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1

Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

1975-01-01

2

Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

Rosfjord, T. J.

1984-01-01

3

Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

1985-01-01

4

Fuels research: Combustion effects overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of broadened property fuels on gas turbine combustors were assessed. Those physical and chemical properties of fuels that affect aviation gas turbine combustion were isolated and identified. Combustion sensitivity to variations in particular fuel properties were determined. Advanced combustion concepts and subcomponents that could lessen the effect of using broadened property fuels were also identified.

Haggard, J. B., Jr.

1980-01-01

5

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1995-04-27

6

Fuels, combustion, and lubrication  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceeding of this ASME in fuels, combustion, and lubrication. Topics covered include: combustion efficiency on residual fuels; marine diesel lubricants; uses and abuses; synthetic lubricants for high output medium-speed diesels.

Goyal, M.R. (John Deere Product Engineering Center (US))

1990-01-01

7

Combustion gas properties. Part 3: Hydrogen gas fuel and dry air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for hydrogen gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only sample tables and figures are provided in this report.

Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Mcbride, B. J.; Beyerle, R. A.

1985-01-01

8

Combustion Gas Properties I-ASTM Jet a Fuel and Dry Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of computations was made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for ASTM jet A fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0.

Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Wear, J. D.; Mcbride, B. J.

1984-01-01

9

Evaluation of Forest Fuel Flammability and Combustion Properties with an Adapted Mass Loss Calorimeter Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adapted bench-scale Mass Loss Calorimeter (MLC) device for evaluating forest fuel flammability and combustion properties is proposed. This fire test apparatus consists of an MLC fitted with a chimney containing a thermopile. After the thermopile output has been calibrated by use of a methane burner, these data are used to quantify heat release, as an alternative to the classical

J. Madrigal; C. Hernando; M. Guijarro; C. Díez; E. Marino; A. J. De Castro

2009-01-01

10

Chemistry and Transport Properties for Jet Fuel Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion modeling is an essential tool for the prediction of flame characteristics as well as for the optimal design of combustors. Although, chemical kinetic mechanisms of hydrocarbons have been widely studied, molecular transport data of those species...

A. Violi

2013-01-01

11

Effect of W/O Emulsion Fuel Properties on Spray Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes a realizable technology for an emulsion combustion method that can reduce environmental loading. This paper discusses the effect on spray combustion for W/O emulsion fuel properties with an added agent, and the ratio between water and emulsifier added to a liquid fuel. The addition of water or emulsifier to a liquid fuel affected the spray combustion by causing micro-explosions in the flame due to geometric changes in the sprayed flame and changes to the temperature distribution. Experimental results revealed that the flame length shortened by almost 40% upon the addition of the water. Furthermore, it was found that water was effective in enhancing combustion due to its promoting micro-explosions. Results also showed that when the emulsifier was added to the spray flame, the additive burned in the flame's wake, producing a bright red flame. The flame length was observed to be long as a result. The micro-explosion phenomenon, caused by emulsifier dosage differences, was observed using time-dependent images at a generated frequency and an explosion scale with a high-speed photography method. Results indicated that the micro-explosion phenomenon in the W/O emulsion combustion method effectively promoted the combustion reaction and suppressed soot formation.

Ida, Tamio; Fuchihata, Manabu; Takeda, Shuuco

12

Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties  

SciTech Connect

The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

Gallant, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Franz, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Alnajjar, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Cannella, William C [Chevron, USA; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Hager, Darcy [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Dettman, Heather [CANMET Energy; Luecke, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Zigler, Brad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2009-01-01

13

Combustion properties of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of biomass relevant to combustion are briefly reviewed. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable, especially with respect to inorganic constituents important to the critical problems of fouling and slagging. Alkali and alkaline earth metals, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many

B. M Jenkins; L. L Baxter; T. R Miles

1998-01-01

14

Properties of air and combustion products of fuels with air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic and transport properties include ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and Prandtl number. Properties are calculated from 300 to 2500 degrees K and for pressures of three and ten atmospheres.

Lewandowski, K.; Poferl, D. J.; Svevla, R.

1969-01-01

15

Fuel Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program is an analytical study correlating fuel properties and engine design and operating parameters with engine combustion performance and hot section (combustor and turbine) durability. Standard fuel specification data and fuel composition data ar...

A. H. Lefebvre

1983-01-01

16

Comparison of numerical simulation results for transport and thermodynamic properties of the solid fuels combustion products with experimental data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of calculation results of transport properties of the solid fuels combustion products was made with known experimental data. Calculation was made by means of the modified program TETRAN developed in G.M. Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute. The calculation was spent with chemical reactions and phase transformations occurring during combustion. Also ionization of products of solid fuels combustion products at high temperatures was taken into account. In the capacity of fuels various Russian coals and some other solid fuels were considered. As a result of density, viscosity and heat conductivity calculation of a gas phase of solid fuels combustion products the data has been obtained in a range of temperatures 500-20000 K. This comparison has shown good convergence of calculation results with experiment.

Shmelkov, Yuriy; Samujlov, Eugueny

2012-04-01

17

Combustion gas properties of various fuels of interest to gas turbine engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of computations were made using the gas property computational schemes of Gordon and McBride to compute the gas properties and species concentration of ASTM-Jet A and dry air. The computed gas thermodynamic properties in a revised graphical format which gives information which is useful to combustion engineers is presented. A series of reports covering the properties of many fuel and air combinations will be published. The graphical presentation displays on one chart of the output of hundreds of computer sheets. The reports will contain microfiche cards, from which complete tables and graphs can be obtained. The extent of the planned effort and is documented samples of the many tables and charts that will be available on the microfiche cards are presented.

Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Wear, J. D.

1984-01-01

18

Characteristics and combustion of future hydrocarbon fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in fuel properties that are expected in future hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft are discussed along with the principal properties of 'syncrudes' and the fuels that can be derived from them. The impact that the resultant potential changes in fuel properties may have on combustion and thermal stability characteristics is illustrated and discussed in terms of ignition, soot formation, carbon deposition, flame radiation, and emissions.

Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

1978-01-01

19

Flame combustion of carbonaceous fuels  

SciTech Connect

A method for improving the flame combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The method enables the reduction of oxides of nitrogen generated by the flame combustion, and enables an improvement in boiler efficiency. An ionic sodium or potassium compound, or a combination of them, is supplied with the combustible mixture of fuel and air so as intimately and uniformly to be present where and when the flame exists. Preferably the compound is supplied in an aqueous solution, and can be intimately mixed with the fuel, or with the atomizing air or steam, or with the combustion air. The process is useful with both single-stage and staged (multiple-staged) combustion systems.

Hampton, W.J.; Hatch, R.L.; James, G.R.

1984-05-08

20

Fuel-property effects on combustion. Final report, September 1984April 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals with fuel-property effects on gas-turbine-engine combustors. In order to increase jet-fuel availability and decrease cost, the Air Force is investigating alternate feedstocks such as tar sands, shale oils, heavy oils, and coal-derived fuels. As these lower-quality feedstocks begin to play a major role as sources of military jet fuels, it becomes increasingly important to be able to

Obringer

1985-01-01

21

Combustion behavior of solid fuel ramjets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonreacting flowfield characteristics and fundamental fuel properties are considered with respect to their use in estimating the obtainable combustion efficiency for fuels and/or combustor geometries. It is shown that near wall turbulence intensity in nonreacting flow appears to correlate reasonably well with the fuel regression pattern in identical geometries. The HTPB based fuels exhibit solid phase exothermic reactions in contrast to purely endothermic reactions for plexiglas. It is further shown that combustion pressure oscillations appear to be related to physically induced disturbances to the fluctuating shear layers at the fuel grain and aft mixing chamber inlets.

Netzer, D. W.; Binn, B. A.; Scott, W. E.; Metochianakis, M.

1980-01-01

22

Fuel Flexibility in Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This poster presents research findings from cofiring studies of various biomass feedstocks such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-treated wood, lumber mill and furniture waste sawdusts, pallets, feedlot biomass (cattle manure), hybrid willow, and switchgrass with several bituminous and subbituminous coals. This research includes evaluation of advanced instrumentation and the study of interrelated combustion/emissions issues, such as char burnout, impacts on SO2, NOx, fine particulate (PM2.5), mercury (Hg) and other trace emissions, as well as issues impacting heat transfer, such as ash deposition slagging/fouling behavior. Biomass cofiring in large industrial and utility coal-fired boilers is a practical approach for increasing renewable energy given the wide availability, capital investment, and established performance of coal-fired boilers for providing efficient, low cost power. Although some utility biomass cofiring is successfully practiced in the U.S. and abroad, establishing long-term reliability and improving economics are still significant needs, along with research to support advanced combustion in future Vision 21 systems. Biomass cofiring in Vision 21 systems may reduce fossil CO2 emissions per MWe at capital and operations/maintenance cost savings relative to other technology options. Because an increasing number (currently 14) states have recently passed legislation establishing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), goals, or set-asides that will impact new power generation by 2009 and beyond, cofiring may broaden the appeal of Vision 21 systems to solve other environmental issues, including reducing landfill requirements. Legislation has been proposed to establish a federal RPS as well as extend IRS Section 29/45 tax credits (e.g., $0.005-0.010/kW-hr) for cofiring residues to supplement existing incentives, such as a $0.015/kW-hr tax credit for closed loop biomass (e.g., energy crops, such as switchgrass, hybrid willow) gasification. In addition, the coproduction/cogeneration concepts embodied in Vision 21 may also lend itself well to the type of utility/industry partnering involved in cofiring approaches. In light of the cost limitations in shipping distance (e.g., 50-100 miles or less) from collection to end-use based on the low energy density of biomass, resource availability is a site-specific consideration. Biomass fuels also exhibit significant differences in fuel characteristics, including volatility and ash chemistry that can also influence cofiring performance. Pilot-scale biomass cofiring tests have been conducted in the 150 kWt Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF). A key aspect of the present work is to examine biomass char conversion for a range of initial particle sizes at various residence times for combustion relative to fuel processing/handling issues. In addition, a number of biomass cofiring R&D as well as full-scale utility demonstrations are providing technical insights to assist in cofiring technology commercialization. The paper will also discuss research plans, including lignin cofiring for ethanol/power co-production, novel concepts involving animal waste utilization, advanced combustion studies, and tri-firing concepts with other fuels.

Freeman, M.C.; O'Dowd, W.J.; Mathur, M.P. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Walbert, G.F. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology, Inc.)

2001-11-06

23

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot. Increasing the temperature above this value would remove the soot-free nature of the process. Since all the fuels studied show a similar breakdown of the primary fuel into smaller molecular combustion products, this technique can be applied to all hydrocarbon fuels.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Merritt, Sylvia A.

1993-01-01

24

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms for combustion of oxygenated fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic properties and detailed chemical kinetic models have been developed for the combustion of two oxygenates: methyl butanoate, a model compound for biodiesel fuels, and methyl formate, a related simpler molecule. Bond additivity methods and rules for estimating kinetic parameters were adopted from hydrocarbon combustion and extended. The resulting mechanisms have been tested against the limited combustion data available in

E. M. Fisher; W. J. Pitz; H. J. Curran; C. K. Westbrook

2000-01-01

25

Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

1973-01-01

26

Single droplet combustion of coal slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of single droplets of coal slurry fuels were experimentally investigated using both spontaneous and forced ignition. Results showed that the combustion is a sequential two-stage process, consisting of gas-phase combustion of the volatiles followed by combustion of the solid residue, which is mostly carbon. A splashing combustion phenomenon, which corresponds to the outgassing of the thermally cracked

T. Sakai; M. Saito

1983-01-01

27

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel  

SciTech Connect

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot.

Brabbs, T.A.; Merritt, S.A.

1993-07-01

28

Fluidized-bed combustion fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for producing from a solid carbonaceous refuse a high ash fuel for use in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion chamber. It comprises separating from the refuse a carbonaceous portion having an ash content in a selected range percent by weight; separating the carbonaceous portion into first and second fractions, the first fraction being at or above

Rich; J. W. Jr

1990-01-01

29

LES modelling of air and oxy-fuel pulverised coal combustion—impact on flame properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large eddy simulations (LES) are used in a CFD model to simulate air- and oxy-fired pulverised coal combustion in a 0.5MWth combustion test facility. Simulations are carried out using two different burners, namely, a triple-staged low-NOx wall fired burner and an IFRF Aerodynamically Air-Staged Burner (AASB). Non-gray radiation is considered in order to deal with the spectral nature of absorption

P. Edge; S. R. Gubba; L. Ma; R. Porter; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams

2011-01-01

30

Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.

Namba, Kunihiko; Ida, Tamio

31

Method of combustion for dual fuel engine  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

1993-12-21

32

Method of combustion for dual fuel engine  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Confer, Gregory L. (Erie, PA); Shen, Zujing (Erie, PA); Hapeman, Martin J. (Edinboro, PA); Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA)

1993-12-21

33

The optical, chemical, and physical properties of aerosols and gases emitted by the laboratory combustion of wildland fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is a major source of trace gases and particles that have a profound impact on the atmosphere. Trace gases emitted by fires include the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4, as well as CO and volatile organic compounds that affect air quality. Particle emissions affect climate, visibility, the hydrologic cycle, and human health. This work presents measurements of trace gas and aerosol emissions from a series of controlled laboratory burns for various plant species common to North America. Over 30 fuels were tested through ˜250 individual burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment. Emission factors are presented as a function of modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the fire combustion conditions. The emissions of many trace gas and aerosol species depended strongly on MCE: smoldering-phase combustion dominated fires (low MCE) emitted roughly four times as much gas-phase hydrocarbon species and organic aerosols than flaming-phase dominated fires (high MCE). Inorganic aerosol emissions depended more strongly on plant species and components than on MCE. Flaming-phase dominated fires tended to produce aerosol with high mass fractions of strongly light-absorbing elemental carbon. Smoldering-phase fires produced aerosol with large mass fractions of more weakly light absorbing organic carbon, but this material was found to have a strong wavelength dependence of absorption, greater than the inverse wavelength relationship typically assumed for light absorbing aerosol. A two component model---featuring elemental carbon with a weak wavelength dependence but high mass-normalized absorption efficiency and organic carbon with a strong wavelength dependence but low mass-normalized absorption efficiency---is shown to represent the bulk absorption spectra of biomass burning aerosol. The results show that at wavelengths below ˜450 nm, organic carbon light absorption could rival that of elemental carbon for aerosol dominated by organic carbon. If ignored, the light absorption by organic carbon can cause errors in predicted surface ultraviolet and visible radiation fluxes and photochemical photolysis rates in regions affected by biomass burning emissions. The dependence of spectral aerosol optical properties on combustion conditions means that fire behavior must be accurately assessed and predicted to ensure accurate emissions inventories and estimates of biomass burning atmospheric impacts.

McMeeking, Gavin R.

34

Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system  

DOEpatents

A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

2011-03-22

35

Varying area fuel system for combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patent describes a fuel injection apparatus for a spark ignition internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder and an air inlet, and injection nozzle for injecting fuel into the cylinder, a fuel feed line for supplying fuel under pressure to the injection nozzle, the fuel feed line being one leg of a return fuel circuit. The fuel circuit

1988-01-01

36

Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) a...

S. M. Aceves D. Flowers J. Martinez-Frias F. Espinosa-Lopez W. J. Pitz R. Dibble

2003-01-01

37

Catalytic combustion of residual fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

1981-01-01

38

Algae, Canola, or Palm Oils—Diesel Microemulsion Fuels: Phase Behaviors, Viscosity, and Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are being considered as a renewable energy alternative for diesel. The high viscosity of vegetable oils causes injector fouling and durability problems in compression–ignition engines. Microemulsification can be used to reduce vegetable oil viscosity without complex chemical transformation processes. The goal of our work is to formulate reverse micellar microemulsions of vegetable oils and No. 2 diesel fuel

Linh D. Do; Vinay Singh; Lixia Chen; Tohren C. G. Kibbey; Sub. R. Gollahalli; David A. Sabatini

2011-01-01

39

The effect of fuel and sorbent properties on their partitioning between the flyash and bottom ash streams in fluidized bed combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluidized bed combustion process has been employed successfully in several applications, among which steam raising is notable. The use of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion for steam and power generation offers a competitive alternative both in the United States and worldwide, yet there remain technical issues, which if addressed, can improve the competitive position of CFB boiler technology, and improve the operating economics of existing plants. Prominent among these technical issues are the performance of limestones and dolostones as sorbents for emissions control, and the ability of a plant's ash handling system to respond to changes in the fuel or sorbent used by the plant. Study of the effects of fuel and sorbent properties on the partitioning of their resultant bed particles between the ash streams, during the fluidized bed combustion process, has been carried out. This work used results from sorbent tests in a commercial CFB boiler and experimentation with laboratory fluid bed reactors. Sorbents varying in petrographic properties were used in the boiler tests as well as the laboratory testing. Fuels tested had varying distributions of ash content by specific gravity, and ranged in composite ash content from 25 to 49 wt%. Sorbent petrographic properties, described by a characteristic crystallite size, influenced the partitioning of calcium to the flyash and bottom ash streams of the boiler. Under the boiler conditions used for the sorbent tests, sorbent petrographic properties significantly influenced the sorbent consumption rate required by the boiler to maintain air quality compliance. Testing of a range of fuels was carried out in a laboratory fluid bed combustor. Ashing of different specific gravity fractions of the coarse fuel particles revealed a trend where higher specific gravity fractions of the fuel yielded coarse ash particles. A trend was found between increased presence of high ash content particles in a fuel, and increased production of bottom ash by the combustor. The results suggested that the distribution of ash content across the range of fuel particles, sorbent attrition properties, and the size classification characteristics of the system will influence the ash split produced by a fluid bed combustion system. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Rozelle, Peter Lawrence

2000-10-01

40

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and missions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects test; and full-scale combustion tests.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-06-01

41

Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine provided with an intake passage, a cylinder associated with the intake passage and at least one intake valve associated with the cylinder, the fuel injection system including a fuel injector adapted to be disposed upstream of the intake valve. The fuel injector consists of: a housing, a hollow

H. Kiuchi; O. Ogawa; H. Yamazoe; H. Tasaka; M. Kuroda; S. Okino

1988-01-01

42

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. This report summarizes studies conducted under Task 4. The objective was to quantify CWF atomization and combustion properties utilizing industrial/utility scale equipment. Burners were evaluated and combustion performance differences identified for various CWF formulations. 12 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

Lachowicz, Y.V.; LaFlesh, R.C.

1987-07-01

43

Fluidized-bed combustion fuel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for producing from a solid carbonaceous refuse a high ash fuel for use in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion chamber. It comprises separating from the refuse a carbonaceous portion having an ash content in a selected range percent by weight; separating the carbonaceous portion into first and second fractions, the first fraction being at or above a selected size; crushing the first fraction; and combining the crushed first fraction with the second fraction. Also described is a process wherein the selected ash content range is between about 30 percent and about 50 percent, by weight. Also described is a process wherein the selected size is above about 1/4 inch.

Rich, J.W. Jr.

1990-10-09

44

Experimental study of gas turbine combustion with elevated fuel temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many thermal management challenges have developed as advancements in gas turbine engine designs are made. As the thermal demands on gas turbine engines continue to increase, the heat sink available in the combustor fuel flow becomes more attractive. Increasing the temperature of fuel by using it as a heat sink can lead to higher combustion efficiency due to the increase in flow enthalpy and improved vaporization of the heated fuel. Emissions levels can also be affected by using heated fuels with the levels of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons tending to decrease while the amount of the oxides of nitrogen tends to increase. Although there are several benefits associated with using heated fuels in gas turbine engines, some problems can arise from their use including combustion instabilities, flashing within the fuel injector, and fuel coking or deposit formation within the fuel system. Various deoxygenation methods have been created to address the coking problem seen when using heated fuels. In the Gas Turbine Test Cell of the High Pressure Laboratory at Purdue University's Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, a 5 MW combustion rig was developed to complete combustion test with heated fuels. The facility's supply systems including heated air, jet fuel, cooling water, and nitrogen were designed and integrated to produce simulated engine conditions within the combustion rig. Heating capabilities produced fuel temperatures ranging up to 600 deg F. Testing was completed with two fuel deoxygenation methods: nitrogen sparging and catalytic deoxygenation. Results from the testing campaign included conventional pressure, temperature, and fuel property measurements; however, the most important measurements were the emissions samples that were analyzed for each test condition. Levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen were determined as well as the combustion efficiency calculated from these emissions measurements. The trends in emissions and performance from the increase in fuel temperature will be discussed. In addition, high frequency pressure data were recorded during testing to monitor combustion instabilities. Fuel samples were also taken and analyzed to document the changes in the volatile composition of the fuel from the two deoxygenation methods. The testing campaign was extremely successful. All project objectives were met with the heated fuel testing campaign. The combustion rig was run safely with fuel temperature up to 600 deg F, allowing the effects of elevated fuel temperatures on the performance and emissions of a gas turbine combustor to be evaluated as planned.

Wiest, Heather K.

45

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

Activities conducted under this contract include studies on the combustion and fireside behavior of numerous coal-water fuels (CWFs). The work has been broken down into the following areas: Task 1 -- Selection of Candidate Fuels; Task 2 -- Bench Scale Tests; Task 3 -- CWF Preparation and Supply; Task 4 -- Combustion Characterization; Task 5 -- Ash Deposition and Performance Testing; Task 6 -- Commercial Applications. This report covers Task 6, the study of commercial applications of CWFs as related to the technical and economic aspects of the conversion of existing boilers and heaters to CWF firing. This work involves the analysis of seven units of various sizes and configurations firing several selected CWFs. Three utility boilers, two industrial boilers, and two process heater designs are included. Each of the units was considered with four primary selected CWFs. A fifth fuel was considered for one of the utility units. A sixth fuel, a microfine grind CWF, was evaluated on two utility units and one industrial unit. The particular fuels were chosen with the objective of examining the effects of coal source, ash level, ash properties, and beneficiation on the CWF performance and economics of the seven units. 10 refs., 81 figs., 80 tabs.

Beal, H.R.; Gralton, G.W.; Gronauer, T.W.; Liljedahl, G.N.; Love, B.F.

1987-06-01

46

Oscillating combustion from a premix fuel nozzle  

SciTech Connect

Stringent emissions requirements for stationary gas turbines have produced new challenges in combustor design. In the past, very low NOx pollutant emissions have been achieved through various combustion modifications, such as steam or water injection, or post-combustion cleanup methods such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). An emerging approach to NOx abatement is lean premix combustion. Lean premix combustion avoids the cost and operational problems associated with other NOx control methods. By premixing fuel and air at very low equivalence ratios, the high temperatures which produce NOx are avoided. The challenges of premix combustion include avoiding flashback, and ensuring adequate fuel/air premixing. In addition, the combustion must be stable. The combustor should not operate so close to extinction that a momentary upset will extinguish the flame (static stability), and the flame should not oscillate (dynamic stability). Oscillations are undesirable because the associated pressure fluctuations can shorten component lifetime. Unfortunately, experience has shown that premix fuel nozzles burning natural gas are susceptible to oscillations. Eliminating these oscillations can be a costly and time consuming part of new engine development. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is investigating the issue of combustion oscillations produced by lean premix fuel nozzles. METC is evaluating various techniques to stabilize oscillating combustion in gas turbines. Tests results from a premix fuel nozzle using swirl stabilization and a pilot flame are reported here.

Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.

1995-08-01

47

Combustion properties of micronized coal for high intensity combustion applications  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of an investigation of combustion related properties of micronized coal feeds (all particles less than 40 microns), mixing characteristics of centrifugally driven burner devices, and aerodynamic characteristics of micronized coal particles related to centrifugal mixing for high intensity combustion applications. Combustion related properties investigated are the evolution of fuel bound nitrogen and coal associated mineral matter during the initial stages of combustion. Parent and beneficiated micronized coal samples, as well as narrow size cut samples from a wide range of coal ranks, were investigated using a multireactor approach. The multireactor approach allowed the experimental separation of different aspects of the fuel nitrogen evolution process, enabling a comprehensive understanding of FBN to be formulated and empirical rate constants to be developed. A specially designed on-line gas analysis system allowed nitrogen balance to be achieved. A combined nitrogen and ash tracer technique allowed the quantitative determination of tar yields during rapid devolatilization. Empirical kinetic rates are developed for the evolution of FBN with tar at low temperatures and the appearance of HCN from tar and char species at high temperatures. A specially designed phase separation system, coupled to separate aerosol and char segregation trains, allowed the possible formation of ash aerosol by rapid devolatilization to be monitored. Compensated thermocouple, hot wire anemometry, and digital imaging techniques are employed to characterize the mixing properties of a centrifugally driven combustor. Analytical and experimental investigations of the fidelity of micronized coal particles to gas stream trajectories in the strong centrifugal fields are performed. Both spherical and nonspherical particle morphologies are considered analytically. 14 refs., 141 figs., 34 tabs.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.; Knight, B.; Vranos, A.; Hollick, H.; Wicks, K.

1989-04-19

48

Ethanol–biodiesel–Diesel fuel blends: Performances and emissions in conventional Diesel and advanced Low Temperature Combustions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is dedicated to the study of the properties of ethanol blended fuels and evaluates their behavior in conventional Diesel combustion and advanced combustion such as Low Temperature Combustion (LTC). The addition of ethanol into Diesel fuel affects some key properties such as the blend stability, the cetane number or the flash point, the fuel formulation was thus improved.

Ludivine Pidol; Bertrand Lecointe; Laurie Starck; Nicolas Jeuland

49

Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification  

DOEpatents

A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

2013-12-31

50

Fuel control apparatus in internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel control apparatus is an internal combustion engine arranged to increase a quantity of fuel supply uniquely determined on the basis of an engine speed and a quantity of suction air by a predetermined quantity upon detection of acceleration of the internal combustion engine is described comprising: a detection means for detecting acceleration and deceleration of the internal combustion engine; an engine speed operation means for calculating the number of engine resolutions; a calculation means for calculating a continuous acceleration correcting factor representing a quantity to be subtracted from the predetermined quantity in accordance with the value of integration of the number of engine revolutions calculated by the engine speed operation means; and a fuel supply means for supplying fuel to the internal combustion engine in accordance with an output of the calculation means.

Morita, K.; Miyake, J.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakuma, K.

1988-05-17

51

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion-ignition, stability, and combustion efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study is made of the substantial body of experimental data acquired during recent Wright-Patterson Aero Propulsion Laboratory sponsored programs on the effects of fuel properties on the performance and reliability of several gas turbine combustors, including J79-17A, J79-17C (Smokeless), F101, TF41, TF39, J85, TF33, and F100. Quantitative relationships are derived between certain key aspects of combustion, notably combustion

A. H. Lefebvre

1985-01-01

52

Characteristics and combustion of future hydrocarbon fuels. [aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the world supply of petroleum crude oil is being depleted, the supply of high-quality crude oil is also dwindling. This dwindling supply is beginning to manifest itself in the form of crude oils containing higher percentages of aromatic compounds, sulphur, nitrogen, and trace constituents. The result of this trend is described and the change in important crude oil characteristics, as related to aircraft fuels, is discussed. As available petroleum is further depleted, the use of synthetic crude oils (those derived from coal and oil shale) may be required. The principal properties of these syncrudes and the fuels that can be derived from them are described. In addition to the changes in the supply of crude oil, increasing competition for middle-distillate fuels may require that specifications be broadened in future fuels. The impact that the resultant potential changes in fuel properties may have on combustion and thermal stability characteristics is illustrated and discussed in terms of ignition, soot formation, carbon deposition flame radiation, and emissions.

Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

1978-01-01

53

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-11-01

54

Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

2003-02-12

55

Combustion characteristics of gas turbine alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance values for specific heavyend, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. A flame tube combustor modified to duplicate an advanced gas turbine engine combustor was used for the tests. Each fuel was tested at steady-state operating conditions over a range of mass flow rates, fuel-to-air mass ratio, and inlet air temperatures. The combustion pressure, as well as the hardware, were kept nearly constant over the program test phase. Test results were obtained in regards to geometric temperature pattern factors as a function of combustor wall temperatures, the combustion gas temperature, and the combustion emissions, both as affected by the mass flow rate and fuel-to-air ratio. The synthetic fuels were reacted in the combustor such that for most tests their performance was as good, if not better, than the baseline gasoline or diesel fuel tests. The only detrimental effects were that at high inlet air temperature conditions, fuel decomposition occurred in the fuel atomizing nozzle passages resulting in blockage. And the nitrogen oxide emissions were above EPA limits at low flow rate and high operating temperature conditions.

Rollbuhler, R. James

1987-01-01

56

Combustion Studies of Coal Derived Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion studies were conducted to evaluate the suitability of using a coal-derived aviation fuel as a candidate JP-900 i.e. a aviation fuel having maximum temperature capability of 482C (900F). Specific progress made for the four tasks constituting Del...

R. J. Santoro

2000-01-01

57

Internal Combustion Engine with Electrostatic Discharging Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent relates to an internal combustion engine system in which a mixture of air and fuel droplets which are electrostatically charged to a selective polarity is fed to the engine's chambers. The fuel droplets are of uniform size in the micron range, ...

J. B. Stephens C. G. Miller

1977-01-01

58

NASA broad-specification fuels combustion technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Broad-Specification Fuels Combustion Technology Program was initiated in response to concerns that the supply of high-quality petroleum middle distillates for jet fuel, abundant in the past, would diminish in availability toward the end of the century. The specific program objective is to evolve the combustion system technology required to use fuels with moderate ranges of broadened properties in the engines used on commercial jet aircraft. The first phase of the program, in which effects of the use of broadened-properties fuels were identified and technology with the potential to offset these effects was also identified, has been completed. The second phase, in which the technology identified in Phase 1 is being refined, will be completed within the next three months.

Fear, J. S.

1984-01-01

59

Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Institute of Combustion Problems, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan)

2006-03-15

60

Combustion of liquid fuels in a flowing combustion gas environment at high pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion of fuel droplets in gases which simulate combustion chamber conditions was considered both experimentally and theoretically. The fuel droplets were simulated by porous spheres and allowed to gasify in combustion gases produced by a burner. Tests were conducted for pressures of 1-40 atm, temperatures of 600-1500 K, oxygen concentrations of 0-13% (molar) and approach Reynolds numbers of 40-680. The fuels considered in the tests included methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane and n-decane. Measurements were made of both the rate of gasification of the droplet and the liquid surface temperature. Measurements were compared with theory, involving various models of gas phase transport properties with a multiplicative correction for the effect of forced convection.

Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

1975-01-01

61

Research program on reduced combustion chamber heat loss effects on alternative fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research program was conducted to determine the effects of thermal barriers in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine on the combustion and emissions of selected alternative fuels. Comparison of steady state fuel economy, exhaust emissions, and combustion data of heat insulated, baseline water-cooled, and high compression ratio engines were made using three fuels. Fuels believed to be representative

E. E. Daby; I. J. Garwin; P. H. Havstad; C. E. Hunter

1988-01-01

62

Survey of Hydrogen Combustion Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This literature digest of hydrogen-air combustion fundamentals presents data on flame temperature, burning velocity, quenching distance, flammability limits, ignition energy, flame stability, detonation, spontaneous ignition, and explosion limits. The data are assessed, recommended values are given, and relations among various combustion properties are discussed. New material presented includes: theoretical treatment of variation in spontaneous ignition lag with temperature, pressure, and composition, based on reaction kinetics of hydrogen-air composition range for 0.01 to 100 atmospheres and initial temperatures of 0 degrees to 1400 degrees k.

Drell, Isadore L; Belles, Frank E

1958-01-01

63

Survey of hydrogen combustion properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This literature digest of hydrogen-air combustion fundamentals presents data on flame temperature, burning velocity, quenching distance, flammability limits, ignition energy, flame stability, detonation, spontaneous ignition, and explosion limits. The data are assessed, recommended values are given, and relations among various combustion properties are discussed. New material presented includes: theoretical treatment of variation in spontaneous ignition lag with temperature, pressure, and composition, based on reaction kinetics of hydrogen-air composition range for 0.01 to 100 atmospheres and initial temperatures of 0 degrees to 1400 degrees k.

Drell, Isadore L; Belles, Frank E

1958-01-01

64

A comprehensive combustion model for biodiesel-fueled engine simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine models for alternative fuels are available, but few are comprehensive, well-validated models that include accurate physical property data as well as a detailed description of the fuel chemistry. In this work, a comprehensive biodiesel combustion model was created for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations, specifically the KIVA3v R2 code. The model incorporates realistic physical properties in a vaporization model developed for multi-component fuel sprays and applies an improved mechanism for biodiesel combustion chemistry. A reduced mechanism was generated from the methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl-9-decenoate (MD9D) mechanism developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was combined with a multi-component mechanism to include n-heptane in the fuel chemistry. The biodiesel chemistry was represented using a combination of MD, MD9D and n-heptane, which varied for a given fuel source. The reduced mechanism, which contained 63 species, accurately predicted ignition delay times of the detailed mechanism over a range of engine-specific operating conditions. Physical property data for the five methyl ester components of biodiesel were added to the KIVA library. Spray simulations were performed to ensure that the models adequately reproduce liquid penetration observed in biodiesel spray experiments. Fuel composition impacted liquid length as expected, with saturated species vaporizing more and penetrating less. Distillation curves were created to ensure the fuel vaporization process was comparable to available data. Engine validation was performed against a low-speed, high-load, conventional combustion experiments and the model was able to predict the performance and NOx formation seen in the experiment. High-speed, low-load, low-temperature combustion conditions were also modeled, and the emissions (HC, CO, NOx) and fuel consumption were well-predicted for a sweep of injection timings. Finally, comparisons were made between the results of biodiesel composition (palm vs. soy) and fuel blends (neat vs. B20). The model effectively reproduced the trends observed in the experiments.

Brakora, Jessica L.

65

Fuel control system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel control system for an internal combustion engine having fuel supply means for metering fuel to be supplied to the engine in response to an electric command given by fuel supply command means. The fuel control system consists of: a step motor for driving a fuel metering member of the fuel supply means; learning means for learning the number of steps required for energizing the step motor to move the fuel metering member from an idle position to a full-load position; computing means for computing the number of steps required for the step motor to reach a target load position by dividing in proportion the learned number of steps by a ratio between a target load value of an electric command from the fuel supply command means and a maximum value of the electric command; and drive means for energizing the step motor to achieve the number of steps computed by the computing means.

Koshizawa, T.; Yoshimura, H.; Sugimura, T.

1988-09-27

66

Fuel supplying device for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel supplying device for an internal combustion engine is disclosed which has a fuel supply passage for introducing fuel fed from a fuel pump at a substantially constant pressure to a fuel injector operative at a predetermined constant pressure. The fuel injector is installed at a congregated portion of engine intake manifolds. A metering valve includes a motor so that the pressure drop is maintained substantially constant by a differential regulator. The metering valve is disposed in an intermediate portion of the fuel supply passage. Calculating means including a servo signal generator calculates an injection flow amount causing a predetermined air/fuel ratio on the basis of signals of various engine running factors. An operational signal output from the servo signal generating circuit of the calculating means is applied to the drive motor means for driving said metering valve to thereby inject fuel into the intake manifolds.

Ishida, T.; Miki, T.; Nakamura, H.; Takamiya, B.

1982-07-13

67

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. Unit performance analyses showed significantly better load capacity for utility and industrial boilers as the CWF feed coal ash content is reduced to 5% or 2.6%. In general, utility units had more attractive capacity limits and retrofit costs than the industrial boilers and process heaters studied. Economic analyses indicated that conversion to CWF firing generally becomes feasible when differential fuel costs are above $1.00/10{sup 6}Btu. 60 figs., 24 tabs.

Chow, O.K.; Gralton, G.W.; Lachowicz, Y.V.; Laflesh, R.C.; Levasseur, A.A.; Liljedahl, G.N.

1989-02-01

68

Internal combustion engine fuel rail assembly joint  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel rail assembly of an internal combustion engine. It comprises a non-metallic fuel rail containing devices that are part of a fuel injection system of the engine, and also comprising a metal tube which is in fluid communication with a fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail and connected with the non-metallic fuel rail by means of a joint, characterized in that the joint comprises a cylindrical metal sleeve that is partially embedded in the non-metallic fuel rail such that a first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail lines an interior end portion of the sleeve and is in fluid communication with the fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail and such that the sleeve lines the interior of a second cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail, the metal tube and the first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail fit together in a sealed manner to place the metal tube in fluid communication with the fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail, the sleeve has another portion that is not embedded in the non-metallic fuel rail, and a retention means coacts with the another axis end segment and with the metal tube to retain the metal tube and the first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail fit together in a sealed manner.

Imoehl, W.J.

1992-04-21

69

Combustion engine for solid and liquid fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combustion engine having no piston, a single cylinder, and a dual-action, that is applicable for solid and liquid fuels and propellants, and that functions according to the principle of annealing point ignition is presented. The invention uses environmentally benign amounts of fuel and propellants to produce gas and steam pressure, and to use a simple assembly with the lowest possible consumption and constant readiness for mixing and burning. The advantage over conventional combustion engines lies in lower consumption of high quality igniting fluid in the most cost effective manner.

Pabst, W.

1986-01-01

70

Hybrid combustion with metallized fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A chemical method of adding certain catalysts to improve the degradation process of a solid fuel is discussed. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis used to study the fundamental degradation behavior of a typical hybrid fuel (HTPB) shows that high surface temperatures increase the degradation rate. Fuels were tested in a laboratory-scale experimental hybrid rocket and their behavior was compared to a baseline behavior of HTPB fuel regression rates. It was found that a small amount of metal powder added to the fuel can significantly increase the regression rates.

Yi, Jianwen; Wygle, Brian S.; Bates, Ronald W.; Jones, Michael D.; Ramohalli, Kumar

1993-01-01

71

Research Program on Reduced Combustion Chamber Heat Loss Effects on Alternative Fuel Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research program was conducted to determine the effects of thermal barriers in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine on the combustion and emissions of selected alternative fuels. Comparison of steady state fuel economy, exhaust emissions, and combu...

E. E. Daby, I. J. Garwin, P. H. Havstad, C. E. Hunter

1988-01-01

72

Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

Rosfjord, T. J.

1981-01-01

73

Effect of different fuels on structural, photo and thermo luminescence properties of solution combustion prepared Y2SiO5 nanopowders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Y2SiO5 nanopowders are prepared by solution combustion method using DFH, sugar and urea as fuels. The final product was well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The average crystallite size was estimated using Debye-Scherer's formula and Williamson-Hall plots and are found to be in the range 34-40 nm for DFH, 45-50 nm for urea and 35-42 nm for sugar respectively. X1-X2 type YSO phase was obtained for all the samples calcined from 1200 to 1400 °C. The optical energy band gaps (Eg) of the samples were estimated from Tauc relation and varies from 5.58 to 5.60 eV. SEM micrographs of sugar and urea used Y2SiO5 show agglomerated particles with porous morphology. However, for the sample prepared using DFH fuel observed to be almost spherical in shape. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of ?-irradiated (1-5 kGy) and UV irradiated (1-30 min) Y2SiO5 nanopowder at a heating rate of 2.5 °C s-1 was studied. The samples prepared by using urea and sugar fuels show a broad TL glow peak at 189 °C. However, DFH used Y2SiO5 show a well resolved peak at 196 °C with shouldered peak at 189 °C. Among the fuels, DFH used Y2SiO5 show simple glow peak structure which perhaps useful in radiation dosimetry. This may be due to fuel and particle size effect. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics are estimated by Chens glow peak shape method.

Ramakrishna, G.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sunitha, D. V.; Prashantha, S. C.; Sharma, S. C.; Nagabhushana, B. M.

2014-06-01

74

Effect of different fuels on structural, photo and thermo luminescence properties of solution combustion prepared Y(2)SiO(5) nanopowders.  

PubMed

Y(2)SiO(5) nanopowders are prepared by solution combustion method using DFH, sugar and urea as fuels. The final product was well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The average crystallite size was estimated using Debye-Scherer's formula and Williamson-Hall plots and are found to be in the range 34-40nm for DFH, 45-50nm for urea and 35-42nm for sugar respectively. X1-X2 type YSO phase was obtained for all the samples calcined from 1200 to 1400°C. The optical energy band gaps (Eg) of the samples were estimated from Tauc relation and varies from 5.58 to 5.60eV. SEM micrographs of sugar and urea used Y(2)SiO(5) show agglomerated particles with porous morphology. However, for the sample prepared using DFH fuel observed to be almost spherical in shape. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of ?-irradiated (1-5kGy) and UV irradiated (1-30min) Y(2)SiO(5) nanopowder at a heating rate of 2.5°Cs(-1) was studied. The samples prepared by using urea and sugar fuels show a broad TL glow peak at 189°C. However, DFH used Y(2)SiO(5) show a well resolved peak at 196°C with shouldered peak at 189°C. Among the fuels, DFH used Y(2)SiO(5) show simple glow peak structure which perhaps useful in radiation dosimetry. This may be due to fuel and particle size effect. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics are estimated by Chens glow peak shape method. PMID:24632171

Ramakrishna, G; Nagabhushana, H; Sunitha, D V; Prashantha, S C; Sharma, S C; Nagabhushana, B M

2014-06-01

75

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE AVIATION FUELS IN AN AERO-ENGINE COMBUSTION CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering alternative fuels for aviation, factors such as the overall efficiency of the combustion process and the levels of emissions emitted to the atmosphere, need to be critically evaluated. The physical and chemical properties of a fuel influence the combustion efficiency and emissions and therefore need to be considered. The energy content of a biofuel, which is influenced negatively

I. Uryga; M. Pourkashanian; D. Borman; E. Catalanotti; C. W. Wilson

2009-01-01

76

Atmospheric Sulfur and Fossil Fuel Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-chloride ratios in ice samples from the Greenland ice sheet indicate that the combustion of fossil fuels is now introducing slightly more sulfur into the atmosphere than such natural processes as volcanism and the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide derived from organic matter. The amount of sulfate co-varies with the amount of lead in the recent glacial strata, which fact suggests

Minoru Koide; Edward D. Goldberg

1971-01-01

77

FUEL NOX CONTROL BY CATALYTIC COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an experimental study to: (1) define operating conditions for catalytic combustors that give low levels of NOx emissions for fuelbound nitrogen compounds, and (2) quantitatively determine the fate of fuel nitrogen during catalytic combustion. Tests wer...

78

LOW NOx COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS FUELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass combustion can make use of many waste products found in the timber, manufactured wood products, and agricultural industries. It not only provides a source of essentially free fuel, but can also eliminate many of the disposal problems associated with these by-products. The environmental regulations faced by industry are one of the primary governing factors that must be addressed when

S. Drennan

79

Combustion of Condensed Phase Alternative Fuels in an Acoustic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study focused on fuel droplet combustion characteristics for various liquids during exposure to external acoustical perturbations. Emphasis in the present study was placed on the combustion of a number of alternative liquid fuels, including ethanol, methanol, aviation fuels, and blends of aviation fuel and liquid synthetic fuel derived from coal gasification via the Fischer-Tropsch process. The study examined

Juan Rodriguez; Hann-Shin Mao; Sophonias Teshome; Alec Pezeshkian; Owen Smith; Ann Karagozian

2007-01-01

80

Combustion of diesel fuel from a toxicological perspective. I. Origin of incomplete combustion products.  

PubMed

Since the use of diesel engines is still increasing, the contribution of their incomplete combustion products to air pollution is becoming ever more important. The presence of irritating and genotoxic substances in both the gas phase and the particulate phase constituents is considered to have significant health implications. The quantity of soot particles and the particle-associated organics emitted from the tail pipe of a diesel-powered vehicle depend primarily on the engine type and combustion conditions but also on fuel properties. The quantity of soot particles in the emissions is determined by the balance between the rate of formation and subsequent oxidation. Organics are absorbed onto carbon cores in the cylinder, in the exhaust system, in the atmosphere and even on the filter during sample collection. Diesel fuel contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some alkyl derivatives. Both groups of compounds may survive the combustion process. PAHs are formed by the combustion of crankcase oil or may be resuspended from engine and/or exhaust deposits. The conversion of parent PAHs to oxygenated and nitrated PAHs in the combustion chamber or in the exhaust system is related to the vast amount of excess combustion air that is supplied to the engine and the high combustion temperature. Whether the occurrence of these derivatives is characteristic for the composition of diesel engine exhaust remains to be ascertained. After the emission of the particles, their properties may change because of atmospheric processes such as aging and resuspension. The particle-associated organics may also be subject to (photo)chemical conversions or the components may change during sampling and analysis. Measurement of emissions of incomplete combustion products as determined on a chassis dynamometer provides knowledge of the chemical composition of the particle-associated organics. This knowledge is useful as a basis for a toxicological evaluation of the health hazards of diesel engine emissions. PMID:1383162

Scheepers, P T; Bos, R P

1992-01-01

81

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30

82

Fuel Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of variations in properties and characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon-base fuels in gas turbine engine combustors was investigated. Baseline fuels consisted of military-specification materials processed from petroleum and shale oil. Experiment...

S. A. Mosier

1984-01-01

83

Numerical and experimental study of water\\/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical and experimental studies were made on some of the chemical and physical properties of water\\/oil emulsified fuel (W\\/OEF) combustion characteristics. Numerical investigations of W\\/OEF combustion's chemical kinetic aspects have been performed by simulation of water\\/n-heptane mixture combustion, assuming a model of a homogenous reactor's concentric shells. The injection and fuel spray characteristics are analyzed numerically also in order to

Niko Samec; Breda Kegl; Robert W. Dibble

2002-01-01

84

Influence of oxygen content in the fuel mixture on the thermo- and electrophysical combustion properties in laminar hydrocarbon flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

While investigating the effects of the excess oxidizer coefficient on combustion, it was endeavored to undertake a many-slded analysis of the processes involved. In particular~ the following have been investigated: the distributions of the electric potential and of temperature [i], of the positive ions [2], of the hydrogen radical [3], of the excited particles CH* and C'2 [4], and of

B. S. Fialkov; N. D. Shcherbakov; N. K. Akst; M. D. Ostrovskii

1984-01-01

85

Investigation of the effects of alternative fuel properties on combustion and emission mechanisms in direct injection engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six different fuels were tested using a TACOM-LABECO modified single cylinder direct injection diesel engine with a four hole nozzle and a 24:1 compression. The six fuels tested were a blend of commercial diesel fuels Numbers 1 and 2 giving a cetane number of 43.3, JP-7 with only 2% aromatic content and a cetane number of 57.2, two bends of

H. Ng; G. Borman

1985-01-01

86

Toward the Impact of Fuel Evaporation-Combustion Interaction on Spray Combustion in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers. Part I: Effect of Partial Fuel Vaporization on Spray Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work aims at investigating the impact of the interaction between evaporation process and combustion on spray combustion\\u000a characteristics in gas turbine combustion chambers. It is subdivided into two parts. The first part studies how the evaporation\\u000a process affects the behavior of partially pre-vaporized spray combustion. The second part attempts to answer the question\\u000a how the fuel evaporation process behaves

Amsini Sadiki; W. Ahmadi; Mouldi Chrigui; J. Janicka

87

Plasma-aided solid fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

Plasma supported solid fuel combustion is promising technology for use in thermal power plants (TPP). The realisation of this technology comprises two main steps. The first is the execution of a numerical simulation and the second involves full-scale trials of plasma supported coal combustion through plasma-fuel systems (PFS) mounted on a TPP boiler. For both the numerical simulation and the full-scale trials, the boiler of 200 MW power of Gusinoozersk TPP (Russia) was selected. The optimization of the combustion of low-rank coals using plasma technology is described, together with the potential of this technology for the general optimization of the coal burning process. Numerical simulation and full-scale trials have enabled technological recommendations for improvement of existing conventional TPP to be made. PFS have been tested for boilers plasma start-up and flame stabilization in different countries at 27 power boilers steam productivity of 75-670 tons per hour (TPH) equipped with different type of pulverised coal burners. At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were used. Volatile content of them varied from 4 to 50%, ash from 15 to 48% and calorific values from 6700 to 25,100 KJ/kg. In summary, it is concluded that the developed and industrially tested PFS improve coal combustion efficiency and decrease harmful emission from pulverised coal-fired TPP. 9 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

E.I. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko ['United Power System of Russia', Gusinoozersk (Russian Federation). Branch Centre of Plasma-Power Technologies of Russian J.S.Co.

2007-07-01

88

Fuel Droplet Burning During Droplet Combustion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.4MB, 13-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300168.html.

2003-01-01

89

Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies

Brian R. Patrick; Thomas Lilburn Ochs; Cathy Ann Summers; Danylo B. Oryshchyn; Paul Chandler Turner

2012-01-01

90

Some critical combustion aspects of reformulated heating fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of six middle distillate oil blends were examined using the controlled combustion testing facilities at the Energy Research Laboratories of the Canada Centre for Minerals and Energy Technologies (CANMET). Test fuels were specifically prepared for a research project to study the impact of changes in commercial heating fuel composition on the combustion performance of a residential heating

S. Win Lee; David P. C. Fung

1995-01-01

91

Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection  

SciTech Connect

A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Robey, E. [EG& G Technical Services of West Virginia, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diedgo, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

92

Pyrolysis of Polymethylmethacrylate during Combustion in a Solid Fuel Combustion Chamber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the pyrolysis of the polymer polymethylmethacrylate during combustion in a Solid Fuel Combustion Chamber (SFCC). It includes both a literature study and experimental results. The applicability of bulk pyrolysis experiments, for linea...

J. P. de Wilde

1987-01-01

93

Investigation of Combustion Characteristics of Douglas Fir Hogged Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The initial results are presented of studies of the combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir bark (hogged fuel) as burned in a spreader-stoker experimental test facility. The project was funded by ERDA and attempts to determine combustion characteristics...

D. C. Junge

1978-01-01

94

Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle  

DOEpatents

A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

2013-12-17

95

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, conbustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Sciences, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for the full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra-fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-08-01

96

Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

1981-08-01

97

Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

1981-01-01

98

Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-07-15

99

Numerical analysis of supersonic combustion ramjet with upstream fuel injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes possible fuel injection scheme for airbreathing engines that use hydrocarbon fuels. The basic idea is to inject fuel at the spike tip of the supersonic inlet to achieve mixing and combustion efficiency with a limited length combustion chamber. A numerical code, able to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in turbulent and reacting flows, is employed to obtain

Raffaele Savino; Giuseppe Pezzella

2003-01-01

100

Investigation of combustion characteristics of Douglas fir hogged fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial results are presented of studies of the combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir bark (hogged fuel) as burned in a spreader-stoker experimental test facility. The project was funded by ERDA and attempts to determine combustion characteristics for fuels burned in controlled conditions. Independent variables include wood size, wood moisture content, underfire\\/overfire air ratios, and fuel to air ratios. The

Junge

1978-01-01

101

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion which consists of base fuel and water doped with or without a trace content of surfactant are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamental mechanism relevant to the micro-explosion phenomena leading to the secondary atomization which is not common to the combustion of pure fuel. Described at first are the kinetic

T. Kadota; H. Yamasaki

2002-01-01

102

Ignition and combustion of fuel droplets and the ignition of premixed fuels by hot cylindrical surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of combustion problems relevant to the gasification, ignition and combustion of fuels in combustion chambers using sprays are theoretically analyzed using mathematical and numerical techniques. The problem of the vaporization, ignition and subsequent combustion of a fuel droplet in a hot convective flow at atmospheric or moderately elevated pressures is analyzed using boundary layer theory around a spherical

R. H. Rangel; A. C. Fernandez-Pello; A. K. Oppenheim

1985-01-01

103

Vaporization and combustion of fuel droplets at supercritical conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vaporization and combustion liquid-fuel droplets in both sub- and super-critical environments have been examined. The formulation is based on the complete conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates finite-rate chemical kinetics and a full treatment of liquid-vapor phase equilibrium at the droplet surface. The governing equations and the associated interface boundary conditions are solved numerically using a fully coupled, implicit scheme with the dual time-stepping integration technique. The model is capable of treating the entire droplet history, including the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state. As a specific example, the combustion of n-pentane fuel droplets in air is studied for pressures of 5-140 atm. In addition, the dynamic responses of droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient-pressure oscillations are investigated. Results indicate that the droplet gasification and burning mechanisms depend greatly on the ambient pressure. In particular, a rapid enlargement of the vaporization and combustion responses occurs when the droplet surface reaches its critical point, mainly due to the strong variations of latent heat of vaporization and thermophysical properties at the critical state.

Yang, Vigor

1991-01-01

104

Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine provided with an intake passage, a cylinder associated with the intake passage and at least one intake valve associated with the cylinder, the fuel injection system including a fuel injector adapted to be disposed upstream of the intake valve. The fuel injector consists of: a housing, a hollow body connected to one end of the housing the hollow body having an end wall formed therein with an injection orifice; a valve member disposed slidably in the body comprising a needle valve of the type that is electromechanically operated; a pintle provided on the valve member for facilitating atomization of liquid fuel, the pintle extending outwardly from the hollow body through the injection orifice with a gap between an outer periphery of the pintle and an inner peripheral surface of the injection orifice to meter fuel to be injected; a sleeve member mounted on the hollow body to cover the injection orifice, the sleeve member defining therein a pintle-receiving space and a plurality of communication apertures adapted to communicate the pintle-receiving space with the intake passage of the engine, the total of the cross-sectional areas of the communication apertures being smaller than the cross-sectional area of the pintle-receiving space.

Kiuchi, H.; Ogawa, O.; Yamazoe, H.; Tasaka, H.; Kuroda, M.; Okino, S.

1988-09-27

105

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines.  

SciTech Connect

The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number of manufacturers are now leasing demonstration vehicles to consumers using hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H{sub 2}ICEs) as well as fuel cell vehicles. Developing countries in particular are pushing for H{sub 2}ICEs (powering two- and three-wheelers as well as passenger cars and buses) to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. This article offers a comprehensive overview of H{sub 2}ICEs. Topics that are discussed include fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

Verhelst, S.; Wallner, T.; Energy Systems; Ghent Univ.

2009-12-01

106

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel-equivalence ratios 5.0 to 8.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (E.R. greater than 5.0) is a unique technique for preheating a hydrocarbon fuel to temperatures much higher than those obtained by conventional heat exchangers. In addition to producing very reactive molecules, the process upgrades the structure of the fuel by the formation of hydrogen and smaller hydrocarbons and produces a cleaner burning fuel by removing some of the fuel carbon from the soot formation chain. With fuel-rich catalytic combustion as the first stage of a two stage combustion system, enhanced fuel properties can be utilized by both high speed engines, where time for ignition and complete combustion is limited, and engines where emission of thermal NO sub x is critical. Two-stage combustion (rich-lean) has been shown to be effective for NO sub x reduction in stationary burners where residence times are long enough to burn-up the soot formed in the first stage. Such residence times are not available in aircraft engines. Thus, the soot-free nature of the present process is critical for high speed engines. The successful application of fuel-rich catalytic combustion to Jet-A, a multicomponent fuel used in gas turbine combustors, is discusssed.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Gracia-Salcedo, Carmen M.

1989-01-01

107

Synthetic fuel aromaticity and staged combustion  

SciTech Connect

Samples of middle and heavy SRC-II distillates were distilled into 50 C boiling point range fractions. These were characterized by measurements of their molecular weight, elemental analysis and basic nitrogen content and calculation of average molecular structures. The structures typically consisted of 1 to 3 aromatic rings fused to alicyclic rings with short, 1 to 3 carbon aliphatic side chains. The lower boiling fractions contained significant amounts (1 atom/molecule) of oxygen while the heavier fractions contained so few heteroatoms that they were essentially hydrocarbons. Laboratory scale oxidative-pyrolysis experiments were carried out at pyrolysis temperatures of 500 to 1100 C and oxygen concentrations from 0 to 100 percent of stoichiometry. Analysis of liquid products, collected in condensers cooled with liquid nitrogen showed that aromatization is a major reaction in the absence of oxygen. The oxygen-containing materials (phenolics) seem to be more resistant to thermal pyrolysis than unsubstituted aromatics. Nitrogen converts from basic to nonbasic forms at about 500 C. The nonbasic nitrogen is more stable and survives up to 700 C after which it is slowly removed. A recently constructed 50,000 Btu/hr staged combustor was used to study the chemistry of the nitrogen and aromatics. SRC II combustion was studied under fuel-rich, first-stage conditions at air/fuel ratios from 0.6 to 1.0 times stoichiometric. The chemistry of the fuel during combustion calls for further investigation in order to examine the mechanism by which HCN is evolved as a common intermediate for the formation of the nitrogen-containing gaseous combustion products. 25 references, 45 figures, 25 tables.

Longanbach, J. R.; Chan, L. K.; Levy, A.

1982-11-15

108

Broad Specification Fuels Combustion Technology Program, Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental evaluation of two advanced technology combustor concepts was conducted to evolve and assess their capability for operation on broadened properties fuels. The concepts were based on the results of Phase 1 of the Broad Specification Fuel Combustor Technology Program which indicated that combustors with variable geometry or staged combustion zones had a flexibility of operation that could facilitate operation on these fuels. Emphasis in defining these concepts included the use of single pipe as opposed to duplex or staged fuels systems to avoid the risk of coking associated with the reduction in thermal stability expected in broadened properties fuels. The first concept was a variable geometry combustor in which the airflow into the primary zone could be altered through valves on the front while the second was an outgrowth of the staged Vorbix combustor, evolved under the NASA/P&W ECCP and EEE programs incorporating simplified fuel and air introduction. The results of the investigation, which involved the use of Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel, indicated that in the form initially conceived, both of these combustor concepts were deficient in performance relative to many of the program goals for performance emissions. However, variations of both combustors were evaluated that incorporated features to simulate conceptual enhancement to demonstrate the long range potential of the combustor. In both cases, significant improvements relative to the program goals were observed.

Lohmann, R. P.; Jeroszko, R. A.; Kennedy, J. B.

1990-01-01

109

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 4, February--April 1990  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and missions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects test; and full-scale combustion tests.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-06-01

110

Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties of hydrocarbons with air. Part 1: Properties in SI units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties were calculated for a wide range of conditions for the reaction of hydrocarbons with air. Three hydrogen-carbon atom ratios (H\\/C = 1.7, 2.0, 2.1) were selected to represent the range of aircraft fuels. For each of these H\\/C ratios, combustion properties were calculated for the following conditions: Equivalence ratio: 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25

S. Gordon

1982-01-01

111

Self-oscillations of an unstable fuel combustion in the combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The form of the self-oscillations of a vibrating combustion of a fuel in the combustion chamber of a liquidpropellant rocket engine, caused by the fuel-combustion lag and the heat release, was determined. The character of change in these self-oscillations with increase in the time of the fuel-combustion lag was investigated.

Gotsulenko, V. V.; Gotsulenko, V. N.

2013-01-01

112

Carbonation of fly ash in oxy-fuel CFB combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-fuel combustion of fossil fuel is one of the most promising methods to produce a stream of concentrated CO2 ready for sequestration. Oxy-fuel FBC (fluidized bed combustion) can use limestone as a sorbent for in situ capture of sulphur dioxide. Limestone will not calcine to CaO under typical oxy-fuel circulating FBC (CFBC) operating temperatures because of the high CO2 partial

Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E. J. Anthony

2008-01-01

113

Fossil Fuel Combustion and the Major Sedimentary Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of the fossil fuels coal, oil, and lignite potentially can mobilize many elements into the atmosphere at rates, in general, less than but comparable to their rates of flow through natural waters during the weathering cycle. Since the principal sites of fossil fuel combustion are in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, changes in the composition of natural

K. K. Bertine; Edward D. Goldberg

1971-01-01

114

Computer Program for Obtaining Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Air and Products of Combustion of ASTM-A-1 Fuel and Air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (...

R. S. Colladay S. A. Hippensteele

1978-01-01

115

ULTRA-DILUTE COMBUSTION OF PRIMARY REFERENCE FUELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using n-heptane and iso-octane as gasoline surrogate fuels, the laminar flame speeds, flame thicknesses, reaction zone thicknesses, and flammability limits of fuel\\/air\\/residual gas mixtures are computationally studied over ranges of pressures, temperatures, and dilution levels representative of unthrottled HCCI operation. These calculations are further used to characterize the combustion regime for spark-initiated HCCI combustion. In a turbulent premixed combustion regime

YIMIN HUANG; CHIH-JEN SUNG; KAMAL KUMAR

2007-01-01

116

Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.

Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

1957-01-01

117

Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Normal Alkane Fuels in a Model Combustor of Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of kinds of one-component n-alkane liquid fuels on combustion characteristics was investigated experimentally using a model combustor of scramjet engine. The inlet condition of a model combustor is 2.0 of Mach number, up to 2400K of total temperature, and 0.38MPa of total pressure. Five kinds of n-alkane are tested, of which carbon numbers are 7, 8, 10, 13, and 16. They are more chemically active and less volatile with an increase of alkane carbon number. Fuels are injected to the combustor in the upstream of cavity with barbotage nitrogen gas and self-ignition performance was investigated. The result shows that self-ignition occurs with less equivalence ratio when alkane carbon number is smaller. This indicates that physical characteristic of fuel, namely volatile of fuel, is dominant for self-ignition behavior. Effect on flame-holding performance is also examined with adding pilot hydrogen and combustion is kept after cutting off pilot hydrogen with the least equivalence ratio where alkane carbon number is from 8 to 10. These points are discussed qualitatively from the conflict effect of chemical and physical properties on alkane carbon number.

??, ?; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ???; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

118

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in t...

1995-01-01

119

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 17, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Completed modeling calculations of coal mineral matter transformations, deposition behavior, and heat transfer impacts of six test fuels; and ran pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, microagglomerate product, and mulled product.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-08-01

120

Fuel reforming apparatus for use with internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a fuel reforming apparatus for use with an internal combustion engine, comprising hydrocarbon fuel supply means for producing a mixture of hydrocarbon fuel with air in a suitable air-fuel ratio, a burning chamber in which the mixture is ignited and burned, and a reactor which is packed with a catalyst adapted to carry out the catalytic reforming,

M. Noguchi; T. Bunda; T. Tanaka

1978-01-01

121

Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the spray were measured in the chamber for a stable flame. The experimental results indicate significant preferential vaporization of ethanol over water. Modeling results support this observation and indicate that the vaporization process is best described as the distillation limit mode with enhanced mass transfer by convection. Further, the influence of preferential vaporization on flame stability was investigated. A procedure was developed to evaluate the extent of preferential vaporization and subsequent flame stability of a fuel in aqueous solution. Various water soluble fuels were analyzed via this procedure in order to identify a chemical fuel showing strong preferential vaporization. t-Butanol was identified as having excellent physical and chemical properties, indicating stronger preferential vaporization than ethanol. Flame stability tests were run for aqueous solutions of both t-butanol and ethanol under identical flow conditions. Flame stability was characterized by the blow-off limit. In each comparison, the energy contents in the two solutions were kept the same. For the experiments under high swirl flow conditions (100% swirl flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has slightly lower blow-off limits than 15 wt% ethanol, and 8.3 wt% t-butanol has much lower blow-off limits than 10 wt% ethanol. For the experiments under a low swirl flow condition (50% swirl/50% axial flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has a much lower blow-off limit than 15 wt% ethanol. The time to release the fuel from a droplet was also calculated for both ethanol and t-butanol. For the same size droplet, the time to release t-butanol is much shorter than that of ethanol under the same conditions. Faster release of the fuel from water enhances flame stability, which is consistent with the experimental results. For the oxy-combustion characteristics of low-volatility fuel with high water content, glycerol was chosen as the fuel to study. It is found that self-sustained flame can be obtained for glycerol solution with concentration as high as 60 wt%, when burned in pure O2. However, the flame is lifted far away f

Yi, Fei

122

LIEKKI and JALO: Combustion and fuel conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LIEKKI and JALO are well conceived and structured programs designed to strengthen Finland's special needs in combustion and gasification to utilize a diversity of fuels, increase the ratio of electrical to heat output, and to support the export market. Started in 1988, these two programs provide models of how universities, Technical research center's laboratories (VTT's), and industry can collaborate successfully in order to achieve national goals. The research is focused on long term goals in certain targeted niche areas. This is an effective way to use limited resources. The niche areas were chosen in a rational manner and appear to be appropriate for Finland. The LIEKKl and JALO programs have helped pull together research efforts that were previously more fragmented. For example, the combustion modeling area still appears fragmented. Individual project objectives should be tied to program goals at a very early stage to provide sharper focusing to the research. Both the LIEKKl and JALO programs appear to be strongly endorsed by industry. Industrial members of the Executive Committees were very supportive of these programs. There are good mechanisms for technology transfer in place, and the programs provide opportunities to establish good interfaces between industrial people and the individual researchers. The interest of industry is shown by the large number of applied projects that are supported by industry. This demonstrates the relevancy of the programs. There is a strong interaction between the JALO program and industry in black liquor gasification.

Grace, Thomas M.; Renz, Ulrich; Sarofim, Adel F.

123

Pressure-controlled fuel injection for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of injecting fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising the steps of: (a) selecting an accumulator type fuel injector having a fuel input, and characterized by the fact that the withdrawal of applied pressure from its input initiates the injection of a fuel charge; (b) placing the fuel injector in operative relation to the combustion chamber; (c) selecting an electronically controlled three-way valve for selectively admitting fuel into the accumulator type fuel injector; (d) coupling the valve to the injector; (e) coupling a source of liquid diesel fuel to the valve; and (f) whenever it is desired to inject a fuel charge into the combustion chamber, applying an electronic control signal to the valve to open the valve for a selected period of time, whereby at the end of the selected period of time when the valve closes to pressure and opens to vent, the accumulation type injector causes the injection of the fuel charge into the combustion chamber to be initiated. The termination of injection of the fuel charge is controlled by the accumulator type fuel injector and not by the valve or the electronic control signal.

Beck, N.J.; Calkins, M.A.; Weseloh, W.E.; Barkhimer, R.L.

1986-12-16

124

Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.  

PubMed

Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions. PMID:19409477

Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

2009-01-01

125

The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect

The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and selection of desirable F-T molecules for use in jet engine simulations, where we should be able to predict the ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of proposed fuel components. These mechanisms include the reactions and chemical species needed to describe high temperature phenomena such as shock tube ignition and flammability behavior, and they will also include low temperature kinetics to describe other ignition phenomena such as compression ignition and knocking. During the past years, our hydrocarbon kinetics modeling group at LLNL has focused a great deal on fuels typical of gasoline and diesel fuel. About 10 years ago, we developed kinetic models for the fuel octane primary reference fuels, n-heptane [1] and iso-octane [2], which have 7 and 8 carbon atoms and are therefore representative of typical gasoline fuels. N-heptane represents the low limit of knock resistance with an octane number of 0, while iso-octane is very knock resistant with an octane number of 100. High knock resistance in iso-octane was attributed largely to the large fraction of primary C-H bonds in the molecule, including 15 of the 18 C-H bonds, and the high bond energy of these primary bonds plays a large role in this knock resistance. In contrast, in the much more ignitable n-heptane, 10 of its 16 C-H bonds are much less strongly bound secondary C-H bonds, leading to its very low octane number. All of these factors, as well as a similarly complex kinetic description of the equally important role of the transition state rings that transfer H atoms within the reacting fuel molecules, were quantified and collected into large kinetic reaction mechanisms that are used by many researchers in the fuel chemistry world.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-30

126

Combustion-assisted plasma in fuel conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long history of plasma application for fuel conversion shows that reasonably low specific energy requirement has been achieved in most cases using non-equilibrium systems with relatively high local temperature ('warm' plasmas). Analysis of reasons for this trend presented in this paper indicates that transitional warm plasma discharge systems are optimal for large-scale fuel processing. This analysis also reveals one specific feature of warm discharges that was not discussed earlier: warm discharge-based plasma-chemical systems are very sensitive to gas temperature and chemical reactions. When temperature reaches the level that is high enough to support chemical reactions in a particular system (ignition temperature), chemical reactions produce high concentration of excited molecules, and these molecules form a basis for stepwise ionization. This results in a significant drop in the energy necessary to support electric discharge in the system for two reasons. First, stepwise ionization that requires relatively low electron energy overcomes direct ionization that is typical for low-temperature non-equilibrium plasmas and requires much higher ionization energy. Second, high temperature of surrounding gas reduces heat losses from the discharge channel, while a significant portion of the discharge energy in warm plasma systems should be spent to compensate these losses. Thus, an intensive chemical reaction, e.g. combustion, supports the existence of a warm electric discharge.

Gutsol, A.; Rabinovich, A.; Fridman, A.

2011-07-01

127

Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

Schoenman, L.

1981-01-01

128

EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS ANÁLISIS EXPERIMENTAL DE LA COMBUSTION DE UN MOTOR DIESEL DE AUTOMOCIÓN OPERANDO CON MEZCLAS DIESEL-BIODIESEL DE PALMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50%

JOHN AGUDELO; ELKIN GUTIÉRREZ; PEDRO BENJUMEA

2009-01-01

129

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for Combustion of Oxygenated Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamic properties and detailed chemical kinetic models have been developed for the combustion of two oxygenates: methyl butanoate, a model compound for biodiesel fuels, and methyl formate, a related simpler molecule. Bond additivity methods and rules for estimating kinetic parameters were adopted from hydrocarbon combustion and extended. The resulting mechanisms have been tested against the limited combustion data available in the literature, which was obtained at low temperature, subatmospheric conditions in closed vessels, using pressure measurements as the main diagnostic. Some qualitative agreement was obtained, but the experimental data consistently indicated lower overall reactivities than the model, differing by factors of 10 to 50. This discrepancy, which occurs for species with well-established kinetic mechanisms as well as for methyl esters, is tentatively ascribed to the presence of wall reactions in the experiments. The model predicts a region of weak or negative dependence of overall reaction rate on temperature for each methyl ester. Examination of the reaction fluxes provides an explanation of this behavior, involving a temperature-dependent competition between chain-propagating unimolecular decomposition processes and chain-branching processes, similar to that accepted for hydrocarbons. There is an urgent need to obtain more complete experimental data under well-characterized conditions for thorough testing of the model.

Fisher, E.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Curran, H.J.; Westbrook, C.K.

2000-01-11

130

Effect of fuel to oxidant molar ratio on particle size and LPG sensing properties of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by simple solution combustion method.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO nanoparticles of different size were prepared by varying the molar ratio of glycine and zinc nitrate hexahydrate as fuel and oxidizer (F/O molar ratio = 0.8, 1.11, 1.7) by simple solution combustion method. Powder samples were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM). LPG sensing measurements were carried out in the temperature range 523-673K. It was found that, ZnO nanoparticle thick film prepared from F/O molar ratio 1.7 has maximum sensitivity of 5.20% for 520ppm of LPG at 623K compared to other thick films.

Naveen, C. S.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Lamani, Ashok R.; Deshmukh, P. R.; Lokhande, C. D.; Jayanna, H. S.

2013-06-01

131

LOW NOX STRATEGY FOR COMBUSTING HIGH NITROGEN CONTENT FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of a multistaged combustion urner (designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficieiicy) for [high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 1.0 MW package boiler. simulator. A low NOx precombustion cham...

132

Reaction Kinetics of Fuel Formation for In-Situ Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical reactions believed to cause fuel formation for in-situ combustion have been studied and modeled. A thin, packed bed of sand\\/oil mixture is heated under nitrogen flow at linearly increasing temperatures, simulating the approach of a combustion front. Analysis of gases produced from the reaction cell revealed that pyrolysis of crude oil in porous media goes through three overlapping stages:

Sidqi Abu-Khamsin; William Brigham; Henry Ramey Jr.

1988-01-01

133

Removal of SOx, NOx, and particulate from combusted carbonaceous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is a method for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate from the products of combusted carbonaceous fuels. Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate are currently discharged to the atmosphere as flue gas in quantities highly detrimental to the environment. Potassium compounds, as are found in agricultural grade potash, are dispersed throughout the combustion products at the exit

Dayen

1985-01-01

134

Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels within porous inert media  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent surge of interest in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels within porous inert media. The interest has been directed by the needs of industry to develop high performance radiant heaters while complying with increasingly stringent emissions regulations. This paper reviews the processes associated with non-catalytic combustion within porous media, and describes related experimental and modeling research.

J. R. Howell; M. J. Hall; J. L. Ellzey

1996-01-01

135

Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl

S. A. Hippensteele; R. S. Colladay

1978-01-01

136

Method of controlling the combustion of liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a method of controlling a substantially stoichiometric combustion of liquid fuels in a burner assembly wherein a stream of compact or atomized fuel is produced by means of an orifice or nozzle (e.g. injection, pressure, rotary atomizing nozzle) and fed into a mixing and atomizing zone in accordance with the preferably adjustable, nozzle input pressure, wherein at least part of the combustion air as an atomizing medium is introduced from the side of the axis of the fuel stream, with the flow of such air being adapted to be controlled with respect to throughput (flow rate) and flow velocity, and including a subsequent combustion of the fuel/air mixture within a combustion zone downstream of said mixing zone.

Graat, J.W.; Remie, H.J.

1982-06-15

137

Laminar burning velocity measurements of liquid fuels at elevated pressures and temperatures with combustion residuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laminar burning velocity is a fundamental property of a fuel that affects many aspects of its combustion behaviour. Experimental values are required to validate kinetic simulations, and also to provide input for models of flashback, minimum ignition energy and turbulent combustion.A constant volume vessel (rated at 3.4MPa) in conjunction with a multi-zone model was used to calculate burning velocity

S. P. Marshall; S. Taylor; C. R. Stone; T. J. Davies; R. F. Cracknell

2011-01-01

138

Broad specification fuels combustion technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design and development efforts to evolve promising aircraft gas turbine combustor configurations for burning broadened-properties fuels were discussed. Design and experimental evaluations of three different combustor concepts in sector combustor rig tests was conducted. The combustor concepts were a state of the art single-annular combustor, a staged double-annular combustor, and a short single-annular combustor with variable geometry to control primary zone stoichiometry. A total of 25 different configurations of the three combustor concepts were evaluated. Testing was conducted over the full range of CF6-80A engine combustor inlet conditions, using four fuels containing between 12% and 14% hydrogen by weight. Good progress was made toward meeting specific program emissions and performance goals with each of the three combustor concepts. The effects of reduced fuel hydrogen content, including increased flame radiation, liner metal temperature, smoke, and NOx emissions were documented. The most significant effect on the baseline combustor was a projected 33% life reduction, for a reduction from 14% to 13% fuel hydrogen content, due to increased liner temperatures.

Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

1984-01-01

139

Fuel Vapor Pressures and the Relation of Vapor Pressure to the Preparation of Fuel for Combustion in Fuel Injection Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.

Joachim, William F; Rothrock, A M

1930-01-01

140

Hydrocarbon-fuel/combustion-chamber-liner materials compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of material compatibility experiments using hydrocarbon fuels in contact with copper-based combustion chamber liner materials are presented. Mil-Spec RP-1, n- dodecane, propane, and methane fuels were tested in contact with OFHC, NASA-Z, and ZrCu coppers. Two distinct test methods were employed. Static tests, in which copper coupons were exposed to fuel for long durations at constant temperature and pressure, provided compatibility data in a precisely controlled environment. Dynamic tests, using the Aerojet Carbothermal Test Facility, provided fuel and copper compatibility data under realistic booster engine service conditions. Tests were conducted using very pure grades of each fuel and fuels to which a contaminant, e.g., ethylene or methyl mercaptan, was added to define the role played by fuel impurities. Conclusions are reached as to degradation mechanisms and effects, methods for the elimination of these mechanisms, selection of copper alloy combustion chamber liners, and hydrocarbon fuel purchase specifications.

Gage, Mark L.

1990-01-01

141

Combustion of waste fuels in a fluidized-bed boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a project whose objectives are to determine the impact of the waste fuels on Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) operating procedures, boiler performance, and emissions and to assess the potential for fuel-specific operating problems. The low-grade waste fuels investigated are hogged railroad ties, shredded rubber tires, peat, refuse-derived fuel, and one or more agricultiral wastes. The

J. Zylkowski; S. Ehrlich

1983-01-01

142

Method for in-flight combustion of carbonaceous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for combusting carbonaceous fuels includes a reaction chamber defining a reaction zone and means for injecting fuel and oxidizer gas in a manner to produce in the reaction zone a wheel-type flow of the fuel-gas mixture. In preferred embodiments, the high velocity wheel-type flow operates to suspend fuel or other reactant particles in the swirling gas

H. L. Burge; J. A. Hardgrove; W. F. Krieve

1980-01-01

143

Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

1993-01-01

144

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 18, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Continued with data and sample analysis from the pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, air-dried and mulled microagglomerate products; air-dried Pittsburgh No. 8 as-is and mulled products for upcoming Task 3 combustion testing; and prepared two abstracts for presentation for the March 1 994 Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems Conference.

Chow, O.K.; Hargrove, M.J.

1993-11-01

145

Effect of heterogeneous catalyst during combustion of diesel fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in number of vehicles using diesel engines, the contributions to environmental pollution made by diesel engines is also on the rise. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, hydrocarbons, and particulates are currently regulated as harmful emissions from diesel engines. Recent technologies to control harmful engine emissions have been almost exclusively directed towards gasoline engines. It is generally held that fuel quality will have to play an important role with all IC engines to meet future stringent regulations. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of heterogeneous catalyst on combustion. Micron sized solid catalyst, suspended in a specific organic peroxide, has been found to promote better combustion by modifying kinetics and changing the thermodynamics of the reactions. The catalyst reduces emissions without dramatically changing the properties of the fuel. The characteristic parameters of a baseline fuel, and the same fuel with the additive, were analyzed. The dosage of additive used was found to be compatible with commercial diesel. Diesel vehicles were driven unloaded at normal road conditions during the experiments. Exhaust emissions were measured when the trucks were at static conditions and the engine running on idle and at 2000 rpm. The gaseous components in the exhaust, O2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and CxH y were monitored. Particulates were trapped on a pre-weighed glass filter. Some of the filters were sent to an independent laboratory for microscopic and elemental analysis of the collected debris. Zinc oxide/peroxide suspended in tert-butyl hydro peroxide were used as the heterogeneous fuel catalyst. This combination increased the cetane rating of a commercial diesel fuel from 45 to a level of 70 depending on treatment ratio. A treatment ratio of one ounce additive per 5 gallons of diesel increased cetane number by an average of 5 points. Road mileage with the additive increased by an average of more than 10%. Gaseous and particulate emissions were reduced by more than 20%. Engine wear decreased due to increased lubricity of the fuel. A decrease in flash point of the diesel may make the additive more suitable at cold weather operation.

Arefeen, Quamrul

1999-11-01

146

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

NONE

1995-03-01

147

A Nonlinear Model for Fuel Atomization in Spray Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most gas turbine combustion codes rely on ad-hoc statistical assumptions regarding the outcome of fuel atomization processes. The modeling effort proposed in this project is aimed at developing a realistic model to produce accurate predictions of fuel atomization parameters. The model involves application of the nonlinear stability theory to analyze the instability and subsequent disintegration of the liquid fuel sheet that is produced by fuel injection nozzles in gas turbine combustors. The fuel sheet is atomized into a multiplicity of small drops of large surface area to volume ratio to enhance the evaporation rate and combustion performance. The proposed model will effect predictions of fuel sheet atomization parameters such as drop size, velocity, and orientation as well as sheet penetration depth, breakup time and thickness. These parameters are essential for combustion simulation codes to perform a controlled and optimized design of gas turbine fuel injectors. Optimizing fuel injection processes is crucial to improving combustion efficiency and hence reducing fuel consumption and pollutants emissions.

Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor); Ibrahim, Essam A.; Sree, Dave

2003-01-01

148

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 6, July 1990--September 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-11-01

149

Mild Combustion of Methane-Derived Fuel Mixtures: Natural Gas and Biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild combustion (also called diluted or flameless combustion) is an innovative combustion process able to strongly reduce pollutant emissions with respect to traditional combustion processes; it is characterized by high preheating of the combustion air and massive recycle of burned gases. While it is well known that mild combustion leads to lowering NOx emissions when pure fuels (such as methane)

Alessandro Effuggi; Davino Gelosa; Marco Derudi; Renato Rota

2008-01-01

150

Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

1986-03-11

151

FUEL RICH SULFUR CAPTURE IN A COMBUSTION ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A refractory-lined, natural gas furnace was used to study fuel rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel rich sulfur species H2S and COS were monitored in a near-continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equipped with a fl...

152

Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

1982-01-01

153

Air-fuel ratio control apparatus of a fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine has an air valve disposed in an intake passage downstream of a throttle valve to cooperate therewith to define an air pressure chamber and operative to maintain a substantially constant pressure therein. A fuel circuit includes a fuel discharge port open to the intake passage and a fuel-metering orifice operatively

T. Ando; M. Minoura; K. Motosugi; S. Sekiya; M. Sumiyoshi; Y. Takeuchi; J. Uozumi

1980-01-01

154

Survey of Straight Vegetable Oil Composition Impact on Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of straight vegetable oil (SVO) in internal combustion engines has shown conflicting results in emissions, power, and engine longevity. Many early studies suggested that SVO should not be considered for long term use in diesel engines. However, waste vegetable oil has been fueling adapted vehicles in progressive communities for years. The issues involved in the combustion of SVO

Syndi L. Nettles-Anderson; Daniel B. Olsen

155

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued drop tube devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; and started writing a summary topical report to include all results on the nine fuels tested.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-07-01

156

Orifices For Fuel-Film Cooling Of Combustion Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary-layer film of fuel flows along wall of combustion chamber mentioned in article, "Rhenium-Foil Witness Cylinders" (NPO-18224), cooling wall and neutralizing excess of oxidizer in vicinity of wall. Enters chamber through 16 small, replaceable nozzles placed around periphery of fuel-and-oxidizer injector. Adjusted, independently of main injected flow of fuel and oxidizer, by selection of nozzle passing larger or smaller flow.

Knight, B. L.

1992-01-01

157

Integrated process for gasifying and combusting a carbonaceous fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated gasification\\/combustion process is described for sulfur and nitrogen-bearing carbonaceous fuels wherein a flue gas is produced having a reduced content of sulfur-based and nitrogen-based compounds. The process consists of: a. gasifying a first portion of the carbonaceous fuel in a gasification reactor in the presence of air to produce a hot char-containing carbon monoxide-rich fuel gas having a

Tanca

1986-01-01

158

Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control  

DOEpatents

An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL); Ochs, Thomas Lilburn (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy Ann (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul Chandler (Independence, OR)

2012-01-03

159

High-pressure combustion of binary fuel sprays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ultimate objective of this study is to obtain fundamental information relevant to combustion processes that occur in fuel sprays of practical interest at high pressures in internal combustion engines. Since practical fuels are multicomponent and derived from petroleum, the present work involves the model alkane mixture of n-heptane and n-hexadecane. Since burning droplets in sprays can interact with each other, the present work involves investigation of the effects of this interaction on flame shapes and droplet burning times. The small droplets in practical combustion chambers are not significantly influenced by buoyancy. Since such small droplets are difficult to study experimentally, the present work takes advantage of microgravity to lessen buoyancy and enable information about droplet interactions to be obtained by studying larger droplets. The results are intended to provide fundamental understanding that can be used in improving descriptions of practical spray combustion.

Mikami, Masato; Kono, Michikata; Sato, Jun'ichi; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Williams, Forman A.

1995-01-01

160

Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Scramjets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities in the area of scramjet fuel-air mixing and combustion associated with the Research and Technology Organization Working Group on Technologies for Propelled Hypersonic Flight are described. Work discussed in this paper has centered on the design of two basic experiments for studying the mixing and combustion of fuel and air in a scramjet. Simulations were conducted to aid in the design of these experiments. The experimental models were then constructed, and data were collected in the laboratory. Comparison of the data from a coaxial jet mixing experiment and a supersonic combustor experiment with a combustor code were then made and described. This work was conducted by NATO to validate combustion codes currently employed in scramjet design and to aid in the development of improved turbulence and combustion models employed by the codes.

Drummond, J. P.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Cutler, A. D.

2002-01-01

161

Brown clouds over South Asia: biomass or fossil fuel combustion?  

PubMed

Carbonaceous aerosols cause strong atmospheric heating and large surface cooling that is as important to South Asian climate forcing as greenhouse gases, yet the aerosol sources are poorly understood. Emission inventory models suggest that biofuel burning accounts for 50 to 90% of emissions, whereas the elemental composition of ambient aerosols points to fossil fuel combustion. We used radiocarbon measurements of winter monsoon aerosols from western India and the Indian Ocean to determine that biomass combustion produced two-thirds of the bulk carbonaceous aerosols, as well as one-half and two-thirds of two black carbon subfractions, respectively. These constraints show that both biomass combustion (such as residential cooking and agricultural burning) and fossil fuel combustion should be targeted to mitigate climate effects and improve air quality. PMID:19164746

Gustafsson, Orjan; Kruså, Martin; Zencak, Zdenek; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Granat, Lennart; Engström, Erik; Praveen, P S; Rao, P S P; Leck, Caroline; Rodhe, Henning

2009-01-23

162

Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines  

SciTech Connect

The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

Anand, Krishnasamy [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ra, youngchul [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2011-01-01

163

Combustion fundamentals of pyrolysis oil based fuels  

SciTech Connect

The combustion behavior of emulsions of pyrolysis oil in commercial diesel oil was studied. The emulsions were different in terms of concentration and size of the dispersed phase. The study was carried out in a single droplet combustion chamber. The size of droplets varied between 400 {mu}m and 1200 {mu}m. They were suspended to a bare thermocouple and, hence, their temperature during combustion was measured. High-speed digital shadowgraphy was used to follow droplets evolution. The main features of the droplet combustion were recognized. The general combustion behavior of emulsions is intermediate with respect to pure PO and commercial diesel oil. Emulsion droplets underwent strong swelling and microexplosion phenomena. However, under the investigated conditions, the microexplosions were ineffective in destroying droplets. The size distribution of the dispersed PO droplets in the range 3-10 {mu}m was not effective either for determining the overall thermal behavior or for the efficacy of the microexplosions. The homogeneous combustion phase resulted identical for emulsions and diesel oil despite the emulsions composition (i.e., concentration of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, as well as the size of the oil droplets in the emulsion) and the different structure of the flame and also its time and spatial evolution. (author)

Calabria, R.; Chiariello, F.; Massoli, P. [Istituto Motori CNR, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2007-04-15

164

Experimental Study of Unsupported Nonane fuel Droplet Combustion in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot formation in droplet flames is the basic component of the particulate emission process that occurs in spray combustion. The complexity of soot formation motivates a one-dimensional transport condition which has obvious advantages in modeling. Recent models of spherically symmetric droplet combustion have made this assumption when incorporating such aspects as detailed chemistry and radiation. Interestingly, spherical symmetry does not necessarily restrict the results because it has been observed that the properties of carbon formed in flames are not strongly affected by the nature of the fuel or flaming configuration. What is affected, however, are the forces acting on the soot aggregates and where they are trapped by a balance of drag and thermophoretic forces. The distribution of these forces depends on the transport conditions of the flame. Prior studies of spherical droplet flames have examined the droplet burning history of alkanes, alcohols and aromatics. Data are typically the evolution of droplet, flame, extinction, and soot shell diameters. These data are only now just beginning to find their way into comprehensive numerical models of droplet combustion to test proposed oxidation schemes for fuels such as methanol and heptane. In the present study, we report new measurements on the burning history of unsupported nonane droplets in a convection-free environment to promote spherical symmetry. The far-field gas is atmospheric pressure air at room temperature. The evolution of droplet diameter was measured using high speed cine photography of a spark-ignited, droplet within a confined volume in a drop tower. The initial droplet diameters varied between 0.5 mm and 0.6 mm. The challenge of unsupported droplets is to form, deploy and ignite them with minimal disturbance, and then to keep them in the camera field of view. Because of the difficulty of this undertaking, more sophisticated diagnostics for studying soot than photographic were not used. Supporting the test droplet by a fiber fixes the droplet position but the fiber can perturb the burning process especially for a sooting fuel. Prior studies on heptane showed little evidence for soot formation due to g-droplets of similar size the relationship between sooting and droplet diameter. For nonane droplets we expect increased sooting due to the greater number of carbon atoms. As a sooting droplet burns and its diameter decreases, proportionally less soot should form. This reduced soot, as well as the influence of soot formed earlier in the burning process which collects in a 'shell', on heat transport to the flame offers the potential for a time-varying burning rate. Such an effect was investigated and revealed in results reported here. Speculation is offered for the cause of this effect and its possible relation to soot formation.

Callahan, B. J.; Avedisian, C. T.; Hertzog, D. E.; Berkery, J. W.

1999-01-01

165

Generation of hypersonic liquid fuel jets accompanying self-combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Aerodynamic behavior of pulsed hypersonic light oil jets injected at 2 km\\/s and 3 km\\/s is presented. Auto-ignition and combustion\\u000a of the fuel during the injection process were visualized. The combustion around the disintegrating jet was enhanced by liquid\\u000a atomization created by the very high injection pressure as well as the interfacial instability of the hypersonic jet. The\\u000a jets

Hong-Hui Shi; Kazuyoshi Takayama

1999-01-01

166

Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

Han, Manbae [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2008-01-01

167

Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

1996-12-31

168

The effect of fuel and sorbent properties on their partitioning between the flyash and bottom ash streams in fluidized bed combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluidized bed combustion process has been employed successfully in several applications, among which steam raising is notable. The use of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion for steam and power generation offers a competitive alternative both in the United States and worldwide, yet there remain technical issues, which if addressed, can improve the competitive position of CFB boiler technology, and

Peter Lawrence Rozelle

2000-01-01

169

Effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulations on NO, emissions are promoting the use of lean premix (LPM) combustion for industrial gas turbines. LPM combustors avoid locally stoichiometric combustion by premixing fuel and the air upstream of the reaction region, thereby eliminating the high temperatures that produce thermal NO.. Unfortunately, this style of combustor is prone to combustion oscillation. Significant pressure fluctuations can occur when variations in heat release periodically couple pressure to acoustic modes in the combustion chamber. These oscillations must be controlled because resulting vibration can shorten the life of engine hardware. Laboratory and engine field testing have shown that instability regimes can vary with environmental conditions. These observations prompted this study of the effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability. Tests are conducted on a sub-scale combustor burning natural gas, propane, and some hydrogen/hydrocarbon mixtures. A premix, swirl-stabilized fuel nozzle typical of industrial gas turbines is used. Experimental and numerical results describe how stability regions may shift as inlet air temperature, humidity, and fuel composition are altered. Results appear to indicate that shifting instability instability regimes are primarily caused by changes in reaction rate.

Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J. [USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States); Robey, E.H. [EG& G Technical Services of West Virginia (United States)

1997-04-01

170

Combustion Characteristics of Refuse Derived Fuels. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the laboratory studies presented here is to furnish preliminary input to the technologists in the sense of providing relative rankings through comparisons of appropriate coal and MSW combustion related properties. Support for a future progr...

W. Tsang A. Macek E. Domalski J. A. Walker S. R. Charagundla

1983-01-01

171

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 16, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the first quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Reported results of drop tube furnace data analyses to determine devolatilization kinetics; reported the results from the re-analyzed pilot-scale ash deposits from the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-05-01

172

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 13, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport feed coal; published two technical papers at conferences; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1992-09-01

173

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 15, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; re-analyzed the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; updated the topical summary report; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-03-01

174

Catalytic combustion of heavy partially-vaporized fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to demonstrate efficient catalytic combustion of fuel-lean and fuel-rich mixtures of residual fuel and air, and to assess the influence of incomplete fuel vaporization on the performance of a catalytic reactor is being conducted. A 7.5-cm diameter catalytic reactor was designed and will be tested over a matrix of conditions representative of a gas turbine combustor inlet. For each of three test phases, two series of tests with a uniform but poorly vaporized (less than 50 percent) mixture of No. 6 fuel oil and air will be performed. In the first series, the non-vaporized fuel will be contained in a spray of droplets with a Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) less than 30 microns. In the second series, the non-vaporized fuel will be characterized by a spray SMD approximately equal to 100 microns. The designs of the fuel injection system and the catalytic reactor are described in this paper.

Rosfjord, T. J.

1980-01-01

175

Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion and emission of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with blends of biodiesel were investigated. The characteristics of combustion and emission with deferent biodiesel\\/diesel blend ratio in a diesel engine were analyzed. The results showed that for the same engine operating condition, compared to the diesel fuel, the combustion process was improved and better combustion characteristics could be

Cheng Xiao-bei; Ju Hongling; Kong Peng; Pan Li

2007-01-01

176

NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded d...

177

Combustion in a bomb with a fuel-injection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

1935-01-01

178

Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

1935-01-01

179

Atomization and combustion properties of flashing injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flashing injection involves expanding a fluid through an injector until a supersaturated state is reached, causing a portion of the fluid to flash to a vapor. This investigation considered the flow, atomization and spreading properties of flashing injectors flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (Jet A/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon 11). The use of a two stage expansion process, separated by an expansion chamber, was found to be beneficial for good atomization properties of flashing injection - particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

Solomon, A. S. P.; Rupprecht, S. D.; Chen, L.-D.; Faeth, G. M.

1982-01-01

180

ShockTube Combustion of High Density Hydrocarbon Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shock-tube techniques have been used to determine rates of carbon dioxide production in shock-wave heated mixtures of oxygen and hydrogenated dimers of bicycloheptadiene, components of the high density fuel RJ-S. Reaction profiles generated by this method have demonstrated that the combustion rate of the hydrocarbon vapors increases with fuel and oxygen concentration, but is not affected by the total pressure

J. M. BRUPBACHER; M. T. McCALL; M. McCARTY Jr

1978-01-01

181

Hybrid rocket fuel combustion and regression rate study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study are to develop hybrid fuels (1) with higher regression rates and reduced dependence on fuel grain geometry and (2) that maximize potential specific impulse using low-cost materials. A hybrid slab window motor system was developed to screen candidate fuels - their combustion behavior and regression rate. Combustion behavior diagnostics consisted of video and high speed motion pictures coverage. The mean fuel regression rates were determined by before and after measurements of the fuel slabs. The fuel for this initial investigation consisted of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder with coal and aluminum fillers. At low oxidizer flux levels (and corresponding fuel regression rates) the filled-binder fuels burn in a layered fashion, forming an aluminum containing binder/coal surface melt that, in turn, forms into filigrees or flakes that are stripped off by the crossflow. This melt process appears to diminish with increasing oxidizer flux level. Heat transfer by radiation is a significant contributor, producing the desired increase in magnitude and reduction in flow dependency (power law exponent) of the fuel regression rate.

Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Anderson, F. A.; Cohen, N. S.

1992-01-01

182

Hexaaluminate Combustion Catalysts for Fuel Cell Fuel Reformers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fuel cells may offer significant advantages over conventional diesel generator sets for mobile military electric power applications. Fuel cells can provide quiet, flexible, and fuel-efficient operation, making them suitable for use in 'stealth' vehicles o...

A. H. Shaaban F. H. Holcomb F. S. Thomas M. J. Binder T. J. Campbell

2004-01-01

183

Co-combustion: Burning biomass, fossil fuels together simplifies waste disposal, cuts fuel cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Getting energy from biomass has introduced a new dimension in combustion systems. This report explores the state of the art of multifuel combustion, describes how existing firing systems can be optimized or refined for disparate fuels, outlines new firing systems-fluidized-bed combustors and gasifiers-that can be applied as well.

Makansi

1987-01-01

184

Characterization of fuels for atmospheric fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a fuels characterization program for the past several years with the intention of assisting utilities and boiler manufacturers in evaluating fuel quality impact on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) performance. The goal has been to provide an improved framework for making fuel switching decisions and consolidating operating experience. Results from this program include a set of bench-scale testing procedures, a fuel characterization data base, and a performance simulation model that links fuel characteristics to combustion performance. This paper reviews the major results of the fuels characterization program. The testing procedures, data base, and performance simulation models are briefly described and their application illustrated with examples. Performance predictions for the B W 1-ft{sup 2} bench-scale AFBC and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 20 MW(e) AFBC Pilot Plant are compared with actual test data. The relationship of coal rank to combustion is discussed. 11 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

Daw, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rowley, D.R.; Perna, M.A. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research Center); Stallings, J.W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Divilio, R.J. (Combustion Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

185

Fuel Chemistry And Combustion Distribution Effects On Rocket Engine Combustion Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the project was to understand how changes in the rate of energy addition can be used to alter the combustion instability characteristics of liquid rocket engines. Fuels with increased energy, either due to higher heats of formation or energeti...

S. D. Heister S. S. Son W. E. Anderson

2013-01-01

186

Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal  

SciTech Connect

Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, G.H.; Jung. K.; Mu, N.; Yanar, N.M.; Pettit, F.S.

2012-08-01

187

Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonaceous aerosols cause strong atmospheric heating and large surface cooling that is as important to South Asian climate forcing as greenhouse gases, yet the aerosol sources are poorly understood. Emission inventory models suggest that biofuel burning accounts for 50 to 90 % of emissions, whereas the elemental composition of ambient aerosols points to fossil fuel combustion. We used radiocarbon measurements

Örjan Gustafsson; Martin Kruså; Zdenek Zencak; Rebecca J. Sheesley; Lennart Granat; Erik Engström; P. S. Praveen; P. S. P. Rao; Caroline Leck; Henning Rodhe

2009-01-01

188

Sedimentary records of carbonaceous particles from fossil fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonaceous particles produced by fossil fuel combustion can be found in considerable amounts in recent lake sediments. As these particles contain elemental carbon they are resistant to chemical decomposition and therefore both well preserved in sediments and possible to quantify. Sediment samples can be oxidized with H2O2 and digested with HF without the particles being destroyed. The pioneers in studying

Maria Wik; Ingemar Renberg; Judi Darley

1986-01-01

189

Effects of fuel and additives on combustion chamber deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gasoline composition, as represented in typical regular and premium unleaded gasolines and fuel additives, on Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD) were investigated in BMW and Ford tests. In addition, the influences of engine lubricant oil and ethanol oxygenate on CCD were examined in Ford 2.3L engine dynamometer tests. Also, additive effects of packages based on mineral oil fluidizers

M. M. Jackson; S. B. Pocinki

1994-01-01

190

Combustion of refuse-derived fuel in a fluidised bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a medium to maximise the resources recovery from municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution in industrialised countries. RDF is a value added material with a higher calorific value and a homogeneous particle size. The main objective of this study was to investigate the RDF combustion characteristics and the associated pollutant emissions in a

Francisco D. Hernandez-Atonal; Changkook Ryu; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

2007-01-01

191

Energy Content in Flue Gases from Combustion of Fossil Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The enthalpy and average specific heat of flue gas from the combustion of fossil fuels of known composition have been calculated as a function of temperature and presented in diagrams. Specific heat data at constant pressure as a function of temperature f...

B. Solbracke

1975-01-01

192

Solid Surface Combustion Experiment: Thick Fuel Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of experiments for spread over polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA, samples in the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle are described. The results are coupled with modelling in an effort to describe the physics of the spread process for thick fuels in a quiescent, microgravity environment and uncover differences between thin and thick fuels. A quenching phenomenon not present for thin fuels is delineated, namely the fact that for thick fuels the possibility exists that, absent an opposing flow of sufficient strength to press the flame close enough to the fuel surface to allow the heated layer in the solid to develop, the heated layer fails to become 'fully developed.' The result is that the flame slows, which in turn causes an increase in the relative radiative loss from the flame, leading eventually to extinction. This potential inability of a thick fuel to develop a steady spread rate is not present for a thin fuel because the heated layer is the fuel thickness, which reaches a uniform temperature across the thickness relatively rapidly.

Altenkirch, Robert A.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; West, Jeff; Tang, Lin; Sacksteder, Kurt; Delichatsios, Michael A.

1997-01-01

193

Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.

Alt, Otto

1924-01-01

194

DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research in 2011 was focused on diesel range fuels and diesel combustion and fuels evaluated in 2011 included a series of oxygenated biofuels fuels from University of Maine, oxygenated fuel compounds representing materials which could be made from sewage,...

B. G. Bunting M. Bunce

2012-01-01

195

Fuel data standardization study for JP-4, JP-5, JP-7, and RJ-5 combusted in air. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a study conducted to standardize the fuel performance data used in the Ramjet and Laser Aerodynamics Division of the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. The NASA one-dimensional equilibrium (ODE) thermochemical computer program was used to generate the fuel combustion product properties contained in the tables and graphs in this report. Thermochemical equilibrium data (molecular weight, specific heat

1974-01-01

196

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Han, Manbae [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

2009-01-01

197

Investigation of trapped vortex combustion using hydrogen-rich fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion process of a fuel is a challenging subject when it comes to analyze its performance and resultant emissions. The main task of this study is to optimize the selection of a hydrogen-rich fuel based on its performance and emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis is performed to test the combustion performance and emissions from the vortex trapped combustor when natural gas fuel (methane) is replaced with renewable and alternative fuels such as hydrogen and synthesis gas. Correlation graphs for the trapped vortex combustor performance and NOx, CO, and CO2 emissions for various types of fuels with different compositions and heat of combustion values were established. Methane, Hydrogen and 10 different syngas fuels were analyzed in this study using computational fluid dynamics numerical method. The trapped vortex combustor that represents an efficient and compact combustor for flame stability was investigated. The TVC consists of a fore body and two after body disks. These components are all encircled with a Pyrex tube. The purpose of the after body disks is to create the vortex wakes that will enhance the combustion process and minimize the NOx emissions. The TVC CFD model was validated by comparing the CFD model results using propane fuel with existing experimental results that were established in Rome, Italy. The static temperature distribution and NOx, CO emissions, combustor efficiency and total pressure drop results of the three dimensional CFD model were similar to the experimental data. Effects of H2/CO and H2/CH4 ratios and the mass fraction of each constituent of syngas fuels and Hydrogen-Methane fuel mixture on the TVC performance and emissions were investigated. Moreover, the fuel injector Reynolds number and Lower heating values for Methane, Hydrogen and 10 syngas fuels on the TVC performance and emissions were also investigated. Correlation plots for the NOx, CO and CO2 emissions versus the fuel injector Reynolds number and lower heating value were established. These correlation curves can be used as a fair design diagram to optimize the fuel selection process for aerospace and electrical power plant applications.

Zbeeb, Khaled

198

Pressure Effects in Droplet Combustion of Miscible Binary Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is to improve understanding of the combustion of binary fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the critical point. Fiber-supported droplets of mixtures of n-heptane and n-hexadecane, initially 1 mm in diameter, were burned in room-temperature air at pressures from 1 MPa to 6 MPa under free-fall microgravity conditions. For most mixtures the total burning time was observed to achieve a minimum value at pressures well above the critical pressure of either of the pure fuels. This behavior is explained in terms of critical mixing conditions of a ternary system consisting of the two fuels and nitrogen. The importance of inert-gas dissolution in the liquid fuel near the critical point is thereby re-emphasized, and nonmonotonic dependence of dissolution on initial fuel composition is demonstrated. The results provide information that can be used to estimate high-pressure burning rates of fuel mixtures.

Mikami, Masato; Habara, Osamu; Kono, Michikata; Sato, Jun-Ichi; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Williams, Forman A.

1997-01-01

199

Combustion characteristics of hydrogen-carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of trials with a staged combustor designed to use coal-derived gaseous fuels and reduce the NO(x) emissions from nitrogen-bound fuels to 75 ppm and 37 ppm without bound nitrogen in 15% O2 are reported. The combustor was outfitted with primary zone regenerative cooling, wherein the air cooling the primary zone was passed into the combustor at 900 F and mixed with the fuel. The increase in the primary air inlet temperature eliminated flashback and autoignition, lowered the levels of CO, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke, and kept combustion efficiencies to the 99% level. The combustor was also equipped with dual fuel injection to test various combinations of liquid/gas fuel mixtures. Low NO(x) emissions were produced burning both Lurgi and Winkler gases, regardless of the inlet pressure and temperature conditions. Evaluation of methanation of medium energy gases is recommended for providing a fuel with low NO(x) characteristics.

White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.; Notardonato, J. J.

1982-01-01

200

Analysis of fuel vaporization, fuel/air mixing, and combustion in lean premixed/prevaporized combustors  

SciTech Connect

Requirements to reduce pollutant emissions from gas turbines used in aircraft propulsion and ground-based power generation have led to consideration of lean premixed/prevaporized (LPP) combustion concepts. This paper describes a series of the LPP combustor analyses performed with KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional CFD code for problems involving sprays, turbulence, and combustion. Modifications to KIVA-II`s boundary condition and chemistry treatments have been made to meet the needs of the present study. The study examines the relationships between fuel vaporization, fuel/air mixing, and combustion in a generic LPP combustor. Parameters considered include: mixer tube diameter, mixer tube length, mixer tube configuration (straight versus converging/diverging tubes), air inlet velocity, air inlet swirl angle, secondary air injection (dilution holes), fuel injection velocity, fuel injection angle, number of fuel injection ports, fuel spray cone angle, and fuel droplet size. Cases have been run with and without combustion to examine the variations in fuel/air mixing and potential for flashback due to the above parameters. The degree of fuel/air mixing is judged by comparing average, minimum, and maximum fuel/air ratios at the exit of the mixer tube, while flame stability is monitored by following the location of the flame front as the solution progresses from ignition to steady state.

Deur, J.M. [NYMA, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States); Penko, P.F. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Cline, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-07-01

201

Relationship of fuel size and spacing to combustion characteristics of laboratory fuel cribs  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on flaming combustion in cribs of large woody fuels, thickness 5 cm or greater, that is not sustained when fuel spacing ratio, fuel edge-to-edge separation distance to fuel thickness, is greater than 3:1. The flame length associated with the large-fuel burning rate was found to drop rapidly when the large-fuel spacing ratio increases beyond 2.23:1. This supports the critical spacing assigned in the large-fuel subroutine burnout of Albini's fire modeling program.

Anderson, H.E.

1990-01-01

202

Pollutants from Methane Fueled Gas Turbine Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The air pollution characteristics of a model gas turbine type combustor using methane as fuel were studied in this investigation. Detailed information regarding gas compositions at various locations within the combustor and direct measurement of temperatu...

P. G. Parikh R. F. Saw A. L. London

1971-01-01

203

Numerical analysis of supersonic combustion ramjet with upstream fuel injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes possible fuel injection scheme for airbreathing engines that use hydrocarbon fuels. The basic idea is to inject fuel at the spike tip of the supersonic inlet to achieve mixing and combustion efficiency with a limited length combustion chamber. A numerical code, able to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in turbulent and reacting flows, is employed to obtain numerical simulations of the thermo-fluidynamic fields at different scramjet flight conditions, at Mach numbers of M=6.5 and 8. The feasibility of the idea of the upstream injection is checked for a simple axisymmetric configuration and relatively small size. The results are discussed in connection with the potential benefits deriving from the use of new ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC).

Savino, Raffaele; Pezzella, Giuseppe

2003-09-01

204

Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

1990-10-01

205

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 11, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of beneficiated coal-based fuels (BCFs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of three Freeport Pittsburgh 8 fuels; conducted pilot-scale combustion and ash deposition tests of a fresh batch of Upper Freeport parent coal in the CE fireside Performance Test Facility; and completed editing of the fourth quarterly report and sent it to the publishing office.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1992-03-01

206

FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

2005-04-29

207

Explosively Driven Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents small-scale experiments with 1-g charges that explore the topic of post-detonation energy release due to the combustion of explosively dispersed fuels in the ambient air. To this end we have designed a new prototype small-scale charge, called Shock-Dispersed Fuel (SDF) charge. It consists of a lightweight, small paper cylinder filled with about one gram of a combustible powder (e.g., flake aluminum) surrounding a spherical PETN booster of 0.5 g. We have tested the SDF charges in a number of different environments, realized as closed steel vessels of simple geometry (barometric bombs). Three of the bombs vary in volume (6.6 1, 21.2 1 and 40.5 1), while their aspect ratio L/D is kept constant at about 1. Two further bombs are comparable to the smallest bomb in volume (6.3 1), but provide different aspect ratios: L/D = 4.6 and 12.5. In addition, we have also performed tests in a tunnel-model with an L/D = 37.5. Our basic goal is to assess the performance of the charges by means of the combustion-related pressure built-up. Thus we contrast experiments on SDF charges in air with tests in nitrogen, to inhibit combustion, and with tests on conventional charges. Experiments and theoretical estimates on the expected overpressure allow one to formulate various indicators of the combustion effectiveness. For SDF charges these indicate that the combustion effectiveness decreases with increasing volume of the barometric bomb, and also with increasing aspect ratio at constant volume. This bears importance to the performance of SDF charges in tunnel environments. The performance losses reflect - at least in part - geometry-specific constraints on the mixing between fuel and air.

Neuwald, P.

2006-07-01

208

The NASA broad-specification fuels combustion technology program: An assessment of phase 1 test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of the results of Phase 1 screening testing of current and advanced combustion system concepts using several broadened-properties fuels. The severity of each of several fuels-properties effects on combustor performance or liner life is discussed, as well as design techniques with the potential to offset these adverse effects. The selection of concepts to be pursued in Phase 2 refinement testing is described. This selection takes into account the relative costs and complexities of the concepts, the current outlook on pollutant emissions control, and practical operational problems.

Fear, J. S.

1983-01-01

209

Sonically Enhanced Combustion of Coal Water Slurry Fuel.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was performed to demonstrate that a high intensity acoustic field can enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during CWSF (coal water slurry fuel) combustion. It was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1400 Hz. Combustion efficiency was improved when the extent of burnout was well below 100% and when the droplet size distribution was relatively coarse. The maximum improvement in burnout was 7.9%, under the coarsest atomization conditions investigated. Results from modelling show that sonically enhanced heat transfer plays a negligible role in improving the rate of combustion of CWSF. However, such enhancement may well be important for other applications (e.g. spray drying) involving longer drying times and/or small steady slip velocities. The application of a sonic field improves the rate of combustion of CWSF mainly through increased mass transfer rates, the enhancement being greatest for relatively coarse atomization. It is commonly accepted that the largest particles of fuel are the most likely to avoid full burnout in a practical combustor and thus contribute to erosion, slagging, and fouling via inertial mechanisms. By acting preferentially on these particles, operational difficulties can be minimized.

Ramachandran, Prakash

1990-01-01

210

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 10, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport fuels; completed editing of the first three quarterly reports and sent them to the publishing office; presented the project results at the Annual Contractors` Conference.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-11-01

211

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2008-11-04

212

Fuel cycle analysis for fossil energy systems: coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Elements of the fuel cycle for coal combustion in power generation are examined; and information on economics, technological status, energy efficiencies, and environmental issues is reviewed. Overall background information is provided for guidance in identifying issues and establishing needs and priorities for engineering research, development, and demonstration. The elements treated include mining, transportation, coal preparation, direct combustion, and environmental control technology. The treatment used differs from that of usual compendiums in its emphasis on integrated examination and presentation directed primarily toward providing bases for general assessment and for guidance in program development. Emphasis is on program identification as opposed to advocacy.

Greenstreet, W.L.; Carmichael, R.L.

1981-02-01

213

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2011-03-22

214

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2007-11-06

215

Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr.; Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2006-04-25

216

Pyrolysis, ignition and combustion of solid fuels for ramjet applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of the most attractive metal additive, boron powder, in ramjet application still remains in the development stages. On the other hand, the very popular metal additive, magnesium, has very good ignitability and high combustion efficiency, but has a low heating value. The scope of this study was concentrated on these two kinds of metal additive and three different types of polymeric binders - HTPB, PTFE, and high energy poly (BAMO/NMMO). Using various combinations of these ingredients, a total of 17 different solid fuels were investigated. The purpose of the present research was to study the pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion characteristics of the above mentioned fuel samples, using high-powered CO{sub 2} laser testing system, a windowed strand burning setup, and two cross-flow combustion facilities - a kerosene burner and a blowdown supersonic wind tunnel. A hypothesis based on absorptivity, thermal diffusivity, and reactivity was proposed to interpret the observed phenomena. The effects of four additives on ignition delay time of boron/HTPB fuels were measured, and CeF{sub 3} was found to be the most effective one. A sample composed of 20% Mg/30% B.50% PTFE exhibited a highly vigorous reaction, and it appears to be very promising for improving boron combustion efficiency. Mg/PTFE/Viton A fuel considered as a possible candidate for ramjet (solid ducted rocket) applications, exhibited a very unique burning phenomenon - ambient oxygen has an adverse effect on the ignition delay time and also on the burning rate. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that with the help of a highly energetic binder, an efficient combustion of boron can be expected.

Chen, D.M.

1988-01-01

217

Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

1980-02-27

218

Electrostatic fuel conditioning of internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diesel engines were tested to determine if they are influenced by the presence of electrostatic and magnetic fields. Field forces were applied in a variety of configurations including pretreatment of the fuel and air, however, no affect on engine performance was observed.

Gold, P. I.

1982-01-01

219

Combustion chemistry and an evolving transportation fuel environment.  

SciTech Connect

The world currently faces tremendous energy challenges stemming from the need to curb potentially catastrophic anthropogenic climate change. In addition, many nations, including the United States, recognize increasing political and economic risks associated with dependence on uncertain and limited energy sources. For these and other reasons the chemical composition of transportation fuels is changing, both through introduction of nontraditional fossil sources, such as oil sands-derived fuels in the US stream, and through broader exploration of biofuels. At the same time the need for clean and efficient combustion is leading engine research towards advanced low-temperature combustion strategies that are increasingly sensitive to this changing fuel chemistry, particularly in the areas of pollutant formation and autoignition. I will highlight the new demands that advanced engine technologies and evolving fuel composition place on investigations of fundamental reaction chemistry. I will focus on recent progress in measuring product formation in elementary reactions by tunable synchrotron photoionization, on the elucidation of pressure-dependent effects in the reactions of alkyl and substituted alkyl radicals with O{sub 2}, and on new combined efforts in fundamental combustion chemistry and engine performance studies of novel potential biofuels.

Taatjes, Craig A. (Org. 8353, Combustion Chemistry Department)

2010-05-01

220

Combustion and emissions characteristics of compression-ignition engine using dual ammonia-diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression-ignition engine using a dual-fuel approach with ammonia and diesel fuel. Ammonia can be regarded as a hydrogen carrier and used as a fuel, and its combustion does not produce carbon dioxide. In this study, ammonia vapor was introduced into the intake manifold and diesel fuel was injected into the

Aaron J. Reiter; Song-Charng Kong

2011-01-01

221

A jet fuel surrogate formulated by real fuel properties  

SciTech Connect

An implicit methodology based on chemical group theory to formulate a jet aviation fuel surrogate by the measurements of several combustion related fuel properties is tested. The empirical formula and derived cetane number of an actual aviation fuel, POSF 4658, have been determined. A three component surrogate fuel for POSF 4658 has been formulated by constraining a mixture of n-decane, iso-octane and toluene to reproduce the hydrogen/carbon ratio and derived cetane number of the target fuel. The validity of the proposed surrogate is evaluated by experimental measurement of select combustion properties of POSF 4658, and the POSF 4658 surrogate. (1)A variable pressure flow reactor has been used to chart the chemical reactivity of stoichiometric mixtures of POSF 4658/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and POSF 4658 surrogate/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} at 12.5 atm and 500-1000 K, fixing the carbon content at 0.3% for both mixtures. (2)The high temperature chemical reactivity and chemical kinetic-molecular diffusion coupling of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate have been evaluated by measurement of the strained extinction limit of diffusion flames. (3)The autoignition behavior of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate has been measured with a shock tube at 674-1222 K and with a rapid compression machine at 645-714 K for stoichiometric mixtures of fuel in air at pressures close to 20 atm. The flow reactor study shows that the character and extent of chemical reactivity of both fuels at low temperature (500-675 K) and high temperature (900 K+) are extremely similar. Slight differences in the transition from the end of the negative temperature coefficient regime to hot ignition are observed. The diffusion flame strained extinction limits of the fuels are observed to be indistinguishable when compared on a molar basis. Ignition delay measurements also show that POSF 4658 exhibits NTC behavior. Moreover, the ignition delays of both fuels are also extremely similar over the temperature range studied in both shock tube and rapid compression machine experiments. A chemical kinetic model is constructed and utilized to interpret the experimental observations and provides a rationale as to why the real fuel and surrogate fuel exhibit such similar reactivity. (author)

Dooley, Stephen; Won, Sang Hee; Chaos, Marcos; Heyne, Joshua; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen [School of Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wang, Haowei; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A. [Propulsion Engineering Research Center, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2010-12-15

222

Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Scramjets. Chapter 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At flight speeds, the residence time for atmospheric air ingested into a scramjet inlet and exiting from the engine nozzle is on the order of a millisecond. Therefore, fuel injected into the air must efficiently mix within tens of microseconds and react to release its energy in the combustor. The overall combustion process should be mixing controlled to provide a stable operating environment; in reality, however, combustion in the upstream portion of the combustor, particularly at higher Mach numbers, is kinetically controlled where ignition delay times are on the same order as the fluid scale. Both mixing and combustion time scales must be considered in a detailed study of mixing and reaction in a scramjet to understand the flow processes and to ultimately achieve a successful design. Although the geometric configuration of a scramjet is relatively simple compared to a turbomachinery design, the flow physics associated with the simultaneous injection of fuel from multiple injector configurations, and the mixing and combustion of that fuel downstream of the injectors is still quite complex. For this reason, many researchers have considered the more tractable problem of a spatially developing, primarily supersonic, chemically reacting mixing layer or jet that relaxes only the complexities introduced by engine geometry. All of the difficulties introduced by the fluid mechanics, combustion chemistry, and interactions between these phenomena can be retained in the reacting mixing layer, making it an ideal problem for the detailed study of supersonic reacting flow in a scramjet. With a good understanding of the physics of the scramjet internal flowfield, the designer can then return to the actual scramjet geometry with this knowledge and apply engineering design tools that more properly account for the complex physics. This approach will guide the discussion in the remainder of this section.

Drummond, J. Philip; Diskin, Glenn S.; Cutler, Andrew D.

2006-01-01

223

Radiation properties of coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect

An assessment is made of the experimental data and the theoretical bases for determining the absorption and scattering coefficients of the coal products of combustion. Particular attention is devoted to the complex refractive indices for char and ash. A dispersion relation is developed from sparse extinction data that can be used to estimate the optical constants of char. Considerable uncertainty and scatter is found in the literature data on ash optical constants and is attributed to variability in ash composition, lack of experimental rigor and limitations in the data reduction procedures. A correlation is presented for estimating the complex refractive indices of ash as a function of its mineral composition. A parametric study is conducted to elucidate the role of char, soot and ash particulates in determining the radiation properties of coal flames. The effects of combustion particulates are discussed in terms of the modification of the band structure of gas radiation to a luminous spectrum, introduction of scattering in radiation transport, particle size distribution, particle loading and particle composition. The results are interpreted as possible effects of coal beneficiation, coal micronization and flyash composition on heat transfer to the water walls of a coal furnace. 19 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1990-11-01

224

High sensitivity of diesel soot morphological and optical properties to combustion temperature in a shock tube.  

PubMed

Carbonaceous particles produced from combustion of fossil fuels have strong impacts on air quality and climate, yet quantitative relationships between particle characteristics and combustion conditions remain inadequately understood. We have used a shock tube to study the formation and properties of diesel combustion soot, including particle size distributions, effective density, elemental carbon (EC) mass fraction, mass-mobility scaling exponent, hygroscopicity, and light absorption and scattering. These properties are found to be strongly dependent on the combustion temperature and fuel equivalence ratio. Whereas combustion at higher temperatures (?2000 K) yields fractal particles of a larger size and high EC content (90 wt %), at lower temperatures (?1400 K) smaller particles of a higher organic content (up to 65 wt %) are produced. Single scattering albedo of soot particles depends largely on their organic content, increasing drastically from 0.3 to 0.8 when the particle EC mass fraction decreases from 0.9 to 0.3. The mass absorption cross-section of diesel soot increases with combustion temperature, being the highest for particles with a higher EC content. Our results reveal that combustion conditions, especially the temperature, may have significant impacts on the direct and indirect climate forcing of atmospheric soot aerosols. PMID:24803287

Qiu, Chong; Khalizov, Alexei F; Hogan, Brian; Petersen, Eric L; Zhang, Renyi

2014-06-01

225

Large-Eddy Simulations of Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past studies of internal combustion (IC) engine steady-state flow field have employed the well-known KIVA code for steady-state predictions. However, it is also well known that this code is incapable of accurately capturing the impact of unsteady fuel-air mixing on the combustion process. Here, the latest KIVA-3V code has been modified to carry out large-eddy simulations (LES). In particular, the RANS k-e model has been replaced by a subgrid kinetic energy model and a fourth-order ENO scheme has been implemented to increase the accuracy of the discretization of the advection term. Finally, a subgrid model to simulate the small-scale turbulent mixing, combustion and heat release is implemented for reacting flows. Simulations using the new version of KIVA3V denoted here as KIVALES of temporal mixing layers and flows past rearward facing step demonstrate the improved accuracy of the LES model. Accuracy of the prediction is demonstrated by comparing with DNS, LES and experimental results obtained in the past. Finally, the new code is employed to simulate fuel-air mixing and combustion in a typical IC engine. Comparison with predictions using the conventional KIVA is used to demonstrate the ability of the new code.

Sone, Kazuo; Menon, Suresh

2000-11-01

226

Erosion combustion of a solid fuel for various gas flow temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers on the theory of erosion combustion indicate that turbulence in the flame zone increases the combustion rate of a solid fuel at high gas speeds. In the present paper, erosion combustion is considered for various incident temperatures and within two limiting cases: pressures of 2-8\\/MPa, where two zones of heat production in the combustion region allow the process

A. M. Lipanov; I. G. Rusyak

1983-01-01

227

Combustion of PMMA in a solid fuel ramjet  

SciTech Connect

The combustion behaviour of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in a solid fuel ramjet was investigated using a connected pipe test facility. At pressures below 0,6 MPa almost no soot is formed, the flame is blueish and the regression rate appears to be primarily controlled by convection. At higher pressures, soot is formed and radiative heat transfer appears to be increasingly important. As a result, the regression rate becomes pressure dependant, while the effect of mass flux on regression rate decreases. Oxygen content in the air and air inlet temperature also affect combustion behaviour. No grain size effect on regression rate is noticed. Spectroscopic measurements demonstrated the presence of OH, C/sub 2/ and CH in the combustion chamber. The combustion efficiency varied between 70 and 76% and can be increased by increasing the size of the aft mixing chamber, the fuel grain length or the oxygen content in the air. Cold flow computer calculations were performed and showed good agreement with experimentally obtained results.

Korting, P.A.O.G.; Van der Geld, C.W.M.; Vos, J.B.; Wijchers, T.; Nina, M.N.R.

1986-01-01

228

Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process whereby a substance is combined with oxygen with the production of heat. Burning is a familiar example of this process. The energy required to propel chemical rockets is provided by the combustion of fuel with an oxidant at very high temperatures. A common oxidant is liquid oxygen (often denoted by LOX). Others include hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen tetroxide....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

229

Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

Klich, G. F.

1976-01-01

230

Santilli's new fuels as sources of clean combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular combustion or nuclear fission is the conventional source of energy, which are not clean as they generate large amount of green house gas or nuclear waste. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. However, each of these sources has their own limitations and is dependent on geographical locations. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review on such novel fuels like Hadronic energy of non-nuclear type (combustion of MagneGas) and nuclear type (intermediate controlled nuclear fusion and particle type like stimulated neutron decay) has been presented.

Sarma, Indrani B. Das

2013-10-01

231

Premixed Combustion Models for Gas Turbine with Stratified Fueling Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most popular conventional combustion models are the “Eddy-Break-Up Model” by Spalding and “Eddy Dissipation Model” by Magnussen, both of which are accepted as applicable to premixed flames. However, these models have not simulated all the premixed combustion phenomena. In this paper we assess four combustion models; (1) “Eddy Dissipation Model”: “Magnussen Model” (2) premixed combustion model of the “Katsuki Model” which controls the reaction rate by the Damköhler number; (3) the “Kido Model”, which predicts turbulent burning velocity by laminar burning velocity and turbulent characteristics and (4) the “Modified Katsuki Model”, in which the fluctuations of concentrations and temperature are solved by the transport equation. In present work, the Kido model is newly presented as computational code based on the flame cell concept and the modified Katsuki model is also developed for application to multi-fuel systems. Our study showed that the “Modified Katsuki Model” could predict the premixed combustion phenomena sufficiently and could trace the changes of the frame front.

Mandai, Shigemi; Uda, Nobuki; Nishida, Hiroyuki

232

Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Normal Alkane Fuels in a Model Combustor of Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of kinds of one-component n-alkane liquid fuels on combustion characteristics was investigated experimentally using a model combustor of scramjet engine. The inlet condition of a model combustor is 2.0 of Mach number, up to 2400K of total temperature, and 0.38MPa of total pressure. Five kinds of n-alkane are tested, of which carbon numbers are 7, 8, 10, 13, and

2010-01-01

233

The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus

W J Pitz; C K Westbrook

2009-01-01

234

Technology Assessment and Draft R and D Program Plan for Combustion of Nonconventional Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of combustion processes fueled either directly or indirectly with industrial, urban, and agricultural wastes (herein referred to as non-conventional fuels) is an effective strategy for the conservation of conventional fossil based fuels an...

1977-01-01

235

DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Engines  

SciTech Connect

Research in 2011 was focused on diesel range fuels and diesel combustion and fuels evaluated in 2011 included a series of oxygenated biofuels fuels from University of Maine, oxygenated fuel compounds representing materials which could be made from sewage, oxygenated marine diesel fuels for low emissions, and a new series of FACE fuel surrogates and FACE fuels with detailed exhaust chemistry and particulate size measurements. Fuels obtained in late 2011, which will be evaluated in 2012, include a series of oil shale derived fuels from PNNL, green diesel fuel (hydrotreated vegetable oil) from UOP, University of Maine cellulosic biofuel (levulene), and pyrolysis derived fuels from UOP pyrolysis oil, upgraded at University of Georgia. We were able to demonstrate, through a project with University of Wisconsin, that a hybrid strategy for fuel surrogates provided both accurate and rapid CFD combustion modeling for diesel HCCI. In this strategy, high molecular weight compounds are used to more accurately represent physical processes and smaller molecular weight compounds are used for chemistry to speed chemical calculations. We conducted a small collaboration with sp3H, a French company developing an on-board fuel quality sensor based on near infrared analysis to determine how to use fuel property and chemistry information for engine control. We were able to show that selected outputs from the sensor correlated to both fuel properties and to engine performance. This collaboration leveraged our past statistical analysis work and further work will be done as opportunity permits. We conducted blending experiments to determine characteristics of ethanol blends based on the gasoline characteristics used for blending. Results indicate that much of the octane benefits gained by high level ethanol blending can be negated by use of low octane gasoline blend stocks, as allowed by ASTM D5798. This may limit ability to optimize engines for improved efficiency with ethanol fuels. Extensive data from current and previous years was leveraged into participation with several large proposal teams, as our fuels database covers a very wide range of conventional and emerging fuels and biofuels.

Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

2012-01-01

236

Combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the laboratory studies presented here is to furnish preliminary input to the technologists in the sense of providing relative rankings through comparisons of appropriate coal and MSW combustion related properties. Support for a future program of sub-scale (demonstration or pilot) experiments to expand on the concepts and quantify them for scale-up to industrial sizes should be provided.

W. Tsang; A. Macek; E. Domalski; J. A. Walker; S. R. Charagundla; J. C. Colbert; D. R. Kirklin; A. E. Jr. Ledford; P. H. Decker; R. V. Ryan

1983-01-01

237

Wood-Fuel Use in Papua New Guinea: An Assessment of Industrial Combustion Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an engineering and economic assessment of new and retrofit industrial combustion equipment for wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea. Existing industrial combustion equipment and practices in Papua New Guinea are appraised....

M. S. Mendis

1980-01-01

238

Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed to study the influence of dual-fuel combustion characteristics on the exhaust emissions and combustion performance in a diesel engine fueled with biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel. In this work, the combustion pressure and the rate of heat release were evaluated under various conditions in order to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics for single-fuel (diesel and biodiesel) and

Seung Hyun Yoon; Chang Sik Lee

2011-01-01

239

Combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the laboratory studies presented here is to furnish preliminary input to the technologists in the sense of providing relative rankings through comparisons of appropriate coal and MSW combustion related properties. Support for a future program of sub-scale (demonstration or pilot) experiments to expand on the concepts and quantify them for scale-up to industrial sizes should be provided. A complete plan for this second phase study is included as an appendix to this report. With respect to the actual experimental investigations; these consist of three main tasks. Specifically: (a) static measurements (calorimetry, proximates and ultimate analysis; (b) dynamic measurements using the full range of modern thermoanalytical instrumentation; and (c) combustion of particulates in a specially constructed laboratory furnace as well as studies on the entrainment properties of MSW. The first two tasks deal mainly with the chemical properties of municipal solid waste and is of general utility. The latter is more specifically orientated. The scale of laboratory instrumentation set definite to the limits particle size with respect to the intrainment and combustion studies. Thus the most straightforward application is to combustion in stokers, including semi-suspension units.

Tsang, W.; Macek, A.; Domalski, E.; Walker, J.A.; Charagundla, S.R.; Colbert, J.C.; Kirklin, D.R.; Ledford, A.E. Jr.; Decker, P.H.; Ryan, R.V.

1983-01-01

240

Co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge: chemical and ecotoxicological properties of ashes.  

PubMed

The co-combustion of sewage sludge (SS) and coal is widely used for the treatment and thermal valorization of SS produced in wastewater treatment plants. The chemical and ecotoxicological properties of the ashes produced in this thermal treatment have not been fully studied. Two combustion tests were performed in a fluidized bed combustor. Colombian coal was used as fuel in test A. A blend (1+1) of this coal and a stabilized SS (Biogran) was used in a second test B. Samples of the bottom and fly ashes trapped in two sequential cyclones were collected. The characterization of the ashes was focused on two main aspects: (1) the bulk content of a set of metals and (2) the characterization of eluates produced according to the European Standard leaching test EN 12457-2. The eluates were submitted to an ecotoxicological characterization for two bio-indicators. In what concerns the bulk content of ashes, both combustion tests have produced ashes with different compositions. The ashes formed during the co-combustion test have shown higher concentrations of metals, namely Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Fe for all ashes. The leaching test has shown low mobility of these elements from the by-products produced during the combustion and co-combustion tests. Cr and Cr(VI) were mainly detected in the eluates of the 1st cyclone ashes produced in both combustion tests and in the 2nd cyclone ashes produced in the co-combustion test. Considering the ecotoxicity assays, the eluates of bottom and fly ashes for both combustion and co-combustion tests have shown low ecotoxic levels. The micro-crustacean Daphnia magna was generally more sensitive than the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. CEMWE criterion has allowed to classify the bottom ashes for both combustion and co-combustion tests as non-toxic residues and the fly ashes collected in both cyclones as toxic. PMID:19515486

Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Boavida, Dulce; Lopes, Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Mendes, Benilde

2009-10-30

241

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 5, May 1990--June 1990  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, conbustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Sciences, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for the full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra-fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-08-01

242

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Emission standards for diesel engines in vehicles have been steadily reduced in recent years, and a great deal of research and development effort has been focused on reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions. One promising approach to reducing emissions involves the addition of oxygen to the fuel, generally by adding an oxygenated compound to the normal diesel fuel. Miyamoto et al. [1] showed experimentally that particulate levels can be significantly reduced by adding oxygenated species to the fuel. They found the Bosch smoke number (a measure of the particulate or soot levels in diesel exhaust) falls from about 55% for conventional diesel fuel to less than 1% when the oxygen content of the fuel is above about 25% by mass, as shown in Figure 1. It has been well established that addition of oxygenates to automotive fuel, including both diesel fuel as well as gasoline, reduces NOx and CO emissions by reducing flame temperatures. This is the basis for addition of oxygenates to produce reformulated gasoline in selected portions of the country. Of course, this is also accompanied by a slight reduction in fuel economy. A new overall picture of diesel combustion has been developed by Dec [2], in which laser diagnostic studies identified stages in diesel combustion that had not previously been recognized. These stages are summarized in Figure 2. The evolution of the diesel spray is shown, starting as a liquid jet that vaporizes and entrains hot air from the combustion chamber. This relatively steady process continues as long as fuel is being injected. In particular, Dec showed that the fuel spray vaporizes and mixes with air and products of earlier combustion to provide a region in which a gas phase, premixed fuel-rich ignition and burn occurs. The products of this ignition are then observed experimentally to lead rapidly to formation of soot particles, which subsequently are consumed in a diffusion flame. Recently, Flynn et al. [3] used a chemical kinetic and mixing model to study the premixed, rich ignition process. Using n-heptane as a representative diesel fuel, they showed that addition of an oxygenated additive, methanol, to the fuel reduced the concentrations of a number of hydrocarbon species in the products of the rich ignition. Specifically, methanol addition reduced the total concentrations of acetylene, ethylene and 1,3-butadiene, as well as propargyl and vinyl radicals, in the ignition products. These are the same species shown in a number of studies [4-6] to be responsible for formation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic species in flames, species which lead eventually to production of soot. Flynn et al. did not, however, examine the kinetic processes responsible for the computed reduction in production of soot precursor species. At least two hypotheses have been advanced to explain the role that oxygenated species play in diesel ignition and the reduction in the concentrations of these species. The first is that the additive, methanol in the case of Flynn et al., does not contain any C-C bonds and cannot then produce significant levels of the species such as acetylene, ethylene or the unsaturated radicals which are known to lead to aromatic species. The second hypothesis is that the product distribution changes very naturally as oxygen is added and the overall equivalence ratio is reduced. In the present study, we repeat the ignition calculations of Flynn et al. and include a number of other oxygenated species to determine which of these theories is more applicable to this model.

Curran, H J; Fisher, E M; Glaude, P-A; Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Flynn, P F; Durrett, R P; zur Loye, A O; Akinyemi, O C; Dryer, F L

2000-01-11

243

Removal of SOx, NOx, and particulate from combusted carbonaceous fuels  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a method for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate from the products of combusted carbonaceous fuels. Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate are currently discharged to the atmosphere as flue gas in quantities highly detrimental to the environment. Potassium compounds, as are found in agricultural grade potash, are dispersed throughout the combustion products at the exit of the combustion zone of boilers. The potassium compounds decompose as a result of combustion temperatures in excess of their melting points. The potassium, as an ionic vapor, reacts with the sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases present, to form potassium sulfates, potassium nitrites and potassium nitrates. When the combined products stream, traversing the boiler equipment train, cool sufficiently, the potassium, present in excess, condenses as potassium oxide on the surfaces of the particles present. The larger particles are removed from the non-condensed vapor and gas by the centrifugal and gravitational forces exerted within cyclones. The smaller particles are removed from the non-chargable vapor and gases by the electrostatic charge and attraction created within the precipitator. The dry particles discharged from the cyclones and precipitator are ready for ultimate end use as potash fertilizer without further treatment. The flue gas atmospheric emissions contain only trace quantities of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate.

Dayen, W.R.

1985-09-10

244

Some principles of combustion of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented for the problem of flame propagation rate in combustion of a homogeneous fuel-air mixture in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. It is assumed that the mixture is not ``overturbulized'' and that the flame front is spherical. The model used for the phenomenon is based on a turbulent transport mechanism. In the near-wall region the

R. M. Petrichenko; A. B. Kanishchev; L. A. Zakharov; Bassam Kandakzhi

1990-01-01

245

Influence of fuel-to-oxidizer ratio on the magnetic properties of Fe-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method  

SciTech Connect

Two series of (In{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by a solution combustion method using different fuel-to-oxidizer (i.e. glycine/metal nitrate, G/N) ratios. The crystal structure and magnetic properties of the compounds were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. Detailed structural analysis shows the solubility limits of Fe in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} are x=0.08 and 0.45 for the G/N ratios of 5/4 and 5/6, respectively. Crystallite size of the samples prepared with the G/N ratio of 5/6 is much smaller than that of the samples prepared with the G/N ratio of 5/4. At room temperature, the sample with x=0.01 prepared with the G/N ratio of 5/4 is paramagnetic and those with x=0.03-0.07 are ferromagnetic, whereas the samples with x=0.15-0.45 prepared with the G/N ratio of 5/6 show superparamagnetic behavior and those samples with x<0.15 are paramagnetic. Different magnetic behavior of these two series of samples could be attributed to different origins of magnetism. The magnetism of the samples prepared with the G/N ratio of 5/4 might originate from the existence of mixed valence Fe ions whereas the magnetism of the samples prepared with the G/N ratio of 5/6 could be due to the small crystallite size. - Graphical abstract: The G/N ratio (5/4 and 5/6, respectively) has a prominent effect on the particle size and magnetic properties of Fe-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles.

Yu, J.; Duan, L.B.; Wang, Y.C. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Rao, G.H., E-mail: ghrao@aphy.iphy.ac.c [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2009-06-15

246

FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

2003-08-24

247

Reduction in fuel consumption in internal combustion engines. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program approached automotive fuel consumption from two directions: (1) to model the automobile using mathematical formulations, and (2) to investigate the ignition of lean fuel\\/air mixtures using plasma jet ignition. The mathematical model was used to predict the impacts that various changes in the properties of the vehicle such as engine compression ratio, engine displacement, and body weight would

J. F. Grant; Z. Golenko; M. E. McIlwain; E. P. Marram

1982-01-01

248

On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

1996-01-01

249

Analysis of Fuel Vaporization, Fuel-Air Mixing, and Combustion in Integrated Mixer-Flame Holders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements to limit pollutant emissions from the gas turbine engines for the future High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) have led to consideration of various low-emission combustor concepts. One such concept is the Integrated Mixer-Flame Holder (IMFH). This report describes a series of IMFH analyses performed with KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional CFD code for problems involving sprays, turbulence, and combustion. To meet the needs of this study, KIVA-II's boundary condition and chemistry treatments are modified. The study itself examines the relationships between fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, and combustion. Parameters being considered include: mixer tube diameter, mixer tube length, mixer tube geometry (converging-diverging versus straight walls), air inlet velocity, air inlet swirl angle, secondary air injection (dilution holes), fuel injection velocity, fuel injection angle, number of fuel injection ports, fuel spray cone angle, and fuel droplet size. Cases are run with and without combustion to examine the variations in fuel-air mixing and potential for flashback due to the above parameters. The degree of fuel-air mixing is judged by comparing average, minimum, and maximum fuel/air ratios at the exit of the mixer tube, while flame stability is monitored by following the location of the flame front as the solution progresses from ignition to steady state. Results indicate that fuel-air mixing can be enhanced by a variety of means, the best being a combination of air inlet swirl and a converging-diverging mixer tube geometry. With the IMFH configuration utilized in the present study, flashback becomes more common as the mixer tube diameter is increased and is instigated by disturbances associated with the dilution hole flow.

Deur, J. M.; Cline, M. C.

2004-01-01

250

Combustion characterization of coal-water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

As a result of coal cleaning operations, a substantial amount of coal is disposed as waste into the ponds, effecting and endangering the environment. This study includes a technique to recover and utilize the waste coal fines from the preparation plant effluent streams and tailing ponds. Due to the large moisture content of the recovered coal fines, this investigation is focused on the utilization of coal fines in the coal-water slurry fuel. It is our belief that a blend of plant coal and waste coal fines can be used to produce a coal-water slurry fuel with the desired combustion characteristics required by the industry. The coal blend is composed of 85% clean coal and 15% recovered coal fines. The coal-water slurry is prepared at 60% solids with a viscosity less than 500 centipose and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. This paper contains analysis of clean coal, recovered coal fines, and coal-water slurry fuel as well as combustion characteristics.

Masudi, Houshang; Samudrala, S.

1996-12-31

251

Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion.  

PubMed

Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study. PMID:24328080

Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto

2014-01-01

252

Aerodynamic properties of turbulent combustion fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow fields involving turbulent flames in premixed gases under a variety of conditions are modeled by the use of a numerical technique based on the random vortex method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and a flame propagation algorithm to trace the motion of the front and implement the Huygens principle, both due to Chorin. A successive over-relaxation hybrid method is applied to solve the Euler equation for flows in an arbitrarily shaped domain. The method of images, conformal transformation, and the integral-equation technique are also used to treat flows in special cases, according to their particular requirements. Salient features of turbulent flame propagation in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to the aerodynamic properties of the flow field. Included among them is the well-known cellular structure of flames stabilized by bluff bodies, as well as the formation of the characteristic tulip shape of flames propagating in ducts. In its rudimentary form, the mechanism of propagation of a turbulent flame is shown to consist of: (1) rotary motion of eddies at the flame front, (2) self-advancement of the front at an appropriate normal burning speed, and (3) dynamic effects of expansion due to exothermicity of the combustion reaction. An idealized model is used to illustrate these fundamental mechanisms and to investigate basic aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases. The case of a confined flame stabilized behind a rearward-facing step is given particular care and attention. Solutions are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental results, especially with respect to global properties such as the average velocity profiles and reattachment length.

Hsiao, C. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.

1985-01-01

253

Diesel engine combustion and emissions from fuel to exhaust aftertreatment. SP-1113  

SciTech Connect

There are many dimensions involved in any study of Diesel Engine Emissions. These dimensions include: the fuel used, how the fuel is presented into the combustion chamber, how the air is presented into the combustion chamber, the actual process of combustion and emissions formation, the treatment of the emissions after combustion, and the test methods used to quantify the emissions. All of these dimensions are covered in this publication. The fuel topics include: plant oil based fuels and gas dissolved in fuel oil. The air delivery to the combustion chamber is effected by both port performance and geometry and ambient conditions and these topics are included. The thermodynamics of the combustion process and modeling are included in this publication. Aftertreatment is included with a paper on particulate filters. A correlation study using the ISO8178 testing method is also included. All nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

NONE

1995-12-31

254

Chemical mechanism for high temperature combustion of engine relevant fuels with emphasis on soot precursors  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a chemical mechanism for the high temperature combustion of a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from methane to iso-octane. The emphasis is placed on developing an accurate model for the formation of soot precursors for realistic fuel surrogates for premixed and diffusion flames. Species like acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), propyne (C{sub 3}H{sub 4}), propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}), and butadiene (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}) play a major role in the formation of soot as their decomposition leads to the production of radicals involved in the formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and the further growth of soot particles. A chemical kinetic mechanism is developed to represent the combustion of these molecules and is validated against a series of experimental data sets including laminar burning velocities and ignition delay times. To correctly predict the formation of soot precursors from the combustion of engine relevant fuels, additional species should be considered. One normal alkane (n-heptane), one ramified alkane (iso-octane), and two aromatics (benzene and toluene) were chosen as chemical species representative of the components typically found in these fuels. A sub-mechanism for the combustion of these four species has been added, and the full mechanism has been further validated. Finally, the mechanism is supplemented with a sub-mechanism for the formation of larger PAH molecules up to cyclo[cd]pyrene. Laminar premixed and counterflow diffusion flames are simulated to assess the ability of the mechanism to predict the formation of soot precursors in flames. The final mechanism contains 149 species and 1651 reactions (forward and backward reactions counted separately). The mechanism is available with thermodynamic and transport properties as supplemental material. (author)

Blanquart, G.; Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

2009-03-15

255

Fuel injection nozzle unit for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle unit for an internal combustion engine, including a nozzle body having injection holes and a pressure chamber formed therein, a nozzle needle fitted in the nozzle body and being liftable in the nozzle body to open the injection holes, a nozzle spring urging the nozzle needle in a direction of closing the injection holes, and a central plunger having one end thereof arranged opposite one end of the nozzle needle at a distance corresponding to a predetermined lift. The central plunger has another end face which is supplied with pressurized fuel, and the central plunger is liftable together with the nozzle needle against the pressure of the pressurized fuel when the predetermined lift is exceeded, the nozzle needle being lifted by a fuel pressure supplied to the pressure chamber to effect fuel injection. The improvement described here comprises: an annular-shaped, radially deformable piezo-electric element provided around the central plunger, the piezo-electric element having a substantially central hole therein which is penetrated by the central plunger; and means for selectively electrically energizing and deenergizing the piezo-electric element to selectively radially deform the piezo-electric element to thereby selectively reduce the diameter of the central hole thereof.

Kushida, T.; Yamada, K.

1987-01-20

256

Method for in-flight combustion of carbonaceous fuels  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method for combusting carbonaceous fuels includes a reaction chamber defining a reaction zone and means for injecting fuel and oxidizer gas in a manner to produce in the reaction zone a wheel-type flow of the fuel-gas mixture. In preferred embodiments, the high velocity wheel-type flow operates to suspend fuel or other reactant particles in the swirling gas for residence times required for substantially complete reaction of the particles prior to the particles impinging against the walls of the reaction chamber. High angular veocities and the resulting centrifugal forces operate to remove substantially all slag from the gas as it approaches the downstream end of the reaction chamber. Operating temperatures are maintained at a level to avoid excessive volatilization of slag and thereby promote separation of liquid slag from the gaseous reaction products. Dense phase flow is employed for transporting pulverized reactants such as coal to the reaction chamber and injecting the reactants through a pintle fuel injector.

Burge, H. L.; Hardgrove, J. A.; Krieve, W. F.

1980-08-12

257

Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same  

SciTech Connect

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber. 3 figs.

McMillian, M.H.

1992-11-17

258

Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same  

DOEpatents

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

1992-01-01

259

Methanol fueled diesel internal combustion engine fuel injector nozzle  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector is described comprising, a nozzle having an inner main cavity, an inner valve seat located between the main cavity and an inner second cavity portion all capable of flow communication with a pressurized fuel supply, the inner valve seat located below the inner main cavity and having a plurality of spray outlets extending outward substantially horizontally and radially to the surface of the nozzle spaced equidistant from each other, the inner second cavity portion located below the inner valve seat and being closed at its opposite end to provide a closed spherical chamber, the inner second cavity portion of the nozzle also having an insert loosely located with and substantially filling the spherical chamber, a retractable needle means having a nose portion and a shaft portion, the nose portion being correspondingly shaped to fully engage the inner valve seat completely blocking flow communication to the spray outlet and leaving substantially no volume interspaced between the inner valve seat and the nose potion of the needle means, and the nose portion being free of engagement with any portion of the inner second cavity portion and the insert.

Timmer, R.C.

1993-06-22

260

Residues characterisation from the fluidised bed combustion of East London’s solid recovered fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste thermal treatment in Europe is moving towards the utilisation of the combustible output of mechanical, biological treatment (MBT) plants. The standardisation of solid recovered fuels (SRF) is expected to support this trend and increase the amount of the generated combustion residues. In this work, the residues and especially the fly ashes from the fluidised bed combustion (FBC) of East

D. E. Balampanis; S. J. T. Pollard; N. Simms; P. Longhurst; F. Coulon; R. Villa

2010-01-01

261

Erosion combustion of a solid fuel for various gas flow temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers in erosion combustion theory indicate that turbulence in the flame zone is responsible for increasing the combustion rate of a solid fuel at high gas speeds. This paper studies various incident temperatures in two limiting cases, low pressure p=2-8 MPa and pressures p (is greater than) 8 MPa. The systems of equations describing the steady state combustion of

A. M. Lipanov; I. G. Rusyaik

1983-01-01

262

Fine Particle Emissions from Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion in a Firetube Package Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM) emissions, and heavy oil combustion is suspected of producing particulate emissions with potentially significant toxicity. This paper is concerned with the characterization of particulate emissions from a practical boiler burning heavy fuel oils, The purpose of the study was to identify possible mechanisms that might relate both the combustion process

C. A. Miller; W. P. Linak; C. King; J. O. L. Wendt

1998-01-01

263

40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines] [Sec. 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?] 40 PROTECTION...Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Sec. 60.4360 How do I...

2009-07-01

264

Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.  

PubMed

The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers. PMID:24300845

Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

2014-01-01

265

Extinction of model fuels with anomalous pressure dependence of the combustion velocity  

SciTech Connect

This article investigates the regimes of combustion of model fuels with a drop in pressure. The following fuel compositions were examined: a reference composition consisting of a model nitroglycerine fuel, nitroglycerine fuel with a 2% additive of lead and copper compounds, and nitroglycerine with the addition of 1% compound of lead. The temperature gradient in the gas near the combustion surface was determined from the temperature profile. The results indicate that when the pressure boundary for the change in combustion mechanisms is crossed during the pressure drop, the conditions for extinguishing the fuel are considerably eased. It is concluded that the investigation of fuel combustion accompanying a pressure drop permits the obtaining of additional data and enables the understanding of the combustion mechanism at constant pressure.

Marshakov, V.N.; Melik-Gaikazov, G.V.

1983-09-01

266

Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

1980-01-01

267

Comprehensive Fuel Spray Modeling and Impacts on Chamber Acoustics in Combustion Dynamics Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current study focuses on comprehensive fuel spray modeling and its effects on chamber acoustics in combustion dynamics simulations. The fuel spray is modeled using an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach describing the atomizer internal flow, primary atomizat...

C. Yoon R. Gejji V. Sankaran W. E. Anderson

2013-01-01

268

Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties of hydrocarbons with air. Part 1: Properties in SI units  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties were calculated for a wide range of conditions for the reaction of hydrocarbons with air. Three hydrogen-carbon atom ratios (H/C = 1.7, 2.0, 2.1) were selected to represent the range of aircraft fuels. For each of these H/C ratios, combustion properties were calculated for the following conditions: Equivalence ratio: 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 Water - dry air mass ratio: 0, 0.03 Pressure, kPa: 1.01325, 10.1325, 101.325, 1013.25, 5066.25 (or in atm: 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50) Temperature, K: every 10 degrees from 200 to 900 K; every 50 degrees from 900 to 3000 K Temperature, R: every 20 degrees from 360 to 1600 R; very 100 degrees from 1600 to 5400 R. The properties presented are composition, density, molecular weight, enthalphy, entropy, specific heat at constant pressure, volume derivatives, isentropic exponent, velocity of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and Prandtl number. Property tables are based on composites that were calculated by assuming both: (1) chemical equilibrium (for both homogeneous and heterogeneous phases) and (2) constant compositions for all temperatures. Properties in SI units are presented in this report for the Kelvin temperature schedules.

Gordon, S.

1982-01-01

269

Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research  

SciTech Connect

An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

Not Available

1980-01-01

270

Mach 2 combustion characteristics of hydrogen/hydrocarbon fuel mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion of H2/CH4 and H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 10 to 70 vol pct hydrocarbon at combustor inlet Mach number 2 and temperatures 2000 to 4000 R is investigated experimentally, applying direct-connect test hardware and techniques similar to those described by Diskin and Northam (1987) in the facilities of the NASA Langley Hypersonic Propulsion Branch. The experimental setup, procedures, and data-reduction methods are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Fuel type and mixture are found to have little effect on the wall heating rate measured near the combustor exit, but H2/C2H4 is shown to burn much more efficiently than H2/CH4, with no pilot-off blowout equivalence ratios greater than 0.5. It is suggested that H2/hydrocarbon mixtures are feasible fuels (at least in terms of combustion efficiency) for scramjet SSTO vehicles operating at freestream Mach numbers above 4.

Diskin, Glenn S.; Jachimowski, C. J.; Northam, G. Burton; Bell, Randy A.

1987-01-01

271

Mach 2 combustion characteristics of hydrogen/hydrocarbon fuel mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion of H2/CH4 and H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 10-70 vol pct hydrocarbon at cumbustor inlet Mach number 2 and temperatures 2000-4000 R is investigated experimentally, applying direct-connect test hardware and techniques similar to those described by Diskin and Northam (1987) in the facilities of the NASA Langley Hypersonic Propulsion Branch. The experimental setup, procedures, and data-reduction methods are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Fuel type and mixture are found to have little effect on the wall heating rate measured near the combustor exit, but H2/C2H4 is shown to burn much more efficiently than H2/CH4, with no pilot-off blowout at equivalence ratios greater than 0.5. It is suggested that H2/hydrocarbon mixtures are feasible fuels (at least in terms of combustion efficiency) for scramjet SSTO vehicles operating at freestream Mach numbers above 4.

Diskin, Glenn S.; Northam, G. Burton; Bell, Randy A.

1987-01-01

272

Fuel-injection control system for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel-injection control system for an internal combustion engine is described in which a basic pulse width, being calculated from the amount of intake air sucked into an internal combustion engine and the number of engine revolutions, is generated in synchronization with engine revolution, and a series of special injection pulses are generated independently of the generation timing of the basic injection pulse width for revision of engine acceleration. The fuel injection control system comprises: an arithmetic operation means for calculating an engine load from the amount of intake air sucked into the engine and the number of engine revolutions; a judging means for judging whether or not a parameter representative of the engine load is less than a predetermined reference value; a first pulse-generating means adapted to generate a first special injection pulse in response to the amount of the intake air when the judging means judges that the parameter is less than the predetermined reference value; a second pulse-generating means adapted to revise the engine acceleration outside a pulsation range; and a revision-prohibiting means for prohibiting the revision of engine acceleration in the pulsation range of the intake air during a second predetermined period of time exceeding the first predetermined period starting from the generation of the first special injection pulse.

Nishikawa, T.; Hanada, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Shimomura, S.

1987-11-17

273

The effect of fuel characteristics on combustion in a spark-ignited direct-injection engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an experimental study conducted on a spark-ignited direct-injection engine burning fuels with different evaporation and autoignition characteristics. The test engine was a single-cylinder direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) engine incorporating a combustion process similar to the Texaco Controlled Combustion System. Two fuels were tested and compared with a baseline gasoline fuel: diesel fuel, and gasoline mixed with an

R. M. Frank; J. B. Heywood

1990-01-01

274

Diazido alkanes and diazido alkanols as combustion modifiers for liquid hydrocarbon ramjet fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to liquid-hydrocarbon jet fuels and more particularly to azido additives to liquid-hydrocarbon ramjet fuels. In most liquid-fueled combustors such as the ramjet, the fuel is directly introduced into the upstream flow section of the combustion chamber in the form of sprays of droplets. These droplets subsequently mix with the external gas, heat up, gasify, combust, and thereby

1986-01-01

275

Biomedically relevant chemical and physical properties of coal combustion products.  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of the potential public and occupational health hazards of developing and existing combustion processes requires a detailed understanding of the physical and chemical properties of effluents available for human and environmental exposures. These processes produce complex mixtures of gases and aerosols which may interact synergistically or antagonistically with biological systems. Because of the physicochemical complexity of the effluents, the biomedically relevant properties of these materials must be carefully assessed. Subsequent to release from combustion sources, environmental interactions further complicate assessment of the toxicity of combustion products. This report provides an overview of the biomedically relevant physical and chemical properties of coal fly ash. Coal fly ash is presented as a model complex mixture for health and safety evaluation of combustion processes.

Fisher, G L

1983-01-01

276

Combustion synthesis and optical properties of ceria doped gadolinium-oxide nanopowder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ceria doped Gadolinium (Gd2O3) nanopowder was synthesized by combustion synthesis by using urea as a fuel. The combustion synthesis method which is reported here is advantageous from the perspectives of small size of the nanoparticle. The structural and photoluminescence (PL) property of sample was studies. Gd2O3:Ce3+ nanoparticles exhibit green emission around 543 nm. The result of XRD show that synthesized sample has cubic structure. The average size of particle is found to be 45 nm. The surface morphology of the films is also presented.

Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Bisen, D. P.

2013-06-01

277

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels; status, successes and problems of the technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion can be used for energy production or incineration for almost any material containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur in a combustible form, whether it be in the form of a solid, liquid, slurry or gas. The technology's fuel flexibility arises from the fact that the fuel is present in the combustor at a low level and is burnt

E. J Anthony

1995-01-01

278

Plasma Fuel Nozzle as a Prospective Way to Plasma-Assisted Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of development and experimental investigations of a plasma fuel nozzle (PFN) concept as the most prospective tool to realize plasma-assisted combustion in different heat engines. The results of plasma source selection and optimization, fuel atomizer options consideration and comparison, and influence on the combustion process parameters are reported. Experiments show that PFN is the most

Igor B. Matveev; Svetlana A. Matveeva; Evgeniy Y. Kirchuk; Serhiy I. Serbin; Vladimir G. Bazarov

2010-01-01

279

THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

280

A laboratory approach to obtain suspension combustion data for reuse derived fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale measurement of burning rates of entrained RDF samples is discussed. The resulting data are expected to be relevant for estimating the characteristics of (1) pulverized fuel combustion and (2) the suspension fraction of spreader stoker combustion. A furnace is described allowing direct measurement of fuel particle burning times as functions of the parameters of the entraining gas flow.

A. Macek; S. R. Charagundla

1982-01-01

281

Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How

S. R. Jr. Penfield; N. A. Moussa

1999-01-01

282

Emission of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor solid fuel combustion.  

PubMed

Indoor solid fuel combustion is a dominant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and the latter are believed to be more toxic than the former. However, there is limited quantitative information on the emissions of OPAHs from solid fuel combustion. In this study, emission factors of OPAHs (EF(OPAH)) for nine commonly used crop residues and five coals burnt in typical residential stoves widely used in rural China were measured under simulated kitchen conditions. The total EF(OPAH) ranged from 2.8 ± 0.2 to 8.1 ± 2.2 mg/kg for tested crop residues and from 0.043 to 71 mg/kg for various coals and 9-fluorenone was the most abundant specie. The EF(OPAH) for indoor crop residue burning were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those from open burning, and they were affected by fuel properties and combustion conditions, like moisture and combustion efficiency. For both crop residues and coals, significantly positive correlations were found between EFs for the individual OPAHs and the parent PAHs. An oxygenation rate, R(o), was defined as the ratio of the EFs between the oxygenated and parent PAH species to describe the formation potential of OPAHs. For the studied OPAH/PAH pairs, mean R(o) values were 0.16-0.89 for crop residues and 0.03-0.25 for coals. R(o) for crop residues burned in the cooking stove were much higher than those for open burning and much lower than those in ambient air, indicating the influence of secondary formation of OPAH and loss of PAHs. In comparison with parent PAHs, OPAHs showed a higher tendency to be associated with particulate matter (PM), especially fine PM, and the dominate size ranges were 0.7-2.1 ?m for crop residues and high caking coals and <0.7 ?m for the tested low caking briquettes. PMID:21375317

Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Ding, Junnan; Xue, Miao; Min, Yujia; Zhu, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G

2011-04-15

283

Combustion and heat transfer in a high speed diesel engine operating with rape seed oil methyl ester fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of RME (rape seed oil methyl ester) as a fuel for a diesel engine have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were made with a turbocharged high-speed DI engine. During experiments the specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions, heat release rate, flame temperature and the temperatures of the combustion chamber walls were measured. A test was also made using the measured flame temperature as an initial value for a two-zone combustion model. The theoretical investigations show that it is possible to achieve with RME approximately the same power as with ordinary diesel fuel from the same cylinder volume. The fuels give very similar theoretical (ideal) working cycles and also the efficiencies of the cycles are very near to each other.

Turunen, R.

284

The coal-fueled diesel technology assessment study: Combustion of coal-based fuels in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Objective of this report is to collect and summarize available information that is pertinent to the combustion of coal-based fuels in diesel engines. The report, which focuses on test programs whose results became available in 1984-1985, briefly reviews the characteristics of various types of coals, discusses results of some basic laboratory-scale combustion studies on coal particles and coal slurries, and summarizes combustion-related results from several recent engine tests. It also discusses mathematical models that have been developed to help understand the combustion process in coal-fueled diesel engines. 78 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

Krazinski, J.L.; Holtz, R.E.

1988-03-01

285

Some principles of combustion of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm is presented for the problem of flame propagation rate in combustion of a homogeneous fuel-air mixture in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. It is assumed that the mixture is not “overturbulized” and that the flame front is spherical. The model used for the phenomenon is based on a turbulent transport mechanism. In the near-wall region the combustion mechanism follows a fine-scale mechanism, but in the core, a large-scale mechanism. Experiments permitted determination of the character and numerical value of coefficients which consider the effect of turbulence on flame front propagation in the combustion chamber of a ZMZ-4021 engine. The principles presented can be used as the basis of an algorithm for heat liberation rate in an internal combustion engine with external mixture formation.

Petrichenko, R. M.; Kanishchev, A. B.; Zakharov, L. A.; Kandakzhi, Bassam

1990-12-01

286

Properties of jet engine combustion particles during the PartEmis experiment: Hygroscopicity at subsaturated conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hygroscopic properties of combustion particles were measured online with a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) during PartEmis jet engine combustor experiments. The combustor was operated at old and modern cruise conditions with fuel sulfur contents (FSC) of 50, 410 and 1270 mug g-1, and hygroscopic growth factors (HGF) of particles with different dry diameters were investigated at relative humidities

M. Gysel; S. Nyeki; E. Weingartner; U. Baltensperger; H. Giebl; R. Hitzenberger; A. Petzold; C. W. Wilson

2003-01-01

287

Air-fuel ratio controlling system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air-fuel ratio controlling system for a fuel-injection type internal combustion engine has an air valve disposed in an air intake duct upstream of a throttle valve and a fuel-metering variable orifice disposed in a fuel circuit. The air valve and the fuel-metering variable orifice are operatively associated with each other and controlled normally to maintain the air-fuel ratio at

T. Ando; M. Minoura; K. Motosugi; S. Sekiya; M. Sumiyoshi; Y. Takeuchi; J. Uozumi

1980-01-01

288

Method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to the method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion, which includes drying, classification and crushing of the fuel. The method for treatment of fuel comprises mixing the fuel with hot ash removed from the fluidized bed combustor and drying said mixture in a fluidized bed dryer in which the velocity of the fluidization fluid equals or is lower than the minimum fluidization velocity of particles in the fluidized bed combustor. The equipment for treatment of fuel comprises a bunker, crusher and dryer, comprising a fluidized bed dryer provided with appropriate piping for interconnection of the fluidized bed dryer, fluidized bed combuster, fuel bunker and crusher.

Beranek, J.; Cermak, J.; Dobrozemsky, J.; Fibinger, V.

1982-04-20

289

Apparatus for controlling fuel injection and swirl motion of air in internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel-injected internal combustion engine is described, comprising: a fuel injection valve disposed in an intake passage which communicates with a combustion chamber by way of an intake valve; a spark generating means disposed at an upper portion of the combustion chamber above a piston; a swirl controlling device for controlling a swirling motion to be given to intake air in the circumferential direction of the cylinder forming the combustion chamber; a control device which, at least at low load, controls the fuel injection valve to inject fuel; and a correction means for overriding the control device when the engine is cold for controlling the fuel injection valve to start fuel injection before the intake valve is opened and for controlling the swirl controlling device to suppress production of swirling motion of intake air.

Hatsoka, K.; Yamashita, A.; Misumi, M.; Hashimoto, N.

1989-03-07

290

Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

Reck, G. M.

1980-01-01

291

Study on Combustion Oscillation of Premixed Flame with Pilot Fuel at Elevated Pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustically-coupled combustion oscillation is studied for premixed flame with pilot fuel to be used in gas turbine combustors. Premixed gas is passed through swirl vanes and burnt with the centrally injected pilot fuel. The dependencies of pressure, fuel to air ratio, premixed fuel rate, inlet velocity and air temperature on the combustion oscillation are investigated. Two kinds of oscillation modes of ˜100Hz and ˜350Hz are activated according to inlet velocities. Fluctuating pressures are amplified when the premixed fuel rate is over ˜80% at elevated pressures. The fluctuating pressure peak moves to a higher premixed fuel ratio region with increased pressure or fuel to air ratio for the Helmholz type mode. Combustion oscillation occurs when the pilot fuel velocity is changed proportionally with the flame length.

Ohtsuka, Masaya; Yoshida, Shohei; Hirata, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Nariyoshi

292

Review and analysis of spray combustion as related to alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature on spray combustion was conducted, with particular emphasis on theoretical and experimental work on droplet and spray combustion relevant to the use of alternate fuels (mainly liquid fuels derived from coal and shale). Principal differences between coal-derived liquid fuel and petroleum have been identified. Coal liquids have a lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, higher aromatic compound content,

C. H. Black; H. H. Chiu; J. Fischer; J. M. Clinch

1979-01-01

293

A combustion and wear analysis of a compression ignition engine using coal slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal slurry fuels were combusted in an indirect injection diesel engine at a 16.5:1 compression ratio with engine speeds of 800, 1,000, and 1,200 rpm. Five different coal fuels were used in liquid carriers of diesel fuel No. 2, methanol, water, and methanol-water blends. Data on combustion, gaseous emissions, and wear are presented. The experimental equipment is described and schematics

J. M. Clingenpeel; D. B. Eccleston; M. D. Gurney

1984-01-01

294

The NASA broad specification fuels combustion technology program at Pratt and Whitney  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology required to accommodate the use of broadened properties fuels in commercial aircraft engine combustors with minimum impact on the emissions, performance, durability and engine operational characteristics is discussed. Emphasis was placed on defining the potential for reducing the fuel sensitivity of the reference combustion system through design refinements and the introduction of more advanced technology combustors. To this end the tests conducted included the evaluation of variations of three different combustor concepts representing progressively more advanced technology levels. It was demonstrated that reduced fuel hydrogen content has adverse impacts on current single stage combustors; the best opportunities for reducing the fuel sensitivity of these combustors are through improved fuel injectors and advanced liner cooling and structural concepts and that the advanced technology staged and variable geometry combustor concepts have inherent operational flexibility that can be exploited to accommodate changes in fuel composition. Also, advanced technology combustor concepts were evaluated. A variable geometry combustor capable of airflow modulation during operation and a new concept which is a further evolution of the Vorbix combustor are discussed.

Lohmann, R. P.

1984-01-01

295

Effect [of] co-combustion of sewage sludge and biomass on combustion behavior and emissions in pulverized fuel systems  

SciTech Connect

Biomass not only has a considerable potential as an additional fuel source but also shows a reasonable cost level in comparison to other renewable energies. The practicable fuel types are both residual material from forestry and agriculture, such as wood or straw, and especially cultivated reproducible feedstock such as Miscanthus Sinensis, whole cereal plants, poplars, or willows. Besides as single fuel, it is also considered to be sensible to utilize biomass in co-combustion in existing firing systems, such as pc-fired power stations. Biomass or sewage sludge utilized as additional fuel in coal combustion systems has consequences on combustion behavior, emissions, corrosion and residual matter. The effects of burning sewage sludge and agricultural residuals such as straw and manure as well as specially grown energy plants in combination with coal were studied in a 0.5 MW pulverized fuel test facility and a 20 kW electrically heated combustor. A major aspect of the investigations had been the required preparation and milling of the additional fuels. The investigations showed that in co-combustion of straw with coal, a grinding of 6 mm and finer is sufficient. The definitely coarser milling degree of biomass delays combustion and is observable by in-flame measurements. The investigations reveal that biomass addition has a positive effect on emissions. Since biomass in most cases contains considerably less sulphur than coal, an increasing biomass share in the thermal output makes the SO{sub 2} emissions decrease proportionally. In addition, SO{sub 2} can partly be captured in the ash by the alkaline-earth fractions of the biomass ash. As for sewage sludge, the emissions of SO{sub 2} correlate with the sulphur content of the fuel and, hence, rise with an increasing share of this biomass. Independently from the type, biomass shows a considerably stronger release of volatile matter. This latter fact may have a positive impact on NOx emissions when NOx-reducing techniques are applied. Within the framework of these investigations the following configurations were used: (1) unstaged combustion with preblending of coal and biomass, (2) air-staged combustion with preblending of coal and biomass, (3) reburning with biomass as reduction fuel, and (4) various burner configurations. The results show that the burner design and operation mode have a great influence on the NOx emissions of combined flames. Air staging and reburning are effective measures to reduce the NOx emissions of combined fuels. NOx emissions smaller than 300 mg/m at 6% O{sub 2} can be reached with all fuels.

Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

1999-07-01

296

Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

297

Fuel injection control system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injection control system is described for an internal combustion engine having an air intake passage, the fuel injection control system comprising: a Karman vortex generator means, disposed in the air intake passage of the engine, for generating Karman vortices; a Karman vortex frequency detecting means, comprising an ultrasonic wave oscillator and an ultrasonic wave receiver each disposed downstream of the Karman vortex generator means, for detecting the frequency of the generated Karman vortices; a control signal generating means, operably connected to the Karman vortex frequency detecting means, for generating a control signal comprising a plurality of pulses with a predetermined width; a fuel injector means, driven by the control signal generated by the control signal generating means, for injecting fuel into the air intake passage; an intake air temperature detecting means for detecting the temperature of the intake air; a memory means for storing pulse width correction values corresponding to respective combinations of detected frequency of the generated Karman vortices and temperature of intake air so as to compensate for variations of the Strouhal Number with the detected frequency of the generated Karman vortices and the temperature of the intake air; and a pulse width correcting means, operably connected to the Karman vortex frequency means, the intake air temperature detecting means, the control signal generating means and the memory means, for correcting the pulse width of the pulses in the control signal in accordance with the correction value stored in the memory means for the combination of detected frequency of the generated Karman vortices and temperature of intake air.

Tsuchida, T.; Kido, Y.

1986-08-19

298

Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry;

A. Gupta; R. Natole; A. Sanyal; J. Veilleux

1998-01-01

299

Fuel system design concepts for broad property fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study assessing the impact of using jet fuel with relaxed specification properties on an aircraft fuel system are given. The study objectives were to identify credible values for specific fuel properties which might be relaxed, to evolve advanced fuel system designs for airframe and engines which would permit use of the specified relaxed properties fuels, and to evaluate performance of the candidate advanced fuel systems and the relaxed property fuels in a typical transport aircraft. The study used, as a baseline, the fuel system incorporated in the Lockheed Tristar. This aircraft is powered by three RB.211-524 Rolls-Royce engines and incorporates a Pratt and Whitney ST6C-421 auxiliary power unit for engine starting and inflight emergency electrical power. The fuel property limits examined are compared with commercial Jet A kerosene and the NASA RFP fuel properties. A screening of these properties established that a higher freezing point and a lower thermal stability would impact fuel system design more significantly than any of the other property changes. Three candidate fuel systems which combine the ability to operate with fuels having both a high freeze point and a low thermal stability are described. All candidates employ bleed air to melt fuel freeze-out prior to starting the APU or an inoperable engine. The effects of incorporating these systems on aircraft weight and engine specific fuel consumption are given.

Versaw, E. F.

1984-01-01

300

Assessment of organic contaminants in emissions from refuse-derived fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

Organic contaminants in emissions from refuse-derived fuel combustion were investigated in a 20-inch-diameter atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor. Combinations of coal/EcoFuel/MSW/toluene were burned inthe combustor with temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1550 degrees F. A Source Assessment Sampling System (SASS) was used to sample the stack gas; Level 1 methodology was used to analyze the organic-contaminant levels. Combustion efficiencies of 93 to 98 percent were achieved in the test burns. Combustion of the EcoFuel generated fewer organic emissions than combustion of coal at similar combustion temperatures. The fine particulate collected by the SASS train filter contained higher concentrations of extractable organics than the reactor fly ash and the SASS cyclone samples. Combustion of a toluene/EcoFuel mix generated a large number of benzene derivatives not seen in the combustion of pure EcoFuel. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant organic compounds contained in the XAD-2 resin extract from coal combustion. A number of different priority pollutants were identified in the samples collected.

Chrostowski, J.; Wait, D.; Kwong, E.; Jefferies, A.; Rodgers, C.

1985-09-01

301

Effect of air-staging on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 2  

SciTech Connect

The concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources brought the concept of biomass and waste as secondary fuels to the power industry. Mercury emissions in cases of cofiring of chicken manure, olive residue, and B-wood with a high volatile bituminous coal blend are studied in the first part of this paper. The use of secondary fuels significantly affects NOx emissions due to different types of nitrogen present in the fuel matrix. Air-staging is a proven in-furnace NOx reduction technology. The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate the effect of air-staging on partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor at 1300{sup o}C with a 20%th share of secondary fuels. Elemental and total gaseous mercury from the reactor is measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with elemental and surface properties. Reducing the air stoichiometry in the primary zone of the combustor increases unburnt carbon which in turn reduces mercury emissions in the gas phase. Ash analysis shows the effect of surface area, particle size, and unburnt carbon on mercury capture. Calcium variation in the ash was observed due to formation of different slag in reducing and oxidizing conditions and might have affected the mercury capture in combination with the above parameters. A low iron concentration of ash does not seem to affect the capture of mercury. The results will help in predicting different forms of mercury emitted from the furnace at desired operating conditions which will eventually form the basis for the design of the control strategies for mercury emissions. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

2007-08-15

302

Ammonia chemistry in oxy-fuel combustion of methane  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of NH{sub 3} during oxy-fuel combustion of methane, i.e., at high [CO{sub 2}], has been studied in a flow reactor. The experiments covered stoichiometries ranging from fuel rich to very fuel lean and temperatures from 973 to 1773 K. The results have been interpreted in terms of an updated detailed chemical kinetic model. A high CO{sub 2} level enhanced formation of NO under reducing conditions while it inhibited NO under stoichiometric and lean conditions. The detailed chemical kinetic model captured fairly well all the experimental trends. According to the present study, the enhanced CO concentrations and alteration in the amount and partitioning of O/H radicals, rather than direct reactions between N-radicals and CO{sub 2}, are responsible for the effect of a high CO{sub 2} concentration on ammonia conversion. When CO{sub 2} is present as a bulk gas, formation of NO is facilitated by the increased OH/H ratio. Besides, the high CO levels enhance HNCO formation through NH{sub 2}+CO. However, reactions NH{sub 2}+ O to form HNO and NH{sub 2}+H to form NH are inhibited due to the reduced concentration of O and H radicals. Instead reactions of NH{sub 2} with species from the hydrocarbon/methylamine pool preserve reactive nitrogen as reduced species. These reactions reduce the NH{sub 2} availability to form NO by other pathways like via HNO or NH and increase the probability of forming N{sub 2} instead of NO. (author)

Mendiara, Teresa; Glarborg, Peter [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

2009-10-15

303

Use of fluidic oscillator to measure fuel-air ratios of combustion gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluidic oscillator was investigated for use in measuring fuel-air ratios in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The oscillator was operated with dry exhaust gas from an experimental combustor burning ASTM A-1 fuel. Tests were conducted with fuel-air ratios between 0.015 and 0.031. Fuel-air ratios determined by oscillator frequency were within 0.001 of the values computed from separate flow measurements of the air and fuel.

Riddlebaugh, S. M.

1974-01-01

304

Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

1955-01-01

305

Effect of secondary fuels and combustor temperature on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 1  

SciTech Connect

The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion at 1000 and 1300{sup o}C. High volatile bituminous coal is used as a reference case and chicken manure, olive residue, and B quality (demolition) wood are used as secondary fuels with 10 and 20% thermal shares. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor with a fuel input of 7-8 kWth. Elemental and total gaseous mercury concentrations in the flue gas of the reactor are measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with other elemental and surface properties. Animal waste like chicken manure behaves very differently from plant waste. The higher chlorine contents of chicken manure cause higher ionic mercury concentrations whereas even with high unburnt carbon, particulate mercury reduces with increase in the chicken manure share. This might be a problem due to coarse fuel particles, low surface area, and iron contents. B-wood and olive residue cofiring reduces the emission of total gaseous mercury and increases particulate mercury capture due to unburnt carbon formed, fine particles, and iron contents of the ash. Calcium in chicken manure does not show any effect on particulate or gaseous mercury. It is probably due to a higher calcium sulfation rate in the presence of high sulfur and chlorine contents. However, in plant waste cofiring, calcium may have reacted with chlorine to reduce ionic mercury to its elemental form. According to thermodynamic predictions, almost 50% of the total ash is melted to form slag at 1300{sup o}C in cofiring because of high calcium, iron, and potassium and hence mercury and other remaining metals are concentrated in small amounts of ash and show an increase at higher temperatures. No slag formation was predicted at 1000{sup o}C. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

2007-08-15

306

Reduced Equations for Calculating the Combustion Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simplified kinetic schemes for Jet-A and methane fuels were developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) that is being developed at Glenn. These kinetic schemes presented here result in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall cell fuel/air ratio, pressure, and temperature. The correlations would then be used with the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties and progress of the reaction. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentration of carbon monoxide as a function of fuel air ratio, pressure, and temperature. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates and the values obtained from the equilibrium correlations were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide, and NOx were obtained for both Jet-A fuel and methane.

Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

2003-01-01

307

A Study on Hydrogen Combustion Ignited with Light Oil in a Dual Fuel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In diesel engines, there is a problem that both smoke and nitrogen oxide cannot be reduced simultaneously. There have been many studies on solving this problem. One of the solutions is utilization of gaseous fuel. Gaseous fuel is inducted from an intake port and the combustion starts by injecting light oil. Hydrogen is considered as a future fuel without exhausting

Eiji TOMITA; Nobuyuki KAWAHARA; Yoshisuke HAMAMOTO; Zhen-Yu PIAO; Shogo FUJITA

308

Trapped Vortex Combustion Chamber: Design and Experimental Investigations Using Hydrogen as Fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of trapped vortex combustion chamber was undertaken as a part of ongoing research on micro combustion chamber using hydrogen as fuel. The reacting experimental studies were then carried out on the designed chamber. The fuel was injected directly into the cavity. The combustion was first initiated in the cavity with 3 % of the main flow air supplied in reverse direction to the fuel flow. The combustion in cavity was of rich type. Temperature levels in the range of 900 K were encountered in the cavity. Thereafter, diffusion combustion was initiated using the flame generated in the cavity. The temperature levels in this stage were in the range of 1,800 K. The overall pressure drop for a trapped vortex combustor was less than 5 % at all operating parameters.

Kulshreshtha, D. B.; Channiwala, S. A.

2014-01-01

309

Pressure-coupled vaporization and combustion responses of liquid-fuel droplets in high-pressure environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic responses of liquid-fuel droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient pressure oscillations are examined. The analysis is based on the complete sets of conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates detailed treatments of finite-rate chemical kinetics and variable properties. With a full account of thermodynamic phase equilibrium at the droplet surface, the model enables a systematic examination of the effects of ambient flow conditions on the droplet behavior. The responses of hydrocarbon fuel droplets in both sub- and super-critical environments are investigated. Results indicate that the droplet gasification and burning mechanisms depend greatly on the ambient pressure. In particular, a rapid enlargement of the vaporization and combustion responses occurs when the droplet surface reaches its critical point, mainly due to the strong variations of latent heat of vaporization and thermophysical properties at the critical state.

Yang, Vigor; Shuen, J. S.; Hsiao, C. C.

1991-01-01

310

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 7, October 1990--December 1990  

SciTech Connect

During the fourth quarter of 1990, the following technical progress was made: (1) Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of microbubble flotation beneficiated products; (2) continued drop tube combustion tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; (3) analyzed the data from three (MIT) pilot-scale combustion tests of the Upper Freeport feed coal; and (4) continued analyses of the data from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels.

Hargrove, M.J.; Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-02-01

311

Ignition and combustion study of JP-8 fuel in a supersonic flowfield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ignition and combustion process of fuels in a supersonic combustion chamber plays an important role in the design of hypersonic\\u000a propulsion system. However, it is a quite complicated process, due to the large variation of inlet air velocity, temperature,\\u000a oxygen concentration, and shocks in the supersonic combustion chamber. The purpose of this paper is to observe the ignition\\u000a delay

J. M. Char; W. J. Liou; J. H. Yeh; C. L. Chiu

1996-01-01

312

Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors which will determine the future supply and cost of aviation turbine fuels are discussed. The most significant fuel properties of volatility, fluidity, composition, and thermal stability are discussed along with the boiling ranges of gasoline, naphtha jet fuels, kerosene, and diesel oil. Tests were made to simulate the low temperature of an aircraft fuel tank to determine fuel tank temperatures for a 9100-km flight with and without fuel heating; the effect of N content in oil-shale derived fuels on the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester breakpoint temperature was measured. Finally, compatibility of non-metallic gaskets, sealants, and coatings with increased aromatic content jet fuels was examined.

Reck, G. M.

1980-01-01

313

Study of the combustion characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

This research analyzes the combustion characteristics of dual-fueled diesel engines. A medium-displacement high-speed engine type is used in the experimental work. Research efforts have concentrated on the combustion characteristics of the larger, lower-speed engines primarily designed for dual-fuel operation. Also, effects have produced certain engine conversions in the medium size high-speed range. The combustion theory of these engines is applied, developed, and expanded to fit high-speed medium-sized, direct-injected engines. Two engines are used in this study: a 3208 Caterpillar V-8 that is naturally aspirated and a 4307 Caterpillar in-line six-cylinder that is turbocharged and intercooled. The experimental work for this study is devoted to the application of a retrofit methane system to fumigate methane into the intake of a diesel engine. The mixture is ignited with a pilot charge of diesel fuel injected into the cylinder by the engine's fuel injection system the fuel-air ratio at the point of optimum combustion exemplifies proportions designed to insure similar performances as the original diesel engine. Systematic experimentation designed to collect data such as performance, emissions, and specific fuel consumption indicates. The maximum combustion efficiency. Through theory and experimental evidence. This study provides the necessary information to assure complete, controlled dual-fuel combustion in medium-sized, high-speed diesels.

Acker, G.H. Jr.

1986-01-01

314

Apparatus for controlling the proportion of air and fuel in an air-fuel mixture of the international combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for controlling the proportion of air and fuel in the air-fuel mixture of the internal combustion engine includes a carburetor having a main system fuel tube, a main system air-bleeding passage, a slow system fuel tube and a slow system air-bleeding passage, and a proportional control solenoid valve including an air-inlet port, a first outlet port communicating with

M. Akagi; K. Hattori; K. Kato; I. Nomura

1984-01-01

315

Pozzolanic properties of pulverized coal combustion bottom ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pozzolanic properties of a coal combustion bottom ash were investigated. Plain pastes containing equal amounts of calcium hydroxide and bottom ash were prepared and analyzed at different ages for their strength and the calcium hydroxide consumption. At early ages, bottom ash does not react with calcium hydroxide. Its pozzolanic reaction proceeds slowly and accelerates gradually to become very interesting

M. Cheriaf; J. Cavalcante Rocha; J. Péra

1999-01-01

316

Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is

Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga

2007-01-01

317

Options for reducing corrosion in the combustion of ''dirty fuels''. Paper No. 167  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parts and combinations of each of the four options offer utilities effective measures for minimizing the adverse effects associated with the combustion of dirty fossil fuels. For the next several years: (1) The removal of impurities prior to combustion is realistically limited to sodium in oil and possibly sulfur in coal. (2) Past proven methods of modifying operating conditions will

Levy; N. Jr

1975-01-01

318

FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

319

Low-temperature combustion of solid fuels in a fluid bed containing a heat sink  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the influence of particle size, bed temperature, gas velocity and oxygen level on the residence time required to complete combustion of solid fuels, which included various ranks of coal and wood, injected into a fluid bed operating at 1600 F. A simple, well-stirred reactor was used as the basis for modeling the heat-transfer and combustion

R. W. Bryers

1977-01-01

320

Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved

Kenneth K. Kuo; Y. C. Lu; Martin J. Chiaverini; George C. Harting

1994-01-01

321

Coal-water slurry fueled internal combustion engine and method for operating same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot strea...

M. H. McMillian

1992-01-01

322

Extension of the Lean Operating Limit of a Rotary Combustion Engine by Hydrogen Enriched Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extension of the Lean Operating Limit (LOL) of internal combustion engines by hydrogen fuel addition has been proposed as a viable means of reducing species emissions and increasing thermal efficiency. A review of the literature pertinent to both the ...

J. E. Cichanowicz

1975-01-01

323

Operator's Guide for Spreader-Stoker Combustion Systems Using Agri-Wastes (Wood Residue Fuels).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental research program was conducted at Oregon State University to develop a data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels as they are burned in industrial spreader-stoker boilers. The results of that experimental program imp...

D. C. Junge

1979-01-01

324

Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the...

C. T. Chang D. R. Vrnak J. C. DeLaat J. R. Saus

2012-01-01

325

40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section...of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must...

2010-07-01

326

Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Pulverized Coal: Characterization, Fundamentals, Stabilization and CFD Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-fuel combustion has generated significant interest since it was proposed as a carbon capture technology for newly built and retrofitted coal-fired power plants. Research, development and demonstration of oxy-fuel combustion technologies has been advancing in recent years; however, there are still fundamental issues and technological challenges that must be addressed before this technology can reach its full potential, especially in

Lei Chen; Sze Zheng Yong; Ahmed F. Ghoniem

327

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE COMBUSTION OF ORGANIC-GELLANT-BASED GEL FUEL DROPLETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomena involved in the combustion of two organic-gellant-based gelled fuels, one non-metallized and one metallized, were investigated. The non-metal part consisted by 15% organic gellant and 85% JP-8. A high-speed (up to 2,000 frames\\/sec) digital video camera was employed in the present study. The combustion characteristics of the organic-gellant-based gel fuels were found to be different from those of

YAIR SOLOMON; BENVENISTE NATAN

2006-01-01

328

The potential for clean energy production using oxy-fuel combustion and integrated pollutant removal  

SciTech Connect

Effective remediation of flue gas produced by an oxy-fuel coal combustion process has been proven at bench scale in the course of cooperative research between USDOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. All combustion gas pollutants were captured, including CO2 which was compressed to a liquefied state suitable for sequestration. Current laboratory-scale research and the future of combined oxy-fuel/IPR systems are discussed.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Weber, Thomas (Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, Schiller Park, IL 60176).; Summers, Cathy A.

2005-05-01

329

Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO.sub.x and CO levels  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for safely combusting a fuel in such manner that very low levels of NO.sub.x and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line (12) containing a fuel and an inlet line (18) containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line (12) and to the oxidant line (18) is a mixing means (11,29,33,40) for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means (11,29,33,40) is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure (8), into a combustion region (2). Coupled to the combustion region (2) is a means (1,29,33) for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region (2) to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor (1), a rotating band (29), or a rotating cylinder (33) within an acoustic chamber (32) positioned upstream or downstream of the region (2) of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve (11); a rotating cylinder (33); a rotating band (29) having slots (31) that expose open ends (20,21) of said fuel inlet line (12) and said oxidant inlet line (18) simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli (43) and oxidizer annuli (42,44). The means for producing a periodic flow field (1, 29, 33) may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion (2).

Keller, Jay O. (3534 Brunell Dr., Oakland, CA 94602); Bramlette, T. Tazwell (2105 Canyon Lakes Dr., San Ramon, CA 94583); Barr, Pamela K. (294 Joyce St., Livermore, CA 94550)

1996-01-01

330

Biofuels combustion.  

PubMed

This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly. PMID:23298249

Westbrook, Charles K

2013-01-01

331

Combustion tests of beneficiated and micronized coal-water fuels: use of internal-mix atomizer and rotary-cup burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion tests were conducted in an oil-designed 100-hp firetube boiler using a burner with an internal-mix atomizer to determine the effect of coal beneficiation and coal particle size-consist on combustion properties of coal-water fuels (CWF). Samples of Eastern Kentucky bituminous coal, beneficiated to ash levels of 2.5%, 7.8%, and 10.3%, were used to prepare CWF's containing approx. 90% (by weight)

Y. C. Fu; G. T. Bellas; T. D. Brown; J. I. Joubert; G. F. Walbert

1985-01-01

332

Application of a Combustion Model to a Diesel Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and sunflower oil-Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases. The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation: vc·Qc·d??=dU?+dL?+dQw?, [1] where vc is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, ??=vc?/vc, vc? is the quantity of burned fuel up to the moment ?, U? is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qw? is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and L? is the mechanical work. The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one: ??=Rc·[1-exp(-6.9·AmPp+1)]+(1-Rc)·[1-exp(-6.9·Amd+1)], [2] where: ·Ap=(?-?d)/(?P-?d) and A=(?-?d)/(?F-?d) ·?d-start of combustion angle ·?f-end of combustion angle ·?P-end of rapid combustion angle. Using Eqs. [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed during the experiments.

Radu, Rosca; Edward, Rakosi; Comsa, Iulian-Agape; Radu, Gaiginschi

333

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

None

1980-11-01

334

Effects of fuel-injector design on ultra-lean combustion performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions data were obtained for six fuel injector configurations tested with ultra lean combustion. Fuel injectors included three multiple source designs and three configurations using a single air assist injector. Only the multiple source fuel injectors provided acceptable emissions. Values of 16g CO/kg fuel, 1.9g HC/kg fuel, and 19.g NO2/kg fuel were obtained for the combustion temperature range of 1450 to 1700 K for both a high blockage 19 source injector and a low blockage 41 source injector. It was shown that high fuel injector pressure drop may not be required to achieve low emissions performance at high inlet air temperature when the fuel is well dispersed in the airstream.

Anderson, D. N.

1981-01-01

335

The properties of hydrogen as fuel tomorrow in sustainable energy system for a cleaner planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global energy system transition from fossil fuel to hydrogen utilization is described. Environmental benefits of the combustion of hydrogen are reported. World carbon emissions from fossil fuel are schematized in connection with the opportunities of using hydrogen. The atomic hydrogen\\/carbon ratio and chemical properties of hydrogen are described. Pollutants of the energy system in our planet and hydrogen production

Magdalena Momirlan; T. N. Veziroglu

2005-01-01

336

Apparatus for controlling the air fuel mixture of an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel feeding apparatus for internal combustion engines comprises an area type air flow rate measuring section in which the air flow rate is dependent on the displacement of an air flow rate detecting valve, and a fuel flow rate measuring and distributing section in which a variable orifice defined by a rotor and a stator determines the fuel flow rate proportional to the air flow rate. This apparatus is characterized by the provision of an exhaust gas sensor disposed in the exhaust pipe for the detection of the oxygen concentration of the exhaust gas in order to achieve the complete combustion of fuel in the internal combustion engine, the output signal from the exhaust gas sensor being used to compensate the fuel feeding pressure and a spring force which acts on the pressure difference setting diaphragm of a servo-mechanism.

Harada, H.; Kimata, K.; Nakazeki, T.

1980-06-03

337

Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL

2009-01-01

338

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Jet Fuels. Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of jet fuels and appropriately associated model fuels. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels and biomass-derived jet fuels that meet certain specifications of currently used jet propulsion applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multidimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in real combustors. Such reliable kinetic models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal combustors and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics.

Meeks, Ellen; Naik, Chitral V.; Puduppakkam, Karthik V.; Modak, Abhijit; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, Theo; Westbrook, Charles K.

2011-01-01

339

Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.  

SciTech Connect

Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

1990-04-01

340

Diazido alkanes and diazido alkanols as combustion modifiers for liquid hydrocarbon ramjet fuels  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to liquid-hydrocarbon jet fuels and more particularly to azido additives to liquid-hydrocarbon ramjet fuels. In most liquid-fueled combustors such as the ramjet, the fuel is directly introduced into the upstream flow section of the combustion chamber in the form of sprays of droplets. These droplets subsequently mix with the external gas, heat up, gasify, combust, and thereby release heat to provide the propulsion energy. It is therefore obvious that the rates of gasification and mixing would closely affect the chemical heat release rate and, consequently, such important performance parameters as combustion efficiency and the tendency to exhibit combustion instability. Accordingly, and object of this invention is to provide a new, improved jet fuel and provide new additives for jet fuels. A further object of this invention is to provide a more-efficient jet fuel and reduce the ignition time for jet fuels. Still, a further object of this invention is to improve the mixing characteristics of the jet-fuel spray.

Miller, R.S.

1986-07-03

341

The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire.  

PubMed

The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire was experimentally studied in an open fire test space of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science. A 30cm×30cm square pool filled with n-heptane and ethanol blended fuel was employed. Flame images, burning rate and temperature distribution were collected and recorded in the whole combustion process. Results show that azeotropism obviously dominates the combustion behavior of n-heptane/ethanol blended fuel pool fire. The combustion process after ignition exhibits four typical stages: initial development, azeotropic burning, single-component burning and decay stage. Azeotropism appears when temperature of fuel surface reaches azeotropic point and blended fuel burns at azeotropic ratio. Compared with individual pure fuel, the effect of azeotropism on main fire parameters, such as flame height, burning rate, flame puffing frequency and centerline temperature were analyzed. Burning rate and centerline temperature of blended fuel are higher than that of individual pure fuel respectively at azeotropic burning stage, and flame puffing frequency follows the empirical formula between Strouhal and Froude number for pure fuel. PMID:24632362

Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Lu, Shouxiang

2014-04-30

342

Characterizing droplet combustion of pure and multi-component liquid fuels in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of understanding the effects of fuel composition, length scales, and other parameters on the combustion of liquid fuels has motivated the examination of simple flames which have easily characterized flow fields and hence, the potential of being modeled accurately. One such flame for liquid fuel combustion is the spherically symmetric droplet flame which can be achieved in an environment with sufficiently low gravity (i.e., low buoyancy). To examine fundamental characteristics of spherically symmetric droplet combustion, a drop tower facility has been employed to provide a microgravity environment to study droplet combustion. This paper gives a brief review of results obtained over the past three years under NASA sponsorship (grant NAG3-987).

Jackson, Gregory S.; Avedisian, C. Thomas

1993-01-01

343

Aviation turbine fuel properties and their trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel property values and their trends were studied through a review of a recognized, wide ranging sample population from actual fuel inspection data. A total of 676 fuel samples of Jet A aviation turbine fuel were compiled over an eleven year period. Results indicate that most fuel samples have one to three near-specification properties, the most common being aromatics, smoke point, and freezing point.

Friedman, R.

1981-01-01

344

Combustion engine having fuel cut-off at idle speed and compressed air starting and method of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a non-idle method of operating an internal combustion engine including a rotary engine shaft; fuel supply means to supply fuel to the engine to cause the operation of the engine; an air compressor driven by rotation of the shaft and communicating with the engine to supply compressed air thereto for mixing with fuel to form a combustible

Slaughter

1988-01-01

345

Pulsating combustion of gas fuel in the combustion chamber with closed resonant circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the combustion chambers of the pulsation of gas flow oscillation greatly accelerate heat dissipation to the walls of the combustion chamber and improve combustion efficiency as compared with a uniform combustion mode. This allows you to effectively solve a number of problems of industrial power, including an environmentally friendly combustion products. Significant drawback of such systems - the emitted noise exceeding the permissible requirements. One solution to this problem - the separation of the resonance tube into 2 parts connected at the output to the interference of sound waves. The results of theoretical studies pulsating combustion technical mixture of propane in the system, consisting of a combustion chamber and two resonance tubes forming a closed resonant circuit. Resonators have a variable length. Calculations have shown that under certain oscillation of the resonator length to the first resonant frequency of the system is achieved by reducing SPL more than 15 dB. For oscillations at a second resonant frequency is the complete elimination of noise while maintaining intense oscillations in the combustion chamber.

Yallina, E. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Iovleva, O. V.

2013-12-01

346

Method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to the method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion, which includes drying, classification and crushing of the fuel. The method for treatment of fuel comprises mixing the fuel with hot ash removed from the fluidized bed combustor and drying said mixture in a fluidized bed dryer in which the velocity of the fluidization fluid equals or is lower than the minimum fluidization velocity of particles in the fluidized bed combustor. The equipment for treatment of fuel comprises a bunker, crusher and dryer, comprising a fluidized bed dryer provided with appropriate piping for interconnection of the fluidized bed dryer, fluidized bed combustor, fuel bunker and crusher.

Beranek, J.; Dobrozemsky, J.; Fibinger, V.; Germak, J.

1983-11-15

347

The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Inst.

1998-05-01

348

Non-LTE thermodynamic properties for combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

The nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of a product-gas derived from fluidized combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal is obtained using a multitemperature statistical thermodynamic computer model. Concentrations of 18 species are determined as a function of translational temperature (500 < T < 2500 K), pressure (0.1, 1.0, and 10 atm), and vibrational-to-translational temperature ratios of 0.5, 1, 2, and 5. The rotational and electronic excitation temperatures are assumed equal to the translational temperature. The partition functions and usual thermodynamic properties are also calculated and a nonequilibrium Mollier diagram is presented. The multitemperature model assumes chemical equilibrium and therefore represents a first step in describing nonequilibrium combustion reactions in a semiclassical manner. The model can be applied to reactions via chemical kinetics and/or an extension to a multichemical nonequilibrium model. The results indicate the relative concentration of species usually considered to be pollutants, under the range of conditions examined.

Fentress, M.L.; Eddy, T.L.

1987-09-01

349

Review Bomb calorimeters for determination of the specific combustion heat of fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, due to commercialization and decentralization of the fuel shipment system in the former USSR countries, the quality control of the fuel used in power engineering and on industrial enterprizes has grown sharply in importance. In order to carry out quality control, reliable and convenient measuring instruments are required. The specific heat of combustion (SHC) is the main power-engineering characteristic

L. I. Vorob'yov; T. G. Grishchenko; L. V. Dekusha

1997-01-01

350

ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic contaminants in emissions from refuse-derived fuel combustion were investigated in a 20-inch-diameter atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor. Combinations of coal/EcoFuel/MSW/toluene were burned inthe combustor with temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1550 degrees F. A Source ...

351

High turbulence combustion chamber for turbocharged lean burn gaseous fueled engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gaseous fueled engine having at least a cylinder with an fuel\\/air intake and combustion product exhaust to be used in a cylinder head having a flat lower surface enclosing one end of the cylinder, and a piston with a flat top piston head slidably received in the cylinder. The improvement consists of: a. an ignition device

Joyce

1988-01-01

352

Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Institute of Research for Combustion

2008-12-15

353

Combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression-ignition engine using dual ammonia-diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the performance of a compression-ignition engine using a dual-fuel approach with ammonia and diesel fuel. With the world's increasing need for alternative energy and clean emissions, ammonia stands out as a viable candidate since its combustion does not produce the known greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Ammonia is one of the world's most synthesized chemicals and its infrastructure

Aaron Reiter

2009-01-01

354

The combustion characteristics of coal slurry fuels in diesel engines: Detailed measurements and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program designed to address the atomization, ignition, and combustion problems associated with the use of slurry fuels in diesel engines is described. The program involves high-pressure injection rig and engine testing of three coal slurry fuels in Phase I, and modification of an existing analytical diesel engine heat release and pollutant formation model to include provision for coal slurry

L. P. Nelson; M. T. Heap; T. W. Sampson; W. R. Seeker

1985-01-01

355

Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

1975-01-01

356

Method and apparatus for increasing radiant heat production of hydrocarbon fuel combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combustion apparatus. It comprises: a pair of spaced electrodes defining a gap; means for conveying an oxidant free fuel through the gap; means for establishing a continuous arc across the gap to pyrolytically form particles dispersed in such conveyed fuel, means for preventing the deposit of such pyrolytically formed particles on one of the electrodes; and

1991-01-01

357

Combustion-derived substances in deep basins of Puget Sound: historical inputs from fossil fuel and biomass combustion.  

PubMed

Reconstructions of 250 years historical inputs of two distinct types of black carbon (soot/graphitic black carbon (GBC) and char-BC) were conducted on sediment cores from two basins of the Puget Sound, WA. Signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also used to support the historical reconstructions of BC to this system. Down-core maxima in GBC and combustion-derived PAHs occurred in the 1940s in the cores from the Puget Sound Main Basin, whereas in Hood Canal such peak was observed in the 1970s, showing basin-specific differences in inputs of combustion byproducts. This system showed relatively higher inputs from softwood combustion than the northeastern U.S. The historical variations in char-BC concentrations were consistent with shifts in climate indices, suggesting an influence of climate oscillations on wildfire events. Environmental loading of combustion byproducts thus appears as a complex function of urbanization, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate conditions. PMID:21236534

Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce E; Brandenberger, Jill M; Wade, Terry L; Crecelius, Eric

2011-04-01

358

Combustion characteristics of GAP-coated boron particles and the fuel-rich solid propellant  

SciTech Connect

A process was employed that permits the coating of energetic glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) on the boron surface. Ignition and combustion behavior of single particle pure crystalline boron and GAP-coated boron at atmospheric pressure was studied experimentally by injecting the particles into the stream of hot gaseous environment of a flat-flame burner using premixed propane-oxygen-nitrogen gases. Chopped streak photographic observation was used to measure the ignition and combustion time. The flame temperature was fixed around 2,343 K, but under wider O{sub 2} level range than previous investigations. Measurement results show that GAP coating can shorten boron particle ignition delay time, however, the effect diminishes as the O{sub 2} level in combustion gas decreases. Possible mechanisms based on relevant reactions and heat effects were proposed. Combustion characteristics of fuel-rich solid propellants based on GAP-coated amorphous boron particles and uncoated ones were compared using different techniques such as combustion phenomena observations by a windowed strand burner, quenched propellant surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscope, and combustion residues size analysis from the quenched particle collection bomb experiments. It was concluded that GAP-coated amorphous-boron-based fuel-rich propellants exhibit more vigorous combustion phenomena, higher burning rates, and a lesser extent of residue agglomeration than the uncoated baseline propellant. Moreover, reaction mechanisms were proposed to elucidate the combustion products obtained in this study.

Shyu, I.M. [Chung Cheng Inst. of Technology, Tashi (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Applied Chemistry] [Chung Cheng Inst. of Technology, Tashi (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Liu, T.K. [Chung Shan Inst. of Science and Technology, Lungtan (Taiwan, Province of China). Chemical System Research Division] [Chung Shan Inst. of Science and Technology, Lungtan (Taiwan, Province of China). Chemical System Research Division

1995-03-01

359

Combustion of Coal-Gas Fuels in a Staged Combustor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources have been considered for use in industrial gas turbines. Such fuels generally have heating values much lower than the typical gaseous fuel, natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficie...

T. J. Rosfjord J. B. McVey R. A. Sederquist D. F. Schultz

1982-01-01

360

Combustion synthesis and effects of processing parameters on physical properties of {alpha}-alumina  

SciTech Connect

Fine particle porous {alpha}-alumina has been prepared by a wet chemical method of combustion synthesis using an aqueous precursor containing aluminum nitrate (oxidizer) and carbohydrazide, an organic fuel as starting materials. The aluminum nitrate and carbohydrazide were reacted exothermically at 400--600 C. The synthesis of {alpha}-alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was used as a model for understanding the effects of processing parameters on physical properties such as surface area, average pore size, and residual carbon content. The porous powders were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area analysis and elemental analysis. The decomposition of the starting materials was investigated using differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses (DTA/TGA). It has been shown that the furnace temperature, fuel/oxidizer ratio, and precursor water content can be tailored to produce powders with different physical properties.

Collins, M.V.; Hirschfeld, D.A.; Shea, L.E.

2000-01-04

361

CO2 and H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion for zero-emission power  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for zero-emission power generation systems. These systems are intended to produce power without releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. One method to achieve this goal is to produce hydrogen from the gasification of fossil or biomass fuels. Using various membrane and reforming technologies, the carbon in the parent fuel can be shifted to CO2 and removed from the fuel stream, followed by direct CO2 sequestration. The hydrogen fuel can be used directly in gas turbines fitted with low-NOx combustors. A second approach to producing zero-emission power is to replace the nitrogen diluent that accompanies conventional combustion in air with either CO2 or H2O. In this concept, CO2 or H2O is added to oxygen to control combustion temperatures in oxygen–fuel reactions. In the absence of nitrogen, the primary combustion products for any hydrocarbon under lean conditions are then simply CO2 and H2O. Thus, merely cooling the exhaust stream condenses the water and produces an exhaust of pure CO2, ready for sequestration. The dilute oxy-fuel combustion strategy can be incorporated in power cycles that are similar to Brayton or Rankine configurations, using CO2 or H2O as the primary diluent respectively. While the relativemerits of the various strategies to zero-emission power are the subject of various technical and economic studies, very little work has focused on defining the combustion issues associated with the dilute oxy-fuel option. In this paper, the expected combustion performance of CO2 and H2O diluted systems are compared. Experimental results from a high-pressure oxy-fuel combustor are also presented.

G A Richards; K H Casleton; B T Chorpening

2005-01-01

362

Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

2011-11-01

363

Emissions from the laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: Particle morphology and size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of particles emitted by wildland fires contributes to their physical and chemical properties but is rarely determined. As part of a study at the USFS Fire Sciences Laboratory (FSL) investigating properties of particulate matter emitted by fires, we studied the size, morphology, and microstructure of particles emitted from the combustion of eight different wildland fuels (i.e., sagebrush, poplar wood, ponderosa pine wood, ponderosa pine needles, white pine needles, tundra cores, and two grasses) by scanning electron microscopy. Six of these fuels were dry, while two fuels, namely the tundra cores and one of the grasses, had high fuel moisture content. The particle images were analyzed for their density and textural fractal dimensions, their monomer and agglomerate number size distributions, and three different shape descriptors, namely aspect ratio, root form factor, and roundness. The particles were also probed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirming their carbonaceous nature. The density fractal dimension of the agglomerates was determined using two different techniques, one taking into account the three-dimensional nature of the particles, yielding values between 1.67 and 1.83, the other taking into account only the two-dimensional orientation, yielding values between 1.68 and 1.74. The textural fractal dimension that describes the roughness of the boundary of the two-dimensional projection of the particle was between 1.10 and 1.19. The maximum length of agglomerates was proportional to a power a of their diameter and the proportionality constant and the three shape descriptors were parameterized as function of the exponent a.

Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Moosmüller, Hans; Garro, Mark A.; Arnott, W. Patrick; Walker, John; Susott, Ronald A.; Babbitt, Ronald E.; Wold, Cyle E.; Lincoln, Emily N.; Hao, Wei Min

2006-04-01

364

Flammability and the Heat of Combustion of Natural Fuels: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat of combustion (HoC) is a key characteristic of fuels when analyzing and modeling wildfire scenarios. Despite significant differences in the structure of fuels from different environments, HoC is frequently considered a constant. This article briefly reviews methods used to describe natural fuels and the various different definitions of HoC. We also summarize measured values of HoC and elemental analyses

Juan de Dios Rivera; G. Matt Davies; Wolfram Jahn

2012-01-01

365

Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO? allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011. PMID:22143900

Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

2012-04-01

366

Analysis of fuel system technology for broad property fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broad property fuels. Significant results, with emphasis on design practicality from the engine manufacturer' standpoint, are highlighted. Several advanced fuel systems were modeled to determine as accurately as possible the relative merits of each system from the standpoint of compatibility with broad property fuel. Freezing point, thermal stability, and lubricity were key property issues. A computer model was formulated to determine the investment incentive for each system. Results are given.

Coffinberry, G. A.

1984-01-01

367

Non-equilibrium plasma assisted combustion of low heating value fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the effects of non-equilibrium air plasma generated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the combustion of low heating value fuels. The experimental results indicate that addition of a very small amount of energy to the air flow in the form of DBD significantly improves the flame stability. Moreover, main combustion characteristics such as flame propagation speed, combustion intensity and lean blow-off limits are also enhanced by the effect of plasma. Some active radicals such as excited O atom and excited N2 molecule are observed by spectrograph in the discharge area. Based on the results of numerical investigation we can conclude that these active radicals generated in discharge area can accelerate the production rate of active OH radical which plays a key role in the oxidation process of low heating value fuel, and thus the whole combustion process is accelerated.

Hu, Hongbin; Song, Quanbin; Xu, Yanji; Li, Gang; Nie, Chaoqun

2013-06-01

368

Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

1989-01-01

369

Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels. PMID:11219694

Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

2001-01-01

370

Effects of super heating of heavy fuels on combustion and performance in DI diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the effects of temperature of heavy fuels on combustion and engine performance in a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were measured for rapeseed oil, B-heavy oil, and diesel fuel at fuel temperatures from 40/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C. With increased fuel temperature, mainly from improved efficiency of combustion there were significant reductions in the specific energy consumption and smoke emissions. It was found that the improvements were mainly a function of the fuel viscosity, and it was independent of the kind of fuel. The optimum temperature of the fuels with regard to specific energy consumption and smoke emission is about 90/sup 0/C for diesel fuel, 240/sup 0/C for B-heavy oil, and 300/sup 0/C for rapeseed oil. At these temperatures, the viscosities of the fuels show nearly identical value, 0.9 - 3 cSt. The optimum viscosity tends to increase slightly with increases in the swirl ratio in the combustion chamber.

Murayama, T.; Oh, Y.; Kido, A.; Chikahisa, T.; Itow, K.

1986-01-01

371

Method and system for combusting hydrocarbon fuels with low pollutant emissions by controllably extracting heat from the catalytic oxidation stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of combusting hydrocarbon fuel, comprising: (a) mixing the fuel with a first air stream to form a fuel\\/air mixture having an equivalence ratio greater than 1; (b) partially oxidizing the fuel by contacting the fuel\\/air mixture with an oxidation catalyst in a catalytic oxidation stage, thereby generating a heat of reaction and a partial oxidation product

M. B. Colket; A. S. Kesten; J. J. Sangiovanni; M. F. Zabielski; D. R. Pandy; D. J. Seery

1993-01-01

372

Multiphase CFD-based models for chemical looping combustion process: Fuel reactor modeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a flameless two-step fuel combustion that produces a pure CO2 stream, ready for compression and sequestration. The process is composed of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors. The air reactor which is a conventional circulating fluidized bed and the fuel reactor which is a bubbling fluidized bed. The basic principle is to avoid the direct contact of air and fuel during the combustion by introducing a highly-reactive metal particle, referred to as oxygen carrier, to transport oxygen from the air to the fuel. In the process, the products from combustion are kept separated from the rest of the flue gases namely nitrogen and excess oxygen. This process eliminates the energy intensive step to separate the CO2 from nitrogen-rich flue gas that reduce the thermal efficiency. Fundamental knowledge of multiphase reactive fluid dynamic behavior of the gas–solid flow is essential for the optimization and operation of a chemical looping combustor. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase CFD-based models have not been adapted to chemical looping combustion processes in the open literature. In this study, we have developed the reaction kinetics model of the fuel reactor and implemented the kinetic model into a multiphase hydrodynamic model, MFIX, developed earlier at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Simulated fuel reactor flows revealed high weight fraction of unburned methane fuel in the flue gas along with CO2 and H2O. This behavior implies high fuel loss at the exit of the reactor and indicates the necessity to increase the residence time, say by decreasing the fuel flow rate, or to recirculate the unburned methane after condensing and removing CO2.

Jung, Jonghwun (ANL); Gamwo, I.K.

2008-04-21

373

Combustion studies of coal-derived solid fuels. Part IV. Correlation of ignition temperatures from thermogravimetry and free-floating experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The usefulness of TG as an efficient and practical method to characterize the combustion properties of fuels used in large-scale combustors is of considerable interest. Relative ignition temperatures of a lignite, an anthracite, a bituminous coal and three chars derived from this coal were measured by a free-floating technique. These temperatures were correlated with those estimated from TG burning profiles of the fuels. ?? 1992.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J. A.; Chen, W. T.

1992-01-01

374

Effect of broad properties fuel on injector performance in a reverse flow combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of fuel type on the performance of various fuel injectors was investigated in a reverse flow combustor. Combustor performance and emissions are documented for simplex pressure atomizing, spill flow, and airblast fuel injectors using a broad properties fuel and compared with performance using Jet A fuel. Test conditions simulated a range of flight conditions including sea level take off, low and high altitude cruise, as well as a parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading. The baseline simplex injector produced higher emission levels with corresponding lower combustion efficiency with the broad properties fuel. There was little or not loss in performance by the two advanced concept injectors with the broad properties fuel. The airblast injector proved to be especially insensitive to fuel type.

Raddlebaugh, S. M.; Norgren, C. T.

1983-01-01

375

Briquetting and combustion of spring-harvested reed canary-grass: effect of fuel composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding how spring-harvested reed canary-grass briquettes with various chemical compositions with respect to ash content influence the formation of emissions during combustion in a 180kW burner. Furthermore, an objective was to investigate possible ash problems during the combustion. Five fuels were used in the study consisting of three reed canary-grass samples

Susanne Paulrud; Calle Nilsson

2001-01-01

376

High-temperature reduction of nitrogen oxides in oxy-fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of high-temperature reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in oxy-fuel combustion is investigated. A detailed gas-phase model identifies the effect of temperature, stoichiometric ratio, residence time and composition of the oxidizer on NOx reduction. It is concluded that an efficient high-temperature reduction of NOx is achieved with high-purity oxygen, negligible amount of air ingress, presence of a sub-stoichiometric combustion

Fredrik Normann; Klas Andersson; Bo Leckner; Filip Johnsson

2008-01-01

377

Corrosion monitoring using electrochemical noise and linear polarization resistance in fuel oil combustion gas environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion monitoring of different steels is carried out online in a combustion rig firing 32 kg\\/h of fuel oil. Two temperature-controlled\\u000a probes are designed to allow control of the specimens temperature and the use of electrochemical noise (EN) and linear polarization\\u000a resistance (LPR) techniques for corrosion monitoring. Two probes are placed where the combustion gas reached a temperature\\u000a of 850–900°C,

V. M. Salinas-Bravo; J. Porcayo-Calderon; J. G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez

2006-01-01

378

Modeling of Waste-to-Energy Combustion with Continuous Variation of the Solid Waste Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of a mass-burn, waste-to-energy combustion chamber has been developed that includes stochastic representation of the variability of the fuel (municipal solid waste, MSW). The drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion processes on the moving grate are governed by several factors such as proximate and ultimate analysis, particle size, moisture, heating value, and bulk density, all of which change

MASATO NAKAMURA; HANWEI ZHANG; KARSTEN MILLRATH; NICKOLAS J. THEMELIS

379

Low NOx strategy for combusting high-nitrogen-content fuels. Final report, November 1984July 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of an evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner (designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency) for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 1.0 MW package boiler simulator. A low NOx precombustion chamber burner has been reduced in size by about a factor of two (from 600 to 250 ms first-stage

Srivastava

1990-01-01

380

Fireball during combustion of hydrocarbon fuel releases. I. Structure and lift dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation, combustion, and thermal interaction of the fireballs which develop upon ignition of a cloud of hydrocarbon\\u000a fuel near the Earth’s surface are simulated numerically. The axisymmetric nonstationary flow is described by a system of Favre\\u000a averaged conservation equations invoking a (k??)-turbulence model, a model for turbulent combustion, and a global-kinetic scheme for formation and burnup of soot particles.

G. M. Makhviladze; J. P. Roberts; S. E. Yakush

1999-01-01

381

Laboratory test methods for combustion stability properties of solid propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of experimental methods for determining the combustion-stability properties of solid propellants. The methods are generally based on either the temporal response to an initial disturbance or on external methods for generating the required oscillations. The size distribution of condensed-phase combustion products are characterized by means of the experimental approaches. The 'T-burner' approach is shown to assist in the derivation of pressure-coupled driving contributions and particle damping in solid-propellant rocket motors. Other techniques examined include the rotating-valve apparatus, the impedance tube, the modulated throat-acoustic damping burner, and the magnetic flowmeter. The paper shows that experimental methods do not exist for measuring the interactions between acoustic velocity oscillations and burning propellant.

Strand, L. D.; Brown, R. S.

1992-01-01

382

Stability analysis of a liquid fuel annular combustion chamber. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High frequency combustion instability problems in a liquid fuel annular combustion chamber are examined. A modified Galerkin method was used to produce a set of modal amplitude equations from the general nonlinear partial differential acoustic wave equation in order to analyze the problem of instability. From these modal amplitude equations, the two variable perturbation method was used to develop a set of approximate equations of a given order of magnitude. These equations were modeled to show the effects of velocity sensitive combustion instabilities by evaluating the effects of certain parameters in the given set of equations.

Mcdonald, G. H.

1978-01-01

383

Alarming Oxygen Depletion Caused by Hydrogen Combustion and Fuel Cells and their Resolution by Magnegas$^{TM}$  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recall that hydrogen combustion does resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emission of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, hydrogen combustion implies the permanent removal from our atmosphere of directly usable oxygen, a serious environmental problem called oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen is prohibitive

R. M. Santilli

2000-01-01

384

Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.  

PubMed

Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems. PMID:23301852

Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

2013-02-01

385

Municipal waste combustion assessment: Fossil fuel co-firing. Final report, October 1988-July 1989  

SciTech Connect

The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; and describes the population of coal fired boilers that currently co-fire RDF, have previously co-fired RDF but have ceased to do so, and have been used in RDF co-firing demonstrations. (Fossil fuel co-firing, defined as the combustion of RDF with another fuel (usually coal) in a device designed primarily to burn the other fuel, is generally confined to commercial and utility boilers.) Model plants are developed and good combustion practices are recommended.

Landrum, V.J.; Barton, R.G.

1989-07-01

386

Combustion of hydrogen in a two-dimensional duct with step fuel injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the combustion of hydrogen perpendicularly injected from step fuel injectors into a Mach 2.72, 2100 K vitiated test gas was conducted. The model simulated the flow between the center and side struts of an integrated scramjet module at Mach 7 flight and an altitude of 29 km. Parametric variation included equivalence ratio, fuel dynamic pressure ratio, and area distribution of the model. The overall area ratio of the model was held constant at 2.87. The data analysis indicated that no measurable improvement in mixing or combustion efficiency was obtained by varying the fuel dynamic pressure ratio from 0.79 to 2.45. Computations indicated approximately 80 percent of the fuel was mixed so that it could react; however, only approximately 50 percent of the mixed fuel actually reacted in two test configurations, and 74 percent in later tests where less area expansion of the flow occurred.

Eggers, J. M.; Reagon, P. G.; Gooderum, P. B.

1978-01-01

387

Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.  

PubMed

The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000. PMID:24433051

Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

2014-02-01

388

Application of neural network in the study of combustion rate of natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine.  

PubMed

In order to predict and improve the performance of natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine (DFE), a combustion rate model based on forward neural network was built to study the combustion process of the DFE. The effect of the operating parameters on combustion rate was also studied by means of this model. The study showed that the predicted results were good agreement with the experimental data. It was proved that the developed combustion rate model could be used to successfully predict and optimize the combustion process of dual fuel engine. PMID:12659230

Yan, Zhao-Da; Zhou, Chong-Guang; Su, Shi-Chuan; Liu, Zhen-Tao; Wang, Xi-Zhen

2003-01-01

389

Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect

A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

2007-07-01

390

Graphite fuels combustion off-gas treatment options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scenarios for burning bulk graphite and for burning crushed fuel particles from graphite spent nuclear fuels have been considered. Particulates can be removed with sintered metal filters. Subsequent cooling would then condense semi-volatile fission produc...

R. J. Kirkham R. E. Lords

1993-01-01

391

MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FOSSIL FUEL CO-FIRING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; ...

392

Pyrolysis and Combustion Behavior of Ternary Fuel Blends in Air and Oxy-Fuel Conditions by Using TGA-FTIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis and combustion tests of imported coal, an indigenous lignite, petcoke, and their 60\\/30\\/10 wt.% ternary blends were carried out in air and oxy-fuel conditions by using thermogravimetry analysis–Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR). Pyrolysis results of the blend and its parent fuels show that weight loss profiles display similar trends up to 700 °C in both nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres. However,

N. S. Yüzba??; N. Selçuk

2012-01-01

393

Observations on the combustion behavior of coal water fuels and coal water fuels impregnated with calcium magnesium acetate  

SciTech Connect

Combustion studies of single free-falling coal-water fuel (CWF) droplets were conducted in a drop-tube laminar-flow furnace at high heating rates. Most experiments were conducted with predried CWF agglomerates consisting of micronized (3.5 [mu]m mean size) and beneficiated bituminous coal. Agglomerates of known initial size, in the range of 100-600 [mu]m, were burned in air or pure oxygen at furnace temperatures between 1300 and 1500 K. Combustion of CWF agglomerates impregnated with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), which is being considered as a sulfur capture agent, was also examined under the same conditions. Observations on the devolatilization and char combustion behavior of CWF agglomerates, formed after the evaporation of water, were conducted using pyrometric and cinematographic techniques. The char combustion is the most prominent since it accounts for 75%-85% of the burnout time. The volatile combustion phase is also important because of the resulting high-temperature radiant flames. Overall burnout times were between 150 and 600 ms, for the range of agglomerate sizes tested. Char combustion for most agglomerates was controlled by boundary layer diffusion of oxygen. The swelling behavior of the agglomerates was studied and swelling factors in the neighborhood of 1.12 were determined. Although the bituminous CWF, was found to swell and form cenospheric structures during heatup and devolatilization, the addition of CMA catalyst inhibited swelling of the agglomerates. However, the chars containing CMA exhibited occasional splitting or fragmentation during the volatile combustion stage.

Atal, A.; Levendis, Y.A. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

1993-04-01

394

Hydrocarbon-fuel/copper combustion chamber liner compatibility, corrosion prevention, and refurbishment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is made of combustion product/combustion chamber compatibility in the case of a LOX/liquid hydrocarbon booster engine based on copper-alloy thrust chamber which is regeneratively cooled by the fuel. It is found that sulfur impurities in the fuel are the primary causes of copper corrosion, through formation of Cu2S; sulfur levels as low as 1 ppm can result in sufficiently severe copper corrosion to degrade cooling channel performance. This corrosion can be completely eliminated, however, through the incorporation of an electrodeposited gold coating on the copper cooling-channel walls.

Rosenberg, S. D.; Gage, M. L.; Homer, G. D.; Franklin, J. E.

1991-01-01

395

Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2007-07-01

396

Investigation of the combustion dynamics of low-volatile fuel particles by measuring “thermometric” and color temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for studying the combustion dynamics and entrainment of lowvolatile fuel particles is proposed. It is based\\u000a on simultaneous measurements of “thermometric” and pyrometric (color) temperatures. The technique permits a detailed study\\u000a of time phases and mass rates of combustion of fuel particles in a wide range of regime parameters.

A. P. Burdukov; V. I. Popov; V. D. Fedosenko

1999-01-01

397

Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stoker boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the

Tuttle

1978-01-01

398

Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the

Tuttle; Kenneth L

1980-01-01

399

Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stoker boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the

Tuttle

1980-01-01

400

Study of the combustion of various alternate fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research project used two methods for studying the problems facing alternate fuels. The first method studied the use of chemicals to improve fuel characteristics without changing the basic engine design. The second method was to make engine modifications to suit characteristics of the alternate fuel. The result of the two methods studied is a two-part report. Alcohols, solvent-refined coal (SRC-II), vegetable oils, and mixtures of these with diesel fuels and with each other are the alternative fuels discussed and tested. 21 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

Barfield, B.F.; Acker, G.J. Jr.; Lindsay, M.H.

1984-01-01

401

Reduced bed agglomeration by co-combustion biomass with peat fuels in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion is an energy conversion technology that is very suitable for biomass combustion because of its fuel flexibility and low process temperatures. However, agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems. To prevent or at least reduce this, peat has been suggested as an additive to the main fuels. Nevertheless, the characteristics of peat fuels vary and there is limited information of the effect of different peat fuels and of the mechanisms behind the agglomeration prevention. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (I) quantify the potential positive effect by co-combustion peat with forest fuels in terms of initial agglomeration temperatures; (ii) determine the amount of peat fuel that is needed to significantly reduce the agglomeration tendencies; and, if possible, (iii) elucidate the governing mechanisms. The results showed that all peat fuels prevented agglomeration in the studied interval of 760-1020{sup o}C and even as little as 5% peat fuel was found to have significant effects. The results also indicated that the mechanism of the agglomeration prevention varies between different peat fuels. Possible mechanisms are the minerals in the peat fuel retain alkali, which then is either elutriated up from the bed or captured in the bed; calcium and other refractory elements increase the melting temperature and thereby counteract the melting of alkali; and sulfur reacts with alkali metals and the alkali sulfates is either elutriated up from the bed or prevents agglomeration by increased melting temperature and lowered viscosity. Results from elemental analysis of the coating on bed particles showed that all mixtures with peat fuel resulted in a decreased or unchanged fraction of potassium and an increased fraction of aluminum in the coatings. The results also indicated a complex relationship between the fuel inorganic contents and the agglomeration process. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Marcus Oehman; Dan Bostroem [Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

2005-12-01

402

Combustion synthesis of Co-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles using mixture of citric acid–glycine fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion method. Mixtures of citric acid and glycine were used as fuel. As-prepared powders were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX, TEM and spectrophotometer. XRD patterns indicated that combustion reaction by different fuel mixture resulted in the formation of pure ZnO phase. However, citric acid combustion alone led to amorphous powder. Scherrer's

Sousan Rasouli; Shirin Jebeli Moeen

2011-01-01

403

Experimental investigation on combustion and heat transfer characteristics in a furnace fueled with unconventional biomass fuels (date stones and palm stalks)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of date stones and palm stalks in a small scale furnace with a conical solid fuel bed is investigated experimentally. This investigation (to the best of the knowledge of the author) is the first addressing date stones as a new renewable energy source. Different experimental conditions are investigated where different fuel feed conditions and different combustion air flow

S.-A. B. Al-Omari

2006-01-01

404

Properties and composition of jet fuels derived from alternate energy sources. I. Background and n-alkane content. [Coal, tar sand, and oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

All jet fuel must meet many stringent requirements and several of these are controlled by composition. Freezing point, combustion properties, thermal oxidation stability, viscosity and gum formation are significantly influenced by the types and amounts of hydrocarbons in the fuel and\\/or the components containing nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Several samples of jet fuel obtained from alternate fossil fuel sources--oil shale,

R. N. Hazlett; J. M. Hall; J. Solash

1976-01-01

405

Nitrous oxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded direct N2O emission levels of less than 5 ppm. The sub-scale combustor test data were consistent with full-scale data, and also showed N2O emission levels not exceeding 5 ppm, although these levels increased slightly when various combustion modifications to lower NO emissions were employed. These on-line emission measurements are very different from previously published data. The discrepancy is shown to be due to a sampling artifact by which significant quantities of N2O can be produced in sample containers which have been used in establishing the prevously employed N2O data base. Consequently, it was concluded that N2O emissions bear no direct relationship to NO emissions from these combustion sources, and that the direct source of N2O is negligible. Other indirect routes for the conversion of NO into N2O outside the combustor and other combustion sources not examined by the study, however, cannot be ruled out. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the American Geophysical Union.)

Linak, W.P.; McSorley, J.A.; Hall, R.E.; Ryan, J.V.; Wendt, J.O.L.

1990-01-01

406

Detailed chemical kinetic models for the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of detailed chemical kinetic models for the intermediate to high-temperature oxidation, ignition, combustion of hydrocarbons is reviewed in conjunction with the experiments that validate them.All classes of hydrocarbons are covered including linear and cyclic alkanes, alkenes, alkynes as well as aromatics.

John M. Simmie

2003-01-01

407

Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

Venkataramani, K.

1987-01-01

408

Combustion performance of contaminated marine diesel fuels in a T63 gas-turbine combustor. Interim report, November 1983-September 1985  

SciTech Connect

The combustion performance of 26 fuel blends of Navy distillate fuel (NDF), heavy marine gas oil (HMGO), and a Jet A reference fuel contaminated with residuals containing various concentrations of asphaltenes, resins, and ash was measured in a T63 gas turbine combustor rig. Combustion-performance measurements included cold-start ignition, combustion efficiency, gaseous exhaust emissions, flame radiation, exhaust smoke, liner temperature, and combustor can deposit formation. Except for ignition, these measurements were made at 4 operating conditions, 10% of full power (idle), 55, 75, and 100% of full power. Cold-start ignition measurements were made on 9 of the test fuels at burner inlet air temperatures ranging from 238K to 300K and fuel temperatures ranging from 263K to 300K. Droplet-size measurements were made of fuel sprays from the T63, LM2500, DDA 501-K17, and the TF40B atomizers using a Malvern light-scattering apparatus. These measurements were made on 7 fuels over a range of low fuel-flow rates comparable with those used for the ignition conditions of the respective engines. Correlation equations were developed relating Sauter mean-droplet diameter to fuel properties and flow conditions. The correlation equation developed for the T63 atomizer was used in a characteristic time-model calculation of the cold-start ignition data. Flame radiation and exhaust smoke correlated with hydrogen-carbon ratio. Fuels contaminated with residuals did not deviate significantly from the H/C ratio correlation. When neat NDF and HMGO were contaminated with residuals, there appeared to be a slight decrease in combustion efficiency and increase in total hydrocarbon and CO emissions.

Naegeli, D.W.; Dodge, L.G.

1985-12-01

409

Wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea: an assessment of industrial combustion equipment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an engineering and economic assessment of new and retrofit industrial combustion equipment for wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea. Existing industrial combustion equipment and practices in Papua New Guinea are appraised. Potential industrial wood-fuel systems that utilize wood, wood wastes, charcoal and pyrolytic oils and which are particularly applicable to Papua New Guinea are identified. An economic assessment of wood-fuel systems is conducted for eleven case studies which are representative of a cross-section of Papua New Guinea industry. Conclusions and recommendations are presented to aid both government and industry in Papua New Guinea in fostering the development of appropriate wood-fuel technologies and thereby help displace the consumption of imported petroleum.

Mendis, M.S.

1980-11-01

410

Fuel-air mixing and combustion in a two-dimensional Wankel engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-equation turbulence model, an algebraic grid generalization method, and an approximate factorization time-linearized numerical technique are used to study the effects of mixture stratification at the intake port and gaseous fuel injection on the flow field and fuel-air mixing in a two-dimensional rotary engine model. The fuel distribution in the combustion chamber is found to be a function of the air-fuel mixture fluctuations at the intake port. It is shown that the fuel is advected by the flow field induced by the rotor and is concentrated near the leading apex during the intake stroke, while during compression, the fuel concentration is highest near the trailing apex and is lowest near the rotor. It is also found that the fuel concentration near the trailing apex and rotor is small except at high injection velocities.

Shih, T. I.-P.; Schock, H. J.; Ramos, J. I.

1987-01-01

411

Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels  

SciTech Connect

The influence of oxygenated hydrocarbons as additives to diesel fuels on ignition, NOx emissions and soot production has been examined using a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism. N-heptane was used as a representative diesel fuel, and methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether and dimethoxymethane were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced NOx levels and reduced the production of soot precursors. When the overall oxygen content in the fuel reached approximately 25% by mass, production of soot precursors fell effectively to zero, in agreement with experimental studies. The kinetic factors responsible for these observations are discussed.

Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Fisher, E; Glaude, P A; Marinov, N M; Westbrook, C K

1999-10-28

412

Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

Shaw, Benjamin D.

2004-01-01

413

Airfoil cooling hole plugging by combustion gas impurities of the type found in coal derived fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plugging of airfoil cooling holes by typical coal-derived fuel impurities was evaluated using doped combustion gases in an atmospheric pressure burner rig. Very high specific cooling air mass flow rates reduced or eliminated plugging. The amount of flow needed was a function of the composition of the deposit. It appears that plugging of film-cooled holes may be a problem for gas turbines burning coal-derived fuels.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1979-01-01

414

NASA/General Electric broad-specification fuels combustion technology program, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of broad specification fuels in aircraft turbine engine combustion systems was examined. Three different combustor design concepts were evaluated for their ability to use broad specification fuels while meeting several specific emissions, performance, and durability goals. These combustor concepts covered a range from those having limited complexity and relatively low technical risk to those having high potential for achieving all of the program goals at the expense of increased technical risk.

Dodds, W. J.

1980-01-01

415

Sulphur impacts during pulverised coal combustion in oxy-fuel technology for carbon capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxy-fuel process is one of three carbon capture technologies which supply CO2 ready for sequestration – the others being post-combustion capture and IGCC with carbon capture. As yet no technology has emerged as a clear winner in the race to commercial deployment. The oxy-fuel process relies on recycled flue gas as the main heat carrier through the boiler and

Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2011-01-01

416

Modified Combustion Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles Using Renewable Fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using cost effective modified combustion synthesis route employing zinc nitrate hexahydrate as oxidant and palm oil derived C8 fatty alcohol as fuel in various ratios. The calcined zinc oxide exhibited hexagonal phase with wurtzite structure. The crystallite sizes of the samples were ranging from ca. 28 to 40 nm. Therefore, palm oil derived C8 fatty alcohol successfully played the role as low-cost and renewable fuel to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Shah, N. N. H.; >H Misran, N. A. A.; Salim, M. A.; Othman, S. Z.; >A Manap,

2013-06-01

417

Using Neural Networks for Air-to-Fuel Ratio Estimation in Two Stroke Combustion Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be able to meet the demands of tomorrow on lower emissions from small two-stroke en- gines, used e.g. in chain-saws, there is a need to enhance the control over the combustion. One interesting parameter is the air-to-fuel ratio (A\\/F). If A\\/F can be measured, then it is possible to intelligently control the fuel, and thus obtain a desired A\\/F.

Arne Linde; Mikael Taveniku; Bertil Svensson

1995-01-01

418

FEANICS: A Multi-User Facility For Conducting Solid Fuel Combustion Experiments On ISS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Destiny Module on the International Space Station (ISS) will soon be home for the Fluids and Combustion Facility's (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), which is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments. A multi-user mini-facility called FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) will also be built at NASA Glenn. This mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct basic and applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA's Bioastronautics Initiative. The FEANICS project team will work in conjunction with the CIR project team to develop upgradeable and reusable hardware to meet the science requirements of current and future investigators. Currently, there are six experiments that are candidates to use the FEANICS mini-facility. This paper will describe the capabilities of this mini-facility and the type of solid combustion testing and diagnostics that can be performed.

Frate, David T.; Tofil, Todd A.

2001-01-01

419

Utilization of ventilation air methane as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler.  

PubMed

Ventilation air methane (VAM) accounts for 60-80% of the total emissions from coal mining activities in China, which is of serious greenhouse gas concerns as well as a waste of valuable fuel sources. This contribution evaluates the use of the VAM utilization methods as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. The paper describes the system design and discusses some potential technical challenges such as methane oxidation rate, corrosion, and efficiency. Laboratory experimentation has shown that the VAM can be burnt completely in circulated fluidized bed furnaces, and the VAM oxidation does not obviously affect the boiler operation when the methane concentration is less than 0.6%. The VAM decreased the incomplete combustion loss for the circulating fluidized bed combustion furnace. The economic benefit from the coal saving insures that the proposed system is more economically feasible. PMID:18505001

You, Changfu; Xu, Xuchang

2008-04-01

420

Developments in integrated pollutant removal for low-emission oxy-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

A complete coal combustion and flue gas treatment scheme was designed, constructed, and operated at bench scale as a product of cooperative research between US DOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. The combustion gas generated using this oxy-fuel coal combustion process was effectively captured using an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process. Supporting laboratory-scale research focuses on elements of IPR such as extraction of particulates, SO2, and mercury, and on the character of the liquid and vapor phase compositions for the CO2 - N2 - O2 mixture at the temperature and pressure conditions found at the end of the process. Future pilot-scale work will be necessary to generate economic and engineering data that will apply to full-scale oxy-fuel/IPR systems.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Summers, Cathy A.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Ochs, Thomas L.

2005-09-01

421

Impact of fossil fuel combustion on sediments of Lake Michigan: a reprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distribution of charcoals in sediments of Lake Michigan reflects the onset of the industrial revolution and the increased intensities of fossil fuel combustion during the twentieth century. Prior to 1900 the less than 1-..mu..m fraction was dominant, and its source was primarily biomass burning. In the subsequent years coal and oil burning became evident with larger particles, especially

John J. Griffin; Edward D. Goldberg

1983-01-01

422

Composition and Combustion Characteristics of Condensed Exhaust from Boron-Containing Fuel-Rich Rocket Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work has been to characterize the nature of the primary exhaust from fuel-rich boron-containing (ca. 50%) rocket motors, and to study its combustion. Two formulations were studied, each at two pressures. Solid materials collected fro...

A. Macek J. M. Semple

1972-01-01

423

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES FOR FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses control of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion. ntil recently, this meant abatement of smoke (particulate), sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. With growing concern about global climate change, carbon dioxide has been added to the list. The paper inc...

424

QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

425

Spray dynamics and fuel vapor distributions in a spinning combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution in droplet size distributions within a spinning spherical combustion chamber is investigated theoretically, and the distribution of fuel vapors as the droplets vaporize is presented for heated sprays. The spray is modeled using a sectional approach that provides the means for handling the large number of droplets in any realistic system by dividing them into size-defined sections and

J. B. Greenberg; Y. Tambour; Y. M. Timnat; G. Avital

1991-01-01

426

Domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian villages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDChronic bronchitis is an important public health problem worldwide. A study was undertaken to examine the association between exposure to air pollution from domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian highland villages: a village in which cooking is done exclusively indoors and a village in which cooking is done primarily outdoors. Apart from this difference, the

R Albalak; A R Frisancho; G J Keeler

1999-01-01

427

CARCINOGENICITY OF HOUSEHOLD SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION AND OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE FRYING  

EPA Science Inventory

In October, 2006, 19 scientists from eight countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to assess the carcinogenicity of household solid fuel combustion (coal and biomass) and of high-temperature frying. These assessments will be publi...

428

Operator's Guide for spreader-stoker combustion systems using agri-wastes (wood residue fuels)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental research program was conducted at Oregon State University to develop a data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels as they are burned in industrial spreader-stoker boilers. The results of that experimental program impact on the operation of industrial spreader-stoker boilers and can be used to optimize the performance of these boilers. This is an abbreviated

Junge

1979-01-01

429

Combustible coal/water mixture for fuels and method of preparing same  

SciTech Connect

Combustible fuel slurry compositions and methods for producing such compositions. The compositions comprise mixtures of particulate coal, water, wetting/dispersing agents for the coal and suspending agents for stabilizing the slurries. The suspending agents include clays such as attapulgite, sepiolite, bentonite and montmorillonite. The wetting/dispersing agents include anionic and non-ionic surface active agents.

Sawyer, E.W. Jr.

1985-03-19