating the pilot plant. Data collected from the tests will be used for designing future commercial systems of CLP. The pilot plant experiments are to be completed in two years. Then, the technology of CLP will be ready for commercial use.

  6. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced. PMID:19683439

  7. BIOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT STUDY PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  8. Performance of a second-generation PFB pilot plant combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.; Van Hook, J.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-07-01

    Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) plants promise higher efficiency with lower costs of electricity and lower stack emissions. With a conventional reheat steam cycle and a 3% sulfur Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, a 45% efficiency (HHV of coal basis) and a cost of electricity 20% lower than that of a pulverized-coal-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing are being projected. This advanced plant concept incorporates three major steps: carbonization, circulating fluidized bed combustion and topping combustion. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation has constructed and operated a second-generation PFB pilot plant at the Foster Wheeler research facility (the John Blizard Research Center) in Livingston, New Jersey. Results of the pilot plant combustor portion of the test program supporting the development of this new type of plant are presented. The fuels evaluated in this test program included several char-sorbent residues produced in a pressurized carbonizer pilot plant and their parent coals. The data confirmed the viability of the PFB combustor concept in terms of both combustion and emissions performance.

  9. NCP oilseed processing pilot plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are very few toll processors that can perform small-scale processing of oilseeds, oils and co-products in one location and none is situated in the Midwest. In the past, our pilot-scale trials were conducted in different facilities in the U.S. and Canada. To address this limitation, the NCP p...

  10. High efficiency waste to energy facility -- Pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Orita, Norihiko; Kawahara, Yuuzou; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Yamauchi, Toru; Hosoda, Takuo

    1998-07-01

    Waste To Energy facilities are commonly acceptable to the environment and give benefits in two main areas: one is a hygienic waste disposal and another is waste heat energy recovery to save fossil fuel consumption. Recovered energy is used for electricity supply, and it is required to increase the efficiency of refuse to electric energy conversion, and to spread the plant construction throughout the country of Japan, by the government. The national project started in 1992, and pilot plant design details were established in 1995. The objective of the project is to get 30% of energy conversion efficiency through the measure by raising the steam temperature and pressure to 500 C and 9.8 MPa respectively. The pilot plant is operating under the design conditions, which verify the success of applied technologies. This paper describes key technologies which were used to design the refuse burning boiler, which generates the highest steam temperature and pressure steam.

  11. Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

  12. Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant

    ScienceCinema

    Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam;

    2013-04-19

    Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

  13. INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

  14. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  15. Pilot plant becomes demonstration plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Hook, J. van; Burkhard, F.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants (APFBC) that generate electricity offer utilities the potential for significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions while burning the nation`s abundant supply of high-sulfur coal. The three major objectives of Phase 3 are: test a 1.2-MWe equivalent carbonizer and Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) with their associated ceramic candle filters as an integrated subsystem; evaluate the effect of coal-water paste feed on carbonizer performance; and revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary. This report describes the project.

  16. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  17. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING OVERALL BLOCK EXTERIOR WALLS; CONSTRUCTION 65 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4976. Holmes, Photographer, 9/26/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) OVERALL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) OVERALL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST; CONSTRUCTION 34 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3034. Holmes, Photographer, 6/23/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FORMING FOR NORTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 4 AND 5; CONSTRUCTION 21 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-1874. Holmes, Photographer, 4/21/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING EAST SHOWING EXCAVATION AND FORMING; CONSTRUCTION 6 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-4935. J. Anderson, Photographer, 9/21/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING DECK FORMING FOR SOUTH SECTION OF OPERATING CORRIDOR; CONSTRUCTION 44 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3624. Holmes, Photographer, 7/25/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. ARCHITECTURAL WALL SECTIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). INL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL WALL SECTIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111682. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF OPERATING AREA HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF OPERATING AREA HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111678. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). INL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-640-00-279-111684. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ARCHITECTURAL DOOR DETAILS AND SCHEDULE OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL DOOR DETAILS AND SCHEDULE OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-640-00-279-111683. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Melvin Calvin: Fuels from Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.E.; Otvos, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A logical extension of his early work on the path of carbon during photosynthesis, Calvin's studies on the production of hydrocarbons by plants introduced many in the scientific and agricultural worlds to the potential of renewable fuel and chemical feedstocks. He and his co-workers identified numerous candidate compounds from plants found in tropical and temperate climates from around the world. His travels and lectures concerning the development of alternative fuel supplies inspired laboratories worldwide to take up the investigation of plant-derived energy sources as an alternative to fossil fuels.

  7. Fuel oils from higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.

    1985-03-01

    A summary of the types of plants available for converting solar energy to fuel and materials on an annually renewable basis is presented. Sugar cane, seed oils, herbaceous plants (Hevea, Euphorbia, Asclepias), hydrocarbon producing trees (Eucalystus globulus, Pittosporum, Copaifera), and algae are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the development of ''energy agriculture'' and the use of plants to synthesize hydrocarbon-like materials especially in the less developed areas of the world. (DMC)

  8. Fuel quantity modulation in pilot ignited engines

    DOEpatents

    May, Andrew

    2006-05-16

    An engine system includes a first fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a first fuel supplied to the engine, a second fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a second fuel supplied to the engine concurrently with the first fuel being supplied to the engine, and a controller coupled to at least the second fuel regulator. The controller is adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a relationship to the amount of the first fuel supplied to the engine to operate in igniting the first fuel at a specified time in steady state engine operation and adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a manner different from the relationship at steady state engine operation in transient engine operation.

  9. Pilot-Scale TRUEX Flowsheet Testing for Separation of Actinides and Lanthanides from Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz; Jamie Warburton

    2010-01-01

    Advanced aqueous separation processes are being developed for the recycling of used nuclear fuel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) Process is being developed as part of these advanced separations processes for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from the used nuclear fuel. Testing of a TRUEX flowsheet has been performed using a thirty stage, 5-cm centrifugal contactor pilot plant. This testing was performed using a non-radioactive feed surrogate and data were collected and analyzed to evaluate removal efficiencies of the lanthanides, mass transfer efficiency of the lanthanides in the extraction and strip sections of the flowsheet, and the temperature profile of the process solutions throughout the centrifugal contactor pilot plant. Results indicate >99.9% separation for all lanthanides and mass transfer efficiencies typically ranging from 85% to 100%. Solution temperatures for each contactor stage, as well as general process performance, are also described.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  11. Operation result of 40kW class MCFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Hatori, S.; Hosaka, M.; Uematsu, H.

    1996-12-31

    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. developed unique Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) system based on our original concept. To demonstrate the possibility of this system, based on MCFC technology of consigned research from New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan, we designed 40kW class MCFC pilot plant which had all equipments required as a power plant and constructed in our TO-2 Technical Center. This paper presents the test results of the plant.

  12. TASK 3: PILOT PLANT GASIFIER TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. Design, fabrication and initial testing of the pilot plant compact gasifier was completed in 2011 by a development team led by AR. Findings from this initial test program, as well as subsequent gasifier design and pilot plant testing by AR, identified a number of technical aspects to address prior to advancing into a demonstration-scale gasifier design. Key among these were an evaluation of gasifier ability to handle thermal environments with highly reactive coals; ability to handle high ash content, high ash fusion temperature coals with reliable slag discharge; and to develop an understanding of residual properties pertaining to gasification kinetics as carbon conversion approaches 99%. The gasifier did demonstrate the ability to withstand the thermal environments of highly reactive Powder River Basin coal, while achieving high carbon conversion in < 0.15 seconds residence time. Continuous operation with the high ash fusion temperature Xinyuan coal was demonstrated in long duration testing, validating suitability of outlet design as well as downstream slag discharge systems. Surface area and porosity data were obtained for the Xinyuan and Xinjing coals for carbon conversion ranging from 85% to 97%, and showed a pronounced downward trend in surface area per unit mass carbon as conversion increased. Injector faceplate measurements showed no incremental loss of material over the course of these experiments, validating the commercially traceable design approach and supportive of long injector life goals. Hybrid testing of PRB and natural gas was successfully completed over a wide range of natural gas feed content, providing test data to anchor predictions

  13. Installation of the Pulse-Plate Column Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nick R. Mann

    2009-07-01

    There are three primary types of solvent extraction equipment utilized in the nuclear industry for reprocessing of used nuclear fuel; pulse columns, mixer-settlers, and centrifugal contactors. Considerable research and development has been performed at the INL and throughout the DOE complex on the application of centrifugal contactors for used fuel reprocessing and these contactors offer many significant advantages. However, pulse columns have been used extensively in the past in throughout the world for aqueous separations processes and remain the preferred equipment by many commercial entities. Therefore, a pulse-plate column pilot plant has been assembled as part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to support experimentation and demonstration of pulse column operation. This will allow the training of personnel in the operation of pulse columns. Also, this capability will provide the equipment to allow for research to be conducted in the operation of pulse columns with advanced solvents and processes developed as part of the fuel cycle research and development being performed in the AFCI program.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  15. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O'Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing

  16. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  17. Development of 1000kW-class MCFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ooue, M.; Yasue, H.; Takasu, K.; Tsuchitori, T.

    1996-12-31

    This pilot plant is a part of the New Sunshine Program which has proceeded by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MCFC Research Association is entrusted with the development of the pilot plant, and constructing it at Kawagoe site. Following items will be verified by this pilot plant operation. (a) Development of 250kW class stack and confirmation of stack performance and decay rate. (b) System verification such as basic process, control system and operation characteristics, toward commercialization. (c) To get design data for demonstration plant.

  18. Fuel control for gas turbine with continuous pilot flame

    DOEpatents

    Swick, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    An improved fuel control for a gas turbine engine having a continuous pilot flame and a fuel distribution system including a pump drawing fuel from a source and supplying a line to the main fuel nozzle of the engine, the improvement being a control loop between the pump outlet and the pump inlet to bypass fuel, an electronically controlled throttle valve to restrict flow in the control loop when main nozzle demand exists and to permit substantially unrestricted flow without main nozzle demand, a minimum flow valve in the control loop downstream of the throttle valve to maintain a minimum pressure in the loop ahead of the flow valve, a branch tube from the pilot flame nozzle to the control loop between the throttle valve and the minimum flow valve, an orifice in the branch tube, and a feedback tube from the branch tube downstream of the orifice to the minimum flow valve, the minimum flow valve being operative to maintain a substantially constant pressure differential across the orifice to maintain constant fuel flow to the pilot flame nozzle.

  19. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    system, was demonstrated. System analyses of 40 MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, were carried out using CHEMCAD simulation software. The analyses included systems for near-term and long-term deployment. A new concept was developed that was based on clusters of one-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant, including the key equipment layout and the site plan, was completed. The process information and operational data from the proof-of-concept tests were used in the design of 40 MW high efficiency DFC/T power plants. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant was also prepared. Pilot-scale tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were conducted. The tests demonstrated that the concept has the potential to offer higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output and fuel utilization capabilities were also evaluated. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW DFC/T Alpha Unit was completed, including equipment and piping layouts, instrumentation, electrical, and structural drawings. The lessons learned from the proof-of-concept tests were incorporated in the design of the Alpha Unit. The sub-MW packaged unit was fabricated, including integration of the Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) stack module with the mechanical balance-of-plant and electrical balance-of-plant. Factory acceptance tests of the Alpha DFC/T power plant were conducted at Danbury, CT. The Alpha Unit achieved an unsurpassed electrical efficiency of 58% (LHV natural gas) during the factory tests. The resulting high efficiency in conversion of chemical energy to electricity far exceeded any sub-MW class power generation equipment presently in the market. After successful completion of the factory tests, the unit was shipped to the Billings Clinic in Billings, MT, for field demonstration tests. The DFC/T unit accomplished a major

  20. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING FORMING AND PLACEMENT OF REINFORCING STEEL FOR SOUTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 3, 4 AND 5 AND WEST WALL FOR CELLS 1 AND 2; CONSTRUCTION 13 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS 59-6436. J. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Corrosion coupon studies at coal liquefaction pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Baylor, V.B.; Howell, M.; Newsome, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    As part of the Fossil Energy Materials Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we have supplied corrosion coupons to coal-liquefaction pilot plants for exposure in selected vessels. These vessels were chosen on the basis of previous corrosion experience, anticipated corrosion behavior (especially important when operating conditions were changed), accessibility, and availability. Alloys exposed were selected to give a series with a corrosion resistance ranging from less than to greater than that thought to be needed for each application. Corrosion rates calculated from weight changes of the exposed coupons provide information useful in selecting materials for coal-liquefaction plants. The results presented are from coupons exposed in the Wilsonville, Alabama, and Fort Lewis, Washington, Solvent Refined Coal pilot plants; the Catlettsburg, Kentucky, H-Coal Pilot Plant; and the Baytown, Texas, Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant.

  2. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  3. PILOT PLANT TESTING OF ELECTROSTATIC FABRIC FILTRATION AT HARRINGTON STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of pilot plant tests of electrostatic fabric filtration (ESFF) at Harrington Station, near Amarillo, Texas. In early 1983, the pilot baghouse at Harrington Station was modified to conduct a testing program for ESFF. The tests conducted there successfully d...

  4. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  5. Operation results of the DIOS pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Minoru

    1996-12-31

    DIOS, the Direct Iron Ore Smelting Reduction Process, is now reaching the final stage of its research and development program. The aim of the project is to establish a substitutive or a supplementary industrial iron making process for the blast furnace process. Four campaigns, from the third to sixth, of 500 t/d pilot plant testing operation were conducted in the 1994 fiscal year, from April 1994 to March 1995. Furthermore, the seventh to tenth campaigns were conducted in the 1995 fiscal year. From the sixth to tenth campaign were conducted with a smelting reduction furnace partially installed water cooled panels. Testing operations of high production rate using several kinds of coal with different volatile matter contents were carried out. A material flow has been still more improved to realize a stable coupling operation of integrated furnaces, i.e., a preheating furnace, PRF1, a prereduction furnace, PRF2 and a smelting reduction furnace, SRF. These testing operations were conducted in a joint research project of the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan and the Japan Iron and Steel Federation with a subsidy for promoting coal production and utilization technologies from the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, MITI.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  9. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  10. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  12. The DOE Bioethanol Pilot Plant: A Tool for Commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.

    2000-08-31

    With funding from the DOE National Biofuels Program, NREL has constructed a fermentation pilot plant facility. The plant was explicitly designed to assist industry and outside researchers develop commercial bioprocessing technology. Companies that are exploring biofuels technologies can utilize the facilities and expertise of NREL through a variety of flexible business-venture arrangements.

  13. Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, E. G.

    1987-08-01

    In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

  14. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  15. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment-continuous operation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Tymiński, B.; Licki, J.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Radzio, B.

    1995-09-01

    Tests of continous operation have been performed on pilot plant at EPS Kawęczyn in the wide range of SO2 concentration (500-3000 ppm).The bag filter has been applied for aerosol separation. The high efficiences of SO2 and NOX removal, approximately 90% were obtained and influenced by such process parameters as: dose, gas temperature and ammonia stoichiometry. The main apparatus of the pilot plant (e.g. both accelerators) have proved their reliability in hard industrial conditions.

  16. [Pilot plant for microbiological synthesis. Engineer and technological aspects].

    PubMed

    Lukanin, A V

    2007-01-01

    A biotechnological pilot plant (National Research Centre of Antibiotics) and its technical potentialities in production of various biosynthetic products are described. Some engineer and technological aspects of the fermentation equipment and particularly sterilization of the media and apparatus, fermentation broth aeration under sterile conditions and control of biosynthesis technological parameters (t degrees, pO2, P, pH, foaming, etc.) are considered. The pilot plant is designed for fermentation processes under aseptic conditions with the use practically of any object, from bacteria to tissue cultures. PMID:20583471

  17. Control of fractionation-area corrosion at SRC pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Baylor, V.B.; Canfield, D.R.; Barnett, W.P.

    1981-10-01

    Fractionating columns at the Fort Lewis, Washington, and Wilsonville, Alabama, Solvent Refined Coal pilot plants have experienced severe corrosion. This corrosion is most serious for materials exposed in the 230 to 250/sup 0/C (446 to 482/sup 0/F) range. Corrosion rates as high as 25 mm/year (1000 mils/year) on carbon steel and 6.4 mm/year (250 mils/year) on type 18-8 stainless steels have been observed. This corrosion problem has been studied at ORNL through exposure of coupons in the columns, analysis of failed components from the pilot plants, chemical analysis of liquids from the pilot plants, and operation of laboratory experiments. The in-plant exposure of coupons has shown that certain nickel-base alloys have adequate corrosion resistance for the environment. Chemical analyses of pilot plant liquids have shown that the presence of appreciable levels of water-soluble chloride is a necessary but not sufficient condition for these oils to be corrosive. By analysis of Fort Lewis and Wilpaw Shale (Kb), Fox Hills Sandstone (Kfh), and the Hell Creek formation (Khc). Anomaly No. 31 is over an area underlain by Recent alluvium (Qal).

  18. 500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Roberts, G.; Werner, D.

    1981-10-01

    Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.

  19. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  20. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  1. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot...

  2. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot...

  3. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot...

  4. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot...

  5. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot...

  6. Pilot-plant automation for catalytic hydrotreating of heavy residua

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, O.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kodama, S.; Takeuchi, C.

    1983-08-01

    Chiyoda's 52 microreactors, bench-scale test units and pilot plants are each used depending on the purpose of the process development for heavy oil upgrading. The microreactors are effective for catalyst screening. Heavier fractions such as asphaltene and sludge materials often disturbed steady state operation. Many unique devices for the test units and improvement of operation procedures make extended operation easy as well as increasing reliability. The computerized data acquisition and data filing systems minimize the work not only for operators but for all research personnel. Currently, about 40 pilot plant units are continuously running while the others are in preparation. Fully automated operation requires only three for data checking at night. In the daytime, seven operators take care of feed supply, product removal and condition changes. For start-up and shut-down, one operator can handle three microreactors, but only one bench-scale unit or pilot plant. Planning is underway for an improved start-up system for the pilot plants using personal computers. This system automatically sets feed rate and raises reactor temperature.

  7. NREL Bioprocessing Pilot Plant: Available for Industrial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Microbial bioprocessing can produce a myriad of valuable products. If you are an industry needing small- or large-scale trials to test or advance a bioprocessing technology, National Bioenergy Center (NBC) facilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, may allow you to use world-class systems and expertise without the expense of building your own pilot plant.

  8. PILOT PLANT DESIGN FOR CHEMICAL DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a program for design and operational planning of facilities for testing the Meyers Process for chemical removal of pyritic sulfur from coal. Two options were evaluated: a complete pilot plant test of the process at a 0.5-ton per hour scale; and scale-u...

  9. PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

  10. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, Phillip F

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  11. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF CRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of using liquefied-gas solvents in a pilot plant study to extract oil from mill scale (a steel mill by-product) and bleaching clay (a vegetable oil filtering media). The process, operated on a semi-batch cycle, involved two extractors and a solvent recove...

  12. Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, H.; Reed, W.; Valentich, D.; Charlton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents.

  13. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Step feed, plug flow and complete mix activated sludge systems were compared on a pilot plant scale under similar operating conditions with the same municipal wastewater. The process loading to each system was varied over a wide range during the course of the investigation. Exten...

  14. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  15. Metallurgical study of a failed heat exchanger in a h-coal pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.J.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Searles, R.

    1981-01-01

    The H-Coal Pilot Plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, is designed to process 600 tons of coal per day and produce synthetic fuels. On September 20, 1980, operation of the pilot plant was interrupted when a heat exchanger (a reactor effluent vapor/steam thermo syphon reboiler) failed. Three alloy 800 (Fe-32Ni-21Cr) tubes in the bottom return section (cold end) of the heat exchanger blew out of the tubesheet. The system was shut down and a team of investigators began an intense study. After examination of the fractured tubes by optical and scanning electron microscopy, a conclusion was made that stress corrosion cracking originating at the exterior surface was the cause of the failure. Other tubes were found that were approaching a state of failure. 11 figures.

  16. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. PMID:25151441

  17. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  18. Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem Thruster Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion: A Failure Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2003-01-01

    Pilot operated valves (POVs) are used to control the flow of hypergolic propellants monomethylhydrazine (fuel) and nitrogen tetroxide (oxidizer) to the Shuttle orbiter Primary Reaction Control Subsystem (PRCS) thrusters. The POV incorporates a two-stage design: a solenoid-actuated pilot stage, which in turn controls a pressure-actuated main stage. Isolation of propellant supply from the thruster chamber is accomplished in part by a captive polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pilot seal retained inside a Custom 455.1 stainless steel cavity. Extrusion of the pilot seal restricts the flow of fuel around the pilot poppet, thus impeding or preventing the main valve stage from opening. It can also prevent the main stage from staying open with adequate force margin, particularly if there is gas in the main stage actuation cavity. During thruster operation on-orbit, fuel valve pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by low or erratic chamber pressure or failure of the thruster to fire upon command (Fail-Off). During ground turnaround, pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by slow gaseous nitrogen (GN2) main valve opening times (greater than 38 ms) or slow water main valve opening response times (greater than 33 ms). Poppet lift tests and visual inspection can also detect pilot seal extrusion during ground servicing; however, direct metrology on the pilot seat assembly provides the most quantitative and accurate means of identifying extrusion. Minimizing PRCS fuel valve pilot seal extrusion has become an important issue in the effort to improve PRCS reliability and reduce associated life cycle costs.

  19. Presentation of the Cordy pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrain, Bruno; Sobrero, R.

    1993-05-01

    This pilot has been set up to test the Avlis materials in conditions similar to those of a separator. It has therefore been designed as a corrosion loop where the feed is in gaseous phase and the circulation in liquid phase. The temperature is everywhere maintained above the uranium melting point. The facility includes an evaporation apparatus supplied by Leybold S.A., a set of 14 resistors controlled by a regulating system (Eurotherm software), and a cooled inner vessel aimed at the creation of a cold zone in the main vacuum vessel. A 60 kW scanning spot-focusing gun is used, set horizontally on the vacuum vessel. A coil and two magnetic arms set against the crucible create a constant and non homogeneous electromagnetic field which bends the electron beam towards the pool. The field configuration maintains a part of the back-scattered electrons in the crucible. The gun can be isolated from the vacuum vessel by a valve during the maintenance operations such as an emission filament replacement, the test materials being maintained in temperature and under vacuum. During the experiment a video camera records the condensation of the liquid metal in the upper part of the vessel and another camera gives a picture of the electron beam impact on the bath. Conclusions on the behavior of the materials are essentially post-mortem although the development of the gaseous phase is followed by mass spectrometry.

  20. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  1. Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S; Menard, J E; Prager, S; Waganer, L; Titus, P; Zarnstorff, M

    2012-08-27

    A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.

  2. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

  3. New "wet type" electron beam flue gas treatment pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Erdal; Ünal, Suat; Doğan, Alişan; Letournel, Eric; Pellizzari, Fabien

    2016-02-01

    We describe a new pilot plant for flue gas cleaning by a high energy electron beam. The special feature of this pilot plant is a uniquely designed reactor called VGS® (VIVIRAD Gas Scrubber, patent pending), that allows oxidation/reduction treating flue gas in a single step. The VGS® process combines a scrubber and an advanced oxidation/reduction process with the objective of optimizing efficiency and treatment costs of flue gas purification by electron accelerators. Promising treatment efficiency was achieved for SOx and NOx removal in early tests (99.2% and 80.9% respectively). The effects of various operational parameters on treatment performance and by-product content were investigated during this study.

  4. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  5. On the Piloted Ignition of Solid Fuels in Spacecraft Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereres-Rapoport, Sonya M.

    The effect of environmental variables on the ignition of solid combustible materials is explored through a combination of experimental, analytical and numerical analyses. This research stems from NASA's design requirement to reduce the cabin internal pressure and increase the oxygen concentration in human space vehicles and in future lunar habitats of the Constellation Program. These new environmental conditions may result in an increased fire risk of combustible solid materials due to higher flame temperatures (attributed to enhanced oxygen) and reduced convective heat losses from heated surfaces (attributed to reduced pressure). In particular, the influence of low pressure on ignition is emphasized here because little is known concerning this topic. A series of experiments conducted in a laboratory-scale combustion wind tunnel with externally irradiated samples of PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate) showed that both the ignition delay time and the fuel mass flux at ignition decrease when the ambient pressure is lowered. An analytical model is used to identify the governing processes that lead to these results and then a numerical model is applied to quantify the influence of ambient variables (particularly pressure) on the piloted ignition of PMMA. The numerical model verifies the phenomenological explanations inferred from the experimental findings and the qualitative analytical results, and correctly simulates the thermo-physical mechanisms leading to ignition. It is concluded that reduced pressure environments result in: (1) smaller convective heat losses from the heated material to the surroundings due to a thickening of the thermal boundary layer next to the solid fuel surface, allowing for the material to heat more rapidly and pyrolyze faster; and, (2) a lower mass flux of volatiles required to reach the lean flammability limit of the gases at the pilot, leading to earlier ignition, due mainly to an enlarged boundary layer and a thicker fuel species profile

  6. The development of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, Francesc; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Brunet, Jean; Demey, Dries; Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a closed artificial ecosystem intended as a tool for the development of a bio-regenerative life support system for longterm manned missions. The MELiSSA loop is formed by five interconnected compartments, organized in three different loops (solid, liquid and gas). This compartments are microbial bioreactors and higher plant chambers. The MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility has been designed to achieve the preliminary terrestrial demonstration of the MELiSSA concept at pilot scale, using animals as a model for the crew compartent. The experience gained in the operation of such a facility will be highly relevant for planning future life support systems in Space. In this communication, the latests developments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant will be reported. Particularly, the completion of the design phase and instalation of all the different compartments will be discussed in detail. Each of the compartments had to be designed and constructed according to very specific characteristics, associated to the biological systems to be cultured, as part of the complete MELiSSA loop (anerobic, oxygenic, thermophilic, heterotrophic, autotrophic, axenic, photosynthetic, etc.). Additionally, the sizing of each reactor (ranging from 8 to 100 Liters, depending of each particular compartment) should compile with the global integration scenario proposed, and with the final goal of connection of all compartments to provide a demonstration of the MELiSSA concept, and generate data for the design and operation of future biological life support systems.

  7. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-23

    In this reporting period, a milestone was achieved by commencement of testing and operation of the sub-scale hybrid direct fuel cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant. The operation was initiated subsequent to the completion of the construction of the balance-of-plant (BOP) and implementation of process and control tests of the BOP for the subscale DFC/T hybrid system. The construction efforts consisted of finishing the power plant insulation and completion of the plant instrumentation including the wiring and tubing required for process measurement and control. The preparation work also included the development of procedures for facility shake down, conditioning and load testing of the fuel cell, integration of the microturbine, and fuel cell/gas turbine load tests. At conclusion of the construction, the process and control (PAC) tests of BOP, including the microturbine, were initiated.

  8. Proposed OTEC Punta Tuna Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, J.; Perez, F.

    1981-01-01

    Siting features and the design of a 40 MWe prototype OTEC for installation at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico are presented. An annual average temperature gradient of 40 F from surface to 3,000 ft depth, a sharp coastal drop-off, projected benign environmental effects, and expensive indigenous power supplies are seen as favorable for fixed, floating, or grazing OTEC plants. The Punta Tuna design is for a platform fitted with generators in 300 ft of water, submarine cable power transmission, fiberglass seawater pipes, NH3 as a working fluid, and heat exchangers at the 300 ft depth, below hurricane wind and wave action. Methods of installing the 3,000 ft cold water pipes are discussed, and the use of OTEC derived electricity for aluminum smelting in the Caribbean is indicated.

  9. Balance of plant for SOFC experiences with the planning, engineering, construction and testing of a 10 kW planar SOFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Klov, K.; Sundal, P.; Monsen, T.; Vik, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Statoil Solide Oxide Fuel Cell Research Program was started in January 1991. Some results from this Program were presented to the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar in San Diego. The final technical milestone for the program was to design, engineer, construct and test a 10 kW pilot plant. From the very beginning, the importance of coordination and integration in the development of components, subsystems and systems, combined with basic research on cell and stack performance, were established as the guidelines for the program. In this way the progress towards the final goal was not a matter of making the best individual cell, the best stack or a superior balance of plant, but to build an efficient, reliable and operative pilot plant system, and thus make a further step towards a verification of commercial SOFC system technology.

  10. Causes and Mitigation of Fuel Pilot Operated Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion in Space Shuttle Orbiter Primary RCS Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Roth, Tim E.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Haney, William A.; Kelly, Terence S; Forsyth, Bradley S.

    2004-01-01

    Extrusion of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pilot seal located in the Space Shuttle Orbiter Primary Reaction Control Subsystem (PRCS) thruster fuel valve has been implicated in 68 ground and on-orbit fuel valve failures. A rash of six extrusion-related in-flight anomalies over a six-mission span from December 2001 to October 2002 led to heightened activity at various NASA centers, and the formation of a multidisciplinary team to solve the problem. Empirical and theoretical approaches were used. For example, thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and exposure tests showed that some extrusion is produced by thermal cycling; however, a review of thruster service histories did not reveal a strong link between thermal cycling and extrusion. Calculations showed that the amount of observed extrusion often exceeded the amount allowed by thermally-induced stress relief. Failure analysis of failed hardware also revealed the presence of fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP) inside the fuel valve pilot seal cavity, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the FORP was intimately associated with the pilot seal material. Component-level exposure tests showed that FORP of similar composition could be produced by adjacent oxidizer valve leakage in the absence of thruster firing. Specific gravity data showed that extruded fuel valve pilot seals were less dense than new pilot seals or oxidizer valve pilot seals, indicating permanent modification of the PTFE occurred during service. It is concluded that some thermally-induced extrusion is unavoidable; however, oxidizer leakage-induced extrusion is mostly avoidable and can be mitigated. Several engineering level mitigation strategies are discussed.

  11. Five-megawatt geothermal-power pilot-plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    This is a report on the Raft River Geothermal-Power Pilot-Plant Project (Geothermal Plant), located near Malta, Idaho; the review took place between July 20 and July 27, 1979. The Geothermal Plant is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) overall effort to help commercialize the operation of electric power plants using geothermal energy sources. Numerous reasons were found to commend management for its achievements on the project. Some of these are highlighted, including: (a) a well-qualified and professional management team; (b) effective cost control, performance, and project scheduling; and (c) an effective and efficient quality-assurance program. Problem areas delineated, along with recommendations for solution, include: (1) project planning; (2) facility design; (3) facility construction costs; (4) geothermal resource; (5) drilling program; (6) two facility construction safety hazards; and (7) health and safety program. Appendices include comments from the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications, the Controller, and the Acting Deputy Director, Procurement and Contracts Management.

  12. Results of u-bend stress-corrosion-cracking specimen exposures in coal-liquefaction pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; Allen, M.D.; Howell, M.; Newsome, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    Pilot plants with capacities of up to 600 tons/d are currently demonstrating the engineering feasibility of several coal liquefaction processes including Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal. These plants are the first step toward commercial production of synthetic fuels. Among other factors, development of the technology depends on reliable materials performance. A concern is the application of those austenitic stainless steels necessary for general corrosion resistance, because they are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This cracking results from tensile stresses in combination with offensive agents such as polythionic acids, chlorides, and caustics. To screen candidate construction materials for resistance to stress corrosion cracking, we exposed racks of stressed U-bend specimens in welded and as-wrought conditions at four coal liquefaction pilot plants. Results from exposures through June 1980 were described in a previous report for exposures in the SRC plants. This report summarizes the on-site test results from June 1980 through October 1981 for the two SRC pilot plants and the H-Coal and Exxon coal liquefaction pilot plants.

  13. Recovery Act. Demonstration of a Pilot Integrated Biorefinery for the Efficient, Direct Conversion of Biomass to Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetzle, Dennis; Tamblyn, Greg; Caldwell, Matt; Hanbury, Orion; Schuetzle, Robert; Rodriguez, Ramer; Johnson, Alex; Deichert, Fred; Jorgensen, Roger; Struble, Doug

    2015-05-12

    The Renewable Energy Institute International, in collaboration with Greyrock Energy and Red Lion Bio-Energy (RLB) has successfully demonstrated operation of a 25 ton per day (tpd) nameplate capacity, pilot, pre-commercial-scale integrated biorefinery (IBR) plant for the direct production of premium, “drop-in”, synthetic fuels from agriculture and forest waste feedstocks using next-generation thermochemical and catalytic conversion technologies. The IBR plant was built and tested at the Energy Center, which is located in the University of Toledo Medical Campus in Toledo, Ohio.

  14. Experimental results: Pilot plant calcine dissolution and liquid feed stability

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Fryer, D.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Johnson, C.K.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-02-01

    The dissolution of simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant pilot plant calcines, containing none of the radioactive actinides, lanthanides or fission products, was examined to evaluate the solubility of calcine matrix materials in acidic media. This study was a necessary precursor to dissolution and optimization experiments with actual radionuclide-containing calcines. The importance of temperature, nitric acid concentration, ratio of acid volume to calcine mass, and time on the amount, as a weight percentage of calcine dissolved, was evaluated. These parameters were studied for several representative pilot plant calcine types: (1) Run No. 74 Zirconia calcine; (2) Run No. 17 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 64 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 1027 Alumina calcine; and (4) Run No. 20 Alumina/Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Statistically designed experiments with the different pilot plant calcines indicated the effect of the studied process variables on the amount of calcine dissolved decreases in the order: Acid/Calcine Ratio > Temperature > HNO{sub 3} Concentration > Dissolution Time. The following conditions are suitable to achieve greater than 90 wt. % dissolution of most Zr, Al, or Na blend calcines: (1) Maximum nitric acid concentration of 5M; (2) Minimum acid/calcine ratio of 10 mL acid/1 gram calcine; (3) Minimum dissolution temperature of 90{degrees}C; and (4) Minimum dissolution time of 30 minutes. The formation of calcium sulphate (CaSO{sub 4}) precipitates was observed in certain dissolved calcine solutions during the dissolution experiments. Consequently, a study was initiated to evaluate if and under what conditions the resulting dissolved calcine solutions would be unstable with regards to precipitate formation. The results indicate that precipitate formation in the calcine solutions prepared under the above proposed dissolution conditions are not anticipated.

  15. Method for providing concentricity of pilot fuel assembly in a combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor); Anderson, Michael (Inventor); Martus, James A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Concentric installation of a pilot fuel assembly in an opening in a gas turbine combustor casing is achieved by providing a boss having at least two flat surfaces which are perpendicular to each other on the combustor casing surrounding the opening and a mounting flange having at least two flat surfaces which are perpendicular to each other on the pilot fuel assembly. The pilot fuel assembly is concentrically installed to the combustor casing by inserting the assembly into the combustor casing opening, and moving the pilot fuel assembly as far as it will go in a first direction substantially parallel to one of the flat boss surfaces. The distance between the other flat boss surface and one of the flat flange surfaces is then taken. Next, the pilot fuel assembly is moved in the direction opposite the first direction, at which point, the distance between the same two flat surfaces is again measured. Lastly, the pilot fuel assembly is located at a position where the distance between the two measuring surfaces is equal to the average of the first and second measurements. If desired, these steps can be repeated back and forth along an axis perpendicular to the first and second directions.

  16. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    1981-07-13

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified.

  17. The advanced PFB process: Pilot plant results and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.; Rehmat, A.

    1993-11-01

    The plant being developed is a hybrid of two technologies; it incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a vessel called the carbonizer and the combustion of the resultant char residue in a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (CPFBC). In this plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and a ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates, the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator and a compressor that feeds air to the carbonizer, a CPFBC, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the CPFBC with high excess air. The vitiated air from the CPFBC supports combustion of the fuel gas in the gas turbine topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the CPFBC drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant. The low-Btu gas is produced in the carbonizer by pyrolysis/mild devolatilization of coal in a fluidized bed reactor. Because this unit operates at temperatures much lower than gasifiers currently under development, it also produces a char residue. Left untreated, the fuel gas will contain hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-containing tar/light oil vapors; therefore, lime-based sorbents are injected into the carbonizer to catalytically enhance tar cracking and to capture sulfur as calcium sulfide. Sulfur is captured in situ, and the raw fuel gas is fired hot. Thus the expensive, complex, fuel gas heat exchangers and the chemical or sulfur-capturing bed cleanup systems that are part of the coal gasification combined-cycle plants now being developed are eliminated.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  1. Engineered Barriers in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, Shankar

    2002-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geological repository being developed by the Department of Energy as a research and disposal facility in the bedded salt deposit of New Mexico. WIPP is essentially an underground salt mine at 2150 feet (655 meters) below the surface and operates on multiple barrier mechanism. Engineered barriers provide an additional protective measure to prevent the movement of fluid towards the accessible environment. Four types of engineered barriers are used in the WIPP disposal system. This paper presents an analysis of the effectiveness of the engineered barriers in various repository environments. (authors)

  2. The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program

    SciTech Connect

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    1996-06-01

    The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation`s transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  4. Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Francke, Chris T.; Hansen, Frank D.; Knowles, M. Kathyn; Patchet, Stanley J.; Rempe, Norbert T.

    1999-08-05

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25 years, has generated a library of publications and analyses. Details of the multifaceted program are contained in the cited references. Selected geotechnical highlights prove the eminent suitability of the WIPP to serve its congressionally mandated purpose.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  6. Fuel cell power plants for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Over the past 35 years, the transportation sector has accounted fr approximately 25% of the total gross energy consumption in the United States. As the largest energy user in the United States, transportation accounts for approximately 66% of the country`s current petroleum consumption. Fuel cell power plants using nonpetroleum fuels such as methanol could significantly reduce US dependency on petroleum resources. They offer the additional advantage of minimal air pollution thereby addressing another issue of major concern in the US fuel cell power plant use in city buses and other vehicles is being explored in a number of US Department of Energy and industrial programs that will be described in this paper. 5 refs.

  7. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  8. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-27

    The subMW hybrid DFC/T power plant facility was upgraded with a Capstone C60 microturbine and a state-of-the-art full size fuel cell stack. The integration of the larger microturbine extended the capability of the hybrid power plant to operate at high power ratings with a single gas turbine without the need for supplementary air. The objectives of this phase of subMW hybrid power plant tests are to support the development of process and control and to provide the insight for the design of the packaged subMW hybrid demonstration units. The development of the ultra high efficiency multi-MW power plants was focused on the design of 40 MW power plants with efficiencies approaching 75% (LHV of natural gas). The design efforts included thermodynamic cycle analysis of key gas turbine parameters such as compression ratio.

  9. Space Solar Power Concepts: Demonstrations to Pilot Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie K.; Feingold, Harvey; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The availability of abundant, affordable power where needed is a key to the future exploration and development of space as well as future sources of clean terrestrial power. One innovative approach to providing such power is the use of wireless power transmission (WPT). There are at least two possible WPT methods that appear feasible; microwave and laser. Microwave concepts have been generated, analyzed and demonstrated. Technologies required to provide an end-to-end system have been identified and roadmaps generated to guide technology development requirements. Recently, laser W T approaches have gained an increased interest. These approaches appear to be very promising and will possibly solve some of the major challenges that exist with the microwave option. Therefore, emphasis is currently being placed on the laser WPT activity. This paper will discuss the technology requirements, technology roadmaps and technology flight experiments demonstrations required to lead toward a pilot plant demonstration. Concepts will be discussed along with the modeling techniques that are used in developing them. Feasibility will be addressed along with the technology needs, issues and capabilities for particular concepts. Flight experiments and demonstrations will be identified that will pave the road from demonstrations to pilot plants and beyond.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  11. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  12. Conceptual design of a lunar oxygen pilot plant Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective was to develop conceptual designs of two pilot plants to produce oxygen from lunar materials. A lunar pilot plant will be used to generate engineering data necessary to support an optimum design of a larger scale production plant. Lunar oxygen would be of primary value as spacecraft propellant oxidizer. In addition, lunar oxygen would be useful for servicing nonregenerative fuel cell power systems, providing requirements for life support, and to make up oxygen losses from leakage and airlock cycling. Thirteen different lunar oxygen production methods are described. Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and extraction of solar-wind hydrogen from bulk lunar soil were selected for conceptual design studies. Trades and sensitivity analyses were performed with these models.

  13. Demonstration of a 100-kWth high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor pilot plant for ZnO dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepf, E.; Villasmil, W.; Meier, A.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting is a viable pathway towards sustainable and large-scale production of synthetic fuels. A reactor pilot plant for the solar-driven thermal dissociation of ZnO into metallic Zn has been successfully developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Promising experimental results from the 100-kWth ZnO pilot plant were obtained in 2014 during two prolonged experimental campaigns in a high flux solar simulator at PSI and a 1-MW solar furnace in Odeillo, France. Between March and June the pilot plant was mounted in the solar simulator and in-situ flow-visualization experiments were conducted in order to prevent particle-laden fluid flows near the window from attenuating transparency by blocking incoming radiation. Window flow patterns were successfully characterized, and it was demonstrated that particle transport could be controlled and suppressed completely. These results enabled the successful operation of the reactor between August and October when on-sun experiments were conducted in the solar furnace in order to demonstrate the pilot plant technology and characterize its performance. The reactor was operated for over 97 hours at temperatures as high as 2064 K; over 28 kg of ZnO was dissociated at reaction rates as high as 28 g/min.

  14. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-06-08

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described.

  15. Fuel cell power plant economic and operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.

  16. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-22

    Project activities were focused on the design and construction the sub-scale hybrid Direct Fuel Cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant and modification of a Capstone Simple Cycle Model 330 microturbine. The power plant design work included preparation of system flow sheet and performing computer simulations based on conservation of mass and energy. The results of the simulation analyses were utilized to prepare data sheets and specifications for balance-of-plant equipment. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) were also completed. The steady state simulation results were used to develop design information for modifying the control functions, and for sizing the heat exchangers required for recuperating the waste heat from the power plant. Line and valve sizes for the interconnecting pipes between the microturbine and the heat recuperators were also identified.

  17. Pyrolysis of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure: a comparison of the results obtained in the laboratory (semi-pilot) and in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M E; Martínez, O; Gómez, X; Morán, A

    2007-01-01

    A pilot-scale pyrolysis process was carried out for the treatment of a mixture of two types of waste, sewage sludge and cattle manure, comparing the results with others obtained under laboratory conditions (semi-pilot scale). The aim of this study was to obtain the energetic valorization of the products. Owing to the specific characteristics of the plant, two products were obtained from the process: gas and carbonized solid. As no liquid fraction was obtained, the gas fraction is a greater percentage made up of both condensable and non-condensable compounds, which were obtained separately at the laboratory scale. The pilot plant was designed so that the gases produced by thermolysis were burnt continuously in a combustion chamber, while the carbonized fraction was fed in batches for co-combustion. To determine composition and combustion ability, the gas and solid products from the pilot process were characterized by chromatographic analysis of the gaseous fraction and chemical analysis and programmed-temperature combustion of the carbonized solid. The composition of the combustion gases, rich in light hydrocarbons, and the carbon present in the carbonized fraction enable the energetic valorization of these products. The combustion gases were subjected to a cleaning process and their composition analysed twice: before and after the gas cleaning treatment. The study led to a positive assessment of the possible use of the process products as fuel, provided that the combustion gases are treated. As most of the sulphur and chlorine from the original waste are mainly concentrated in the solid fraction, the use of char as a fuel will depend on the effectiveness of clean-up techniques for combustion gases. During gas cleansing, neutralizing with sodium bicarbonate proved effective, especially for the acidic compounds HCl, HF and SO(2). PMID:16996726

  18. CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH AMMONIA: UTILITY PILOT PLANT OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes work to demonstrate, on a utility pilot plant scale, the performance, reliability, and practicability of reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from steam boilers by reduction of NOx with ammonia over a platinum catalyst. A utility pilot plant treating a sl...

  19. An introduction to the mechanics of performance assessment using examples of calculations done for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1990 and 1992. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1996-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the processes used to access the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The quantitative metrics used in the performance-assessment (PA) process are those put forward in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, HIgh-LEvel and transuranic radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191).

  20. Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

  1. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of materials from the H-Coal pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; DeMarini, D.M.; Dumont, J.N.; Dunn, W.C.; Epler, J.L.; Generoso, W.M.; Goad, M.E.; Haschek, W.M.; Holland, J.M.; Hsie, A.W.

    1985-02-01

    It appears that acute exposure to most of the substances H-Coal workers are likely to encounter is not apt to cause serious acute health problems. The predominant observed health effects among synfuels pilot plant workers in recent years have included eye irritation, dermatitis, and thermal burns (NIOSH, 1981). The worker population is too small and the duration of exposure too short to rule out long term effects, however. Testing of samples from the H-Coal pilot plant substantiated the results of testing earlier PDU samples. Those samples containing high boiling point substances were found to have dermal carcinogenic activity, to be mutagenic to Salmonella, and to have toxic and slight teratogenic effects on Xenopus. The fact that the heavy fuel oils are several times more tumorigenic than a reference whole natural petroleum crude oil suggests that more care may need to be taken to guard against worker exposure than in a conventional refinery. The increase in tumorigenicity at higher exposure rates also indicates the importance of minimizing worker exposure. Research is needed to determine whether there is an interaction between PAH-bearing oils and exposure to sunlight (coincident or not) that results in enhancing the tumorigenicity of the oils. Preliminary testing of means to reduce or eliminate the compound classes with adverse toxicological effects has begun with studies of the effects of hydrotreatment (Epler et al., 1981; Griest et al., 1983). Further work with less expensive treatment or upgrading options may be warranted. 50 references, 6 figures, 20 tables.

  3. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: An International Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Mark

    2003-02-25

    The United States Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is responsible for the successful management of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) in the United States. TRUW is a long-lived radioactive waste/material (LLRM). CBFO's responsibilities includes the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is a deep geologic repository for the safe disposal of U.S. defense-related TRUW and is located 42 kilometers (km) east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP is the only deep-geological disposal site for LLRM that is operating in the world today. CBFO also manages the National Transuranic Waste Program (NTP), which oversees TRU waste management from generation to disposal. As of February 2003, approximately 1500 shipments of waste have been safely transported to the WIPP, which has been operating since March 1999.

  4. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  5. Hydrochloric acid method of beneficiating magnesite using a pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sertin, V.A.; Galkin, Y.M.; Gemusova, I.B.; Glezer, E.B.; Khaltyurin, V.A.; Kislitsyn, V.I.; Rodde, T.V.; Simonov, K.V.; Vetlugina, N.A.; Yurlova, L.N.; Zakutinskii, V.L.

    1985-07-01

    One feature of the HCl treatment of magnesite is the possibility of using the main mass of HCl in a closed cycle. Regeneration of the HCl takes place during the thermal hydrolysis of the purified solution of magnesium chloride. In accordance with the plan drawn up by the Eastern Institute of Refractories and the Ukranian Institute of Chemistry, a pilot plant has been built at the Magnesite Combine; this has been mastered and is used for the hydrochloric acid treatment of magnesite; the annual productivity of the equipment is 400 tons. Some features of the process of dissolution of natural and caustic magnesite in HCL and the sintering of the beneficiated product have been considered elsewhere. This paper pays particular attention to the apparatus-process character and considers in more detail the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride.

  6. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J C

    1988-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The disturbed rock zone at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2003-12-01

    The Disturbed Rock Zone constitutes an important geomechanical element of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The science and engineering underpinning the disturbed rock zone provide the basis for evaluating ongoing operational issues and their impact on performance assessment. Contemporary treatment of the disturbed rock zone applied to the evaluation of the panel closure system and to a new mining horizon improves the level of detail and quantitative elements associated with a damaged zone surrounding the repository openings. Technical advancement has been realized by virtue of ongoing experimental investigations and international collaboration. The initial portion of this document discusses the disturbed rock zone relative to operational issues pertaining to re-certification of the repository. The remaining sections summarize and document theoretical and experimental advances that quantify characteristics of the disturbed rock zone as applied to nuclear waste repositories in salt.

  8. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  11. A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to form the bridge from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, to commercial fusion energy. Nor has much attention been paid, since 2003, to the synergies between magnetic and inertial fusion energy development. Here we consider, at a very high level, the possibility of a Qeng ≥ 1 Pilot Plant, with linear dimensions ~ 2/3 the linear dimensions of a commercial fusion power plant, as the needed bridge. As we examine the R&D needs for such a system we find significant synergies between the needs for the development of magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  12. Florida's proposed OTEC pilot plant for Key West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, D. L.; Rotundo, L.; Griffin, A.; Kelly, T.

    1981-12-01

    A description of the organizational structure, resource, and plant design for an OTEC system near Key West, Fla., is presented. A consortium of government offices has contracted with individual industrial developers to form an initial design team and manage subcontracting. Key West was chosen because of high electric rates, a proximity to warm and deep seawater, and a cooperative utility. Ocean water temperatures range from 80 F for the surface to 42 F for deep waters. A 40 MWe pilot plant is planned, with a double hull design for the 600-700 ft by 100-200 ft barge; four 15 MWe power modules will use ammonia as a working fluid. Strong available currents have reduced the needed sizes of the surface water intake ducts; less than two weeks down time are projected for hurricanes. The fiber reinforced composite cooling water pipe will be 2,600 ft long and designed to withstand hurricane stresses. Mooring and power delivery cabling are described, and it is noted that the design for the Key West plant is transferable to anywhere in the world due to the built-in engineering considerations.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  14. Test phase plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Test Phase Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant to satisfy the requirements of Public Law 102-579, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act (LWA). The Act provides seven months after its enactment for the DOE to submit this Plan to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for review. A potential geologic repository for transuranic wastes, including transuranic mixed wastes, generated in national-defense activities, the WIPP is being constructed in southeastern New Mexico. Because these wastes remain radioactive and chemically hazardous for a very long time, the WIPP must provide safe disposal for thousands of years. The DOE is developing the facility in phases. Surface facilities for receiving waste have been built and considerable underground excavations (2150 feet below the surface) that are appropriate for in-situ testing, have been completed. Additional excavations will be completed when they are required for waste disposal. The next step is to conduct a test phase. The purpose of the test phase is to develop pertinent information and assess whether the disposal of transuranic waste and transuranic mixed waste in the planned WIPP repository can be conducted in compliance with the environmental standards for disposal and with the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (as amended by RCRA, 42 USC. 6901 et. seq.). The test phase includes laboratory experiments and underground tests using contact-handled transuranic waste. Waste-related tests at WIPP will be limited to contact-handled transuranic and simulated wastes since the LWA prohibits the transport to or emplacement of remote-handled transuranic waste at WIPP during the test phase.

  15. TF Inner Leg Space Allocation for Pilot Plant Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. Titus and Ali Zolfaghari

    2012-09-06

    A critical design feature of any tokamak is the space taken up by the inner leg of the toroidal field (TF) coil. The radial build needed for the TF inner leg, along with shield thickness , size of the central solenoid and plasma minor radius set the major radius of the machine. The cost of the tokamak core roughly scales with the cube of the major radius. Small reductions in the TF build can have a big impact on the overall cost of the reactor. The cross section of the TF inner leg must structurally support the centering force and that portion of the vertical separating force that is not supported by the outer structures. In this paper, the TF inner leg equatorial plane cross sections are considered. Out-of- Plane (OOP) forces must also be supported, but these are largest away from the equatorial plane, in the inner upper and lower corners and outboard sections of the TF coil. OOP forces are taken by structures that are not closely coupled with the radial build of the central column at the equatorial plane. The "Vertical Access AT Pilot Plant" currently under consideration at PPPL is used as a starting point for the structural, field and current requirements. Other TF structural concepts are considered. Most are drawn from existing designs such as ITER's circular conduits in radial plates bearing on a heavy nose section, and TPX's square conduits in a case, Each of these concepts can rely on full wedging, or partial wedging. Vaulted TF coils are considered as are those with some component of bucking against a central solenoid or bucking post. With the expectation that the pilot plant will be a steady state machine, a static stress criteria is used for all the concepts. The coils are assumed to be superconducting, with the superconductor not contributing to the structural strength. Limit analysis is employed to assess the degree of conservatism in the static criteria as it is applied to a linear elastic stress analysis. TF concepts, and in particular the PPPL AT

  16. Biofuels from continuous fast pyrolysis of soybean oil: a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Wiggers, V R; Meier, H F; Wisniewski, A; Chivanga Barros, A A; Wolf Maciel, M R

    2009-12-01

    The continuous fast pyrolysis of soybean oil in a pilot plant was investigated. The experimental runs were carried out according to an experimental design alternating the temperature (from 450 to 600 degrees C) and the concentration of water (from 0% to 10%). The liquid products were analyzed by gas chromatography and by true boiling point (TPB) distillation. A simple distillation was used to obtain purified products such as gasoline and diesel. Physical-chemical analysis showed that these biofuels are similar to fossil fuels. Mass and energy balances were carried out in order to determine the vaporization enthalpy and the reaction enthalpy for each experiment. The thermal analysis showed that it is possible to use the products as an energy source for the process. PMID:19692230

  17. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, K.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Beyers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment programs throughout the United States to reduce the threat of wildland fire. Our study included 24 fuel breaks located across the State of California. We found that nonnative plant abundance was over 200% higher on fuel breaks than in adjacent wildland areas. Relative nonnative cover was greater on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers (28%) than on fuel breaks constructed by other methods (7%). Canopy cover, litter cover, and duff depth also were significantly lower on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers, and these fuel breaks had significantly more exposed bare ground than other types of fuel breaks. There was a significant decline in relative nonnative cover with increasing distance from the fuel break, particularly in areas that had experienced more numerous fires during the past 50 years, and in areas that had been grazed. These data suggest that fuel breaks could provide establishment sites for nonnative plants, and that nonnatives may invade surrounding areas, especially after disturbances such as fire or grazing. Fuel break construction and maintenance methods that leave some overstory canopy and minimize exposure of bare ground may be less likely to promote nonnative plants. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2006-08-01

    A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

  19. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest, J.B.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  20. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  1. Meteorological data for SRI study of mesoscale weather effects by pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-07

    The data required to estimate the probability of occurrence of initial meteorological conditions leading to an effect on the weather by the pilot solar thermal electric plant are discussed. No completely appropriate data summaries are available. Vertical atmospheric profiles are the most appropriate source of raw data for a statistical analysis, but these are not available from the pilot plant location either. The available stability data for the pilot plant site are presented. A procedure is outlined to obtain the required estimates of occurrence frequency if desired. However, it is recommended that more substantial effects be demonstrated with a physically realistic model before great effort is expended on data analysis.

  2. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  4. Mapping of cavitational activity in a pilot plant dyeing equipment.

    PubMed

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2015-11-01

    A large number of papers of the literature quote dyeing intensification based on the application of ultrasound (US) in the dyeing liquor. Mass transfer mechanisms are described and quantified, nevertheless these experimental results in general refer to small laboratory apparatuses with a capacity of a few hundred millilitres and extremely high volumetric energy intensity. With the strategy of overcoming the scale-up inaccuracy consequent to the technological application of ultrasounds, a dyeing pilot-plant prototype of suitable liquor capacity (about 40 L) and properly simulating several liquor to textile hydraulic relationships was designed by including US transducers with different geometries. Optimal dyeing may be obtained by optimising the distance between transducer and textile material, the liquid height being a non-negligible operating parameter. Hence, mapping the cavitation energy in the machinery is expected to provide basic data on the intensity and distribution of the ultrasonic field in the aqueous liquor. A flat ultrasonic transducer (absorbed electrical power of 600 W), equipped with eight devices emitting at 25 kHz, was mounted horizontally at the equipment bottom. Considering industrial scale dyeing, liquor and textile substrate are reciprocally displaced to achieve a uniform colouration. In this technology a non uniform US field could affect the dyeing evenness to a large extent; hence, mapping the cavitation energy distribution in the machinery is expected to provide fundamental data and define optimal operating conditions. Local values of the cavitation intensity were recorded by using a carefully calibrated Ultrasonic Energy Meter, which is able to measure the power per unit surface generated by the cavitation implosion of bubbles. More than 200 measurements were recorded to define the map at each horizontal plane positioned at a different distance from the US transducer; tap water was heated at the same temperature used for dyeing tests (60

  5. Factors Contributing to Pilot Valve Fuel Seal Extrusion in Orbiter PRCS Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, J.M.; Saulsberry, R.L.; Albright, John D.

    2000-01-01

    Extrusion of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pilot seal used in the monomethylhydrazine (fuel) valve of the Orbiter Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) thrusters has been implicated in numerous on-orbit thruster failures and on-ground valve failures. Two extrusion mechanisms have been proposed, one or both may be occurring. The first mechanism is attributed to thermal expansion mismatch between adjacent PTFE and metal parts used in the fuel valve, and is referred to as thermal extrusion. The second mechanism is attributed to nitrogen tetroxide (oxidizer) leakage from the adjacent oxidizer valve on the same thruster during ground turnaround, and is referred to as oxidizer-induced extrusion. Model calculations of PTFE pilot seal in an exact pilot valve configuration show that extrusion can be caused by differential thermal expansion, without the intervening influence of oxidizer. Experimental data on semitrapped PTFE and TFM (modified PTFE) specimens simulating a fuel pilot valve configuration show that thermal extrusion 1) is incremental and irreversible, 2) increases with the size of the thermal excursion, 3) decreases with successive thermal cycling, and 4) is accompanied by gap formation. Both PTFE and TFM exhibit a higher affinity for oxidizer than fuel. The property changes associated with oxidizer uptake may explain why oxidizer seals do not exhibit extrusion. Impression replicas of fuel pilot seals removed from the Orbiter fleet show two types of extrusion: extrusion of the entire seal (loaded extrusion), or extrusion of non-sealing surface (unloaded extrusion). Both extrusion types may arise from differences in service history, rather than in failure mechanism. The plausibility oxidizer-induced extrusion was evaluated. Preliminary calculations suggest that enough energy, heat, or gas may be liberated under certain operational scenarios to cause catastrophic extrusion. However, given the lack of supporting data, conclusions implicating oxidizer leakage

  6. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-26

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  7. Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M. ); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, F. Pablo; Cortés, M. Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinación del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Information System (Public Access)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a DOE facility located in the desert outside Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its mission is to safely dispose of defense-related transuranic radioactive waste. Disposal ôroomsö are carved out of the Permian Salt Formation deep below the desertÆs surface. The WIPP Waste Information Service (WWIS) was established in accordance with an Agreement between the United States Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department, dated February 11, 2005, Docket Number HWB 04-07 (CO). The service provides information the containers emplaced at WIPP and the waste products they hold. The public may query by shipment number, location of waste stream or location of the container after it is placed at WIPP, date placed, and Haz Codes or other information about the waste stream profiles. For example, choosing the waste stream identified as ID-SDA-SLUDGE reveals that it may contain more than 20 chemical waste products, including arsenic, spent halogenated solvents, potassium cyanide, and chloroform. The system then tells you each numbered container that has this kind of sludge. Container data is available within 14 days after the containerÆs emplacement in the WIPP Repository.

  10. The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Shephard, L.E.; Helton, J.C.; Basabilvazo, G.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste that has been generated at government defense installations in the United States. The WIPP is located in an area of low population density in southeastern New Mexico. Waste disposal will take place in excavated chambers in a bedded salt formation approximately 655 m below the land surface. This presentation describes a performance assessment (PA) carried out at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) made by the DOE to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. Based on the CCA supported by the PA described in this presentation, the EPA has issued a preliminary decision to certify the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. At present (April 1998), it appears likely that the WIPP will be in operation by the end of 1998.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-12

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  13. Pilot plant for biomethanation of dairy-industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Fukushi, K.; Liu, T.

    1994-12-31

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate the application of two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) for simultaneous stabilization and biomethanation of high-COD cheese-waste-dairy-manure mixtures by a pilot-plant operation in Wellsville, Utah. The TPAD system exhibited a total COD (TCOD) reduction of up to 97% with feed COD concentration of 60,000 to 45,000 mg/l. The TCOD reduction decreased as the variability as well as the strength of the feed increased. A quick surge of the feed TCOD concentration to 125,000 mg/l effected a large drop in TCOD reduction, but the integrity of the methane digester, which produced 78 {approximately}87 mol% methane-content gas, was measured and TPAD system performance could be restored to normal levels by diluting the feed to obtain TCOD concentrations below 70,000 mg/l. The TPAD system exhibited a methane yield of 0.27 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD charged (0.36 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD removed).

  14. Results of toxicological testing of Jefferson Paris pilot plant samples

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Kopfler, F.C.; Condie, L.W.; Pereira, M.A.; Meier, J.R.; Ringhand, H.P.; Robinson, M.; Casto, B.C.

    1986-11-01

    Five toxicological tests were performed using concentrated drinking water samples collected at a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant that had streams treated with different disinfectants (no disinfectant, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, or chlorine) before treatment with granular activated carbon (GAC). The toxicological tests used in this study were the Ames Salmonella assay, a subchronic in vivo toxicity assay in mice, the SENCAR mouse skin initiation-promotion assay, a rat liver foci assay, and the lung adenoma assay in strain A mice. These tests were conducted to determine the general toxicity and the mutagenic/carcinogenic potential association with the use of disinfection and/or GAC in the treatment of drinking water. Results indicated that the samples remained mutagenic for the duration of the tests. All the drinking water concentrates (4000 x) prepared by the XAD resin adsorption procedure failed to provide statistically significant indication of carcinogenic activity in the SENCAR mouse, rat liver foci, and the lung adenoma assays. However, concentrates of the chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine treated waters gave consistent mutagenic responses in the Ames Salmonella assay. GAC was effective for 6 months in removing both the mutagenicity of chlorine-treated water and the potential of water to become mutagenic when treated with chlorine. A consistent pattern of these differences indicating overt toxicity was not detected.

  15. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

    2000-06-05

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  16. Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

  17. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  18. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project`s present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ``confirmatory`` and monitoring nature.

  19. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  20. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from waste activated bleaching earth as raw material in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Enoch Y; Sato, Masayasu; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry using lipase from Candida cylindracea was investigated in a 50-L pilot plant. Diesel oil or kerosene was used as an organic solvent for the transesterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. When 1% (w/w) lipase was added to waste ABE, the FAME content reached 97% (w/w) after reaction for 12 h at 25 degrees C with an agitation rate of 30 rpm. The FAME production rate was strongly dependent upon the amount of enzyme added. Mixtures of FAME and diesel oil at ratios of 45:55 (BDF-45) and 35:65 (BDF-35) were assessed and compared with the European specifications for biodiesel as automotive diesel fuel, as defined by pr EN 14214. The biodiesel quality of BDF-45 met the EN 14214 standard. BDF-45 was used as generator fuel, and the exhaust emissions were compared with those of diesel oil. The CO and SO2 contents were reduced, but nitrogen oxide emission increased by 10%. This is the first report of a pilot plant study of lipase-catalyzed FAME production using waste ABE as a raw material. This result demonstrates a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME from industrial waste resources containing vegetable oils for use as a biodiesel fuel. PMID:17629478

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.

  2. PILOT PLANT OPTIMIZATION OF THE CHLORINE DIOXIDE TREATMENT PROCESS FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous pilot-plant investigations conducted by the Evansville, Indiana Water and Sewer Utility confirmed the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment for reducing trihalomethane formation. hese investigations resulted in a shift away from the utilities pre-chlorination pract...

  3. EXPOSURE AND RELEASE ESTIMATIONS FOR FILTER PRESS AND TRAY DRYER OPERATIONS BASED ON PILOT PLANT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worker exposures and chemical releases associated with a plate-and-frame filter press and a stationary tray dryer were studied in a pilot plant. he equipment was representative of those in a chemical manufacturing plant; the filter press was previously used at a chemical plant, a...

  4. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  5. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  6. Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

  7. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-04-24

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  9. 27 CFR 19.733 - Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.733 Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants. A proprietor may remove spirits from the bonded premises of an alcohol fuel plant, including the premises of a small plant, for transfer in bond to another alcohol fuel plant. A proprietor...

  10. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  11. Results of toxicological testing of Jefferson Parish pilot plant samples.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G; Kopfler, F C; Condie, L W; Pereira, M A; Meier, J R; Ringhand, H P; Robinson, M; Casto, B C

    1986-01-01

    Five toxicological tests were performed using concentrated drinking water samples collected at a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant that had streams treated with different disinfectants (no disinfectant, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, or chlorine) before treatment with granular activated carbon (GAC). The toxicological tests used in this study were the Ames Salmonella assay, a subchronic in vivo toxicity assay in mice, the SENCAR mouse skin initiation-promotion assay, a rat liver foci assay, and the lung adenoma assay in strain A mice. These tests were conducted to determine the general toxicity and the mutagenic/carcinogenic potential associated with the use of disinfection and/or GAC in the treatment of drinking water. The stability of the mutagenic activity of the samples tested was determined by repeated analysis using the Ames Salmonella assay. Results indicated that the samples remained mutagenic for the duration of the tests. All the drinking water concentrates (4000 X) prepared by the XAD resin adsorption procedure failed to provide statistically significant indication of carcinogenic activity in the SENCAR mouse, rat liver foci, and the lung adenoma assays. However, concentrates of the chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine treated waters gave consistent mutagenic responses in the Ames Salmonella assay. GAC was effective for 6 months in removing both the mutagenicity of chlorine-treated water and the potential of water to become mutagenic when treated with chlorine. In the in vivo, subchronic 30-day toxicity test in mice, some statistically significant differences in organ weights and body weights of animals exposed to different concentrates of some of the samples were observed. However, a consistent pattern of these differences indicating overt toxicity was not detected. PMID:3816718

  12. Waste retrieval plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The US DOE has prepared this plan to meet the requirements of Public Law 102579, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) LWA, The purpose. is to demonstrate readiness to retrieve from the WIPP underground transuranic radioactive waste that will be used for testing should retrieval be needed. The WIPP, a potential geologic repository for transuranic wastes generated in national-defense activities, has been constructed in southeastern New Mexico. Because the transuranic wastes will remain radioactive for a very long time, the WIPP must reasonably ensure safe performance over thousands of years. The DOE therefore decided to develop the facility in phases, to preclude premature decisions and to conduct the performance assessments needed to demonstrate long-term safety. Surface facilities for receiving waste have been built, and considerable underground excavation, 2150 feet below the surface, has been completed. The next step is a test phase, including underground experiments called bin tests'' and alcove test(s)'' with contact-handled transuranic waste. The objective of these waste tests is to collect relevant data about the gas-generation potential and volatile organic compound (VOC) source term of the waste for developing a basis for demonstrating long term safety by compliance with the applicable disposal regulations (40 CFR 191, 264 and 268). The test phase will end when a decision is made to begin disposal in the WIPP or to terminate the project if regulatory compliance cannot be determined and demonstrated. Authorization to receive transuranic waste at the WIPP for the test phase is given by the WIPP LWA provided certain requirements are met.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  15. PFLOTRAN Simulation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Single Waste Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Hammond, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. WIPP performance assessment (PA) calculations estimate the probability and consequence of potential radionuclide releases from the repository to the accessible environment arising from events and processes that could occur over the 10,000 year regulatory period. The conceptual model estimates three possible cases and the combinations of these cases: 1) undisturbed condition of the repository, 2) human borehole intrusion condition that penetrates the repository, and 3) human borehole intrusion that penetrates pressurized brine underlying the repository. To date, WIPP PA calculations have employed multiple two-dimensional (2D) numerical models requiring simplification of the mesh and processes including homogenization of materials and regions while maintaining volume aspect ratio. Introducing three-dimensional (3D) numerical models within WIPP PA enables increasingly realistic representations of the WIPP subsurface domain and improved flexibility for incorporating relevant features. PFLOTRAN is a state-of-art massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code that will be implemented to enhance PA with more physically realistic 3D flow and transport models; eliminating the need for multiple related, but decoupled 2D models. This paper demonstrates PFLOTRAN simulation of a single waste panel of the WIPP undisturbed condition in 3D. The simulation also employs newly implemented WIPP specific functionalities to PFLOTRAN: 1) gas generation from the wastes, 2) creep closure of bedded salt formation, 3) fractures of marker beds near the excavation, 4) Klinkenberg effect on gas permeability in low-permeable materials, and 5) Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state for gas density.

  16. 27 CFR 19.902 - Waiver for alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver for alcohol fuel plants. 19.902 Section 19.902 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE....902 Waiver for alcohol fuel plants. All provisions of subparts A through X of this part and...

  17. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S.D.; King, R.W.; Durstine, K.R.; Eberl, C.S.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded spent metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic, and metal waste forms. Equipment is being developed at ANL which will precondition irradiated oxide fuel and demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels as well. The oxide reduction process preconditions irradiated oxide fuel such that uranium and transuranic (TRU) constituents are chemically reduced into metallic form via a molten Li/LiCl-based reduction system. In this form the spent fuel is further conditioned in an electrorefiner and waste handling equipment, thereby placing the uranium, TRU elements, and fissions products into stable forms suitable for placement in a long-term repository. Development of the Li/LiCl-based oxide reduction process has proceeded at lab- (nominally 50 grams of heavy metal (HM)) and engineering-scale (nominally 10-kg of HM) for unirradiated oxide fuel. The presentation described the process and equipment design for scale-up from lab- and engineering-scale reduction of unirradiated oxide fuel in gloveboxes to pilot-scale (up to 100-kg of HM) reduction of irradiated oxide fuel in a hot cell. [Abstract only.

  18. Environmental monitoring at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii for OTEC pilot-plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, A.T.; Harms, V.; Hartwig, E.O.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.; Wilde, P.

    1982-08-01

    Two 40 MWe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant programs are in the initial phase of development near Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii. The two options being examined are: (1) a shelf-seated artificial island, connected via a causeway to Oahu, using stainless steel heat exchangers, with the thermal resource enhanced by effluent from a near-by power plant, ammonia working fluid and biocide (chlorine) cleaning; and (2) a shelf mount tower 1 mile off shore using submerged aluminum heat exchangers, R-22 working fluid, and slurry cleaning with biocide (chlorine) backup. Environmental Technical Requirements are described including: siting criteria; environmental design, and operational criteria; thermal resource evaluation and variability; physical, chemical, and biological data requirements; and regulatory requirements. Due to siting, design, and operational differences the proposed two pilot plant options have individual environmental monitoring criteria and requirements. Due to the close spatial proximity of the proposed pilot plants they also have required environmental data which are common to both.

  19. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  20. AMMONIA ABSORPTION/AMMONIUM BISULFATE REGENERATION PILOT PLANT FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot-plant study of the ammonia absorption/ammonium bisulfate regeneration process for removing SO2 from the stack gas of coal-fired power plants. Data were developed on the effects of such operating variable in the absorption of SO2 by ammoniacal l...

  1. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-05-15

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project

  2. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is shown below: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH; 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O; H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a

  3. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease

  4. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by

  5. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  6. Arsenic pilot plant operation and results : Anthony, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Malynda Jo; Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Aragon, Alicia R.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Holub, William E., Jr.; Wright, Jerome L.; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2007-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting pilot scale evaluations of the performance and cost of innovative water treatment technologies aimed at meeting the recently revised arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. The standard of 10 {micro}g/L (10 ppb) is effective as of January 2006. The pilot tests have been conducted in New Mexico where over 90 sites that exceed the new MCL have been identified by the New Mexico Environment Department. The pilot test described in this report was conducted in Anthony, New Mexico between August 2005 and December 2006 at Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) (Desert Sands) Well No.3. The pilot demonstrations are a part of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF), SNL and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development). The Sandia National Laboratories pilot demonstration at the Desert Sands site obtained arsenic removal performance data for fourteen different adsorptive media under intermittent flow conditions. Well water at Desert Sands has approximately 20 ppb arsenic in the unoxidized (arsenite-As(III)) redox state with moderately high total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly due to high sulfate, chloride, and varying concentrations of iron. The water is slightly alkaline with a pH near 8. The study provides estimates of the capacity (bed volumes until breakthrough at 10 ppb arsenic) of adsorptive media in the same chlorinated water. Adsorptive media were compared side-by-side in ambient pH water with intermittent flow operation. This pilot is broken down into four phases, which occurred sequentially, however the phases overlapped in most cases.

  7. Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

    1983-04-01

    The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

  8. SOXAL{trademark} pilot plant demonstration at Niagara Mohawk`s Dunkirk Station

    SciTech Connect

    Strangway, P.K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a six-month, nominal three megawatt (3 MW) pilot plant demonstration of the SOXAL{trademark} regenerative flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation`s Dunkirk, NY coal-fired power station. Using a slip-stream of flue gas from an actual coal-fired boiler, the pilot plant successfully demonstrated the absorption of sulfur dioxide and the simultaneous regeneration of sodium-based scrubbing liquor via bipolar membrane electrodialysis. Sulfur dioxide removal efficiency of greater than 98% was routinely achieved. The absorption and regeneration stages were both proven reliable and controllable. The pilot plant was successfully operated in both continuous and decoupled modes of operation, thus demonstrating the flexibility of this process.

  9. Status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance with 40 CFR 191B, December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper describes the 1992 preliminary comparison with Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), which regulates long-term releases of radioactive waste. Results of the 1992 PA are preliminary, and cannot be used to determine compliance or noncompliance with EPA regulations because portions of the modeling system and data base are incomplete. Results are consistent, however, with those of previous iterations of PA, and the SNL WIPP PA Department has high confidence that compliance with 40 CFR 191B can be demonstrated. Comparison of predicted radiation doses from the disposal system also gives high confidence that the disposal system is safe for long-term isolation.

  10. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 11 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Seismic reflection data from petroleum industry sources showed anomalous reflectors in the Castile Formation over a small area about 3 miles north of the center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Additional corroborative seismic reflection data were collected as part of WIPP investigations, and WIPP 11 was drilled to investigate the anomaly. WIPP 11 was drilled near the northwest corner of Section 9, T.22.S., R.31E. it penetrated, in descending order, sand dune deposits and the Gatuna Formation (29'), Santa Rosa Sandstone (132'), Dewey Lake Red Beds (502'), Rustler Formation (288'), Salado Formation (1379'), and most of the Castile Formation (1240'). Beds within the lower part of the Salado, and the upper anhydrite of the Castile, are thinner than normal; these beds are displaced upward structurally by the upper Castile halite which is highly thickened (about 968'). The lowest halite is thin (51') and the basal anhydrite was not completely penetrated. Subsequent seismic and borehole data has shown WIPP 11 to be in a structural complex now identified as the disturbed zone. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level waste, though there are no plans at this time to dispose of high level waste or spent fuel at WIPP.

  11. Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram-Howery, S.G. ); Swift, P.N. )

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  13. Parameter sensitivity studies of selected components of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository/shaft system

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P. ); Beyeler, W.; Schreiber, J.D. ); McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K.; Bean, J.E. )

    1990-03-01

    This status report presents preliminary analyses of flow through the rooms, drifts, seals, and shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The purpose of these analyses is to evaluate the importance of various components and parameters of the transuranic waste repository. These analyses are presented to show the current status of repository/shaft system modeling, and to provide input for evaluating proposed engineered modifications to the waste and rooms to ensure compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Waste. Detailed descriptions are given for nine computational models of the WIPP repository for either undisturbed or human intrusion conditions. Some models are refined versions of earlier models; others include rudimentary studies of an additional phenomenon, flow of generated gas. The models of an undisturbed repository substantiated the results of earlier models by showing that no waste leaves the vicinity of the disposal area in 10,000 yr. The models that studies gas flow agreed with this position; however, the models are too rudimentary to permit conclusive statements. The five models of the human intrusion event explored the importance of parameters that influence the flow of brine through the waste, establishing a base for understanding the behavior of the waste disposal rooms, drifts,and interbeds in the host rock. 63 refs., 92 figs., 29 tabs.

  14. TRU waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This document is intended to delineate the criteria by which unclassified waste will be accepted for emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and describe the bases upon which these criteria were established. These criteria are not intended to be specifications but rather limits that will allow waste generating and shipping sites to develop their own procedures and specifications for preparation of TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. These criteria will also allow waste generating sites to plan future facilities for waste preparation that will produce TRU waste forms compatible with WIPP waste emplacement and isolation requirements. These criteria only apply to contract-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste forms and are not intended to apply to beta-gamma wastes, spent fuel, high-level waste (HLW), low-level waste (LLW), low specific activity (LSA) waste, or forms of radioactive waste for experimental purposes. Specifications for receipt of experimental waste forms will be prepared by the responsible projects in conjunction with the staff of the WIPP project at a later date. In addition, these criteria only apply to waste emplaced in bedded rock salt. Technical bases for these criteria may differ significantly from those for other host rocks. 25 refs. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  16. Comparative analysis of plant oil based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.J.; Haines, H.; Huong, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the evaluation results from the analysis of different blends of fuels using the 13-mode standard SAE testing method. Six high oleic safflower oil blends, six ester blends, six high oleic sunflower oil blends, and six sunflower oil blends were used in this portion of the investigation. Additionally, the results from the repeated 13-mode tests for all the 25/75% mixtures with a complete diesel fuel test before and after each alternative fuel are presented.

  17. Environmental readiness pilot study at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.; Bhinge, D.; Patel, J.; Jones-Bateman, L.; Resnick, E.

    1994-12-31

    The Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) has been on standby status since the mid-1970s, prior to the enactment of the majority of Federal environmental regulations. As a result, BAAP is unprepared to begin production without the implementation of pollution prevention and treatment measures. The Army contracted SAIC to conduct a pilot study to develop an environmental readiness plan for BAAP in the event that the plant is reactivated to produce explosives and propellants for ammunition requirements during mobilization. This paper describes the process developed by SAIC to conduct this pilot study at BAAP and the relationship between this effort and the Army`s overall environmental mission.

  18. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF A 200-KILOWATT BIOMASS FUELED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the demonstration of a 200-kW biomass-fueled electric power plant. he objective of the demonstration is to evaluate the operating and performance characteristics of the system using lumber wastes for fuel. t is scheduled to accumulate 8000 hours of operation o...

  20. Arsenic pilot plant operation and results:Weatherford, Oklahoma.

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Malynda Jo; Arora, H. (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Karori, Saqib (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Pathan, Sakib

    2007-05-01

    Narasimhan Consulting Services, Inc. (NCS), under a contract with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), designed and operated pilot scale evaluations of the adsorption and coagulation/filtration treatment technologies aimed at meeting the recently revised arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. The standard of 10 {micro}g/L (10 ppb) is effective as of January 2006. The pilot demonstration is a project of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF), SNL and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development). The pilot evaluation was conducted at Well 30 of the City of Weatherford, OK, which supplies drinking water to a population of more than 10,400. Well water contained arsenic in the range of 16 to 29 ppb during the study. Four commercially available adsorption media were evaluated side by side for a period of three months. Both adsorption and coagulation/filtration effectively reduced arsenic from Well No.30. A preliminary economic analysis indicated that adsorption using an iron oxide media was more cost effective than the coagulation/ filtration technology.

  1. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  2. Guest editorial: The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-19

    The appropriate disposal of radioactive waste is a problem of great importance, wide-spread interest, and some controversy. As part of the solution to this problem the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by defense programs in the United States. The DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA){sup 17} for the WIPP to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, and a positive certification decision for the WIPP was issued by the EPA in May 1998. The first disposal of TRU waste in the WIPP took place in March 1999. The 1996 CCA for the WIPP was supported by an extensive performance assessment (PA) carried out by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with this PA often designated the 1996 WIPP PA, the 1996 CCA PA, or simply the 1996 PA. In turn, the 1996 PA was supported by site characterization activities, experimental programs, model development programs, data development programs, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, a dedicated computational environment, a rigorous quality assurance (QA) program and a sequence of earlier PAs. Further, this PA was carried out in a regulatory environment defined by the following EPA regulations: Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191) and Criteria for the Certification and Re-Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations (40 CFR Part 194) The WIPP is the first licensed facility in the United States for the deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste. As a result, there is extensive interest in both the WIPP and the analyses that led to its certification by the EPA for the disposal of TRU waste. The WIPP program has produced large amounts of documentation both as part of the CCA itself and in large

  3. Prospects for pilot plants based on the tokamak, spherical tokamak and stellarator.

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, J. E.; Bromberg, L.; Brown, T.; Burgess, Thomas W; Dix, D.; El-GuebalyUniv. Wisco, L.; Gerrity, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Hawryluk, R.; Kastner, R.; Kessel, C.; Malang, S.; Minervini, J.; Neilson, G. H.; Neumeyer, C. L.; Prager, S.; Sawan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Sternlieb, A.; Waganer, L.; Whyte, D. G.; Zarnstorff, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    A potentially attractive next-step towards fusion commercialization is a pilot plant, i.e. a device ultimately capable of small net electricity production in as compact a facility as possible and in a configuration scalable to a full-size power plant. A key capability for a pilot-plant programme is the production of high neutron fluence enabling fusion nuclear science and technology (FNST) research. It is found that for physics and technology assumptions between those assumed for ITER and nth-of-a-kind fusion power plant, it is possible to provide FNST-relevant neutron wall loading in pilot devices. Thus, it may be possible to utilize a single facility to perform FNST research utilizing reactor-relevant plasma, blanket, coil and auxiliary systems and maintenance schemes while also targeting net electricity production. In this paper three configurations for a pilot plant are considered: the advanced tokamak, spherical tokamak and compact stellarator. A range of configuration issues is considered including: radial build and blanket design, magnet systems, maintenance schemes, tritium consumption and self-sufficiency, physics scenarios and a brief assessment of research needs for the configurations.

  4. Prospects for pilot plants based on the tokamak, spherical tokamak and stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. E.; Bromberg, L.; Brown, T.; Burgess, T.; Dix, D.; El-Guebaly, L.; Gerrity, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Kastner, R.; Kessel, C.; Malang, S.; Minervini, J.; Neilson, G. H.; Neumeyer, C. L.; Prager, S.; Sawan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Sternlieb, A.; Waganer, L.; Whyte, D.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2011-10-01

    A potentially attractive next-step towards fusion commercialization is a pilot plant, i.e. a device ultimately capable of small net electricity production in as compact a facility as possible and in a configuration scalable to a full-size power plant. A key capability for a pilot-plant programme is the production of high neutron fluence enabling fusion nuclear science and technology (FNST) research. It is found that for physics and technology assumptions between those assumed for ITER and nth-of-a-kind fusion power plant, it is possible to provide FNST-relevant neutron wall loading in pilot devices. Thus, it may be possible to utilize a single facility to perform FNST research utilizing reactor-relevant plasma, blanket, coil and auxiliary systems and maintenance schemes while also targeting net electricity production. In this paper three configurations for a pilot plant are considered: the advanced tokamak, spherical tokamak and compact stellarator. A range of configuration issues is considered including: radial build and blanket design, magnet systems, maintenance schemes, tritium consumption and self-sufficiency, physics scenarios and a brief assessment of research needs for the configurations.

  5. Design criteria, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revised Mission Concept-IIA (RMC-IIA). Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    This document provides design criteria which shall be used by the architect-engineer in the Title II detail design of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The design criteria present requirements which the architect-engineer must address in the design of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

  6. 27 CFR 19.733 - Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... between alcohol fuel plants. 19.733 Section 19.733 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.733 Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants. A proprietor may remove spirits from the bonded premises of an alcohol fuel...

  7. 27 CFR 19.733 - Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... between alcohol fuel plants. 19.733 Section 19.733 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.733 Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants. A proprietor may remove spirits from the bonded premises of an alcohol fuel...

  8. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  9. 27 CFR 19.990 - Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. 19.990 Section 19.990 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Redistillation § 19.990 Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. (a) Receipts for redistillation. Proprietors of alcohol fuel plants...

  10. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  11. Recommended guidelines for solid fuel use in cement plants

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.L.; Jayaraman, H.; Tseng, H.

    2007-07-01

    Pulverized solid fuel use at cement plants in North America is universal and includes bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and any combination of these materials. Provided are guidelines for the safe use of pulverized solid fuel systems in cement plants, including discussion of the National Fire Protection Association and FM Global fire and explosion prevention standards. Addressed are fire and explosion hazards related to solid fuel use in the cement industry, fuel handling and fuel system descriptions, engineering design theory, kiln system operations, electrical equipment, instrumentation and safety interlock issues, maintenance and training, and a brief review of code issues. New technology on fire and explosion prevention including deflagration venting is also presented.

  12. The market for utility-scale fuel cell plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Masaru; Takasu, Kazuhiko

    This paper is devoted to a survey of the current technology and future market for utility-scale fuel cell plants. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is entering into the stage where it is practically available for use with natural gas. Large capacity plants such as 11, 5 and 1 MW have been installed and operated in Italy and Japan. Their efficiency ranges from 36 to 42%. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is in the demonstrating stage, both the fuel cell and the balance-of-plant (BOP) for natural gas. Demonstration plants of 2 and 1 MW have been under construction in the USA and Japan. Their efficiency will range from 40 to 50%. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is in the experimental stage around 100 kW for co-generation. Its conceptual system design has been conducted for both centralized and dispersed power plant in a cooperation with Westinghouse and NEDO. A market survey is now considered on the basis that future fuel cells will run for around 40 000 h in a stable manner with competitive performance. The market for fuel cells will be roughly at 2000 MW in Japan by the year 2010. Half of them will be installed for electric companies on the utility scale. The market will be shared between PAFC and MCFC by 10 and 90%, respectively. Current technologies have not reached the stage to precisely forecast when fuel cells will be entering into the market on a utility scale. At the present time, it is worthwhile to consider how the technological and economic requirements will be definitely achieved. After achieving these requirements, fuel cells will be positively introduced and socially accepted as the best energy converting option to save energy and environmental impact. Further efforts will be devoted to meeting the market from the technological and economic aspects.

  13. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries. PMID:19603700

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  15. HITACHI ZOSEN NOX FLUE GAS TREATMENT PROCESS. VOLUME 1. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot plant evaluation of the Hitachi Zosen NOx flue gas treatment process. The project--evaluating selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx on a coal-fired source--operated for 1-1/2 years. A newly developed catalyst, NOXNON 600, was successfully ...

  16. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  17. PILOT PLANT STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF A SURFACE ELECTRIC FIELD ON FABRIC FILTER OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a pilot plant study of electrostatically augmented fabric filtration (ESFF) to transfer laboratory technology to the field environment. (Note: Electrostatic fields at the fabric surface of fabric dust collectors have been observed in the laboratory to r...

  18. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing of strawberry puree by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a pilot plant system has never been evaluated. In addition, a method does not exist to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during PEF processing. Both buffered peptone water (BPW) and fresh strawberry puree (...

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  20. Design, test and commercialization considerations of OTEC pilot plant riser cables

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, T. F.; Eaton, R.; Dalton, T.; Pieroni, C.; Walsh, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Discussion addresses riser cable system development for OTEC pilot plants transmitting power in the range of 10 to 40 MW. Specifically, design, testing and status of riser cable system development are reviewed. Further discussion encompasses unique technical, hardware and operational considerations associated with the commercialization of riser cable systems.

  1. SEATTLE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CORROSION CONTROL STUDY. VOLUME 2. TOLT RIVER WATER PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    For 6 months, the Seattle Water Department conducted a corrosion treatment pilot plant study, obtaining data on the treatment of Tolt River water with lime/sodium carbonate, lime/sodium bicarbonate, and lime/bicarbonate/silicate. Continuous-flow pipe coupon tests were conducted t...

  2. Use of a Modern Polymerization Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate Control Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza-Bustos, S. A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Described is a project where students gain experience in handling large volumes of hazardous materials, process start up and shut down, equipment failures, operational variations, scaling up, equipment cleaning, and run-time scheduling while working in a modern pilot plant. Included are the system design, experimental procedures, and results. (KR)

  3. Chemistry research and development. Progress report, December 1978-May 1979. [Component, pilot plant, instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, F. J.

    1980-06-30

    Progress and activities are reported on component development, pilot plant development, and instrumentation and statistical systems. Specific items studied include processing of pond sludge, transport of radioactive materials and wastes, corrosion, decontamination and cleaning, fluidized-bed incineration, Pu contamination of soils, chemical analysis, radiometric analysis, security. (DLC)

  4. FIRST TRIALS OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUIDIZED-BED (CAFB) PILOT PLANT ON COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a minirun, carried out on a 0.75-MWe continuous, chemically active fluidized-bed (CAFB) pilot plant during July-August 1976, as part of a program to extend the CAFB process to operate on coal. After 8.5 hours of gasification on Texas lignite and Illino...

  5. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE EPA OWNED BENCH SCALE PILOT PLANT FOR EVALUATING SCR DENOX CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's bench-scale pilot plant to evaluate catalysts used in the ammonia (NH3)-based technology and process for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides. A key objective was to establish the performance of SCR catalysts on U.S. uels and...

  6. Projecting plant economics for wind, wood, and waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.M.; Rundle, W.L.; Strauss, S.D.

    1983-02-01

    This article provides economic analyses for three alternative energy sources which are technically feasible--wind, wood, and solid waste. Total installation cost must be taken into account: base capital cost, engineering, environmental, and installation costs. Contingencies, owner's and working capital, fuel inventories, and escalation allowance for funds during construction are also considered. Cash flow projection then provides an estimate of the percentage of total expenditure during the preconstruction phase. In wood plants, fuel cost will be a critical factor. In solid waste plants, small scale modular incinerators are used. The turbine generator is the other capital cost. The above methodology allows analysis of the economics of plants using various energies.

  7. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, G. J.

    The 10-MW(sub e) Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  8. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  9. Risk Based Inspection Pilot Study of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant,Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brickstad, Bjorn; Letzter, Adam; Klimasauskas, Arturas; Alzbutas, Robertas; Nedzinskas, Linas; Kopustinskas, Vytis

    2002-07-01

    A project with the acronym IRBIS (Ignalina Risk Based Inspection pilot Study) has been performed with the objective to perform a quantitative risk analysis of a total of 1240 stainless steel welds in Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, unit 2 (INPP-2). The damage mechanism is IGSCC and the failure probabilities are quantified by using probabilistic fracture mechanics. The conditional core damage probabilities are taken from the plant PSA. (authors)

  10. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  11. Feasibility study of a plant for LWR used fuel reprocessing by pyrochemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Savotchkin, Yu.P.; Sokolovsky, Yu.S.; Baganz, Catherine; Lopoukhine, Serge; Maurin, Guy; Medzadourian, Michel

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, experts from AREVA and RIAR performed a joint research work on the feasibility study of a plant reprocessing 1000 t/y of LWR spent nuclear fuel by the gas-fluoride and pyro-electrochemical techniques developed at RIAR. This work was based on the RIAR experience in development of pyrochemical processes and AREVA experience in designing UNF reprocessing plants. UNF reprocessing pyrochemical processes have been developed at RIAR at laboratory scale and technology for granulated MOX fuel fabrication and manufacturing of vibro-packed fuel rods is developed at pilot scale. The research work resulted in a preliminary feasibility assessment of the reprocessing plant according to the norms and standards applied in France. The study results interpretation must integrate the fact that the different technology steps are at very different stage of development. It appears clearly however that in its present state of development, pyro-electrochemical technology is not adapted to the treatment of an important material flow issuing from thermal reactors. There is probably an economic optimum to be studied for the choice of hydrometallurgical or pyro-electrochemical technology, depending on the area of application. This work is an example of successful and fruitful collaboration between French and Russian specialists. (authors)

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  17. Virtual pilot plants: What is the goal and what technology development is needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Bryden, K.M.; O'Brien, T.J.

    2000-07-01

    Within the coal utilization industry, moving virtual reality from a visualization tool to a design tool has the potential to reduce design time and cost, improve plant design and operation, and reduce the risk associated with new technologies. The goal of developing this technology is to enable an engineering design team based in disparate geographical locations to interact simultaneously with the virtual pilot plant and to see immediately the effect on performance of their design changes. In order to promote this capability, the US Department of Energy has identified virtual demonstrations as one of the key supporting technologies needed for the development of Vision 21 plants. This will require that many computational intensive technologies be enhanced and closely integrated: computer aided design/engineering (CAD/CAE), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), finite element analysis, intelligent process control, systems analysis, information management, and advanced visualization. Virtual pilot plants will create a design environment that will be a low-cost alternative to a physical pilot plant, allowing changes in plant operation and design to be rapidly and inexpensively tested. Following construction, the virtual environment will be used as the front-end of a total information system containing all of the design, construction, operation, research scale, pilot scale, and economic information available on the system. The information will be intuitively accessible by going to the place of interest in the virtual plant and entering the dimension of interest. The goal of the virtual demonstration will be to provide easily accessible information at any level of detail to anyone who needs it from policy maker to operating engineer.

  18. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

  19. Neat methanol fuel cell power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abens, S.; Farooque, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a fuel cell development effort which has been directed, by ease-of-supply, low weight, and low volume criteria toward the use of undiluted methanol. Partial oxidation and internal water recovery concepts are incorporated, allowing the onboard dilution of methanol fuel through mixing with exhaust-recovered water. This scheme is successfully demonstrated for the case of a 3 kW unit employing commercial cross flow heat exchangers, as well as for a 5 kW reformer flue exhaust water recovery design with U.S. Air force baseload stationary applications. The USAF powerplant has an overall thermal efficiency of 32 percent at rated load.

  20. Shuttle orbter fuel cell power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is one of the three fuel cells that make up the generating system which provides electrical power to the space shuttle orbiter. Each unit measures 14 inches (35 centimeters) high, 15 inches (38 centimeters) wide, 40 inches (101 centimeters) long and weighs 200 pounds.

  1. Recovery of glass from the inert fraction refused by MBT plants in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Dias, Nilmara; Garrinhas, Inés; Maximo, Angela; Belo, Nuno; Roque, Paulo; Carvalho, M Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Selective collection is a common practice in many countries. However, even in some of those countries there are recyclable materials, like packaging glass, erroneously deposited in the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW). In the present paper, a solution is proposed to recover glass from the inert reject of Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plants treating MMSW aiming at its recycling. The inert reject of MBT (MBTr) plants is characterized by its small particle size and high heterogeneity. The study was made with three real samples of diverse characteristics superimposed mainly by the different upstream MBT. One of the samples (VN) had a high content in organics (approximately 50%) and a particle size smaller than 16 mm. The other two were coarser and exhibited similar particle size distribution but one (RE) was rich in glass (almost 70%) while the other (SD) contained about 40% in glass. A flowsheet was developed integrating drying, to eliminate moisture related with organic matter contamination; magnetic separation, to separate remaining small ferrous particles; vacuum suction, to eliminate light materials; screening, to eliminate the finer fraction that has a insignificant content in glass, and to classify the >6mm fraction in 6-16 mm and >16 mm fractions to be processed separately; separation by particle shape, in the RecGlass equipment specifically designed to eliminate stones; and optical sorting, to eliminate opaque materials. A pilot plant was built and the tests were conducted with the three samples separately. With all samples, it was possible to attain approximately 99% content in glass in the glass products, but the recovery of glass was related with the feed particle size. The finer the feed was, the lower the percentage of glass recovered in the glass product. The results show that each one of the separation processes was needed for product enrichment. The organic matter recovered in the glass product was high, ranging from 0.76% to 1

  2. A technique to measure fuel oil viscosity in a fuel power plant.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Miguel Angel; Ibargüengoytia, Pablo H; García, Uriel A

    2016-01-01

    The viscosity measurement and control of fuel oil in power plants is very important for a proper combustion. However, the conventional viscometers are only reliable for a short period of time. This paper proposes an on-line analytic viscosity evaluation based on energy balance applied to a piece of tube entering the fuel oil main heater and a new control strategy for temperature control. This analytic evaluation utilizes a set of temperature versus viscosity graphs were defined during years of analysis of fuel oil in Mexican power plants. Also the temperature set-point for the fuel oil main heater output is obtained by interpolating in the corresponding graph. Validation tests of the proposed analytic equations were carried out in the Tuxpan power plant in Veracruz, Mexico. PMID:26652127

  3. Study of water-oil emulsion combustion in large pilot power plants for fine particle matter emission reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.; L'Insalata, A.; Fortunato, L.; Saponaro, A.

    2007-04-15

    The combustion of heavy fuel oil for power generation is a great source of carbonaceous and inorganic particle emissions, even though the combustion technologies and their efficiency are improving. The information about the size distribution function of the particles originated by trace metals present into the fuels is not adequate. In this paper, we focused our attention the influence of emulsion oil-water on the larger distribution mode of both the carbonaceous and metallic particles. Isokinetic sampling was performed at the exhausts of flames of a low-sulphur content heavy oil and its emulsion with water produced in two large pilot plants. The samples were size-segregated by mean of an 8-stages Andersen impactor. Further investigation performed on the samples using electronic microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray analysis (EDX) evidenced the presence of solid spherical particles, plerosphere, with typical dimensions ranging between 200 nm and 2-3 {mu}m, whose atomic composition contains a large amount of the trace metals present in the parent oils (Fe, V, Ni, etc.). EDX analyses revealed that the metal concentration increases as the plerosphere dimension decreases. We also observed that the use of emulsion slightly reduce the emission of fine particles (D{sub 50} < 8 {mu}m) in the large scale plant. (author)

  4. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  5. Nondestructive measurements in support of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant at Rockwell Hanford Operations: problems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The 234-5Z Analytical Laboratory, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, has been requested to provide waste package measurement capability for both the Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant and Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The requested WIPP values are sensitive to changes in isotopic distribution. Unfortunately, the determination of the isotopic distribution of an individual waste item or drum is difficult. The problems and uncertainties encountered in providing the values are discussed. Also, examples of calculations for the WIPP-WAC are shown.

  6. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume A: Detailed report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J. F.; Richards, D.

    1980-06-01

    Baseline designs of two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants are presented. Both designs feature floating concrete hull structures that house up to 40 MW sub e (net) of OTEC power systems. One plant is designed for moored operation at an island site, and use underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company. The other plant is self-propelled and cruises slowly through tropical waters, using the OTEC electric power to produce an energy intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market.

  7. HIGH ENERGY LIQUID FUELS FROM PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nemethy, E. K.; Otvos, J. W.; Calvin, M.

    1980-10-01

    The heptane extract of Euphorbia lathyris has a low oxygen content and a heat valve of 42 MJ/kg which is comparable to that of crude oil (44 MJ/kg). These qualities indicate a potential for use as fuel or chemical feedstock material. Therefore we have investigated the chemical composition of this fraction in some detail. Since the amoun of the methanol fraction is quite substantial we have also identified the major components of this fraction.

  8. Economic analysis of small-scale fuel alcohol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    To plan Department of Energy support programs, it is essential to understand the fundamental economics of both the large industrial size plants and the small on-farm size alcohol plants. EG and G Idaho, Inc., has designed a 25 gallon per hour anhydrous ethanol plant for the Department of Energy's Alcohol Fuels Office. This is a state-of-the-art reference plant, which will demonstrate the cost and performance of currently available equipment. The objective of this report is to examine the economics of the EG and G small-scale alcohol plant design and to determine the conditions under which a farm plant is a financially sound investment. The reference EG and G Small-Scale Plant is estimated to cost $400,000. Given the baseline conditions defined in this report, it is calculated that this plant will provide an annual after-tax of return on equity of 15%, with alcohol selling at $1.62 per gallon. It is concluded that this plant is an excellent investment in today's market, where 200 proof ethanol sells for between $1.80 and $2.00 per gallon. The baseline conditions which have a significant effect on the economics include plant design parameters, cost estimates, financial assumptions and economic forecasts. Uncertainty associated with operational variables will be eliminated when EG and G's reference plant begins operation in the fall of 1980. Plant operation will verify alcohol yield per bushel of corn, labor costs, maintenance costs, plant availability and by-product value.

  9. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    produce transportation fuels and produce pulp at the same time. This has the added advantage of reducing or eliminating the need for a recovery boiler. The recovery boiler is an extremely expensive unit operation in the Kraft process and is key to the chemical recovery system that makes the Kraft process successful. Going to a gasification process with potentially higher energy efficiency, improve the pulping process and be more efficient with the use of wood. At the same time a renewable fuel product can be made. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant progressed with the design of the mill as Chemrec continued to work on their pilot plant data gathering. The design information helped to guide the pilot plant and vice versa. In the end, the design details showed that the process was technically feasible. However, at the relatively small size of this plant the specific capital cost was very high and could only be considered if the pulp operation needed to replace the recovery boiler. Some of the reasons for the costs being high are attributed to the many constraints that needed to be addressed in the pulping process. Additionally, the Methanol product did not have a vehicle fuel supply chain to enter into. A different product selection could have eliminated this issue. However, with the selected design, the installation at Escanaba Paper Mill was not economically feasible and the project was not pursued further.

  10. Electroremediation of a natural soil polluted with phenanthrene in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López-Vizcaíno, R; Alonso, J; Cañizares, P; León, M J; Navarro, V; Rodrigo, M A; Sáez, C

    2014-01-30

    In this work, a pilot plant with two rows of three electrodes in semipermeable electrolyte wells was used to study the electrokinetic treatment of a natural soil polluted with phenanthrene (PHE). The electrokinetic pilot plant was an open system, i.e., there was direct contact between the soil and air. To increase the solubility of phenanthrene, thereby enhancing its transport through the soil, an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant dodecyl sulfate was used as a flushing fluid. The results show that at the pilot scale considered, gravity and evaporation fluxes are more relevant than electrokinetic fluxes. Contrary to observations at the laboratory scale, desorption of PHE promoted by electric heating appears to be a significant removal mechanism at the pilot scale. In addition, PHE is dragged by the electroosmotic flow in the cathodic wells and by electrophoresis after interaction of the surfactant with phenanthrene in the anodic wells. In spite of the long treatment time (corresponding to an energy consumption over 500kWhm(-3)), the average removal attained was only 25%. PMID:24361491

  11. Socioeconomic study for the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This document presents the historical and existing socioeconomic conditions in the vicinity of the proposed plant, projected changes in those conditions with and without the plant, and an outline of the various techniques used to make these projections. The analysis predicts impacts on the general economy in the area near the plant and on employment, personal income, population, social structure, the private economic sector, housing, land use, community services and facilities, and local government finances. Among the most important results are the following predictions: The economy of the area will derive $165 million directly and indirectly during the first 7.5 years of the project. After that, it will derive about $21 million directly and indirectly during each year of full operation. About 2100 jobs will be created directly and indirectly at the peak of the construction and about 950 jobs during the full operation. A net in-migration will occur: about 2250 people at the peak of the construction and about 1000 people during operation. A housing shortage may begin in Carlsbad in 1981 or 1982 and last for about 2 years.

  12. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES: VOLUME 2. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a mini-pilot test program to investigate potential new sorbents and processes for dry SO2 removal. Initial tests showed that the 85 cu m/h pilot plant could be used successfully to evaluate both spray dryer and dry injection processes using traditional calciu...

  13. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES - VOLUME 2 - PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a mini-pilot test program to investigate potential new sorbents and processes for dry SO2 removal. Initial tests showed that the 85 cu m/h pilot plant could be used successfully to evaluate both spray dryer and dry injection processes using traditional calciu...

  14. 27 CFR 19.685 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fuel plant. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Changes to Permit Information § 19.685 Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. (a) Small plants. If...

  15. 27 CFR 19.685 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fuel plant. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Changes to Permit Information § 19.685 Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. (a) Small plants. If...

  16. Physical and numerical modeling of the external fluid mechanics of OTEC pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singarella, P.N.; Adams, E.E.

    1982-03-01

    This study examined the near field external fluid mechanics of symmetrical OTEC pilot plant designs (20 to 80 MWe) under realistic deep water conditions. The objective was to assess the environmental impact of different plant configurations and to determine if pilot plants can be expected to operate without degrading the thermal resource available for power production. Physical modeling studies were conducted to investigate the variation of near field plume dynamics and the sensitivity of recirculation to different pilot plant designs. Experiments were conducted in a thermally stratified 12m x 18m x 0.6m basin, at an undistorted length scale ratio of 1:300, which allowed the upper 170m of the ocean to be studied. Measurements included temperature, dye concentration and visual observation from photographs. Both mixed and non-mixed discharge concepts were investigated. Discharge port design included two, four or eight discrete circular ports, with significant variations in the MWe/port ratio, issuing either horizontally or vertically. A range of ambient uniform current speeds was investigated while an ambient density profile, representative of potential sites off of Hawaii and Pureto Rico, was chosen. A previously calibrated integral jet model was tested against experimental observation to develop a valid, predictive tool that would facilitate study of conditions that were not modeled with the present experimental set-up. The model was modified to more accurately represent the dynamics of the OTEC discharge in the near field. The potential environmental impact of the discharge plume from an OTEC plant over a broad range of realistic conditions was assessed through additional sensitivity simulations. Results indicate that little recirculation occurs for the designs considered in this study. The recirculation that does occur appears to be the result of plume upwash in the lee of the plant and, possibly, internal wake effects on the plant bow.

  17. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  18. Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Teresa; Durao, Fernando; Ferreira, Celia

    2010-11-15

    The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit.

  19. Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa; Durão, Fernando; Ferreira, Célia

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit. PMID:20576423

  20. Calibration and simulation of ASM2d at different temperatures in a phosphorus removal pilot plant.

    PubMed

    García-Usach, F; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2006-01-01

    In this work, an organic and nutrient removal pilot plant was used to study the temperature influence on phosphorus accumulating organisms. Three experiments were carried out at 13, 20 and 24.5 degrees C, achieving a high phosphorus removal percentage in all cases. The ASM2d model was calibrated at 13 and 20 degrees C and the Arrhenius equation constant was obtained for phosphorus removal processes showing that the temperature influences on the biological phosphorus removal subprocesses in a different degree. The 24.5 degrees C experiment was simulated using the model parameters obtained by means of the Arrhenius equation. The simulation results for the three experiments showed good correspondence with the experimental data, demonstrating that the model and the calibrated parameters were able to predict the pilot plant behaviour. PMID:16889256

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Proposed 10 MWe OTEC pilot plant for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, L. E.; Chan, G. L.

    1981-12-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a 10 MWe OTEC pilot plant has been proposed for the island of Saipan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. This unique small OTEC plant is intended as a prototype for commercial plants in the small Pacific Island territories and nations. The system concept minimizes local construction to accommodate a lack of local skilled labor and facilities. The baseline design is a concrete barge-mounted plant built in Portland, Oregon, towed to Saipan, and permanently anchored in near-shore shallow water. Details of key subsystem design features are provided including a bottom-mounted cold water pipe, modular power subsystem, and wave shield for storm protection. The results of economic analyses are presented to illustrate the cost competitiveness of electricity from the OTEC plant compared to the current oil-fired diesel units in Saipan.

  3. Data used in preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P ); Luzzolino, H. ); Sandha, J.S. )

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the data available as of August 1990 and used by the Performance Assessment Division of Sandia National Laboratories in its December 1990 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Parameter values are presented in table form for the geologic subsystem, engineered barriers, borehole flow properties, climate variability, and intrusion characteristics. Sources for the data and a brief discussion of each parameter are provided. 101 refs., 72 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. Core analyses for selected samples from the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, V.A.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Two groups of core samples from the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were analyzed to provide estimates of hydrologic parameters for use in flow-and-transport modeling. Whole-core and core-plug samples were analyzed by helium porosimetry, resaturation and porosimetry, mercury-intrusion porosimetry, electrical-resistivity techniques, and gas-permeability methods. 33 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS. PMID:27118014

  6. Bio-isolation analysis of plants and humans in a piloted Mars sprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novara, M.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The bioisolation dynamics of humans and plants in a piloted Mars sprint is discussed. The bioisolation requirements for a crew of six and two food crops, lettuce, and winged beans in this type of space mission were studied and found to be within technological reach. It was found that the garbage problem of the shorter missions increases in magnitude in proportion with the mission duration and poses problems of launch mass, storage space availability, and microbial growth.

  7. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  8. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  9. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  10. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  11. Environmental protection implementation plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, November 9, 1989--November 9, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bitner, K.A.; Flynn, D.T.; Ice, L.G. ); Goodbar, A.K.; Jones, S.B.; Wilt, B.M. . Waste Isolation Div.)

    1990-02-09

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with US Department Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and covers the time period of January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The purpose of this EPIP is to provide management direction to ensure that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and, where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies. The WIPP was authorized by Public Law 96-164 to provide a research and development facility for demonstrating the safe disposal of radioactive wastes produced by national defense activities. The DOE is developing the WIPP facility as deep geologic repository constructed in a thick bedded salt formation 655 meters (2,150 feet) below the land surface. It is currently planned that the WIPP facility will operate in a pilot plant mode for the first five years of operation. During this phase, DOE proposes to conduct certain tests designed to demonstrate safe handling and disposal operations. Procedures for evaluating facility performance relative to standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ((40 CFR Part 191)) will be evaluated during the first five years of operation. At the end of the five year pilot plant phase a decision will be made as to whether to make the WIPP facility a permanent repository. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash: pilot plant scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.; Coca, P.

    2009-04-15

    In this article, a hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) has been tested at pilot plant scale. The pilot plant flowsheet comprised a first stage of water leaching of FA, and a subsequent selective recovery of the germanium from the leachate by solvent extraction method. The solvent extraction method was based on Ge complexation with catechol in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-catechol complex (Ge(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup 2-}) with an extracting organic reagent (trioctylamine) diluted in an organic solvent (kerosene), followed by the subsequent stripping of the organic extract. The process has been tested on a FA generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The paper describes the designed 5 kg/h pilot plant and the tests performed on it. Under the operational conditions tested, approximately 50% of germanium could be recovered from FA after a water extraction at room temperature. Regarding the solvent extraction method, the best operational conditions for obtaining a concentrated germanium-bearing solution practically free of impurities were as follows: extraction time equal to 20 min; aqueous phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5; stripping with 1 M NaOH, stripping time equal to 30 min, and stripping phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5. 95% of germanium were recovered from water leachates using those conditions.

  13. Final report on the power production phase of the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the evaluations of the power production testing of Solar One, the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Pilot Plant, a cooperative project of the US Department of Energy and utility firms led by the Southern California Edison Company, began a three year period of power production operation in August 1984. During this period, plant performance indicators, such as capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability, were studied to assess the operational capability of the Pilot Plant to reliably supply electrical power. Also studied was the long-term performance of such key plant components as the heliostats and the receiver. During the three years of power production, the Pilot Plant showed an improvement in performance. Considerable increases in capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability were achieved. Heliostat operation was reliable, and only small amounts of mirror corrosion were observed. Receiver tube leaks did occur, however, and were the main cause of the plant's unscheduled outages. The Pilot Plant provided valuable lessons which will aid in the design of future solar central receiver plants. 53 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 1, Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

  15. Two Approaches to the Geologic Disposal of Long-Lived Nuclear Waste: Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Levich, R. A.; Patterson, R. L.; Linden, R. M.

    2002-02-26

    A key component of the US energy program is to provide for the safe and permanent isolation of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste produced through programs related to national defense and the generation of electric power by nuclear utilities. To meet this challenge, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a multi-faceted approach to the geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes. Two sites are being developed or studied as current or potential deep geologic repositories for long lived radioactive wastes, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico and Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  16. The Role of Fuel Breaks in the Invasion of Nonnative Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, Kyle E.; Keeley, Jon E.; Beyers, Jan L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Fuel reduction projects have become an increasingly important component of state and federal fuels management programs. However, an unintended result of some pre-fire fuel manipulation projects may be the introduction of nonnative invasive plants. The establishment of nonnative plants within fuel breaks is a serious concern because the presence of invasive species in areas treated to reduce fuels could make adjacent wildland areas more susceptible to invasion, particularly following widespread disturbances such as fires. This report presents the results of a research project investigating the relationship between fuel reduction treatments and the invasion of nonnative plants. Throughout the rest of this document, we will collectively refer to these treatments as fuel breaks, although we sampled a range of fuel breaks described variously as fuel breaks, shaded fuel breaks, defensible fuel reduction zones, defensible fuel profile zones, fuel reduction projects, fuel management zones, wildfire protection zones, and community protection zones.

  17. Local biofuels power plants with fuel cell generators

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstroem, O.

    1996-12-31

    The fuel cell should be a most important option for Asian countries now building up their electricity networks. The fuel cell is ideal for the schemes for distributed generation which are more reliable and efficient than the centralized schemes so far favoured by the industrialized countries in the West. Not yet developed small combined cycle power plants with advanced radial gas turbines and compact steam turbines will be the competition. Hot combustion is favoured today but cold combustion may win in the long run thanks to its environmental advantages. Emission standards are in general determined by what is feasible with available technology. The simple conclusion is that the fuel cell has to prove that it is competitive to the turbines in cost engineering terms. A second most important requirement is that the fuel cell option has to be superior with respect to electrical efficiency.

  18. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  19. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel dry storage studies at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Kenneth J.

    1980-09-01

    Conceptual designs are presented utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant for the dry interim storage of spent light water reactor fuel. Studies were conducted to determine feasible approaches to storing spent fuel by methods other than wet pool storage. Fuel that has had an opportunity to cool for several years, or more, after discharge from a reactor is especially adaptable to dry storage since its thermal load is greatly reduced compared to the thermal load immediately following discharge. A thermal analysis was performed to help in determining the feasibility of various spent fuel dry storage concepts. Methods to reject the heat from dry storage are briefly discussed, which include both active and passive cooling systems. The storage modes reviewed include above and below ground caisson-type storage facilities and numerous variations of vault, or hot cell-type, storage facilities.

  20. The 10 MWe solar thermal central receiver pilot plant: Beam safety tests and analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumleve, T. D.

    1984-07-01

    Potential eye hazards of reflected heliostat beams were evaluated and the adequacy of the beam safety central strategy at the 10 MWe solar thermal central receiver pilot plant was verified. Special video techniques were used during helicopter flyovers and a ground level to determine retinal irradiance and image size relative to a reference Sun. Receiver brightness was also measured. Measured values were consistent with analyses, and safety provisions at the plant were found to be adequate. Other beam control strategies for heliostats designed to stow face-up in high winds are studied, and one strategy is checked experimentally during the helicopter flyover tests.

  1. Model basin test of ocean wave responses for a 40-MW OTEC pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J. F.; Richards, D.

    1982-02-01

    A 1/30th-scale model of a floating 40-MW OTEC pilot plant has been subjected to wave conditions that the prototype would experience as a plant moored off Puerto Rico or Hawaii, or as a cruising plantship in the South Atlantic Ocean east of Brazil. The model, in its unmodified baseline configuration, survived the design wave conditions for the three sites, with more than adequate stability margins. A modified configuration was also tested to reduce the possibility of taking on 'green water' which was a concern at the Puerto Rico and Hawaii sites. Additional data were obtained on seawater system parameters, cold water pipe motions, and mooring forces.

  2. Anthocyanin characterization of pilot plant water extracts of Delonix regia flowers.

    PubMed

    Adje, Felix; Lozano, Yves F; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Lozano, Paul; Adima, Augustin; N'zi, Georges Agbo; Gaydou, Emile M

    2008-01-01

    Following the development of new applications of pilot plant scale extraction and formulation processes for natural active bioproducts obtained from various underutilized tropical plants and herbs, we have manufactured water-extracts from Delonix regia flowers, grown in Ivory Coast. These extracts, which contain polyphenols, are traditionally home made and used as healthy bioproducts. They are reddish-coloured due to the presence of anthocyanins. The three major anthocyanins in these extracts have been characterized. The molecular structures were confirmed by LC-SM analysis. Amongst them, two are described for the first time in Delonix regia. PMID:18596650

  3. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  4. Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2012-05-09

    Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas–air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed “relative combustion phasing”). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20° to 60°BTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally

  5. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-04-30

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

  6. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  7. Surface water and wastewater treatment using a new tannin-based coagulant. Pilot plant trials.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Solera-Hernández, C

    2010-10-01

    A new tannin-based coagulant-flocculant (Tanfloc) was tested for water treatment at a pilot plant level. Four types of water sample were treated: surface water (collected from a river), and municipal, textile industry (simulated by a 100 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an acid dye), and laundry (simulated by a 50 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an anionic surfactant) wastewaters. The pilot plant process consisted of coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration. The experiments were carried out with an average coagulant dosage of 92.2 mg L(-1) (except in the case of the surface water for which the dosage was 2 mg L(-1)). The efficacy of the water purification was notable in every case: total turbidity removal in the surface water and municipal wastewater, about 95% dye removal in the case of the textile industry wastewater, and about 80% surfactant removal in the laundry wastewater. Filtration improved the removal of suspended solids, both flocs and turbidity, and slightly improved the process as a whole. The efficiency of Tanfloc in these pilot studies was similar to or even better than that obtained in batch trials. PMID:20580152

  8. Microbial process translation--laboratory to pilot plant at the Frederick Cancer Research Center.

    PubMed

    Langlykke, A F

    1978-01-01

    In summary, operations in the FCRC pilot plant have included training an operating staff, operability trials, equipment modification and repair, and supplementation of the original equipment to gain greater versatility. In addition to effort spent on proving and improving the capacity of the pilot plant, development studies and production operations involving translation of laboratory operations to pilot level or volume have included: 1. Development of a production process for interferon as described above. As a by-product of the interferon program, samples of cell culture have been studied in the Basic Research Division of FCRC for the production of lymphokines. 2. Production of starting materials (cell paste) for carboxypeptidase G1, using three different organisms, and production of refined material from the FCRC 252 organism as described herein. 3. Production of large quantities of crude phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the form of cell paste for Prof. Creed Abell at the University of Texas, Medical Branch, at Galveston,. 4. Production of a crude staphylococcal nuclease for the program of Dr. David Sachs, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. 5. Developmental studies and limited production of a crude cysteine desulfhydrase according to the protocols of Dr. J. Uren, Sidney Farber Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts. 6. Preliminary production studies on the agent produced by Culture FCRC 14, discovered in the CFL search program. 7. Developmental fermentation studies on the antitumor antibiotic, piperazinedione 593A [6], in preparation for production of quantities of this antibiotic to support clinical studies under the auspices of the National Cancer Institute. PMID:705017

  9. Commercial ballard PEM fuel cell natural gas power plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.S.; Dunnison, D.; Cohen, R.

    1996-12-31

    The electric utility industry is in a period of rapid change. Deregulation, wholesale and retail wheeling, and corporate restructuring are forcing utilities to adopt new techniques for conducting their business. The advent of a more customer oriented service business with tailored solutions addressing such needs as power quality is a certain product of the deregulation of the electric utility industry. Distributed and dispersed power are fundamental requirements for such tailored solutions. Because of their modularity, efficiency and environmental benefits, fuel cells are a favored solution to implement distributed and dispersed power concepts. Ballard Power Systems has been working to develop and commercialize Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell power plants for stationary power markets. PEM`s capabilities of flexible operation and multiple market platforms bodes well for success in the stationary power market. Ballard`s stationary commercialization program is now in its second phase. The construction and successful operation of a 10 kW natural gas fueled, proof-of-concept power plant marked the completion of phase one. In the second phase, we are developing a 250 kW market entry power plant. This paper discusses Ballard`s power plant development plan philosophy, the benefits from this approach, and our current status.

  10. Carbon dioxide separation from high temperature fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanari, Stefano

    High temperature fuel cell technologies, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), are considered for their potential application to carbon dioxide emission control. Both technologies feature electrochemical oxidisation of natural gas reformed fuels, avoiding the mixture of air and fuel flows and dilution with nitrogen and oxygen of the oxidised products; a preliminary analysis shows how the different mechanism of ion transport attributes each technology a specific advantage for the application to CO 2 separation. The paper then compares in the first part the most promising cycle configurations based on high efficiency integrated SOFC/gas turbine "hybrid" cycles, where CO 2 is separated with absorption systems or with the eventual adoption of a second SOFC module acting as an "afterburner". The second part of the paper discusses how a MCFC plant could be "retrofitted" to a conventional fossil-fuel power station, giving the possibility of draining the majority of CO 2 from the stack exhaust while keeping the overall cycle electrical efficiency approximately unchanged.

  11. Fabric filter testing at the TVA Atmospheric Fluidized-bed Combustion (AFBC) Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, K.M.; Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1988-05-01

    Experience with fluidized bed combustion (FBC) units on a research and industrial scale has indicated that FBC power plants could be a viable alternative to pulverized-coal power plants with wet limestone scrubbers or spray dryers. To provide design confidence and the flexibility to evaluate process improvements, the Tennessee Valley Authority constructed a 20-MW(e) AFBC (bubbling bed) Pilot Plant. Subseqently, EPRI and Southern Research Institute entered into a program to monitor the performance of the fabric filter at the pilot plant. The objective of the program was to determine if unique characteristics of AFBC operation or emissions would require special design criteria or operating procedures in the application of fabric filtration to utility-size AFBC boilers. With reverse-gas cleaning the fabric filter experienced high tubesheet pressure drop while operating at low filtering air-to-cloth values and with low residual dustcake areal densities compared to fabric filters downstream from pulverized-coal boilers. This implied that the AFBC fly ash had properties distinct from those of pulverized-coal fly ash. Implementaion of reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance resulted in lower operating pressure drops at higher filtering air-to-cloth values, although slightly higher than comparable data from baghouses filtering pulverized-coal fly ash. Fly ash analyses showed that the AFBC ash particles are generally smaller, more irregualr in shape, and the dustcakes are lighter and more porous than those formed from pulverized-coal fly ashes. 8 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Clean fuels from biomass. [feasibility of converting plant systems to fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of converting biomass to portable fuels is studied. Since plants synthesize biomass from H2O and CO2 with the help of solar energy, the conversion methods of pyrolysis, anaerobic fermentation, and hydrogenation are considered. Cost reduction methods and cost effectiveness are emphasized.

  13. Seattle distribution system corrosion control study. Volume 2. Tolt River water pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, C.E.; Hoyt, B.P.

    1984-03-01

    For 6 months, the Seattle Water Department conducted a corrosion treatment pilot plant study, obtaining data on the treatment of Tolt River water with lime/sodium carbonate, lime/sodium bicarbonate, and lime/bicarbonate/silicate. Continuous-flow pipe coupon tests were conducted to determine corrosion rates, penetration rates, and corrosion types for copper, galvanized steel and black steel pipes. Metal leaching tests were conducted using small diameter pipes. Research showed that using lime plus sodium carbonate, lime plus sodium bicarbonate, and lime plus bicarbonate plus silicate will significantly reduce corrosion in home plumbing systems. Based on this pilot study, lime plus sodium carbonate treatment is recommended for the Cedar River water supply at an average dosage of 1.7 mg/L CaO. This dose should achieve an average distribution system pH of 7.9 and an alkalinity of 18 mg/l CaCO3.

  14. Neutron field characterisation at mixed oxide fuel plant.

    PubMed

    Passmore, C; Million, M; Kirr, M; Bartz, J; Akselrod, M S; Devita, A; Berard, J

    2012-06-01

    A neutron field characterisation was conducted at the AREVA Melox Plant to determine the response of passive and active neutron dosemeters for several stages in the mixed oxide fuel manufacturing process. Landauer Europe provides radiation dosimetry to many contractors working at the Melox site. The studies were conducted to assist in determining the neutron radiation fields the workers are exposed to routinely, evaluate the need for specific neutron correction factors and to ensure that the most accurate neutron dose is reported for the Melox Plant workers. PMID:22028415

  15. Experimental investigation and modeling of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kiil, S.; Michelsen, M.L.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-07-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate-determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallization of gypsum were included. Population balance equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas-phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid-phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modeling tools developed may be applicable to other wet FGD plants.

  16. Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A.

    2009-06-15

    A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

  17. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume A. Detailed report

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.F.; Richards, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of the Johns Hopkins University has engineered baseline designs of two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants. Both designs feature floating concrete hull structures that house up to 40 MW/sub e/(net) of OTEC power systems. One plant is designed for moored operation at an island site, and uses underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company. The other plant is self-propelled and cruises slowly through tropical waters, using the OTEC electric power to produce an energy-intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market. The work is documented in two volumes. This volume is the Detailed Report, which develops the design rationale, summarizes important calculations, outlines areas for future work, and presents a study of system costs.

  18. Structural Materials and Fuels for Space Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Busby, Jeremy; Porter, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with Stirling convertor power generation is one promising candidate in on-going Fission Surface Power (FSP) studies for future lunar and Martian bases. There are many challenges for designing and qualifying space-rated nuclear power plants. In order to have an affordable and sustainable program, NASA and DOE designers want to build upon the extensive foundation in nuclear fuels and structural materials. This talk will outline the current Fission Surface Power program and outline baseline design options for a lunar power plant with an emphasis on materials challenges. NASA first organized an Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study Team to establish a reference design that could be scrutinized for technical and fiscal feasibility. Previous papers and presentations have discussed this study process in detail. Considerations for the reference design included that no significant nuclear technology, fuels, or material development were required for near term use. The desire was to build upon terrestrial-derived reactor technology including conventional fuels and materials. Here we will present an overview of the reference design, Figure 1, and examine the materials choices. The system definition included analysis and recommendations for power level and life, plant configuration, shielding approach, reactor type, and power conversion type. It is important to note that this is just one concept undergoing refinement. The design team, however, understands that materials selection and improvement must be an integral part of the system development.

  19. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-15

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

  20. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation. PMID:25443096

  1. The start-up of the DIOS pilot plant (DIOS Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Terutoshi

    1995-12-01

    The DIOS process has been successfully developed as an 8-year project commenced in April 1988. Based on the results of the element studies reported at the previous conference and at other meetings, the pilot plant, with a designed capacity of 500 t/d, was constructed and started up in october 1993. After the starting operation with the single smelting reduction furnace in the beginning of the first campaign, the pilot plant has been principally operated in integration, that is, with the smelting reduction furnace connected with the preheating and prereduction furnaces. So far five campaigns have been successfully conducted on schedule. The operation has been improved gradually and the designed performance has been achieved. New processes are targeted at the direct use of coal and iron ore fines to eliminate not only the problematic coke ovens but also pellet and sinter plants. The direct smelting reduction processes currently at the most advanced stage of development are the DIOS in Japan, the AISI in the USA and the HIsmelt in Australia.

  2. A high containment polymodal pilot-plant fermenter--design concepts.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, P; Griffiths, J B; Cameron, D R; Melling, J

    1991-01-01

    A 225 dm3 pilot-plant bioreactor system has been designed and constructed that is suitable for biohazardous fermentations. The design enables operation at containment levels above the requirements of good industrial large-scale practice (GILSP) without secondary containment of the whole plant. The main biosafety features of the systems include the use of steam barriers on O-ring seals, supply lines and stirrer seals, multiple O-ring seals, piping of condensate lines and pressure relief systems to a 'kill tank', double filtration of inlet and off gases and a mobile isolation unit that allows localised containment of sample valve and probe entry ports. The fermenter can, with minor modifications, be operated as a bottom-or top-stirred reactor for the culture of microbial or animal cells, or as an airlift reactor. The design offers considerable flexibility that could prove cost-effective for process development and production. The relevance of the various design features to enable bioreactor operations at pilot-plant scale to be carried out in compliance with current guidelines for large-scale culture of recombinant microorganisms and microbial pathogens is discussed. PMID:1367227

  3. 27 CFR 19.921 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Changes Affecting Applications and Permits § 19.921 Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. (a) Small plants. If the proprietor of a small plant wishes to increase production (including receipts) to a level in... fuel plant. 19.921 Section 19.921 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...

  4. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; Lind, Randall F.; Elkins, James G.; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L.; Watkins, Thomas R.; et al

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L-1, similar to small-scale batches. The 900-Lmore » pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.« less

  5. A pilot plant for removing chromium from residual water of tanneries.

    PubMed Central

    Landgrave, J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technical process for removing trivalent chromium from tannery wastewater via precipitation. This process can be considered an alternative that avoids a remediation procedure against the metal presence in industrial wastes. This process was verified in a treatment pilot plant located in León, México handling 10 m3/day of three types of effluents. The effluent streams were separated to facilitate the elimination of pollutants from each one. The process was based on in situ treatment and recycle to reduce problems associated with transportation and confinement of contaminated sludges. Two types of treatment were carried out in the pilot plant: The physical/chemical and biological treatments. Thirty-five experiments were conducted and the studied variables were the pH, type of flocculant, and its dose. The statistical significance of chromium samples was 94.7% for its precipitation and 99.7% for recovery. The objectives established for this phase of the development were accomplished and the overall efficiencies were measured for each stage in the pilot plant. The results were: a) chromium precipitation 99.5% from wastewater stream, b) chromium recovery 99% for recycling, and c) physical/chemical treatment to eliminate grease and fat at least 85% and 65 to 70% for the biological treatment. The tanning of a hide lot (350 pieces) was accomplished using 60% treated and recycled water without affecting the product quality. The recovered chromium liquor was also used in this hide tanning. This technical procedure is also applicable for removing heavy metals in other industrial sectors as well as in reducing water consumption rates, if pertinent adjustments are implemented. PMID:7621802

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo

    2010-02-15

    Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

  7. Engineer, design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This final report describes the coal-fired plant design capable of producing electric power in an environmentally clean manner. The report presents the predicted performance using high sulfur bituminous coal and summarizes the construction activities and changes through completion on November 30, 1983. The construction activities involved: (1) the site excavation and pouring foundations for the PFB process equipment structural tower, control building, dolomite silo, boost compressor, and various equipment footings; (2) the fabrication and erection of the support steel work for the process equipment tower, control building, rail car thaw shed, and particulate scrubber and exhaust stack; (3) the fabrication and erection of the process equipment including the PFB combustor vessel, windbox, in-bed heat exchanger and process piping, the ash recycle system, the gas clean-up system, the ash removal, cooling and storage system, the coal handling, preparation and injection systems, the dolomite receiving, handling, storage and injection systems, the boost air compressor, dryer and receiver systems, the purge instrument and service air systems, the control, instrument and electrical systems, the tower elevator, the cardox, Halon and water fire protection system, etc. In addition, modifications and refurbishment were completed on the existing equipment at the site which was incorporated into the Pilot Plant system. Finally, plans were prepared describing the operating procedures, maintenance requirements, spare parts list, training program and manpower requirements for the proposed Phase IV test evaluation program. 37 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  9. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  10. Fuel-grade ethanol transport and impacts to groundwater in a pilot-scale aquifer tank.

    PubMed

    Cápiro, Natalie L; Stafford, Brent P; Rixey, William G; Bedient, Philip B; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2007-02-01

    Fuel-grade ethanol (76L of E95, 95%v/v ethanol, 5%v/v hydrocarbon mixture as a denaturant) was released at the water table in an 8150-L continuous-flow tank packed with fine-grain masonry sand. Ethanol, which is buoyant and hygroscopic, quickly migrated upwards and spread laterally in the capillary zone. Horizontal migration of ethanol occurred through a shallow thin layer with minimal vertical dispersion, and was one order of magnitude slower than the preceding bromide tracer. Dyes, one hydrophobic (Sudan-IV) and one hydrophilic (Fluorescein) provided evidence that the fuel hydrocarbons phase separated from the E95 mixture as ethanol was diluted by pore water and its cosolvent effect was diminished. Most of the added ethanol (98%) was recovered in the effluent wells that captured the flow through the high water content regions above the water table. Complementary bench-scale 2-D visualization experiments with E95 confirmed hydrocarbon phase separation, residual NAPL formation and migration within the capillary fringe. These results corroborate previous bench-scale studies showing that ethanol has high affinity for vadose-zone pore water and can migrate through the capillary zone. The pilot-scale tank experiment provides the first hydrocarbon and ethanol concentration measurements (and thus, quantification of impacts to groundwater quality) from a subsurface spill of E95 in a well-characterized system with a well-defined source. It also provides the first quantitative near-field-scale evidence that capillarity can significantly retard the vertical dispersion and horizontal advection of ethanol. Such effects could be important determinants of the extent of ethanol migration and longevity as well as groundwater impacts. PMID:17126874

  11. Reconsolidation of salt as applied to permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Callahan, G.D.; Van Sembeek, L.L.

    1993-07-01

    Reconsolidated salt is a fundamental component of the permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As regulations are currently understood and seal concepts envisioned, emplaced salt is the sole long-term seal component designed to prevent the shafts from becoming preferred pathways for rating gases or liquids. Studies under way in support of the sealing function of emplaced salt include laboratory testing of crushed salt small-scale in situ tests, constitutive modeling of crushed salt, calculations of the opening responses during operation and closure, and design practicalities including emplacement techniques. This paper briefly summarizes aspects of these efforts and key areas of future work.

  12. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014. Emended

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year (CY); Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE environmental sustainability goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  14. An overview of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the methodology used in the recent performance assessment (PA) to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office`s (CAO`s) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA). The results of this recently completed WIPP PA will be presented. Major release modes contributing to the total radionuclide release to the accessible environment will be discussed. Comparison of the mean complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) curve against the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radionuclide release limits will be presented.

  15. Heavy metal removal by chemical reduction with sodium borohydride. A pilot-plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Lahoz, C.; Garcia-Herruzo, F.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Rodriguez, J.J. )

    1992-10-01

    A 1,000/h continuous pilot-plant study dealing with Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} removal from simulated industrial wastewater by means of chemical reduction with sodium borohydride is presented. Initial metal concentrations in the 25 to 40 mg range have been tested. Residual concentrations lower than 0.1 mg have been achieved when operating under optimal conditions. Prior addition of sodium dithionite was required to avoid reoxidation problems arising from dissolved oxygen. Flocculation-sedimentation and sand filtration have been studied for sludge separation.

  16. Test drilling for potash resources: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-one borings to augment existing information on potash resources at the proposed site for a waste isolation pilot plant in eastern Eddy County, N. Mex., were drilled and logged in an 11-week period, mid-August to November 1976. The basic data developed from the borings are tabulated in the present report. The tabulation includes lithologic and geophysical logs of all the borings, as well as the results of chemical analyses, X-ray determinations, and calculations to establish a modal mineralogical composition of core samples from potash ore zones and mineralized salt beds.

  17. An evaluation of the 1992 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a federal repository for disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste, including hazardous components. To demonstrate that such disposal will be safe, the Department of Energy has prepared a series of performance assessments to show the system safety under a range of conditions. The Environmental Evaluation Group performs independent technical analysis of health and safety issues for WIPP on behalf of the people of New Mexico. This paper presents selected highlights from EEG`s review of the 1992 Performance Assessment.

  18. From science to compliance: Geomechanics studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN,FRANCIS D.

    2000-06-05

    Mechanical and hydrological properties of salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) testifies to the nearly ideal characteristics of bedded salt deposits in southeast New Mexico. The WIPP history includes decades of testing and scientific investigations, which have resulted in a comprehensive understanding of salt's mechanical deformational and hydrological properties over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Comprehensive evaluation of salt's favorable characteristics helped demonstrate regulatory compliance and ensure isolation of radioactive waste placed in a salt geological setting.

  19. Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.

    1994-11-15

    Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms.

  20. Complete study of the pyrolysis and gasification of scrap tires in a pilot plant reactor.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Juan A; Martín-Gullón, I; Font, R; Jauhiainen, J

    2004-06-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of tires was studied in a pilot plant reactor provided with a system for condensation of semivolatile matter. The study comprises experiments at 450, 750, and 1000 degrees C both in nitrogen and 10% oxygen atmospheres. Analysis of all the products obtained (gases, liquids, char, and soot) are presented. In the gas phase only methane and benzene yields increase with temperature until 1000 degrees C. In the liquids the main components are styrene, limonene, and isoprene. The solid fraction (including soot) increases with temperature. Zinc content of the char decreases with increasing temperature. PMID:15224754

  1. Construction of a 150 t/d pilot plant for bituminous coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hirohito; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Satoru

    1994-12-31

    This present paper covers bituminous coal liquefaction R and D carried out by Nippon Coal Oil Co., Ltd. (NCOL). Construction of a 150 ton/day bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant will be presented. The NEDOL process is characterized by the wide applicability of various coal grades, such as low-rank bituminous coal, subbituminous coal and low-rank subbituminous coal, and a single-stage liquefaction method that combines the advantages of a hydrogen-donor solvent and a fine iron catalyst. A vacuum distillation system for solid-liquid separation is used to improve reliability. The simplicity of this process ensures a high degree of stability.

  2. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Dave H. Meikrantz; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2008-09-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50° C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a

  3. Improvement of the ethanol productivity in a high gravity brewing at pilot plant scale.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Giuliano; Silva, Daniel P; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista; de Almeida Lima, Urgel

    2003-07-01

    A 23 full factorial design was used to study the influence of different experimental variables, namely wort gravity, fermentation temperature and nutrient supplementation, on ethanol productivity from high gravity wort fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lager strain), under pilot plant conditions. The highest ethanol productivity (0.69 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at 20 degrees P [degrees P is the weight of extract (sugar) equivalent to the weight of sucrose in a 100 g solution at 20 degrees C], 15 degrees C, with the addition of 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract, 24 mg l(-1) ergosterol and 0.24% (v/v) Tween 80. PMID:12967007

  4. Perspective of the Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    WEART,WENDELL D.

    1999-09-03

    In 1975 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was asked by the predecessor to the Department of Energy to assume responsibility for the scientific programs necessary to assure the safe and satisfactory development of a geologic repository in the salt beds of southeast New Mexico. Sandia has continued in the role of Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to the present time. This paper will share the perspectives developed over the past 25 years as the project was brought to fruition with successful certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on May 13, 1998 and commencement of operations on April 26, 1999.

  5. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This Revision 4 of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), WIPP-DOE-069, identifies and consolidates existing criteria and requirements which regulate the safe handling and preparation of Transuranic (TRU) waste packages for transportation to and emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This consolidation does not invalidate any existing certification of TRU waste to the WIPP Operations and Safety Criteria (Revision 3 of WIPP-DOE--069) and/or Transportation: Waste Package Requirements (TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging [SARP]). Those documents being consolidated, including Revision 3 of the WAC, currently support the Test Phase.

  6. Need for higher fuel burnup at the Hatch Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Beckhman, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Hatch is a BWR 4 and has been in operation for some time. The first unit became commercial about 1975. Obtaining higher burnups, or higher average discharge exposures, is nothing new at Hatch. Since we have started, the discharge exposure of the plant has increased. Now, of course, we are not approaching the numbers currently being discussed but, the average discharge exposure has increased from around 20,000 MWD/MTU in the early to mid-1980s to 34,000 MWD/MTU in 1994, I am talking about batch average values. There are also peak bundle and peak rod values. You will have to make the conversions if you think in one way or the other because I am talking in batch averages. During Hatch`s operating history we have had some problems with fuel failure. Higher burnup fuel raises a concern about how much fuel failure you are going to have. Fuel failure is, of course, an economic issue with us. Back in the early 1980s, we had a problem with crud-induced localized corrosion, known as CILC. We have gotten over that, but we had some times when it was up around 27 fuel failures a year. That is not a pleasant time to live through because it is not what you want from an economic viewpoint or any other. We have gotten that down. We have had some fuel failures recently, but they have not been related to fuel burnup or to corrosion. In fact, the number of failures has decreased from the early 1980s to the 90s even though burnup increased during that time. The fuel failures are more debris-related-type failures. In addition to increasing burnups, utilities are actively evaluating or have already incorporated power uprate and longer fuel cycles (e.g., 2-year cycles). The goal is to balance out the higher power density, longer cycles, higher burnup, and to have no leakers. Why do we as an industry want to have higher burnup fuel? That is what I want to tell you a little bit about.

  7. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell power plant systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of the DOE and IFC Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Program is to develop a MCFC technology base capable of providing clean electrical energy at competitive cost when integrated with coal gasification systems. To be successful, a coal-fueled MCFC system must provide cost of electricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long range electric generating systems. The strategy for the study was to initially evaluate the status of non-fuel cell systems to establish the basis for a competitive CG/MCFC power plant and the corresponding MCFC subsystem goals. Secondly, an iterative and comparative analysis of potential CG/MCFC systems was conducted. This analysis included a detailed examination of MCFC integration with gasifier technology in which the technical basis for MCFC compatibility with a broad range of gasifiers was established. Lastly, a detailed conceptual design was prepared for the most desirable CG/MCFC system. The design established the potential of the CG/MCFC power plant to meet the goals and provide a competitive cost of electricity at very high efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. The design also provided focus for the technical issues still outstanding and required for commercialization of the CG/MCFC technology. 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc., Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains a summary of the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic factors involved in the siting, construction and operation of the plant.

  10. Natural-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell power plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, C.A. )

    1990-12-01

    The high temperature molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) operating on natural gas fuel offers an exceptional opportunity for providing economically competitive, high efficiency, low emissions power generators for utilities and industrial and commercial cogenerators. The primary goal of this project is to establish a path to develop competitive natural gas fueled MCFC products with goals of less than $1000 per kW and 6000 Btu/kWhr heat rate (based on higher heating value). A coal fueled MCFC system study funded by DOE under contract AC21-MC23270 was used as a basis to define natural gas fuel products with a high degree of commonality with the coal gas systems. In this way, the natural gas systems could be derived from the DOE coal-fueled system with a minimum of non-recurring cost. The effort was carried out in three technical tasks. Task 1, Conceptual System Design Studies -- provides a conceptual design definition of a multimegawatt power plant system adapted from DOE coal-gas/natural gas design data and provides a preliminary design definition of a truck and/or rail transportable, megawatt scale power plant derived from a DOE coal-gas/natural gas power unit; Task 2, Integrated System Test Design -- provides a preliminary design of a kW-scale integrated system to resolve critical component and system integration issues specific to the natural gas products defined in Task 1; and Task 3, Critical Element Evaluation -- provides the analytical and experimental assessments of the critical non-stack components identified in Tasks 1 and 2. 32 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. Process for producing fuel from plant sources and fuel blends containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, R.D.

    1987-04-04

    A process for producing a fuel from plant sources comprising the steps of: (a) providing a supply of limonene; (b) distilling the limonene and removing the distillate fraction in a temperature range of from about 346/sup 0/F to about 382/sup 0/F; (c) removing water from the distilled limonene; and (d) treating the distilled limonene to preclude the formation of gums therefrom.

  12. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  13. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1986-10-04

    For more than 30 years, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been a major supplier of nuclear materials such as plutonium-239 and tritium-3 for nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, plutonium-238 for space exploration, and isotopes of americium, curium, and californium for use in the nuclear research community. SRP is a complete nuclear park, providing most of the processes in the nuclear fuel cycle. Key processes involve fabrication and cladding of the nuclear fuel, target, and control assemblies; rework of heavy water for use as reactor moderator; reactor loading, operation, and unloading; chemical recovery of the reactor transmutation products and spent fuels; and management of the gaseous, liquid, and solid nuclear and chemical wastes; plus a host of support operations. The site's history and the key processes from fabrication of reactor fuels and targets to finishing of virgin plutonium for use in the nuclear weapons complex are reviewed. Emphasis has been given to the chemistry of the recovery and purification of weapons grade plutonium from irradiated reactor targets.

  15. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    PubMed

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials. PMID:20935373

  16. Modeling of the AISI Two-Zone Smelter, Part II: Physical Modeling and the AISI Pilot Plant Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Joseph George; Zhang, X.; Fuehan, R. J.; Vassilicos, A.; Sarma, B.

    2001-06-01

    Physical modeling experiments were conducted for the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) two-zone smelter process. The effects of geometrical and operating parameters on backmixing flow rates were investigated. It was found that the driving force for a backmixing flow in the AISI smelter comes from gas stirring in a liquid bath. The backmixing flow rate in the AISI smelter is proportional to a bath depth and an opening area of a barrier. Based on the results of the physical modeling experiments, a dimensional analysis was performed to extrapolate the water modeling results to the operating conditions in the AISI pilot plant. Copper tracer trials were conducted at the AISI pilot plant to investigate the backmixing flow of the AISI two-zone smelter process. The results obtained from the pilot plant trials and the water modeling experiments were compared.

  17. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  18. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL`s Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI`s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?`` and ``How are you approaching similar challenges?`` will be questions for a dialog with the audience.

  19. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.; Anderson, D.R. ); Swift, P.N. ); Baker, B.L. ); Bean, J.E. Jr.; McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K. ); Beyeler, W.; Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V.; Sch

    1990-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as the first mined geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Before disposing of waste at the WIPP, the DOE must evaluate compliance with the United states Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Standard, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191, US EPA, 1985). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating long-term performance against criteria in Subpart B of the Standard. Performance assessment'' as used in this report includes analyses for the Containment Requirements ({section} 191.13(a)) and the Individual Protection Requirements ({section} 191.15). Because proving predictions about future human actions or natural events is not possible, the EPA expects compliance to be determined on the basis of specified quantitative analyses and informed, qualitative judgment. The goal of the WIPP performance-assessment team at SNL is to provide as detailed and thorough a basis as practical for the quantitative aspects of that decision. This report summarizes SNL's late-1990 understanding of the WIPP Project's ability to evaluate compliance with Subpart B. 245 refs., 88 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP

  1. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, F. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Maricle, D. L.; Briggs, T. A.; Preston, J. L., Jr.; Louis, G. A.; Abrams, M. L.

    1980-08-01

    During this quarter, effort was continued in all four major task areas: system studies to define the reference power plant design; cell and stack design, development and verification; preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. Preliminary module and cell stack design requirements were completed. Fuel processor characterization was completed. Design approaches for full-scale stack busbars and electrical isolation of reactant manifolds and reactant piping were defined. Preliminary design requirements were completed for the anode. Conductive nickel oxide for cathode fabrication was made by oxidation and lithiation of porous nickel sheet stock. A method of mechanizing the tape casting process for increased production rates was successfully demonstrated. Theoretical calculations indicated that hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, when present as impurities in the stack fuel gas, will have no harmful effects. Laboratory experiments using higher than anticipated levels of ethylene showed no harmful effects.

  2. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.; Bentley, C.

    1995-12-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  3. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J.

    1995-08-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  4. A fuel cell balance of plant test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, A. L.; Martin, P. A.

    Much attention is focused in the fuel cell community on the development of reliable stack technology, but to successfully exploit fuel cells, they must form part of integrated power generation systems. No universal test facilities exist to evaluate SOFC stacks and comparatively little research has been undertaken concerning the issues of the rest of the system, or balance of plant (BOP). BG, in collaboration with Eniricerche, has therefore recently designed and built a test facility to evaluate different configurations of the BOP equipment for a 1-5 kWe solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. Within this BOP project, integrated, dynamic models have been developed. These have shown that three characteristic response times exist when the stack load is changed and that three independent control loops are required to manage the almost instantaneous change in power output from an SOFC stack, maintain the fuel utilisation and control the stack temperature. Control strategies and plant simplifications, arising from the dynamic modelling, have also been implemented in the BOP test facility. An SOFC simulator was designed and integrated into the control system of the test rig to behave as a real SOFC stack, allowing the development of control strategies without the need for a real stack. A novel combustor has been specifically designed, built and demonstrated to be capable of burning the low calorific anode exhaust gas from an SOFC using the oxygen depleted cathode stream. High temperature, low cost, shell and tube heat exchangers have been shown to be suitable for SOFC systems. Sealing of high temperature anode recirculation fans has, however, been shown to be a major issue and identified as a key area for further investigation.

  5. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  6. Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and material balance flowsheets have been developed for WTFs in support of a 2000-MTHM/year FRP and a 660-MTHM/year MOX-FFP. The processing subsystems incorporated in the FRP-WTF are: High-Level Solid Waste Treatment, High-Level Liquid Waste Treatment, Solid Alpha Waste Treatment, Cation Exchange Chromatography, Salt Waste Treatment, Actinide Recovery, Solvent Cleanup and recycle, Off-Gas Treatment, Actinide Product Concentration, and Acid and Water Recycle. The WTF supporting a fuel refabrication facility, although similar, does not contain subsystems (1) and (2). Based on the results of the laboratory and hot-cell experimental work, we believe that the processes and flowsheets offer the potential to reduce the total unrecovered actinides in FRP and FFP wastes to less than or equal to 0.25%. The actinide partitioning processes and the WTF concept represent advanced technology that would require substantial work before commercialization. It is estimated that an orderly development program would require 15 to 20 years to complete and would cost about 700 million 1979 dollars. It is estimated that the capital cost and annual operating cost, in mid-1979 dollars, for the FRP-WTF are $1035 million and $71.5 million/year, and for the FFP-WTF are $436 million and $25.6 million/year, respectively.

  7. Steam activation of a bituminous coal in a multistage fluidized bed pilot plant: Operation and simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Gullon, I.; Asensio, M.; Marcilla, A.; Font, R.

    1996-11-01

    A hydrodynamic and kinetic model was developed and applied to simulate the experimental data from a three-stage fluidized bed pilot plant with downcomers. This was used to study the activated carbon production from a Spanish bituminous coal by steam gasification. The steam gasification kinetics, considering the influence of inhibitors, were also determined in a thermobalance. With the kinetic equation and the experimental solids residence time distribution of the pilot plant, the model simulates the overall process that takes place in the reactor. The proposed model is able to reproduce the experimental results satisfactorily.

  8. Modular plant recovers high quality fuel from slurry pond

    SciTech Connect

    Batanian, D.C.; Terry, R.L.; Watters, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    For more than forty years, Peabody Coal Company operated a large deep mine complex near the town of Pawnee, approximately 15 miles southeast of Springfield in Christian County, Illinois. The Peabody Mine No.10 recovered No.6 (Herrin) seam raw coal from a depth of about 350 feet. All of the run-of-mine production was washed in a cleaning plant that utilized jigs and water-only cyclone circuits to produce a clean coal sold exclusively in the domestic steam coal market. Cleaning plant capacity was approximately 1,150 tons per hour, and clean coal production averaged about 2.5 million tons per year. When the economically recoverable reserves of No.6 coal were depleted in 1994, the mine was closed and the plant idled. Clean coal produced at Mine No.10 had an average ash content of about 10.0%, total sulfur of 3.50% and a heating value of 10,300 BTU/lb. Due to the relative inefficiency of the plant fine coal cleaning circuitry, significant quantities of coal reported to the tailings thickener as refuse. Thickener underflow was pumped to nearby slurry impoundments, which by 1994 were estimated to contain more than 5 million tons of material. Following the mine closure, the slurry ponds were reclaimed and the coal cleaning plant was dismantled. In 1997, USA Coal contracted for the erection of two synthetic fuel production facilities at the old Mine No.10 site. These facilities became operational in June of 1998 and qualified for Section 29 federal tax credits. In January of 1998, Sedgman was awarded a contract to design and build a preparation plant capable of recovering fine coal from the slurry impoundments at the Mine No.10 site. The fine coal recovery plant was erected in under 4 months utilizing modular construction techniques, which not only reduced field construction time but will also allow for rapid relocation of the recovery plant when all the slurry pond material at this site is depleted. From a raw plant feed of 325 tons per hour of 3.0 MM x 0 material, the

  9. Certifying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Lessons Learned from the WIPP Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Froehlich, Gary K.; Howard, Bryan A.; Howarth, Susan M.; Larson, Kurt W.; Pickering, Susan Y.; Swift, Peter N.

    1999-07-13

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with applicable long-term regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and transuranic radioactive wastes. The WIPP is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal requirements. The first disposal of TRU waste at WIPP occurred on March 26, 1999. Many of the lessons learned during the WIPP Project's transition from site characterization and experimental research to the preparation of a successful application may be of general interest to other repository programs. During a four-year period (1992 to 1996), the WIPP team [including the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), the science advisor to CAO, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the management and operating contractor of the WIPP site, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WID)] met its aggressive schedule for submitting the application without compromising the integrity of the scientific basis for the long-term safety of the repository. Strong leadership of the CAO-SNL-WID team was essential. Within SNL, a mature and robust performance assessment (PA) allowed prioritization of remaining scientific activities with respect to their impact on regulatory compliance. Early and frequent dialog with EPA staff expedited the review process after the application was submitted. Questions that faced SNL are familiar to geoscientists working in site evaluation projects. What data should be gathered during site characterization? How can we know when data are sufficient? How can we know when our understanding of the disposal system is sufficient to support our conceptual models? What constitutes adequate ''validation'' of conceptual models for processes that act over geologic time? How should we use peer review and expert judgment? Other

  10. 27 CFR 19.685 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Changes to Permit Information § 19.685 Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. (a) Small plants. If...

  11. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  12. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  13. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  14. Study of the potential uses of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-25

    The purpose of this study is to provide an evaluation of possible international and domestic uses for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, located in South Carolina, at the conclusion of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Four generic categories of use options for the Barnwell plant have been considered: storage of spent LWR fuel; reprocessing of LWR spent fuel; safeguards development and training; and non-use. Chapters are devoted to institutional options and integrated institutional-use options.

  15. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J.; Steinfeld, G.

    1998-09-30

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  16. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  17. Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, O. . Chicago Coke Plant)

    1994-09-01

    ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

  18. Intermediate-sized natural gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhoff, Frederick A.; Fleming, Donald K.

    1994-04-01

    This executive summary of the report describes the accomplishments of the joint US Department of Energy's (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and M-C POWER Corporation's Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) No. 93-013. This study addresses the intermediate power plant size between 2 megawatt (MW) and 200 MW. A 25 MW natural-gas, fueled-carbonate fuel cell power plant was chosen for this purpose. In keeping with recent designs, the fuel cell will operate under approximately three atmospheres of pressure. An expander/alternator is utilized to expand exhaust gas to atmospheric conditions and generate additional power. A steam-bottoming cycle is not included in this study because it is not believed to be cost effective for this system size. This study also addresses the simplicity and accuracy of a spreadsheet-based simulation with that of a full Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulation. The personal computer can fully utilize the simple spreadsheet model simulation. This model can be made available to all users and is particularly advantageous to the small business user.

  19. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  20. Performances and fouling control of a flat sheet membrane in a MBR pilot-plant.

    PubMed

    Grélot, A; Grelier, P; Tazi-Pain, A; Lesjean, B; Brüss, U; Grasmick, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and the optimisation of the hydraulic operating conditions of the A3 Water Solutions flat sheet membrane technology in a MBR pilot-plant to achieve a satisfying fouling control and also a reduction in the required aeration. Two vertically stacked modules were tested at pilot-scale at Anjou Recherche under typical biological operating conditions (mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS) =10 g/l; sludge retention time (SRT) =28 days; food to microorganism ratio (F/M)=0.12 kg COD/kg MLSS/d). The use of a double-deck and of specific backwashes for this membrane technology enabled to achieve satisfying membrane performances for a net flux of 25 L h(-1) m(-2), 20 degrees C at a low specific aeration demand per membrane surface (SADm = 0.2 Nm(3) h(-1) m(-2)) which corresponds to a specific aeration demand per permeate volume unit (SADp) of 8 Nm(3) air/m(3) permeate, which is lower than reported for many commercial membrane systems. The mixed liquor characteristics (foaming, MLSS concentration) appeared to influence the fouling behaviour of the membranes but no correlation was found with the fouling rate. However, with the new operating conditions, the system is robust and can cope with fouling resulting from biological stress and daily peak flows for MLSS concentrations in the membrane tank up to 18 g/l. PMID:20418613

  1. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP`s environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence.

  2. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.W.; Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report.

  3. Removal of diethyl phthalate from water by ozone microbubbles in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Jabesa, Abdisa; Ghosh, Pallab

    2016-09-15

    Ozone microbubbles (OMBs) were used to remove diethyl phthalate (DEP) from water in a pilot plant. The removal of DEP and the mineralization efficiency were investigated under various reaction conditions. The removal of DEP by OMBs was very effective at the high pH and high ozone generation rates. Almost complete mineralization of DEP could be achieved at the high pH. The contribution of OH was computed by using a hydroxyl radical scavenger (i.e. t-BuOH). In neutral and alkaline media, the reaction of DEP with OH dominated over its direct reaction with ozone. The overall oxidation reaction fitted a second-order kinetic model. The overall rate constant and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of ozone slightly increased with increasing pH. The results indicate that the OMBs were efficient in terms of the reduction of concentration of DEP and its complete mineralization. PMID:27280856

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  5. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, K.M.; Guzowski, R.V.; Hora, S.C.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

  6. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  7. Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Building confidence in the assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.

    1994-03-01

    Scenario developments is part of the iterative performance assessment (PA) process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Scenario development for the WIPP has been the subject of intense external review, and is certain to be the subject of continued scrutiny as the project proceeds toward regulatory compliance. The principal means of increasing confidence is this aspect of the PA will be through the use of a systematic and thorough procedure toward developing the scenarios and conceptual models on which the assessment is to be based. Early and ongoing interaction with project reviewers can assist with confidence building. Quality of argument and clarity of presentation in PA will be of key concern. Appropriate tools are required for documenting and tracking assumptions, through a single assessment phase, and between iterative assessment phases. Risks associated with future human actions are of particular concern to the WIPP project, and international consensus on the principles for incorporation of future human actions in assessments would be valuable.

  8. Sulfide production and wastewater quality--investigations in a pilot plant pressure sewer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T

    2001-01-01

    The relationship linking sulfide production rate and wastewater quality in terms of its biodegradability was studied using a pilot plant pressure sewer (inner diameter: 102 mm, length: 47 m). Furthermore, anaerobic transformations of wastewater organic matter were investigated. Wastewater characterization based on oxygen utilization rate (OUR) measurements and VFA analyses was employed. As wastewater quality parameters essential for the sulfide production, COD components and dissolved carbohydrate were focused on. Readily biodegradable substrate and fermentable, readily biodegradable substrate were better parameters than traditional dissolved COD for the prediction of sulfide production rates in a pressure sewer. From the results obtained, it was possible to integrate the sulfide production process with the transformation processes of wastewater organic matter in pressure sewers. PMID:11379124

  9. Recovery of protactinium-231 and thorium-230 from cotter concentrate: pilot plant operatins and process development

    SciTech Connect

    Hertz, M.R.; Figgins, P.E.; Deal, W.R.

    1983-02-10

    The equipment and methods used to recover and purify 339 g of thorium-230 and 890 mg of protactinium-231 from 22 of the 1251 drums of Cotter Concentrate are described. The process developed was (1) dissolution at 100/sup 0/C in concentrated nitric acid and dilution to 2 to 3 molar acid, (2) filtration to remove undissolved solids (mostly silica filter aid), (3) extraction of uranium with di-sec-butyl-phenyl phophonate (DSBPP) in carbon tetrachloride, (4) extraction of both thorium and protactinium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in carbon tetrachloride followed by selective stripping of the thorium with dilute of sulfuric acid, (5) thorium purification using oxalic acid, (6) stripping protactinium from the TOPO with oxalic acid, and (7) protactinium purification through a sequence of steps. The development of the separation procedures, the design of the pilot plant, and the operating procedures are described in detail. Analytical procedures are given in an appendix. 8 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Modeling of Human Intrusion Scenarios at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, M.B.; Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Larson, K.W.; Thompson, T.W.

    1998-12-04

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a mined, geologic repository designed for permanent disposal of transuranic waste. The facility is owned by the United States Department of Energy, and licensed for operations by the Environmental Protection Agency. Compliance with license requirements dictates that the repository must comply with regulatory stipulations that performance assessment calculations include the effects of resource exploitation on probable releases. Scenarios for these releases incorporate inadvertent penetration of the repository by an exploratory drilling operation. This paper presents the scenarios and models used to predict releases from the repository to the biosphere during. an inadvertent intrusion into the waste disposal regions. A summary of model results and conclusions is also presented.

  11. Characterization of subjective uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; MARTELL,MARY-ALENA; TIERNEY,MARTIN S.

    2000-05-18

    The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191,40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of subjective uncertainty is discussed, including assignment of distributions, uncertain variables selected for inclusion in analysis, correlation control, sample size, statistical confidence on mean complementary cumulative distribution functions, generation of Latin hypercube samples, sensitivity analysis techniques, and scenarios involving stochastic and subjective uncertainty.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.

    1980-02-01

    The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  14. Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B. M.; Gilette, J. L.; Poch, L. A.; Suermann, J. F.

    1999-02-16

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years.

  15. Potash ore reserves in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area, Eddy County, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Charles B.; Cheeseman, R.J.; Lorenz, J.C.; Millgate, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area includes about 18,960 acres in Tps. 22 and 23 S., Rs. 30 and 31 E., New Mexico Principal Meridian, Eddy County, southeastern New Mexico. It is located within the Carlsbad Mining District about 25 miles east of Carlsbad. The WIPP area is immediately south of the Capitan Limestone subcrop, which formed the northern margin of the Delaware basin in Permian time. During Late Permian (Ochoan) time, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite were deposited in the seas of the Delaware basin to form the Castile Formation. These deposits have a maximum thickness of about 2,000 feet and grade upward into the more argillaceous beds of the Salado Formation. The Salado Formation contains abundant sulfate minerals, notably anhydrite and polyhalite. The potash ore minerals, langbeinite and sylvite, occur in the upper part of the Salado Formation in the McNutt potash zone, a local name applied to a potassium-rich zone.

  16. State oversight review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant radiation protection and measurement programs

    SciTech Connect

    Channell, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG), an interdisciplinary organization attached to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, has been providing an independent scientific oversight of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP project since 1978. Evaluations cover all aspects of the project that have potential radiological health and safety considerations. During the early years, most of the review emphasis was on site suitability and involved heavy emphasis on the disciplines of geology and hydrogeology. During the middle years, the amount of emphasis on facility design, waste characterization, waste transportation package development, and quality assurance increased. Now, as final preparations are being made for the receipt of radioactive wastes, EEG is heavily involved in evaluating on-site health physics programs and radiation-measurement systems. Also, EEG is conducting an independent environmental radiation-monitoring program.

  17. Radiation shielding in the hot cell facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, H.B.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the potential radiation exposure to people from the proposed Federal radioactive Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, in order to protect the public health and safety and ensure that there is minimal environmental degradation. Analyses are conducted of available data concerning the proposed site, the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term stability. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, other Federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

  19. Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  20. Convective loss measurements at the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, M C

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed at the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant to measure the convective heat transfer from the receiver. Determining the convective loss will help reduce the uncertainty in the calculation of thermal efficiency for solar central receivers. Two types of results are presented from the data: (1) the overall receiver convective coefficient, and (2) detailed information on the local (panel) losses as a function of wind direction. The overall measured convective coefficient is also compared with predictions from correlations developed to calculate the convective coefficient. The comparison between the measured and predicted convective coefficients is good, although the correlations tend to overpredict the measured data by about 10%.

  1. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD, ROBERT P

    1999-10-21

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

  2. Pilot-plant study of wastewater sludge decontamination using a ferrous sulfate bioleaching process.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean-François; Chartier, Myriam

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of the ferrous sulfate bioleaching (FSBL) process in a pilot plant for decontamination and stabilization of wastewater sludge. Batch and continuous experiments, conducted with two 4-m3 bioreactors using indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria (20% v/v of inoculum) with addition of 4.0 g ferrous sulfate heptahydrate per liter of sludge initially acidified to pH 4.0, were sufficient for effective heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, zinc, and lead) removal yields. The average metal removal yields during the FSBL process were as follows: cadmium (69 to 75%), copper (68 to 70%), manganese (72 to 73%), zinc (65 to 66%), and lead (16%). The FSBL process was also found to be effective in removing both fecal and total coliforms (abatement > 5 to 6 log units). The nutrients content (nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium) were also preserved in decontaminated sludge. PMID:17059142

  3. Software/firmware design specification for 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ladewig, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    The software and firmware employed for the operation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are completely described. The systems allow operator control of up to 2048 heliostats, and include the capability of operator-commanded control, graphic displays, status displays, alarm generation, system redundancy, and interfaces to the Operational Control System, the Data Acquisition System, and the Beam Characterization System. The requirements are decomposed into eleven software modules for execution in the Heliostat Array Controller computer, one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Field Controller microprocessor, and one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Controller microprocessor. The design of the modules to satisfy requirements, the interfaces between the computers, the software system structure, and the computers in which the software and firmware will execute are detailed. The testing sequence for validation of the software/firmware is described. (LEW)

  4. The permeation by liquefied coal of gloves used in coal liquefaction pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    The protective capabilities of PVC, natural rubber and milled nitrile rubber gloves currently used in coal liquefaction pilot plants were assessed, and the effectiveness of a laundering method was evaluated. The breakthrough times and cumulative permeation for exposure to toluene and to liquefied coal were determined by measurement of radiolabelled phenol tracer in the aqueous receiving medium. Breakthrough times agreed with the findings of other studies on exposure to liquefied coal, the nitrile laboratory glove resisted breakthrough the longest (12-14 h), although it was the thinnest material tested. Breakthrough times for the other gloves ranged from 2.75 to 6.5 h. Normalised for thickness, both PVC materials tested were more resistant to breakthrough than rubber. The laundering method did not completely decontaminate samples of PVC glove material pre-exposed to liquefied coal for 24 h under laboratory conditions.

  5. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  6. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, K.M.; Guzowski, R.V.; Hora, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

  7. Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-05-01

    Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

  8. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF SILICA-ENHANCED LIME SORBENTS FOR DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent work on lime enhancement and testing at the bench-scale, followed by evaluation of the more promising sorbents in a pilot plant to develop low cost, retrofittable flue gas cleaning technology specifically the development of highly reactive sorbents. Con...

  10. TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION. ON-SITE TESTING WITH MOBILE PILOT PLANT TRAILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeded water treatment using a SALA high gradient magnetic separator pilot plant system was conducted on combined sewer overflows and raw sewage at SALA Magnetics in Cambridge, MA and at on-site locations in the Boston area. Special emphasis was placed on specific design and oper...

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  12. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Test phase plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Test Phase Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant to satisfy the requirements of Public Law 102-579, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act (LWA). The Act provides seven months after its enactment for the DOE to submit this Plan to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for review. A potential geologic repository for transuranic wastes, including transuranic mixed wastes, generated in national-defense activities, the WIPP is being constructed in southeastern New Mexico. Because these wastes remain radioactive and chemically hazardous for a very long time, the WIPP must provide safe disposal for thousands of years. The DOE is developing the facility in phases. Surface facilities for receiving waste have been built and considerable underground excavations (2150 feet below the surface) that are appropriate for in-situ testing, have been completed. Additional excavations will be completed when they are required for waste disposal. The next step is to conduct a test phase. The purpose of the test phase is to develop pertinent information and assess whether the disposal of transuranic waste and transuranic mixed waste in the planned WIPP repository can be conducted in compliance with the environmental standards for disposal and with the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (as amended by RCRA, 42 USC. 6901 et. seq.). The test phase includes laboratory experiments and underground tests using contact-handled transuranic waste. Waste-related tests at WIPP will be limited to contact-handled transuranic and simulated wastes since the LWA prohibits the transport to or emplacement of remote-handled transuranic waste at WIPP during the test phase.

  14. Letdown valve (anti eroded type for slurry use) on 150 t/d coal liquefaction pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Mitsushi; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Yamagiwa, Hisashi

    1999-07-01

    The letdown valve developed by NEDO has been tested on the 150 t/d coal liquefaction pilot plant using the NEDOL process for more than 6,000 hours of on-coal operation. Several factors affecting the damage of the letdown valve that handled a fluid containing coal-derived oil, catalyst and residue including ash have been evaluated. The countermeasure for the damage has been studied to develop an advanced letdown valve to be used demonstration plant.

  15. Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

  16. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals: Pilot-Scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    This project focuses on the development and pilot-scale testing of technologies that will enable the development of a biorefinery capable of economically deriving high-value chemicals and oils from lower value corn fiber.

  17. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration: plant-support subsystem procurement documentation (RADL Item 7-44D)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Purchase specifications are given for the specific long lead items to be procured for the 10 MWe Solar Pilot Plant. The hardware is grouped into two categories: 480 Volt Load Center and 480 Volt Motor Control Centers; and Power, Control and Instrumentation Cable. The purchase orders for each procurement are included. Need dates for each item are identified. (LEW)

  18. Hydrogen from renewable energy: A pilot plant for thermal production and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiorgis, L.; Santarelli, M.; Calì, M.

    In the mainframe of a research contract, a feasibility pre-design study of a hydrogen-fuelled Laboratory-Village has been carried out: the goals are the design and the simulation of a demonstration plant based on hydrogen as primary fuel. The hydrogen is produced by electrolysis, from electric power produced by a mix of hydroelectric and solar photovoltaic plants. The plant will be located in a small remote village in Valle d'Aosta (Italy). This country has large water availability from glaciers and mountains, so electricity production from fluent water hydroelectric plants is abundant and cheap. Therefore, the production of hydrogen during the night (instead of selling the electricity to the grid at very low prices) could become a good economic choice, and hydrogen could be a competitive local fuel in term of costs, if compared to oil or gas. The H 2 will be produced and stored, and used to feed a hydrogen vehicle and for thermal purposes (heating requirement of three buildings), allowing a real field test (Village-Laboratory). Due to the high level of pressure requested for H 2 storage on-board in the vehicle, the choice has been the experimental test of a prototype laboratory-scale high-pressure PEM electrolyzer: a test laboratory has been designed, to investigate the energy savings related to this technology. In the paper, the description of the dynamic simulation of the plant (developed with TRNSYS) together with a detailed design and an economic analysis (proving the technical and economical feasibility of the installation) has been carried out. Moreover, the design of the high-pressure PEM electrolyzer is described.

  19. Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G.; Higgins, P.J. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs.

  20. An introduction to the mechanics of performance assessment using examples of calculations done for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1990 and 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-10-01

    This document provides an overview of the process used to assess the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed repository for transuranic wastes that is located in southeastern New Mexico. The quantitative metrics used in the performance-assessment (PA) process are those put forward in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive flasks (40 CFR 191). Much has been written about the individual building blocks that comprise the foundation of PA theory and practice, and that WIPP literature is well cited herein. However, the present approach is to provide an accurate, well documented overview of the process, from the perspective of the mechanical steps used to perform the actual PA calculations. Specifically, the preliminary stochastic simulations that comprise the WIPP PAs of 1990, 1991. and 1992 are summarized.

  1. Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

  2. Dynamic behavior of PEM fuel cell and microturbine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Sisworahardjo, N. S.; Uzunoglu, M.; Onar, O.; Alam, M. S.

    This paper presents a comparison between the dynamic behavior of a 250 kW stand-alone proton exchange membrane fuel cell power plant (PEM FCPP) and a 250 kW stand-alone microturbine (MT). Dynamic models for the two are introduced. To control the voltage and the power output of the PEM FCPP, voltage and power control loops are added to the model. For the MT, voltage, speed, and power control are used. Dynamic models are used to determine the response of the PEM FCPP and MT to a load step change. Simulation results indicate that the response of the MT to reach a steady state is about twice as fast as the PEM FCPP. For stand-alone operation of a PEM FCPP, a set of batteries or ultracapacitors is needed in order to satisfy the power mismatch during transient periods. Software simulation results are obtained by using MATLAB ®, Simulink ®, and SimPowerSystems ®.

  3. The use of artificial intelligence for safeguarding fuel reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.W.; Forgy, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recorded process data from the ''Minirun'' campaigns conducted at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) in Barnwell, South Carolina during 1980 to 1981 have been utilized to study the suitability of computer-based Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods for process monitoring for safeguards purposes. The techniques of knowledge engineering were used to formulate the decision-making software which operates on the process data customarily used for process operations. The OPS5 AI language was used to construct an Expert System for this purpose. Such systems are able to form reasoned conclusions from incomplete, inaccurate or otherwise ''fuzzy'' data, and to explain the reasoning that led to them. The programs were tested using minirun data taken during simulated diversions ranging in size from 1 to 20 L of solution that had been monitored previously using conventional procedural techniques. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  4. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  5. Synthetic-fuel plants: potential tumor risks to public health.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, P D; Morris, S C; Fischer, H; Thode, H C; Hamilton, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article quantifies potential public health risks from tumor-producing pollutants emitted from two synthetic-fuel plants (direct liquefaction--Exxon Donor Solvent: and indirect liquefaction--Lurgi Fischer-Tropsch) located at a representative site in the eastern United States. In these analyses gaseous and aqueous waste streams were characterized; exposures via inhalation, terrestrial and aquatic food chains, and drinking water supplies were modeled. Analysis suggested that emissions of "polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," "aromatic amines," "neutral N, O, S heterocyclics," "nitriles," and "other trace elements" pose the largest quantifiable risks to public health. Data and analysis for these pollutant categories should be refined to more accurately match compound-specific estimated exposure levels with tumorigenic potency estimates. Before these results are used for regulatory purposes, more detailed analysis for selected pollutant classes are needed, and more sophisticated aquatic exposure models must be developed. Also, differences in geographic scales among the environmental transport models used need to be rectified. PMID:3843682

  6. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  7. Pilot and plant scaled production of ACE inhibitory hydrolysates from Acetes chinensis and its in vivo antihypertensive effect.

    PubMed

    He, Hai-Lun; Wu, Hao; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Shi, Mei; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Sun, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng

    2008-09-01

    The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from Acetes chinensis by treatment with the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 were produced at pilot scale (100 L) and plant scale (1000 L). The pilot and plant scaled hydrolysate products almost had the same properties as that at laboratory scale. Spray-drying had little effect on the peptide composition and bioactivity of the hydrolysates. The plant scaled hydrolysates were used to study its blood pressure-depressing effect in vivo. It caused reduce of 18.3-38.6 mmHg of the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats in dose-dependent manner in the range of 100-1,200 mg/kg/day. Histopathologic study showed that the pathologic changes of heart and brain in SHRs got obvious alleviation after treatment of the hydrolysates. PMID:18609757

  8. Metallurgical study of a failed heat exchanger in a H-coal/sup (R)/ pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.J.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Searles, R.

    1982-01-01

    On September 20, 1980, operation of the pilot plant was interrupted when a heat exchanger (a reactor effluent vapor/steam thermo syphon reboiler) failed. Three alloy 800 (Fe-32Ni-21Cr) tubes in the bottom return section (cold end) of the heat exchanger blew out of the tubesheet. The system was shut down and a team of investigators began an intense study to determine the cause of the failure. Purpose of the investigation was to determine if the failure was an isolated incident, so that the affected tubes could be plugged and the system continue to operate, or if the failures were more generic so as to require corrective action. After careful examination of the fractured tubes by optical and scanning electron microscopy, a conclusion was made that stress corrosion cracking originating at the exterior surface was the cause of the failure. Other tubes were found that were approaching a state of failure. Photographs of the heat exchanger and photomicrographs of microstructures that supported this study are presented. As the result of the investigation, remedial steps were taken by the plant operator to return the heat exchanger to line operation.

  9. Behavior of metallic silver nanoparticles in a pilot wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Burkhardt, Michael; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the behavior of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) in a pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fed with municipal wastewater. The treatment plant consisted of a nonaerated and an aerated tank and a secondary clarifier. The average hydraulic retention time including the secondary clarifier was 1 day and the sludge age was 14 days. Ag-NP were spiked into the nonaerated tank and samples were collected from the aerated tank and from the effluent. Ag concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were in good agreement with predictions based on mass balance considerations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirmed that nanoscale Ag particles were sorbed to wastewater biosolids, both in the sludge and in the effluent. Freely dispersed nanoscale Ag particles were only observed in the effluent during the initial pulse spike. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements indicated that most Ag in the sludge and in the effluent was present as Ag(2)S. Results from batch experiments suggested that Ag-NP transformation to Ag(2)S occured in the nonaerated tank within less than 2 h. Physical and chemical transformations of Ag-NP in WWTPs control the fate, the transport and also the toxicity and the bioavailability of Ag-NP and therefore must be considered in future risk assessments. PMID:21466186

  10. Pilot plant experience on anaerobic codigestion of source selected OFMSW and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cabbai, Valentina; De Bortoli, Nicola; Goi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic codigestion of source selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) and sewage sludge may be one of the most viable solutions to optimize oversized digesters efficiency in wastewater treatment plants. Based on results of BMP tests obtained for sewage sludge and SS-OFMSW, pilot plant tests were carried out by 3.4 m(3) CSTR reactor at mesophilic temperature. A mix of fruit and vegetable waste from wholesale market and canteen waste was used as SS-OFMSW substrate. Tests were conducted applying an OLR (organic loading rate) ramp with 6 different phases until a value of 3.2 kgVS/m(3) d. Feedstock and digestate characteristics, efficiency and process parameters were monitored. The anaerobic codigestion development was stable in each phase: early indicators like VFA (volatile fatty acids) and FOS/TAC ratio were always below instability threshold values. The maximum OLR tested determined a GPR (gas production rate) of 0.95 N m(3)/m(3) d and SGP (specific gas production) of 0.49 N m(3)/kgVS with a VS abatement of 67.3%. PMID:26739455

  11. Development of a 200kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Take, Tetsuo; Kuwata, Yutaka; Adachi, Masahito; Ogata, Tsutomu

    1996-12-31

    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NFT) has been developing a 200 kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant which can generate AC 200 kW of constant power by switching fuel from pipeline town gas to liquefied propane gas (LPG) and vice versa. This paper describes the outline of the demonstration test plant and test results of its fundamental characteristics.

  12. 27 CFR 19.685 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel...

  13. Sunflower seed hulls as supplementary fuel to coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brudenell, W.N.; Holland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of biomass as a supplementary fuel to fossil-fuel power plants is gaining increasing attention due to escalating energy costs. The design of a sunflower seed hulls combustion system for an existing lignite-fired power plant is presented in this paper. 5 refs.

  14. Solvent-Refined-Coal (SRC) process: environmental program. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 74. Volume III. Pilot-plant development work. Part 5. Environmental program January 1, 1980-November 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    This report summarizes the environmental program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) contract from January 1980 through November 1981. Three major areas are included in the program: (1) air quality; (2) water quality; and (3) foliage effects. Baseline studies of air and water quality were performed before the plant was constructed. Similar studies were made in 1976 to 1979 during plant operation. These studies indicated that installation of the pilot plant had virtually no measurable impact on air and water quality in the surrounding environment. The results of the continuing monitoring efforts during 1980 to 1981 indicate that no substantial change in the environment has taken place as a result of the operation of the SRC plant. Annual foliage observations also indicated no discernable effect upon the dominant vegetative species in the area around the plant. Partially as a result of a product fuel oil spill in the tank farm in December 1979, an additional groundwater quality monitoring program was conducted during this period. No evidence of contamination from this spill was observed in the ground water sources near the pilot plant and nearby surface waters, although some contamination was observed in test wells drilled on the plant site itself.

  15. WIPP hydrology program, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: Hydrologic Data Report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Stensrud, W.A.; Bame, M.A.; Lantz, K.D.; Palmer, J.B.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr. )

    1990-04-01

    Hydrologic Data Report No. 8 is organized into six parts, A, B, C, D, E, and F, and contains hydrologic-testing and water-level data from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site from May 1988 through August 1989. Part A describes a multipad-pumping and four-well convergent-flow tracer test at the H-11 hydropad. Part B describes a 72-hour airlift pumping test of the Culebra dolomite conducted at P-14 after the well was reperforated and acid treated. Part C describes slug-injection/withdrawal testing of the Culebra dolomite at wells AEC-7 and D-268. Part D describes slug- injection/withdrawal and pulse-injection/withdrawal testing of the Magenta dolomite at wells H-2bl and H-3bl, and of the Forty-niner Member at well H-3d. Part E contains data regarding hydraulic effects of drilling the Air-Intake Shaft pilot hole and upreaming of the Air-Intake Shaft. Fluid-pressure responses were observed by transducers installed with a multipacker completion tool in well H-16, 56 ft from the shaft, and water-level responses were observed in other nearby wells. Part E also contains a log of shaft-construction activities. Part F contains water-level and fluid-pressure data collected from May 1988 through August 1989 in observation wells completed in the Dewey Lake Red Beds; the Forty-niner, Magenta Dolomite, Culebra Dolomite, and unnamed lower Members of the Rustler Formation; the contact between the Rustler and Salado Formations; and the Bell Canyon Formation at and near the WIPP site. 50 refs., 163 figs., 98 tabs.

  16. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.L.; Stewart, M.H.; Liang, S.; McGuire, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages, four hydrogen peroxide/ozone weight ratios, and four contact times in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E.

  17. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  18. A 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: Solar facilities design integration. Plant operating/training manual (RADL-Item 2-36)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Plant and system level operating instructions are provided for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. Individual status instructions are given that identify plant conditions, process controller responsibilities, process conditions and control accuracies, operating envelopes, and operator cautions appropriate to the operating condition. Transition operating instructions identify the sequence of activities to be carried out to accomplish the indicated transition. Most transitions involve the startup or shutdown of an individual flowpath. Background information is provided on collector field operations, and the heliostat groupings and specific commands used in support receiver startup are defined.

  19. Optimization of hydrocarbon fuels combustion variable composition in thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifullin, E. R.; Larionov, V. M.; Busarov, A. V.; Busarov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that associated petroleum gas and refinery waste can be used as fuel in thermal power plants. However, random changes in the composition of such fuels cause instability of the combustion process. This article explores the burning of hydrocarbon fuel in the case of long continuous change of its specific heat of combustion. The results of analysis were used to develop a technique of optimizing the combustion process, ensuring complete combustion of the fuel and its minimum flow.

  20. A Practical Approach for Studying Fouling Process in Li-Recovery Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M.; Yoon, H.; Eom, C.; Kim, B.; Chung, K.

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of selective ion recovery such as lithium from seawater has been major interest of previous studies. However, the characterization of adsorption behavior as well as dissolution yield as discharging environmentally problematic chemical species must carefully studied in various conditions including different seawater conditions [1]. Marine biofouling communities are complex, highly dynamic ecosystems consisting of a diverse range of organisms. The development of such communities begins with bacterial attachment followed by the colonization of higher organisms such as invertebrate larvae and algal spores [2-3]. Monitoring and field studies regarding fouling problems during operation of Li-recovery pilot plant which is designed by the Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources (KIGAM) were major concern of this study. We examined fouling process for the duration of exposure time in real marine environment. Substrated with no-antifouling treated material and antifouling treated material were exposed and tested for different behaviors toward fouling in ocean. SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy dispersive Spectroscopy) analysis was done for surface identification of specific elements for possible dissolution during seawater exposure. To identify organic compound was used GC-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer) analysis. Experiment results, organisms such as alga are fouled the most on 30 days and antitreated material is fouled less than non antitreated material. Operating Li-recovery pilot plant to sea, we need to consider in order to effectively and economically resolve the fouling problem. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the national research project titled "The Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Seawater" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. References [1] M. Y. Diego, K. Soren, and D. J. Kim

  1. Design of pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor for the generation of hydrogen from alkaline sulfide wastewater of sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Priya, R; Kanmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for photocatalytic generation of renewable fuel hydrogen from sulphide wastewater from the sewage treatment plant. In this study, pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was designed for treating 1 m3 of sulphide wastewater and also for the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. Bench-scale studies were conducted both in the batch recycle and continuous modes under solar irradiation at similar experimental conditions. The maximum of 89.7% conversion was achieved in the continuous mode. The length of the pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was arrived using the design parameters such as volumetric flow rate (Q) (11 x 10(-2) m3/s), inlet concentration of sulphide ion (C(in)) (28 mol/m3), conversion (89.7%) and average mass flow destruction rate (3.488 x 10(-6) mol/m2 s). The treatment cost of the process was estimated to be 6 US$/m3. This process would be suitable for India like sub-tropical country where sunlight is abundantly available throughout the year. PMID:24527646

  2. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth. PMID:24743957

  3. Pilot-plant study of the effect of a surface electric-field on fabric filter operation

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdell, D.W.; Furlong, D.A.; Hovis, L.S.

    1985-10-01

    The paper gives results of a pilot-plant study of electrostatically augmented fabric filtration (ESFF) to transfer laboratory technology to the field environment. (Note: Electrostatic fields at the fabric surface of fabric dust collectors have been observed in the laboratory to reduce the flow resistance of the collected dust and to reduce the dust penetration into the fabric.) Conclusions include: (1) using an electric field parallel to the fabric surface, without particle charging, to enhance fabric filter operation is operable at pilot scale (the pilot plant operated on flue gas from an industrial boiler); (2) the electrical hardware developed for the pulse-cleaned baghouse is workable and durable in the operating environment and has potential for commercial use; (3) at any given face velocity, the ESFF baghouse has a reduced residual pressure drop and a reduced rate of pressure drop increase when compared with a conventional fabric filter; (4) the pulse-cleaned ESFF baghouse could be operated in a stable fashion at filter face velocities up to about twice that at which the conventional baghouse was stable; and (5) the pilot unit results are consistent with dust cake expansion and lowered porosity due to a tendency to form dendritic structures as the dust cake collects.

  4. Control of the growth of Microthrix parvicelle by using an aerobic selector--results of pilot and full scale plant operation.

    PubMed

    Lebek, M; Rosenwinkel, K H

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage wastewater treatment plant experiences bulking sludge problems in winter, correlating with Microthixparvicella abundance. Pilot and full-scale studies of the use of an aerobic selector to control M. parvicella had little success, probably resulting from long chain fatty acid retention in foam at the tank surface. Initial pilot studies with reduced foam retention showed better results. PMID:12216674

  5. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  6. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

    2001-01-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for

  7. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings. PMID:25412337

  8. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOEpatents

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  9. Assessment and comparison of 100-MW coal gasification phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1988-01-01

    One of the advantages of fuel cell (FC) power plants is fuel versatility. With changes only in the fuel processor, the power plant will be able to accept a variety of fuels. This study was performed to design process diagrams, evaluate performance, and to estimate cost of 100 MW coal gasifier (CG)/phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant systems utilizing coal, which is the largest single potential source of alternate hydrocarbon liquids and gases in the United States, as the fuel. Results of this study will identify the most promising integrated CG/PAFC design and its near-optimal operating conditions. The comparison is based on the performance and cost of electricity which is calculated under consistent financial assumptions.

  10. ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111679. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Biorefinery concept in a microalgae pilot plant. Culturing, dynamic filtration and steam explosion fractionation.

    PubMed

    Nurra, C; Torras, C; Clavero, E; Ríos, S; Rey, M; Lorente, E; Farriol, X; Salvadó, J

    2014-07-01

    A 53 m(3) microalgae pilot plant with semi-closed photobioreactors has been operated in batch mode at Tarragona, where proper climatic conditions exist. Operations carried-out were microalgae culturing, concentration, cell disruption and lipid extraction. Culturing was performed with and without CO2 fertilization. pH was used to control CO2 dosing. With CO2 fertilization best microalgae concentrations were obtained. Productivities up to 19.9 g/m(2)/day were reached. Although sedimentation and centrifugation was performed, studies focused on dynamic membrane filtration as improved technique compared with conventional one. Significant fouling reduction was obtained by using a vibrational membrane setup. Cell disruption including product pre-extraction was performed by using steam explosion at moderate conditions, as novel technique for this application. Lipid extraction was performed by using conventional techniques with and without exploded material. The amount of lipids obtained from exploded material was higher than with non-exploded material, which shows that steam explosion provides a clear enhancement. PMID:24801364

  12. Monitoring roof beam lateral displacement at the waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Terrill, L.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lateral displacement in the immediate roof beam at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a significant factor in assessment of excavation performance for the design of ground control systems. Information on roof beam lateral displacement, expansion, fracture formation, as well as excavation convergence, is gathered using a variety of manually and remotely read instruments. Visual observations are also used when possible. This paper describes the methods used to measure lateral displacement, or offset, at the WIPP. Offset magnitudes are determined by the degree of occlusion in drillholes that intersect the offset plane. The Borehole Lateral Displacement Sensor (BLDS) was developed for installation at WIPP to monitor offset at a high degree of accuracy at a short reading frequency. Offset measurements have historically been obtained by visual estimation of borehole occlusion. Use of the BLDS will enable relationships between time dependent roof beam lateral displacement and expansion to be established in much shorter periods than is possible using visual observations. The instrument will also allow remote monitoring of roof beam displacement in areas where visual estimations are not possible. Continued monitoring of roof beam displacement, convergence, and expansion, is integral to timely and pertinent assessments of WIPP excavation performance.

  13. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  14. On the power and size of tokamak fusion pilot plants and reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costley, A. E.; Hugill, J.; Buxton, P. F.

    2015-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the route to fusion power involves large devices of ITER scale or larger. However, we show, contrary to expectations, that for steady state tokamaks operating at fixed fractions of the density and beta limits, the fusion gain, Qfus, depends mainly on the absolute level of the fusion power and the energy confinement, and only weakly on the device size. Our investigations are carried out using a system code and also by analytical means. Further, we show that for the two qualitatively different global scalings that have been developed to fit the data contained in the ITER ELMy H-mode database, i.e. the normally used beta-dependent IPB98y2 scaling and the alternative beta-independent scalings, the power needed for high fusion performance differs substantially, typically by factors of three to four. Taken together, these two findings imply that lower power, smaller, and hence potentially lower cost, pilot plants and reactors than currently envisaged may be possible. The main parameters of a candidate low power (˜180 MW), high Qfus (˜5), relatively small (˜1.35 m major radius) device are given.

  15. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  16. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  17. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1994-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  18. Geomechanical analyses in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.

    1990-04-01

    A variety of geomechanical analyses are presented that support the WIPP project. The scale of the analyses ranged through laboratory experiments, small-scale in-situ tests, large-scale in-situ tests, underground rooms, shafts and shaft keys, and multi-room panels. The structural behavior of underground rooms, shafts, and experiments was investigated using the finite element method. Both two and three dimensional analyses simulated the time-dependent behavior of the salt host rock. Two different constitutive models were used to represent the creeping motion of the salt. The investigations aided in experimental planning, code validation, and assessing excavation responses for safety and performance assessment. This report compiles ten different structural analyses which assess the performance of excavations and experiments located at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. Chapter 2 discusses the constitutive models used to represent the salt behavior. Each of Chapters 3 through 12 presents an analysis. Chapter 13 concludes the report. 36 refs., 48 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Conceptual structure of performance assessments conducted for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. In support of this project, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting an ongoing performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP. The ordered triple representation for risk proposed by Kaplan and Garrick is used to provide a clear conceptual structure for this PA. This presentation describes how the preceding representation provides a basis in the WIPP PA for (1) the definition of scenarios and the calculation of scenario probabilities and consequences, (2) the separation of subjective and stochastic uncertainties, (3) the construction of the complementary cumulative distribution functions required in comparisons with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (i.e., 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B), and (4) the performance of uncertainty and sensitivity studies. Results obtained in a preliminary PA for the WIPP completed in December of 1991 are used for illustration.

  20. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years'' the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  1. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. |

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years`` the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  2. Struvite formation from the supernatants of an anaerobic digestion pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Pastor, L; Mangin, D; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the influence of the characteristics of the supernatants on the struvite precipitation process. Eighteen experiments with the supernatants generated in an anaerobic digestion pilot plant were performed in a stirred reactor. In order to obtain the pH control during the crystallization process, a Fuzzy Logic based controller was used. High phosphorus precipitation and recovery efficiencies were obtained. The composition of the supernatants was analyzed in order to study its influence on the solids formed from those solutions. The presence of calcium reduced the percentage of phosphorus precipitated as struvite leading to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which tended to be lost with the effluent of the reactor. Calcite was also formed when supernatants with high magnesium:phosphorus (Mg/P) and calcium:phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios were employed. Some ammonium volatilization by conversion to NH(3) occurred in all the experiments. The use of air to increase the pH to an adequate value showed to be feasible. Aeration cleaned struvite crystals from suspended solids, which makes aeration interesting for struvite separation. However, aeration slightly increased the loss of phosphorus with the effluent of the reactor and promoted ammonium volatilization. PMID:19733058

  3. Role of borehole plugging in the evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, T.O.

    1980-01-01

    Research on borehole plugging (BHP) is part of an integrated strategy to develop technology that can assure successful nuclear waste isolation. The application of this strategy to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has included an assessment of the role BHP plays in the development of a repository at that site. This paper presents a description of the WIPP site, repository design, and the current research and development program. The status of drill holes - those drilled for petroleum and potash exploration and those drilled for site characterization - within the proposed site boundaries is presented. Sixty-six holes are present on the 7700 hectare (19,000 acre) site, yet only 8 penetrate as deep as the proposed repository location. The assumptions made about shaft and borehole sealing in consequence assessment studies are presented. The results of these studies indicate that borehole seals with effective permeabilities greater than tens of darcies would result in doses to maximally exposed individuals of less than 0.01% of natural background.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of Procion Black 5B using cylindrical flow reactor--a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Raghu, S; Basha, C Ahmed

    2007-01-10

    The paper presents the results of an efficient electrochemical treatment of Procion Black 5B--a pilot plant study. Experiments were conducted at different current densities and selected electrolyte medium using Ti/RuO2 as anode, stainless-steel as cathode in a cylindrical flow reactor. By cyclic voltammetric analysis, the best condition for maximum redox reaction rate was found to be in NaCl medium. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, colour, FTIR, UV-vis spectra studies, energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient were computed and presented. The experimental results showed that the electrochemical oxidation process could effectively remove colour and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the synthetic dye effluent. The maximum COD reduction and colour removal efficiencies were 74.05% and 100%, respectively. Probable theory, reaction mechanism and modeling were proposed for the oxidation of dye effluent. The results obtained reveal the feasibilities of application of electrochemical treatment for the degradation of Procion Black 5B. PMID:17008006

  5. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, J.W. ); Snyder, R.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

  7. Particulate generation and control in the PREPP (Process Experimental Pilot Plant) incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Stermer, D.L.; Gale, L.G.

    1989-03-01

    Particulate emissions in radioactive incineration systems using a wet scrubbing system are generally ultimately controlled by flowing the process offgas stream through a high-efficiency filter, such as a High Efficient Particulate Air (HEPA) filter. Because HEPA filters are capable of reducing particulate emissions over an order of magnitude below regulatory limits, they consequently are vulnerable to high loading rates. This becomes a serious handicap in radioactive systems when filter change-out is required at an unacceptably high rate. The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) incineration system is designed for processing retrieved low level mixed hazardous waste. It has a wet offgas treatment system consisting of a Quencher, Venturi Scrubber, Entrainment Eliminator, Mist Eliminator, two stages of HEPA filters, and induced draft fans. During previous tests, it was noted that the offgas filters loaded with particulate at a rate requiring replacement as often as every four hours. During 1988, PREPP conducted a series of tests which included an investigation of the causes of heavy particulate accumulation on the offgas filters in relation to various operating parameters. This was done by measuring the particulate concentrations in the offgas system, primarily as a function of scrub solution salt concentration, waste feed rate, and offgas flow rate. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Geochemistry of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Southeastern New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.

    1992-05-01

    An extensive geochemical data base, including analyses of major and minor solutes, mineralogical studies of core samples, and isotopic studies of waters, carbonates and sulfates, has been assembled for evaporites and related rocks in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. These data were compiled for the geological and hydrological characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is excavated in the evaporites of the Salado Formation. These data were evaluated in order: 1. to determine the stability of the evaporite mineralogy over geological time; 2. to compare the aqueous geochemistry with host rock mineralogy; 3. to delineate the nature and timing of water-rock interactions, such as dissolution and recrystallization; and 4. to determine the geological and climatic conditions that have governed groundwater recharge. The resulting synthesis of data and current hypotheses concerning the origin, composition and history of waters in the evaporite rocks and related units of the Delaware Basin provides a tentative conceptual model for the behavior of the water-rock system since the deposition of the evaporites in the Permian. Essential components of this model include: 1. widespread Late Triassic/Early Jurassic evaporite recrystallization; 2. accumulation of deep-basin brines isolated from meteoric recharge; 3. evaporite dissolution by meteoric waters flowing in carbonates and sulfates interbedded in the uppermost Permian section and at the basin margin; 4. lateral rather than vertical infiltration of pre-Holocene meteoric waters in the uppermost Permian section; 5. climatic conditions presently less conducive to recharge than in the late Pleistocene.

  9. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O.; Siegel, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption.

  10. Summary discussion of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; ANDERSON,D. RICHARD; BASABILVAZO,G.; JOW,HONG-NIAN; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-19

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic waste. The construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for total radionuclide release from the WIPP to the accessible environment is described. The resultant CCDFs (1) combine releases due to cuttings and cavings, spallings, direct brine release, and long-term transport in flowing groundwater, (2) fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standard 40 CFR 191 for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste, and (3) constitute an important component of the DOE's successful Compliance Certification Application to the EPA for the WIPP. Insights and perspectives gained in the performance assessment (PA) that led to these CCDFs are described, including the importance of (1) an iterative approach to PA, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, (3) a clear conceptual model for the analysis, (4) the separation of stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, (5) quality assurance procedures, (6) early involvement of peer reviewers, regulators, and stake holders, (7) avoidance of conservative assumptions, and (8) adequate documentation.

  11. Compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with 40 CFR 194.24(b)

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Papenguth, H.W.; Stockman, C.T.

    1996-11-07

    This paper presents aspects of DOE`s demonstration of compliance with the EPA regulation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP, a geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) waste, is located 2150 feet below the ground surface in a bedded salt formation about 20 miles east of Carlsbad, NM. Performance of the WIPP as a repository requires that releases to the accessible environment not exceed the limits of the regulation 40 CFR Part 191(1) either when the WIPP is undisturbed, or if there is intrusion into the repository by drilling. In 1996, the EPA promulgated 40 CFR Part 194(2): the implementing regulation for 40 CFR Part 191. The regulatory subsection addressed here, 40 CFR 194.24(b), directs the DOE to identify and analyze the components and characteristics of the TRU waste that can impact performance of the WIPP repository, and thereby possibly impact waste containment. DOE must also analyze those waste characteristics and components that will not affect repository performance.

  12. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis in Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.

    1998-12-17

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. This development has been supported by a sequence of performance assessments (PAs) carried out by Sandla National Laboratories (SNL) to assess what is known about the WIPP and to provide .tidance for future DOE research and development activities. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis procedures based on Latin hypercube sampling and regression techniques play an important role in these PAs by providing an assessment of the uncertainty in important analysis outcomes and identi~ing the sources of thk uncertainty. Performance assessments for the WIPP are conceptually and computational] y interesting due to regulatory requirements to assess and display the effects of both stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, where stochastic uncertainty arises from the possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period associated with the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arises from an inability to unambi-aously characterize the many models and associated parameters required in a PA for the WIPP. The interplay between uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, stochastic uncertainty and subjective uncertainty are discussed and illustrated in the context of a recent PA carried out by SNL to support an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste.

  13. Radioactive and nonradioactive waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; DREZ,P.E.; RATH,JONATHAN S.; TRELLUE,H.R.

    2000-05-19

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the handling of plutonium in research on or production of US nuclear weapons will be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the physical and radiological properties of the TRU waste that will be deposited in the WIPP. This geologic repository will accommodate up to 175,564 m{sup 3} of TRU waste, corresponding to 168,485 m{sup 3} of contact-handled (CH-) TRU waste and 7,079 m{sup 3} of remote-handled (RH-) TRU waste. Approximately 35% of the TRU waste is currently packaged and stored (i.e., legacy) waste, with the remainder of the waste to be packaged or generated and packaged in activities before the year 2033, the closure time for the repository. These wastes were produced at 27 US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the course of generating defense nuclear materials. The radionuclide and nonradionuclide inventories for the TRU wastes described in this paper were used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) performance assessment calculations by Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM).

  14. Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application

    SciTech Connect

    GALSON,D.A.; SWIFT,PETER N.; ANDERSON,D. RICHARD; BENNETT,D.G.

    1998-09-23

    Demonstrating compliance with the applicable regulations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) requires an assessment of the long-term performance of the disposal system. Scenario development is one starting point of this assessment, and generates inquiry about the present state and future evolution of the disposal system. Scenario development consists of four tasks: (1) identifying and classifying features, events and processes (FEPs), (2) screening FEPs according to well-defined criteria, (3) forming scenarios (combinations of FEPs) in the context of regulatory performance criteria and (4) specifying of scenarios for consequence analysis. The development and screening of a comprehensive FEP list provides assurance that the identification of significant processes and events is complete, that potential interactions between FEPs are not overlooked, and that responses to possible questions are available and well documented. Two basic scenarios have been identified for the WIPP: undisturbed performance (UP) and disturbed performance (DP). The UP scenario is used to evaluate compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Individual Dose (40 CFR Section 191-15) and Groundwater Protection (40 CFR Section 191-24) standards and accounts for all natural-, waste- and repository-induced FEPs that survive the screening process. The DP scenario is required for assessment calculations for the EPA's cumulative release standard (Containment Requirements, 40 CFR Section 191-13) and accounts for disruptive future human events, which have an uncertain probability of occurrence, in addition to the UP FEPs.

  15. Characterization of stochastic uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; DAVIS,FREDDIE J.; JOHNSON,J.D.

    2000-05-19

    The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of stochastic uncertainty is discussed including drilling intrusion time, drilling location penetration of excavated/nonexcavated areas of the repository, penetration of pressurized brine beneath the repository, borehole plugging patterns, activity level of waste, and occurrence of potash mining. Additional topics discussed include sampling procedures, generation of individual 10,000 yr futures for the WIPP, construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs), mechanistic calculations carried out to support CCDF construction the Kaplan/Garrick ordered triple representation for risk and determination of scenarios and scenario probabilities.

  16. Performance Assessment in Support of the 1996 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Basabilvazo, G.; Helton, J.C.; Jow, H.-N.; Marietta, M.G.

    1998-10-14

    The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of thk structure are @ maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertain, with stochastic uncefinty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 Y regulatory period fiat applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from `the imprecision with which many of the quantities rquired in tie `hdysis are known, (ii) use of Latin hypercttbe sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncefirtty, (iii) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncetinty, and OV) efficient use of tie necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to SUPPOII the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Ener~ (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a ~Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for tie necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. If certified, the WIPP will be the first operational faciliv in tie United States for the geologic disposal of ra&oactive waste.

  17. Conceptual structure of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; ANDERSON,D. RICHARD; BASABILVAZO,G.; JOW,HONG-NIAN; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-18

    The conceptual structure of the 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. This structure involves three basic entities (EN1, EN2, EN3): (1) EN1, a probabilistic characterization of the likelihood of different futures occurring at the WIPP site over the next 10,000 yr, (2) EN2, a procedure for estimating the radionuclide releases to the accessible environment associated with each of the possible futures that could occur at the WIPP site over the next 10,000 yr, and (3) EN3, a probabilistic characterization of the uncertainty in the parameters used in the definition of EN1 and EN2. In the formal development of the 1996 WIPP PA, EN1 is characterized by a probability space (S{sub st}, P{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainly; EN2 is characterized by a function {line_integral} that corresponds to the models and associated computer programs used to estimate radionuclide releases; and EN3 is characterized by a probability space (S{sub su}, P{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty. A high-level overview of the 1996 WIPP PA and references to additional sources of information are given in the context of (S{sub st}, P{sub st}, p{sub st}), {line_integral} and (S{sub su}, P{sub su}, p{sub su}).

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) defined a comprehensive set of parameters which are monitored to detect potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future environmental evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radioactivity levels. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air, water quality, soil properties, meteorological measurements and determination of the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the WIPP site with emphasis on the salt storage pile. The baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in its preoperational phase (i.e., no waste has been received) certain operational requirements of DOE Orders 5400.1, 5400.5, and the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T) are not relevant. Therefore, this report does not discuss items such as radionuclide emissions and effluents and subsequent doses to the public.

  19. Temperature control in a 30 stage, 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz

    2009-09-01

    Temperature profile testing was performed using a 30 stage 5-cm centrifugal contactor pilot plant. These tests were performed to evaluate the ability to control process temperature by adjusting feed solution temperatures. This would eliminate the need for complex jacketed heat exchanger installation on the centrifugal contactors. Thermocouples were installed on the inlet and outlets of each stage, as well as directly in the mixing zone of several of the contactor stages. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 with nitric acid were the solution feeds for the temperature profile testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total throughputs and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems were collected with selected profiles. The total throughput ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Inlet solution temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 °C were tested. Results of the two-phase temperature profile testing are detailed

  20. Preparations and Planning for EPA Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S. C.; Shoemaker, P. E.; Patterson, R. L.

    2002-02-25

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Recertification Project was established to meet the requirement of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)1 to demonstrate continued compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) disposal regulations at five-year intervals. This paper delineates the objective of the first recertification effort, sets out project goals, and establishes guiding assumptions. It describes the overall direction for a highly complex and interdependent set of tasks leading to recertification of the WIPP repository in 2004. This paper also lays out a high-level schedule for producing the WIPP Compliance Recertification Application (CRA). The major principle behind recertification is that the EPA recertification decision will not involve rulemaking or judicial review. To ensure that the EPA is able to retain this principle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will not be incorporating changes through the recertification process. Only changes previously approved by the EPA will be included in the CRA. The EPA can approve significant changes to the current WIPP Certification through rulemaking. Non-significant changes are approved without rulemaking through the planned change reporting process [Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Section 194.4(b)].

  1. Resolution of the long-term performance issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

    PubMed

    Silva, M K; Rucker, D F; Chaturvedi, L

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geological repository for disposal of U.S. defense transuranic radioactive waste. Built and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), it is located in the Permian age salt beds in southeastern New Mexico at a depth of 655 m. Performance assessment for the repository's compliance with the 10,000-year containment standards was completed in 1996 and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified in 1998 that the repository meets compliance with the EPA standards 40 CFR 191 and 40 CFR 194. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) review of the DOE's application for certification identified a number of issues. These related to the scenarios, conceptual models, and values of the input parameters used in the calculations. It is expected that these issues will be addressed and resolved during the first 5-year recertification process that began with the first receipt of waste at WIPP on March 26, 1999, and scheduled to be completed in March 2004. PMID:10765443

  2. Creep tests on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1993-05-01

    Fifteen triaxial compression creep tests were performed on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The temperatures in the tests were either 25{degrees}C or 100{degrees}C while the stress difference ranged from 3.5 MPa to 21.0 MPa. In all tests, the confining pressure was 15 MPa. Test duration ranged from 23 to 613 days with an average duration of 300 days. The results of the creep tests supplemented earlier testing and were used to estimate two parameters in the Modified Munson-Dawson constitutive law for the creep behavior of salt. The two parameters determined from each test were the steady-state strain rate and the transient strain limit. These estimates were combined with parameter estimates determined from previous testing to study the dependence of both transient and steady-state creep deformation on stress difference. The exponents on stress difference determined in this study were found to be consistent with revised estimates of the exponents reported by other investigators.

  3. Resolution of the long-term performance issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.K.; Rucker, D.F.; Chaturvedi, L.

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geological repository for disposal of U.S. defense transuranic radioactive waste. Built and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), it is located in the Permian age salt beds in southeastern New Mexico at a depth of 655 m. Performance assessment for the repository's compliance with the 10,000-year containment standards was completed in 1996 and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified in 1998 that the repository meets compliance with the EPA standards 40 CFR 191 and 40 CFR 194. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) review of the DOE's application for certification identified a number of issues. These related to the scenarios, conceptual models, and values of the input parameters used in the calculations. It is expected that these issues will be addressed and resolved during the first 5-year recertification process that began with the first receipt of waste at WIPP on March 26, 1999, and scheduled to be completed in March 2004.

  4. Proposed preoperational environmental monitoring program for WIPP (Wast Isolation Pilot Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegler, P.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the potential radiation exposure to people from the proposed Federal radioactive Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, in order to protect the public health and safety and ensure that there is minimal environmental degradation. The EEG is part of the Environmental Improvement Division, a component of the New Mexico Health and Environment Department---the agency charged with the primary responsibility for protecting the health of the citizens of New Mexico. The Group is neither a proponent nor an opponent of WIPP. Analyses are conducted are available data concerning the proposed site, the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term stability. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, other Federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Interactions between concrete and brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.; Nowak, E.J. ); Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S. . Structures Lab.)

    1992-05-01

    A concrete liner emplaced in 1984 in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has served as a natural laboratory for observing interactions among concrete, evaporite rocks, and brine. During a routine inspection of the liner in the spring of 1990, discoloration, deposition of secondary salts, wet areas with exposed aggregate grains, softening of paste, surficial spalling, and cracking were observed locally on the concrete surface of the liner. Some construction joints showed apparent leakage of brine from behind the liner, which was nominally 50 cm thick. Seepage brines were nearly saturated relative to CaCI{sub 2} and contained lesser amounts of MgCI{sub 2} and KCI, and minor NaCl. The liner surface was locally altered to a 1-2 cm friable hygroscopic layer containing little cement paste; concrete cores (7 or 10 cm diameter) through the liner at depths of 248, 254, 255, and 271 m showed similar degrees of alteration at the liner/rock interface. The most profound alteration of concrete was developed in a {approximately}7 cm zone subparallel to and straddling the construction joint cored at a depth of {approximately}254.5 m. This zone was extensively microfractured, transected aggregate grains, and contained brucite, gypsum, magnesium hydroxychloride hydrate, and locally calcium chloroaluminate instead of the usual phases of hydrated portland cement. Several mechanisms of chemical degradation have been proposed, the most likely being attack by magnesium ions.

  6. Interactions between concrete and brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.; Nowak, E.J.; Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.

    1991-12-31

    A concrete liner emplaced in 1984 in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has served as a natural laboratory for observing interactions among concrete, evaporite rocks, and brine. During a routine inspection of the liner in the spring of 1990, discoloration, deposition of secondary salts, wet areas with exposed aggregate grains, softening of paste, surficial spalling, and cracking were observed locally on the concrete surface of the liner. Some construction joints showed apparent leakage of brine from behind the liner, which was nominally 50 cm thick. Seepage brines were nearly saturated relative to CaCl{sub 2} and contained lesser amounts of MgCl{sub 2} and KCl, and minor NaCl. The liner surface was locally altered to a 1--2 cm friable hygroscopic layer containing little cement paste; concrete cores (7 or 10 cm diameter) through the liner at depths of 248, 254, 255, and 271 m showed similar degrees of alteration at the liner/rock interface. The most profound alteration of concrete was developed in a {approximately}7 cm zone subparallel to and straddling the construction joint cored at a depth of {approximately}254.5 m. This zone was extensively microfractured, transected aggregate grains, and contained brucite, gypsum, magnesium hydroxychloride hydrate, and locally calcium chloroaluminate instead of the usual phases of hydrated portland cement. Several mechanisms of chemical degradation have been proposed, the most likely being attack by magnesium ions.

  7. The underground main fan study at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, K.H.; Chmura, K.M.; Wallace, K.G.

    1996-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performed a feasibility analysis for the purpose of either modifying, supplementing, or replacing its two main mine fans. The WIPP, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed to demonstrate the permanent, safe disposal of US defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded salt deposit. Since the centrifugal fans were installed in 1988, multiple operational and performance concerns have been identified. A comprehensive engineering study was conducted in 1995 to: (1) qualify and quantify operational concerns; (2) evaluate possible alternatives; and (3) recommend an optimum solution. Multiple system modification and/or replacement scenarios were evaluated with associated cost estimates developed. The study considered replacement with either centrifugal or axial fans. Multiple fan duties are required at the WIPP. Therefore, Variable Frequency Drives and Inlet Vane Controls (IVC) were investigated for centrifugal fans. In-flight adjustable blades were investigated for axial fans. The study indicated that replacing the existing system with two double-width, double-inlet centrifugal fans equipped with IVCs was the best choice. This alternative provided the most desirable combination of: (1) ensuring the required operational readiness, and (2) improving system performance. The WIPP is currently planning to replace the first fan in 1997.

  8. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  9. History of geophysical studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-03-05

    A variety of geophysical methods including the spectrum of seismic, electrical, electromagnetic and potential field techniques have supported characterization, monitoring and experimental studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The geophysical studies have provided significant understanding of the nature of site deformation, tectonics and stability. Geophysical methods have delineated possible brine reservoirs beneath the underground facility and have defined the disturbed rock zone that forms around underground excavations. The role of geophysics in the WIPP project has evolved with the project. The early uses were for site characterization to satisfy site selection criteria or factors. As the regulatory framework for WIPP grew since 1980, the geophysics program supported experimental and field programs such as Salado hydrogeology and underground room systems and excavations. In summary, the major types of issues that geophysical studies addressed for WIPP are: Site Characterization; Castile Brine Reservoirs; Rustler/Dewey Lake Hydrogeology; Salado Hydrogeology; and Excavation Effects. The nature of geophysics programs for WIPP has been to support investigation rather than being the principal investigation itself. The geophysics program has been used to define conceptual models (e.g., the Disturbed Rock Zone-DRZ) or to test conceptual models (e.g., high transmissivity zones in the Rustler Formation). The geophysics program primarily supported larger characterization and experimental programs. Funding was not available for the complete documentation and interpretation. Therefore, a great deal of the geophysics survey information resides in contractor reports.

  10. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification. PMID:22558415

  11. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    SciTech Connect

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site.

  14. Citizens guide to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Compliance Certification Application to the EPA

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an application to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a certificate showing that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) complies with strict environmental regulations designed to safeguard humans and the environment for at least 10,000 years. Congress gave the EPA authority to regulate the WIPP site for disposal of transuranic waste under the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The EPA has one year to review the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) before determining whether the DOE has successfully documented the WIPP`s compliance with federal environmental standards. The application presents the conclusions of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering work specifically dedicated to disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP. The application thoroughly documents how the natural characteristics of the WIPP site, along with engineered features, comply with the regulations. In the application, the DOE responds fully to the federal standards and to the EPA`s certification criteria. This Citizens` Guide provides an overview of the CCA and its role in moving toward final disposal of transuranic waste.

  15. Performance Assessment for the Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J. S.; Hansen, C. W.; Lord, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Permanent, safe, and efficient disposal methods for nuclear waste need to be demonstrated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), run by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is the only licensed, operational geologic repository in the world for transuranic nuclear waste generated by defense activities associated with nuclear weapons production. WIPP is located near Carlsbad, New Mexico within the Salado Formation, a bedded, Permian evaporite deposit 655 meters beneath the surface of the Delaware Basin. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates the repository, approved the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) in 1998. WIPP opened for disposal activities in 1999, setting the clock for the periodic recertification that is required every five years until the repository is closed. The first Compliance Recertification Application (CRA) is due to the EPA before May 2004. An integral part of the CRA will be an updated Performance Assessment (PA). PA consists of a linked series of models and computer codes used to make a probabilistic assessment of the possible future states of the repository based on the best available scientific knowledge. Sandia National Laboratories, as the Scientific Advisor to the DOE, designs and runs the PA calculations. The PA for the CRA must account for any changes in activities or assumptions since the CCA. A summary of the PA used for the original certification and specific challenges associated with updating the PA for the CRA will be presented.

  16. Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

  17. Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge at pilot plant scale. 1. Operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Ponti, C; Sonnleitner, B; Fiechter, A

    1995-01-15

    The aerobic thermophilic treatment process of sewage sludge was studied at different bioreactor scales in a pilot plant installation. Since, for a satisfactory sludge disinfection, the Swiss legislation requires minimal incubation times of all volume elements, the bioreactors were operated in repetitive batch mode (draw and fill). Different retention times and frequencies of the volume changes were applied in order to prove the capability of the particular operation modes in assuring high degradative potential. The main enzymatic activity involved during the aerobic treatment was proteolysis: the RQ values ranged between 0.8 and 0.9 depending on the applied operating conditions. Although not in a linear manner, the efficiency of the microflora decreased as the bioreactor scale increased, when this increase corresponded with a reduction of the specific power input. The sludge oxidation rates can be tuned by some process operating conditions such as the volume change frequency, the changed volume quantities and the retention times. It was possible to improve the microbial degradative efficiency by an increased frequency of the changes, while the mean retention time influenced in particular the ultimate product quality, described as residual organic matter content of the sludge. The microflora present was also satisfactorily active at mean hydraulic retention times of less than 10 h. The organic matter concentration of the inlet sewage sludge plays an important role: it influences the aerobic degradation process positively. PMID:7765808

  18. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of the February 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Release

    SciTech Connect

    Nasstrom, John; Piggott, Tom; Simpson, Matthew; Lobaugh, Megan; Tai, Lydia; Pobanz, Brenda; Yu, Kristen

    2015-07-22

    This report presents the results of a simulation of the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radioactivity released from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in New Mexico in February 2014. These simulations were made by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and supersede NARAC simulation results published in a previous WIPP report (WIPP, 2014). The results presented in this report use additional, more detailed data from WIPP on the specific radionuclides released, radioactivity release amounts and release times. Compared to the previous NARAC simulations, the new simulation results in this report are based on more detailed modeling of the winds, turbulence, and particle dry deposition. In addition, the initial plume rise from the exhaust vent was considered in the new simulations, but not in the previous NARAC simulations. The new model results show some small differences compared to previous results, but do not change the conclusions in the WIPP (2014) report. Presented are the data and assumptions used in these model simulations, as well as the model-predicted dose and deposition on and near the WIPP site. A comparison of predicted and measured radionuclide-specific air concentrations is also presented.

  19. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  20. Monitoring for PCBs at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Cohut, V.J.; Hayes, D.C.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-07-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents. The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of the development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of a number of chemical warfare agents. The objective of this study was to determine if there is polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the PPC. The results of screening done by Argonne indicate that PCBs in the air of the PPC are well below acceptable levels. The total PCB burden of the surfaces in the PPC appears to be well below the 50-ppM regulatory level. However, the study identified contaminated floor surfaces that exceed the acceptable level of 10 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2} for a workplace. Areas in Building E5618 exceed 1,000 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2}, with a high reading of 21,100 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2} in room C103. Building E5625 has several areas where PCBs exceed 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}.