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1

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1995-04-27

2

Different fuels combustion burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a burner for simultaneous combustion of liquid and solid fuels comprising: a liquid-fuel combustion nozzle having a liquid fuel injection port for injecting liquid fuel into the burner circumferentially of the liquid fuel nozzle along an arc subtending a predetermined angle; and a solid-fuel combustion nozzle having a solid fuel injection port for injecting a solid fuel

S. Miyamae; T. Abe

1987-01-01

3

Liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid fuel combustion apparatus is described comprising: wall means defining a cylindrical combustion chamber; a cylindrical portion of the wall means having a first port therein for receiving an ignition device and a first nipple integral with the wall means and surrounding the first port; means for introducing fuel and combustion air into the combustion chamber and for removing

K. Sawada; K. Kikuchi

1987-01-01

4

Liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus of the type including: a cylinder defining a combustion chamber, the cylinder having an inlet end for receipt of combustion air and an outlet end for exhausting gaseous combustion products; an end plate covering the inlet end of the cylinder; a blower, including a rotor and a casing, for supplying combustion

K. Sawada; Y. Kimijima; H. Umehara

1986-01-01

5

Preparation of the compound fuel and its mechanical and combustion properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a good way to reduce and reuse the mined refuse using municipal solid waste(MSW), sewage sludge, pulverized coal and others to prepare compound fuel. A L16(45)orthogonal test design was used to study mechanical and combustion properties of the fuel, there were 16 treatments with 3 replicates. Applying the statistical soft system of SPSS13.0 for windows to analyze the

Liping Wu; Zhipeng Bai; Kejun Wen

2010-01-01

6

Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties  

SciTech Connect

The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

Gallant, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Franz, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Alnajjar, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Cannella, William C [Chevron, USA; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Hager, Darcy [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Dettman, Heather [CANMET Energy; Luecke, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Zigler, Brad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2009-01-01

7

Chemical and Physical Properties of the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Research Diesel Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides detailed results from a variety of standard ASTM International-type analyses and advanced characterization techniques conducted to measure the chemical and physical properties of a matrix of diesel test fuels known as the Fuels for Ad...

B. Cannella C. Fairbridge H. Dettman J. Franz M. Alnajjar T. Gallant

2010-01-01

8

Effects of middle distillate fuel properties on residential oil combustion characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program has been developed at the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory to provide refiners with combustion information and limitations on the use of such fuels in residential combustion systems. Fuels are analyzed for their chemical compositions and aromatic contents, as well as viscosity, density, carbon residue, distillation range, flash point, pour point, aniline point, refractive index and average molecular

S. W. Lee; A. C. S. Hayden

1986-01-01

9

Fuel Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program is an analytical study correlating fuel properties and engine design and operating parameters with engine combustion performance and hot section (combustor and turbine) durability. Standard fuel specification data and fuel composition data ar...

A. H. Lefebvre

1983-01-01

10

Vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus comprising: a cylinder defining a combustion chamber, the cylinder having an inlet end for receipt of combustion air, a first flange surrounding the inlet end and an outlet end for exhausting gaseous combustion products; means for introducing the fuel into the combustion chamber and ignition means exposed to the combustion chamber

Y. Kimijima; K. Kikuchi

1986-01-01

11

Combustion of fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the combustion of various kerosene-diesel and alcohol-diesel fuel blends is presented. Tests are conducted in a continuous flow combustor to study the effect of fuel blends on the combustion process and pollutants in the exhaust gases. Exhaust analyses of CO, CO2, O2, NOx, HC and soot mass concentration are presented. For the ethanol alcohol-diesel blends, a

K. R. Asfar; H. Hamed

1998-01-01

12

Combustion of Heavy Liquid Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book is intended for the engineers working in the field of liquid-fuel combustion control and also for advance students in related courses of study. The fundamental laws governing liquid-fuel atomization and combustion are discussed and optimal combus...

L. V. Kulagin S. S. Okhotnikov

1970-01-01

13

Fuel Flexibility in Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This poster presents research findings from cofiring studies of various biomass feedstocks such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-treated wood, lumber mill and furniture waste sawdusts, pallets, feedlot biomass (cattle manure), hybrid willow, and switchgrass with several bituminous and subbituminous coals. This research includes evaluation of advanced instrumentation and the study of interrelated combustion/emissions issues, such as char burnout, impacts on SO2, NOx, fine particulate (PM2.5), mercury (Hg) and other trace emissions, as well as issues impacting heat transfer, such as ash deposition slagging/fouling behavior. Biomass cofiring in large industrial and utility coal-fired boilers is a practical approach for increasing renewable energy given the wide availability, capital investment, and established performance of coal-fired boilers for providing efficient, low cost power. Although some utility biomass cofiring is successfully practiced in the U.S. and abroad, establishing long-term reliability and improving economics are still significant needs, along with research to support advanced combustion in future Vision 21 systems. Biomass cofiring in Vision 21 systems may reduce fossil CO2 emissions per MWe at capital and operations/maintenance cost savings relative to other technology options. Because an increasing number (currently 14) states have recently passed legislation establishing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), goals, or set-asides that will impact new power generation by 2009 and beyond, cofiring may broaden the appeal of Vision 21 systems to solve other environmental issues, including reducing landfill requirements. Legislation has been proposed to establish a federal RPS as well as extend IRS Section 29/45 tax credits (e.g., $0.005-0.010/kW-hr) for cofiring residues to supplement existing incentives, such as a $0.015/kW-hr tax credit for closed loop biomass (e.g., energy crops, such as switchgrass, hybrid willow) gasification. In addition, the coproduction/cogeneration concepts embodied in Vision 21 may also lend itself well to the type of utility/industry partnering involved in cofiring approaches. In light of the cost limitations in shipping distance (e.g., 50-100 miles or less) from collection to end-use based on the low energy density of biomass, resource availability is a site-specific consideration. Biomass fuels also exhibit significant differences in fuel characteristics, including volatility and ash chemistry that can also influence cofiring performance. Pilot-scale biomass cofiring tests have been conducted in the 150 kWt Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF). A key aspect of the present work is to examine biomass char conversion for a range of initial particle sizes at various residence times for combustion relative to fuel processing/handling issues. In addition, a number of biomass cofiring R&D as well as full-scale utility demonstrations are providing technical insights to assist in cofiring technology commercialization. The paper will also discuss research plans, including lignin cofiring for ethanol/power co-production, novel concepts involving animal waste utilization, advanced combustion studies, and tri-firing concepts with other fuels.

Freeman, M.C.; O'Dowd, W.J.; Mathur, M.P. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Walbert, G.F. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology, Inc.)

2001-11-06

14

Combustion engine with multi-fuel capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combustion engine. It has a combustion chamber, a fuel tank, a fuel delivery line from the fuel tank to the engine, air\\/fuel delivery means for pumping a mixture of one or more liquid fuels in an unknown combination from the fuel tank through the fuel delivery line to the combustion chamber in combination with air in

Gonze

1990-01-01

15

Combustion Tests with Pulverized Fuels in a Cyclone Combustion Chamber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective with this project has been to establish combustion conditions and characterize material handling, milling and parameters as combustibility, ashmelting, combustion efficiency and emission index, for refined and pulverized fuels from wood, pea...

L. Eriksson

1983-01-01

16

Direct coal-fueled combustion turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology requirements for direct coal-fueled turbine systems are discussed. Combustion, emissions, and turbine life considerations are emphasized. Compact, short residence time combustors must provide acceptable combustion efficiencies and emissions using the coal fuels. The turbine flow path exposed to the products of combustion (POC) from those combustors must achieve acceptable deposition, erosion, and corrosion (DEC) lifetimes. Initial combustion and POC

Wenglarz

1987-01-01

17

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel  

SciTech Connect

Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot.

Brabbs, T.A.; Merritt, S.A.

1993-07-01

18

Automatic stopping device of combustion fuel supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic fuel supply stopping device incorporated in fuel combustion equipment including a shut-off valve and a combustor. The automatic fuel supply stopping device comprises a fluid intercepting mechanism interposed in a channel through which the fuel supply to the combustor is supplied. A photosensor is adapted to detect fuel combustion in the combustor by radiation emitted from a thermosensitive

Shimizu

1985-01-01

19

Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.

Namba, Kunihiko; Ida, Tamio

20

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 à 10⁶Btu\\/hr) and commercial-scale (25 à 10⁶ to 50 à 10⁶Btu\\/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel

O. K. Chow; G. W. Gralton; Y. V. Lachowicz; R. C. Laflesh; A. A. Levasseur; G. N. Liljedahl

1989-01-01

21

The optical, chemical, and physical properties of aerosols and gases emitted by the laboratory combustion of wildland fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is a major source of trace gases and particles that have a profound impact on the atmosphere. Trace gases emitted by fires include the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4, as well as CO and volatile organic compounds that affect air quality. Particle emissions affect climate, visibility, the hydrologic cycle, and human health. This work presents measurements of trace gas and aerosol emissions from a series of controlled laboratory burns for various plant species common to North America. Over 30 fuels were tested through ˜250 individual burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment. Emission factors are presented as a function of modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the fire combustion conditions. The emissions of many trace gas and aerosol species depended strongly on MCE: smoldering-phase combustion dominated fires (low MCE) emitted roughly four times as much gas-phase hydrocarbon species and organic aerosols than flaming-phase dominated fires (high MCE). Inorganic aerosol emissions depended more strongly on plant species and components than on MCE. Flaming-phase dominated fires tended to produce aerosol with high mass fractions of strongly light-absorbing elemental carbon. Smoldering-phase fires produced aerosol with large mass fractions of more weakly light absorbing organic carbon, but this material was found to have a strong wavelength dependence of absorption, greater than the inverse wavelength relationship typically assumed for light absorbing aerosol. A two component model---featuring elemental carbon with a weak wavelength dependence but high mass-normalized absorption efficiency and organic carbon with a strong wavelength dependence but low mass-normalized absorption efficiency---is shown to represent the bulk absorption spectra of biomass burning aerosol. The results show that at wavelengths below ˜450 nm, organic carbon light absorption could rival that of elemental carbon for aerosol dominated by organic carbon. If ignored, the light absorption by organic carbon can cause errors in predicted surface ultraviolet and visible radiation fluxes and photochemical photolysis rates in regions affected by biomass burning emissions. The dependence of spectral aerosol optical properties on combustion conditions means that fire behavior must be accurately assessed and predicted to ensure accurate emissions inventories and estimates of biomass burning atmospheric impacts.

McMeeking, Gavin R.

22

Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system  

SciTech Connect

A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

2011-03-22

23

Fuels Combustion Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Air Force aircraft fuels will contain chemical constituents that not only contribute to the propulsion of the aircraft but also to the temperature control of both the combustor walls and the aircraft body. Temperature control may require the use of...

I. Glassman K. Brezinsky

1993-01-01

24

Thermal transformations of a support for fuel combustion catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural, textural and mechanical properties of a honeycomb ceramic support based on environmentally safe natural raw materials, calcined at various temperatures have been studied. Optimal formation conditions of the support for fuel combustion catalysts have been determined.

N. A. Prokudina; V. A. Sazonov; Y. R. Ismagilov; V. A. Ushakov

1995-01-01

25

Liquid metal fuel combustion mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of the droplet formation at the gas\\/liquid boundary interface of a gaseous jet injected into a liquid metal bath and the turbulent mixing of the resultant two-phase (gas\\/liquid) mixture is presented as a preliminary to the analysis of the liquid metal fuel combustion problem. The model is used to predict velocity and liquid droplet fraction distributions across the

Tirumalesa Duvvuri

1990-01-01

26

Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.  

PubMed

Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

Tesseraux, Irene

2004-04-01

27

Effect of urea and glycine fuels on the combustion reaction synthesis of Mn–Zn ferrites: Evaluation of morphology and magnetic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of the urea and glycine fuels on the synthesis of Mn–Zn ferrite by combustion reaction. The morphology and magnetic properties of the resulting powders were investigated. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (BET), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and magnetic measurement of MŚH

A. C. F. M. Costa; V. J. Silva; C. C. Xin; D. A. Vieira; D. R. Cornejo; R. H. G. A. Kiminami

2010-01-01

28

Jet fuel droplet combustion with and without the convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of stationary JP8 and JP8+100 fuel droplets were studied in low convectional environments for the first time. Although usage of these fuels is quite broad and significant, their fundamental physical properties are not well provided. Our goal is to provide practical parameters such as burning rate constants, burning times of jet fuel droplets by the use of the spherical

J. H. Bae; C. T. Avedisian

2002-01-01

29

Gas turbine combustion and fuels technology; Proceedings of the Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Ga., November 27December 2, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas turbine combustion and fuels technology are discussed with reference to three basic categories: combustion diagnostic methods, gas turbine fuel injection, and gas turbine combustion. Attention is given to laser instruments for measuring fluid properties in combustion processes, comparisons between conventional fuel injectors and prevaporizing-premixing injection systems, and fuel hydrogen content as an indicator of aircraft combustor performance.

E. K. Bastress

1977-01-01

30

Algae, Canola, or Palm Oils—Diesel Microemulsion Fuels: Phase Behaviors, Viscosity, and Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are being considered as a renewable energy alternative for diesel. The high viscosity of vegetable oils causes injector fouling and durability problems in compression–ignition engines. Microemulsification can be used to reduce vegetable oil viscosity without complex chemical transformation processes. The goal of our work is to formulate reverse micellar microemulsions of vegetable oils and No. 2 diesel fuel

Linh D. Do; Vinay Singh; Lixia Chen; Tohren C. G. Kibbey; Sub. R. Gollahalli; David A. Sabatini

2011-01-01

31

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Annual report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Our engine studies have concentrated on 2 areas of interest to autoignition and emissions from engines. In the first, we investigated the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the reactivity and autoignition behavior of 87 PRF. In the second study, we continued work on the effects of blending ethers on the reactivity and autoignition of a primary reference fuel blend, 87 PRF, with emphasis placed on the chemical interactions between ethers and the baseline fuel. The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the reactivity and autoignition behavior of 87 PRF were examined in our research engine under motored conditions at compression ratios of 5.2 and 8.2. The most significant conclusions of our study are: (1) nitric oxide does interact with the hydrocarbon oxidation at conditions typically experienced by the end gas in a fired engine; (2) the effect is complex and, depending on the reaction environment, the same concentration of NO can produce dramatically different results. These results are particularly important given the fact that residual fractions and recycled exhaust gases in spark ignited engines typically result in about 200--600 ppm of NO in the unburned charge. The octane enhancing ethers, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and DIPE, were blended into 87 PRF at a constant 0 atom fraction of 1.94% in the fuel mixtures and the mixtures were tested under motored conditions at our new compression ratio of 8.2. This new compression ratio allows studies on autoignition behaviors of 87 PRF with and without ethers. The results showed that, when using 87 PRF/ether mixtures, reactivity was significantly reduced as indicated by the higher inlet temperature required to initiate reactivity, significantly lower maximum CO concentration and the significantly higher inlet temperature required for autoignition.

Cernansky, N.P.

1994-01-10

32

Combustion engine with multi-fuel capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combustion engine. It has means for providing thereto a fuel mixture of one or more liquid fuels in an unknown combination through a fuel line and means for determining an engine operating control parameter in response to the dielectric constant of the fuel mixture. The last means comprising, in combination: a capacitor in the fuel line

Gonze

1990-01-01

33

Method and apparatus for controlling combustion of gasified fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combustion of gasified fuel by gasifying a low quality fuel and combusting the gasified fuel in a combustor, combustion of gasified fuel is controlled by sampling the gasified fuel at a constant flow rate at the upstream side of the combustor, combusting the sampled gasified fuel, detecting an overall energy level of sensible heat and heating value possessed per

Y. Uchiyama; S. Sugita; Z. Tamura; S. Tsukahara

1984-01-01

34

Gas turbine alternative fuels combustion characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance and exhaust pollutant concentrations for specific synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Baseline comparison fuels used were gasoline and diesel fuel number two. Testing was done over a range of fuel to air mass ratios, total mass flow rates, and input combustion air temperatures in a flame-tube-type gas turbine combustor. Test results were obtained in terms of released heat and combustion gas emission values. The results were comparable to those obtained with the base fuels with variations being obtained with changing operating conditions. The release of carbon particles during the tests was minimal.

Rollbuhler, R. James

1989-02-01

35

Combustion device for combustion of a gaseous fuel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustion device for a hot gas engine having tubes containing working gas. The combustion device has a gaseous fuel with air supplied at a pressure slightly above atmospheric. The device comprises a combustion chamber, a preheater for heating the combustion air by exhaust gases leaving the combustion chamber, a blower for supplying air to the preheater, means for governing the mass flow of air supplied from the blower, a plenum chamber receiving preheated air from the preheater and delivering the preheated air to the combustion chamber. The plenum chamber includes first and second swirl devices for guiding the preheated air as primary and secondary air respectively for combustion, means for delivering a mass flow of gaseous fuel to the combustion chamber as a function of the mass flow of preheated air is supplied. The fuel delivery means includes an ejector having a flow restriction and a tube supplying the gaseous fuel at a pressure slightly above atmospheric to the flow restriction. The tube has an open terminal end protruding into and terminating within the ejector at a most restricted flow area in the restriction. The swirl device is located upstream of the ejector.

Alpqvist, J.A.

1987-06-30

36

Fuel combustion system and method of operation for an Otto-cycle internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of combusting a predetermined combustible mixture of fuel and air in an Otto-cycle internal combustion engine including a main combustion chamber, first control valve means for admitting the combustible mixture into the main combustion chamber, an auxiliary combustion chamber, second control valve means for opening and blocking fluid communication between the main combustion chamber and

Bailey

1991-01-01

37

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. This report summarizes studies conducted under Task 4. The objective was to quantify CWF atomization and combustion properties utilizing industrial/utility scale equipment. Burners were evaluated and combustion performance differences identified for various CWF formulations. 12 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

Lachowicz, Y.V.; LaFlesh, R.C.

1987-07-01

38

An overview of synthetic fuel combustion issues and research activities  

SciTech Connect

With the reduction in the availability of conventional hydrocarbons for fuels in the transportation, utility and industrial sectors, there is need to include fuels produced from low hydrogento-carbon ratio sources, such as coal, shale oil and tar sands. Various processes are being developed to produce coal-derived liquids, solids and gases, oil from shale and heavy oils from tar sands. It has been established that the cost and energy intensive requirements to refine these syncrudes to a hydrogen-carbon ratio and boiling range more typical of conventional fuels is very large. Therefore, there is a large economic driving force for the design, development and implementation of combustion equipment capable of burning synthetic fuels of widely varying properties in a thermally efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. Concurrently, the need to conserve energy and to control pollutant emissions is also forcing improvements in combustion efficiency and reductions in pollutant emissions of existing energy-conversion devices using present-day fuels including heavy and residual oils. The requirements on the design of combustion equipment to meet these objectives will be severe and will demand substantial improvements in our ability to understand the combustion process and its controlling parameters. Many recent studies have considered the combustion of synthetic fuels. The problem is that current combustor technology has evolved slowly, is based upon empirical methods, and contains little consideration for fuel flexibility. The situation is particularly acute now because of the present uncertainties in fuel supplies and the corresponding uncertainties in design for fuel flexibility.

Boni, A.A.; Bienstock, D.; Edelman, R.B.; Fischer, J.

1982-03-01

39

Solid fuels in chemical-looping combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a number of different solid fuels in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has been investigated. A laboratory fluidized bed reactor system for solid fuel, simulating a chemical-looping combustion system by exposing the sample to alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, was used. In each reducing phase 0.2g of fuel in the size range 180–250?m was added to the reactor

Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt

2008-01-01

40

Parameters pertinent to low-temperature combustion of wooden fuel for modern power-generating installations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from an investigation into combustion of wooden and charcoal particles at relatively low temperatures are presented. Combustion modes are determined, and the effect the fuel reaction properties have on the thermal treatment and combustion process is evaluated. The results are compared with well-known figures on fossil fuels and with the data calculated using the classic diffusion-kinetic model.

Silin, V. E.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

2008-08-01

41

Ignition system and method for multi-fuel combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for combusting fuel in the combustion chamber of a multi-fuel internal combustion engine by both spark ignition and hot surface ignition, is described comprising the steps of: retaining combustion heat in an electrode apparatus positioned in the combustion chamber for providing surface ignition of the fuel when the electrode apparatus has reached a sufficient temperature, the electrode apparatus

J. A. Lo Russo; H. A. Cikanek; R. W. Anderson

1988-01-01

42

30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56...MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions...housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall...

2013-07-01

43

30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57...MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions...housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall...

2013-07-01

44

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluidized bed combustion of a number of alternative fuels of practical interest has been analyzed by a combination of experimental and modeling techniques. Solid fuels of widely different origin (biomass, agricultural, civil and industrial wastes) have been considered in this work. A lab-scale experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the comminution (fragmentation, attrition) behavior of the fuels. Experimental

Fabrizio Scala; Riccardo Chirone

2004-01-01

45

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the Department of Energy initiated a comprehensive effort in 1982 to develop the necessary performance and cost data and to assess the commercial viability of coal-water fuels (CWFs) as applied to representative utility and industrial units. The effort comprised six tasks beginning with coal resource evaluation and culminating in the assessment of the technical and economic consequences of switching representative commercial units from oil to state-of-the-art CWF firing. Extensive bench, pilot and commercial-scale tests were performed to develop necessary CWF combustion and fireside performance data for the subsequent boiler performance analyses and retrofit cost estimates. Discussions on transport, rheology, combustion properties, and ash characterization are included. 11 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Chow, O.K.; Patel, R.L.; Levasseur, A.A.

1987-07-01

46

Combustion Systems for Biomass Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is one of humanity's earliest sources of energy. Traditionally, biomass has been utilized through direct combustion, and this process is still widely used in many parts of the world. Biomass thermo-chemical conversion investigations are certainly not the most important options at present; combustion is responsible for over 97% of the world's bio-energy production. Biomass combustion is a series of

Ayhan Demirbas

2007-01-01

47

Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion  

SciTech Connect

In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

Ferguson, D.H.

2007-10-01

48

Turbine Burners: Turbulent Combustion of Liquid Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed theoretical/computational and experimental study addresses the vital two-way coupling between combustion processes and fluid dynamic phenomena associated with schemes for burning liquid fuels in high- speed, accelerating and turning transonic...

D. Dunn-Rankin F. Liu W. A. Sirignano

2006-01-01

49

Studies of Oscillatory Combustion and Fuel Vaporization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research projects involving oscillatory combustion and fuel vaporization are reported. Comparisons of experimental and theoretical droplet vaporization histories under ambient conditions such that the droplet may approach its thermodynamic critical point ...

G. L. Borman O. A. Uyehara P. S. Myers

1972-01-01

50

Combustion of Alternative Fuel Study (CAFS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a study intended to provide ERDA with a guide to future activities in waste-based fuel combustion hardware research, development and demonstration are reported. Four study activities were undertaken: the identification of the types, quantities ...

R. B. Saunders

1977-01-01

51

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion-ignition, stability, and combustion efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study is made of the substantial body of experimental data acquired during recent Wright-Patterson Aero Propulsion Laboratory sponsored programs on the effects of fuel properties on the performance and reliability of several gas turbine combustors, including J79-17A, J79-17C (Smokeless), F101, TF41, TF39, J85, TF33, and F100. Quantitative relationships are derived between certain key aspects of combustion, notably combustion

1984-01-01

52

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion-ignition, stability, and combustion efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study is made of the substantial body of experimental data acquired during recent Wright-Patterson Aero Propulsion Laboratory sponsored programs on the effects of fuel properties on the performance and reliability of several gas turbine combustors, including J79-17A, J79-17C (Smokeless), F101, TF41, TF39, J85, TF33, and F100. Quantitative relationships are derived between certain key aspects of combustion, notably combustion

A. H. Lefebvre

1985-01-01

53

The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine: a technical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given of contemporary research on the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. The emphasis is on light- to medium-duty engine research. We first describe hydrogen-engine fundamentals by examining the engine-specific properties of hydrogen and surveying the existing literature. Here it will be shown that, due to low volumetric efficiencies and frequent preignition combustion events, the power densities of premixed

C. M. White; R. R. Steeper; A. E. Lutz

2006-01-01

54

Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

1978-09-11

55

Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

2003-02-12

56

Combustion Tests of RJ-5 Fuel Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the addition of viscosity reducing additives to RJ-5 fuel. The tests were to determine if the additives hindered or improved the combustion efficiency of the basic RJ-5 fuel. The tests were conducted in a 12 ...

R. R. Craig J. Petrarca J. T. Hojnacki P. L. Buckley

1976-01-01

57

Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used

2007-01-01

58

Fuel supply system for multi-fuel internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel supply system is described for multi-fuel internal combustion engines having a selector valve for controlling the feed of fuels such as gasoline and kerosene and vacuum actuator to operate the selector valve according to the pressure in intake passage of the engine. The system is provided for feeding the gasoline and kerosene at heavy load and low speed,

Y. Itoh; M. Shibata; A. Masuda; Y. Ohtake; M. Etoh

1978-01-01

59

Fuel supply apparatus for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A fuel supply apparatus for internal combustion engines is proposed, which has a fuel injection pump for supplying a regulatable fuel injection quantity, a ventilation apparatus for the fuel injection pump, a fuel quantity meter and a means of exhaust gas recirculation controlled by fuel quantity. A ventilation valve responding to a predetermined pump interior pressure is included in an overflow line in order to cool the fuel injection pump by connection with the fuel supply container. The fuel quantity meter is embodied as a spring-loaded piston-type fuel quantity meter and has a travel receptor which generates an electrical output signal and delivers it to a control member of the exhaust gas recirculation system for varying the recirculated exhaust gas quantity accordingly.

Straubel, M.

1984-03-06

60

Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Institute of Combustion Problems, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan)

2006-03-15

61

Particle emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: In situ optical and mass measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved optical properties of smoke particles from the controlled laboratory combustion of mid-latitude wildland fuels were determined for the first time using advanced techniques, including cavity ring-down\\/cavity enhanced detection (CRD\\/CED) for light extinction and two-wavelength photoacoustic detection for light absorption. This experiment clearly resolves the dependence of smoke properties on fuel and combustion phase. Intensive flaming combustion during ponderosa pine

L.-W. Antony Chen; Hans Moosmüller; W. Patrick Arnott; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Ronald A. Susott; Ronald E. Babbitt; Cyle E. Wold; Emily N. Lincoln; Wei Min Hao

2006-01-01

62

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of variations in properties and characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon base fuels in gas turbine engine combustors was investigated. Baseline fuels consisted of military specification materials processed from petroleum and shale oil. Experimental fuels were comprised of liquid petroleum blends that were prepared specifically to exhibit desired physical and chemical properties. These fuels were assessed for their influence on

1984-01-01

63

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of variations in properties and characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon-base fuels in gas turbine engine combustors was investigated. Baseline fuels consisted of military-specification materials processed from petroleum and shale oil. Experimental fuels were comprised of liquid petroleum blends that were prepared specifically to exhibit desired physical and chemical properties. These fuels were assessed for their influence on ignition and

1984-01-01

64

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. Unit performance analyses showed significantly better load capacity for utility and industrial boilers as the CWF feed coal ash content is reduced to 5% or 2.6%. In general, utility units had more attractive capacity limits and retrofit costs than the industrial boilers and process heaters studied. Economic analyses indicated that conversion to CWF firing generally becomes feasible when differential fuel costs are above $1.00/10{sup 6}Btu. 60 figs., 24 tabs.

Chow, O.K.; Gralton, G.W.; Lachowicz, Y.V.; Laflesh, R.C.; Levasseur, A.A.; Liljedahl, G.N.

1989-02-01

65

Internal combustion engine fuel rail assembly joint  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel rail assembly of an internal combustion engine. It comprises a non-metallic fuel rail containing devices that are part of a fuel injection system of the engine, and also comprising a metal tube which is in fluid communication with a fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail and connected with the non-metallic fuel rail by means of a joint, characterized in that the joint comprises a cylindrical metal sleeve that is partially embedded in the non-metallic fuel rail such that a first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail lines an interior end portion of the sleeve and is in fluid communication with the fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail and such that the sleeve lines the interior of a second cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail, the metal tube and the first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail fit together in a sealed manner to place the metal tube in fluid communication with the fuel passage in the non-metallic fuel rail, the sleeve has another portion that is not embedded in the non-metallic fuel rail, and a retention means coacts with the another axis end segment and with the metal tube to retain the metal tube and the first cylindrical portion of the non-metallic fuel rail fit together in a sealed manner.

Imoehl, W.J.

1992-04-21

66

Simplified kinetic schemes for oxy-fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents simplified kinetic schemes to be adopted in the CFD modeling of oxy-fuel combustion. Oxy-fuel combustion is an important technology to control CO 2 emissions. The reduction of nitrogen content during combustion makes easier the CO 2 capture for its successive storage. Flue gas recirculation can be adopted for the eventual temperature control. Moreover, oxygen rich combustion finds

A. Frassoldati; A. Cuoci; T. Faravelli; E. Ranzi; C. Candusso; D. Tolazzi

67

Air Augmented Rocket Fixed Fuel Flow Combustion Characterization Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program demonstrated that reliable, consistent combustion efficiency data could be obtained independently at different facilities. The detailed combustion efficiency performance of two Boron loaded fuel rich propellants was mapped over an air-to-fuel...

J. L. Fields

1973-01-01

68

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE AVIATION FUELS IN AN AERO-ENGINE COMBUSTION CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering alternative fuels for aviation, factors such as the overall efficiency of the combustion process and the levels of emissions emitted to the atmosphere, need to be critically evaluated. The physical and chemical properties of a fuel influence the combustion efficiency and emissions and therefore need to be considered. The energy content of a biofuel, which is influenced negatively

I. Uryga; M. Pourkashanian; D. Borman; E. Catalanotti; C. W. Wilson

2009-01-01

69

Combustion of Condensed Phase Alternative Fuels in an Acoustic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study focused on fuel droplet combustion characteristics for various liquids during exposure to external acoustical perturbations. Emphasis in the present study was placed on the combustion of a number of alternative liquid fuels, including ethanol, methanol, aviation fuels, and blends of aviation fuel and liquid synthetic fuel derived from coal gasification via the Fischer-Tropsch process. The study examined

Juan Rodriguez; Hann-Shin Mao; Sophonias Teshome; Alec Pezeshkian; Owen Smith; Ann Karagozian

2007-01-01

70

CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

71

FUEL NOX CONTROL BY CATALYTIC COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an experimental study to: (1) define operating conditions for catalytic combustors that give low levels of NOx emissions for fuelbound nitrogen compounds, and (2) quantitatively determine the fate of fuel nitrogen during catalytic combustion. Tests wer...

72

Numerical and experimental study of water\\/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical and experimental studies were made on some of the chemical and physical properties of water\\/oil emulsified fuel (W\\/OEF) combustion characteristics. Numerical investigations of W\\/OEF combustion's chemical kinetic aspects have been performed by simulation of water\\/n-heptane mixture combustion, assuming a model of a homogenous reactor's concentric shells. The injection and fuel spray characteristics are analyzed numerically also in order to

Niko Samec; Breda Kegl; Robert W. Dibble

2002-01-01

73

The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine : a technical review.  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of contemporary research on the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. The emphasis is on light- to medium-duty engine research. We first describe hydrogen-engine fundamentals by examining the engine-specific properties of hydrogen and surveying the existing literature. Here it will be shown that, due to low volumetric efficiencies and frequent preignition combustion events, the power densities of premixed or port-fuel-injected hydrogen engines are diminished relative to gasoline-fueled engines. Significant progress has been made in the development of advanced hydrogen engines with improved power densities. We discuss several examples and their salient features. Finally, we consider the overall progress made and provide suggestions for future work.

Steeper, Richard R.; White, Christopher M.; Lutz, Andrew E.

2005-05-01

74

Apparatus for the premixed gas phase combustion of liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to improvements in the art of liquid fuel combustion and, more particularly, concerns a method and apparatus for the controlled gasification of liquid fuels, the thorough premixing of the then gasified fuel with air and the subsequent gas-phase combustion of the mixture to produce a flame substantially free of soot, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and unburned fuel.

G. A. Roffe; H. A. Trucco

1981-01-01

75

Multi-fuel system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-fuel system is described for an internal combustion engine which consists of: a carburetor having an air inlet and a fuel inlet and means for mixing the air and liquid fuel to form a combustible mixture which is conducted to the engine to operate the same; a first liquid fuel supply assembly having means for regulating the pressure of

O. V. Phillips; W. R. Phillips

1986-01-01

76

Precise combustion-control saves fuel and power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumentation assuring a minimum amount of excess air for combustion of fuels improves the importance and increases the thermal efficiency of boilers, furnaces, and kilns. This has now become an important factor due to increased fuel prices. To achieve good combustion control and the best fuel-burning efficiency requires that two fundamental conditions be established: exact balancing of the air\\/fuel ratio

1975-01-01

77

Combustion of Waste Derived Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decade Warren Spring Laboratory has been involved in programs to investigate various aspects of the incineration of waste and the use of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). Investigations were carried out to assess the suitability of RDF for combusti...

B. J. Davis P. Clayton

1984-01-01

78

Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C1–C4 saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of

Peter S. Veloo; Ning Liu; Fokion N. Egolfopoulos

2011-01-01

79

Fuel effects on gas turbine combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

The effects of variations in properties and characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon-base fuels in gas turbine engine combustors was investigated. Baseline fuels consisted of military-specification materials processed from petroleum and shale oil. Experimental fuels were comprised of liquid petroleum blends that were prepared specifically to exhibit desired physical and chemical properties. These fuels were assessed for their influence on ignition and performance characteristics in combustors of the F100, TF30, and J57 (TF33) engines at simulated operating conditions. In general, during relatively short duration tests, combustor ignition and performance became increasingly poorer as fuel quality deviated from specification or historical values.

Mosier, S.A.

1984-01-01

80

Biomass fuel combustion and health*  

PubMed Central

Biomass fuels (wood, agricultural waste, and dung) are used by about half the world's population as a major, often the only, source of domestic energy for cooking and heating. The smoke emissions from these fuels are an important source of indoor air pollution, especially in rural communities in developing countries. These emissions contain important pollutants that adversely affect health—such as suspended particulate matter and polycyclic organic matter which includes a number of known carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene, as well as gaseous pollutants like carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Exposure to large amounts of smoke may present a health risk that is of a similar order of magnitude to the risk from tobacco smoke. The effects on health arising from exposure to air pollution are reviewed, based on what has been reported in the literature so far. Further and more detailed information on exposures and on the epidemiological aspects is urgently required. The persons most frequently affected are women who do the cooking for households in rural villages; they suffer from impaired health due to prolonged and repeated contact with these harmful pollutants. When they are pregnant, the developing fetus may also be exposed and this leads to the risk of excess deaths. In the developing countries, exposure to biomass fuel emissions is probably one of the most important occupational health hazards for women. A conservatively estimated 300-400 million people worldwide, mostly in the rural areas of developing countries, are affected by these problems.

de Koning, H. W.; Smith, K. R.; Last, J. M.

1985-01-01

81

Experimental investigation of the prevaporized premixed (vpl) combustion process for liquid fuel lean combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concept for the preparation of liquid fuels for an environmentally benign combustion process has been developed. This concept, called ‘VPL’ (Vaporized Premixed Lean) combustion, consists of:1.a separate fuel flash vaporizer in which the liquid fuel is converted to the gaseous state;2.a static mixing device for homogeneous mixing of fuel vapor and combustion air;3.a burner in premixed mode, thus

Ming Wei; Yunhong Wang; Lothar Reh

2002-01-01

82

Fuel combustion system and method of operation for an Otto-cycle internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method of combusting a predetermined combustible mixture of fuel and air in an Otto-cycle internal combustion engine including a main combustion chamber, first control valve means for admitting the combustible mixture into the main combustion chamber, an auxiliary combustion chamber, second control valve means for opening and blocking fluid communication between the main combustion chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber. It comprises: admitting the combustible mixture into the main combustion chamber during an intake phase of the cycle; compressing and thereby pressurizing the combustible mixture in the main combustion chamber during a compression phase of the cycle; opening the second control valve means at a predetermined time during a latter portion of the compression phase in order to admit a portion of pressurized combustible mixture into the auxiliary combustion chamber; igniting the portion of combustible mixture admitted to the auxiliary combustion chamber and thereby forming expanding burning gases; directing the expanding burning gases from the auxiliary combustion chamber into the main combustion chamber in order to penetrate and cause ignition and burning of the remaining pressurized combustible mixture in the main combustion chamber; and closing the second control valve means at a predetermined time prior to about the beginning of the next compression phase.

Bailey, J.M.

1991-11-26

83

Numerical modeling of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

The planned use of hydrogen as the energy carrier of the future introduces new challenges and opportunities, especially to the engine design community. Hydrogen is a bio-friendly fuel that can be produced from renewable resources and has no carbon dioxide combustion products; and in a properly designed ICE, almost zero NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon emissions can be achieved. Because of the unique properties of hydrogen combustion - in particular the highly wrinkled nature of the laminar flame front due to the preferential diffusion instability - modeling approaches for hydrocarbon gaseous fuels are not generally applicable to hydrogen combustion. This paper reports on the current progress to develop a engine design capability based on KIVA family of codes for hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engines in support of the National Hydrogen Program. A turbulent combustion model, based on a modified eddy-turnover model in conjunction with an intake flow valve model, is found to describe well the efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions of this engine satisfy the Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle (EZEV) standard established by the California Resource Board. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A.

1996-12-31

84

Effect of fuel nitrogen and hydrogen content on emissions in hydrocarbon combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of operating conditions and fuel properties on emissions for the two-stage combustion of fuels with significant organic nitrogen content. This is a basic research effort in support of DOE's Advanced Power Systems Program, a development program to adapt ground-power gas turbines to use coal derived fuels. The present paper

D. A. Bittker; G. Wolfbrandt

1980-01-01

85

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, conbustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Sciences, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for the full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra-fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-08-01

86

Fuel and water vaporizer for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combination with a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine, and fuel supply, an apparatus is described for injecting a fuel mixture of vaporized fuel, fuel, steam and air into the engine carburetor which consists of: heated means for vaporizing fuel comprising: a closed chamber having a fuel inlet, a vapor outlet, a perforated septum lying horizontally across the lower half of

1986-01-01

87

Multi-fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders is described. It consists of: a first fuel injection pump means having a plurality of fuel outlets for delivering a first fuel in a predetermined cycle under a pressure higher than a predetermined value; a second fuel injection pump means having a single fuel outlet and

Susono

1987-01-01

88

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion which consists of base fuel and water doped with or without a trace content of surfactant are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamental mechanism relevant to the micro-explosion phenomena leading to the secondary atomization which is not common to the combustion of pure fuel. Described at first are the kinetic

T. Kadota; H. Yamasaki

2002-01-01

89

Numerical analysis of supersonic combustion ramjet with upstream fuel injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes possible fuel injection scheme for airbreathing engines that use hydrocarbon fuels. The basic idea is to inject fuel at the spike tip of the supersonic inlet to achieve mixing and combustion efficiency with a limited length combustion chamber. A numerical code, able to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in turbulent and reacting flows, is employed to obtain

Raffaele Savino; Giuseppe Pezzella

2003-01-01

90

Effects of highly-heated fuel on diesel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of highly heated fuel on diesel combustion were studied experimentally in a rapid compression machine. A pure fuel, dodecane, heated up to and beyond its critical temperature, was injected into a diesel combustion chamber with the air charge at a compression ratio of 18.2 to 1. The ignition delay was found to decrease with the increase of fuel

G. J. Walsh; W. K. Cheng

1985-01-01

91

IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS ON SOOT PROPERTIES AND DPF REGENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, fuel formulation exerted a strong influence on the properties of diesel particulates leading to differences in oxidation rate. These differences were especially significant when comparing soot derived from the combustion of soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel (B100) and soot obtained from combustion of a Fischer–Tropsch diesel fuel (FT). These 2 fuels mainly differ in fuel oxygen content. Although

JUHUN SONG; MAHABUBUL ALAM; ANDRÉ L. BOEHMAN

2007-01-01

92

Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

2010-09-30

93

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines.  

SciTech Connect

The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number of manufacturers are now leasing demonstration vehicles to consumers using hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H{sub 2}ICEs) as well as fuel cell vehicles. Developing countries in particular are pushing for H{sub 2}ICEs (powering two- and three-wheelers as well as passenger cars and buses) to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. This article offers a comprehensive overview of H{sub 2}ICEs. Topics that are discussed include fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

Verhelst, S.; Wallner, T.; Energy Systems; Ghent Univ.

2009-12-01

94

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

The ash deposition and performance behavior of a cross-section of coal-water fuels (CWFs) were investigated during comprehensive pilot-scale testing under Task 5 of the Department of Energy's Combustion and Fuel Characterization of Coal-Water Fuels project. The key results from this effort including combustion, furnace slagging, convective pass fouling, fly ash erosion and electrostatic precipitator collection characteristics of the test fuels, are summarized in this report. Data were obtained on twelve different CWFs as well as three baseline pulverized coals. Three coal types were fired at different levels of coal beneficiation to assess the effects of coal cleaning on performance. Five CWFs prepared from the same feed coal by different manufactures were tested to assess the effects of slurry processing. CWFs prepared from both standard grind and microfine grind coals were evaluated. In addition a microfine CWF was fired at fuel temperatures up to 220{degree}F to evaluate the effect of thermal atomization on performance. 8 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

Chow, O.K.; Durant, J.F.; Griffith, B.F.; Miemiec, L.S.; Levasseur, A.A.; Teigen, B.C.

1987-07-01

95

Combustion-Generated NO x and Coke in Heavy Residual Fuel Oil Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the numerical modelling of heavy residual fuel oil combustion. Some results of combustion-generated nitric oxide and coke are presented. The emissions of both species are greatly affected by a gas temperature and thus the modelling of soot concentration, which affects radiation heat transfer is of vital importance. The calculated results of three combustion cases, the thermal

A. OKSANEN; R. KARVINEN

1995-01-01

96

Self-oscillations of an unstable fuel combustion in the combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The form of the self-oscillations of a vibrating combustion of a fuel in the combustion chamber of a liquidpropellant rocket engine, caused by the fuel-combustion lag and the heat release, was determined. The character of change in these self-oscillations with increase in the time of the fuel-combustion lag was investigated.

Gotsulenko, V. V.; Gotsulenko, V. N.

2013-01-01

97

Carbonation of fly ash in oxy-fuel CFB combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-fuel combustion of fossil fuel is one of the most promising methods to produce a stream of concentrated CO2 ready for sequestration. Oxy-fuel FBC (fluidized bed combustion) can use limestone as a sorbent for in situ capture of sulphur dioxide. Limestone will not calcine to CaO under typical oxy-fuel circulating FBC (CFBC) operating temperatures because of the high CO2 partial

Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E. J. Anthony

2008-01-01

98

The combustion of liquid fuels using a porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present observations of the progress in liquid fuels combustion technology strongly suggest that utilization of a porous medium burner is a promising approach for future applications. The porous medium burner for liquid fuels is more advantageous than the conventional open spray flame burner for several reasons. These include enhanced evaporation of droplet spray owing to regenerative combustion characteristics, low emission

Sumrerng Jugjai; Narongsak Wongpanit; Thawatchai Laoketkan; Sorawut Nokkaew

2002-01-01

99

Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the

Krishnasamy Anand; youngchul Ra; Rolf Reitz; Bruce G Bunting

2011-01-01

100

Solid fuel combustion technology for the Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of fluidized bed combustion has been reviewed with emphasis on its potential application to industrial power or heating plants and to alternative fuels. This technology is ready for commercialization and there is strong evidence of its high adaptability to a large variety of fuels, including biomass and industrial wastes. Coal-oil slurry combustion also is being developed and

1977-01-01

101

Fossil Fuel Combustion and the Major Sedimentary Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of the fossil fuels coal, oil, and lignite potentially can mobilize many elements into the atmosphere at rates, in general, less than but comparable to their rates of flow through natural waters during the weathering cycle. Since the principal sites of fossil fuel combustion are in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, changes in the composition of natural

K. K. Bertine; Edward D. Goldberg

1971-01-01

102

Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Normal Alkane Fuels in a Model Combustor of Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of kinds of one-component n-alkane liquid fuels on combustion characteristics was investigated experimentally using a model combustor of scramjet engine. The inlet condition of a model combustor is 2.0 of Mach number, up to 2400K of total temperature, and 0.38MPa of total pressure. Five kinds of n-alkane are tested, of which carbon numbers are 7, 8, 10, 13, and 16. They are more chemically active and less volatile with an increase of alkane carbon number. Fuels are injected to the combustor in the upstream of cavity with barbotage nitrogen gas and self-ignition performance was investigated. The result shows that self-ignition occurs with less equivalence ratio when alkane carbon number is smaller. This indicates that physical characteristic of fuel, namely volatile of fuel, is dominant for self-ignition behavior. Effect on flame-holding performance is also examined with adding pilot hydrogen and combustion is kept after cutting off pilot hydrogen with the least equivalence ratio where alkane carbon number is from 8 to 10. These points are discussed qualitatively from the conflict effect of chemical and physical properties on alkane carbon number.

??, ?; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ???; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

103

Presentation and Briefing Materials on Advanced Combustion Technology Including Principle Alternate Fuels, Intermittent Combustion Engines and Residue and Waste Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

US Department of Energy research programs aimed at conserving petroleum, natural gas and coal through the development of more efficient combustion technologies, the substitution of synthetic and refuse-derived fuels for fossil fuels, and the improvement o...

1978-01-01

104

Chemical-looping combustion using syngas as fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel, avoiding direct contact between air and fuel. Thus, CO2 and H2O are inherently separated from the rest of the flue gases and the carbon dioxide can be obtained in a pure form without the use of an

Tobias Mattisson; Francisco García-Labiano; Bernhard Kronberger; Anders Lyngfelt; Juan Adánez; Hermann Hofbauer

2007-01-01

105

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 17, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Completed modeling calculations of coal mineral matter transformations, deposition behavior, and heat transfer impacts of six test fuels; and ran pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, microagglomerate product, and mulled product.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-08-01

106

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication

1987-01-01

107

Study of Relationship between Combustion Characteristics and Carbon Bond Structures in Marine Diesel Fuel Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine diesel fuel oil is expected to become more widely used for marine diesel engines in the future, because its low sulphur content is helpful in meeting regulatory requirements concerning exhaust gas emissions. However, cases of poor combustion in marine generator diesel engines have been reported even when the properties of the marine diesel fuel oil remain within the specifications

Takaaki Hashimoto; Senichi Sasaki

108

3D numerical simulation of fuel injection and combustion phenomena in Di diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the calculations of combustion phenomena in DI diesel engines are performed by modifying the KIVA program so as to be applicable to multi-hole nozzles and arbitrary patterns of injection rate. The thermophysical and thermochemical properties of gasoline are altered to those diesel fuel. In order to investigate the ability of this modified program, the calculations are compared with the experiments on single cylinder engines. The calculation for the heavy duty DI diesel engine is performed with this diesel combustion program. From this calculation results the gas flow, spray shapes, air-fuel mixing process, and combustion in this engine are investigated.

Takenaka, Y.; Aoyagi, Y.; Tsuji, Y.; Joko, I.

1989-01-01

109

LIEKKI and JALO: Combustion and fuel conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LIEKKI and JALO are well conceived and structured programs designed to strengthen Finland's special needs in combustion and gasification to utilize a diversity of fuels, increase the ratio of electrical to heat output, and to support the export market. Started in 1988, these two programs provide models of how universities, Technical research center's laboratories (VTT's), and industry can collaborate successfully in order to achieve national goals. The research is focused on long term goals in certain targeted niche areas. This is an effective way to use limited resources. The niche areas were chosen in a rational manner and appear to be appropriate for Finland. The LIEKKl and JALO programs have helped pull together research efforts that were previously more fragmented. For example, the combustion modeling area still appears fragmented. Individual project objectives should be tied to program goals at a very early stage to provide sharper focusing to the research. Both the LIEKKl and JALO programs appear to be strongly endorsed by industry. Industrial members of the Executive Committees were very supportive of these programs. There are good mechanisms for technology transfer in place, and the programs provide opportunities to establish good interfaces between industrial people and the individual researchers. The interest of industry is shown by the large number of applied projects that are supported by industry. This demonstrates the relevancy of the programs. There is a strong interaction between the JALO program and industry in black liquor gasification.

Grace, Thomas M.; Renz, Ulrich; Sarofim, Adel F.

110

Ignition combustion pre-chamber for internal combustion engines with constant stoichiometric air-fuel mixture at ignition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal combustion engine including at least one combustion chamber and a pre-chamber in fluid communication with the combustion chamber, a method of providing combustion within the combustion chamber. It comprises charging the combustion chamber with a first mixture of air and fuel having a lean ratio of air-to-fuel; charging the pre-chamber with a further mixture of

1992-01-01

111

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 12, January--March 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed editing of the fifth quarterly report and sent it to the publishing office; and prepared two technical papers for conferences.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1992-08-01

112

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 14, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; published two technical papers at conferences; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-02-01

113

Converting a fuel to combustible gas  

SciTech Connect

A sulfur-containing fuel is passed into a first fluidized bed containing CaSO/sub 4/ and CaO and an oxygen-transfer mediator (e.g. H/sub 2/) whereby the fuel is converted to combustible gas, some CaSO/sub 4/ being reduced to CaS and sulfur being fixed as CaS by reaction with CaO. Bed particles pass from the bottom layer of the first bed into the bottom layer of the second bed which is fluidized by air at conditions such that some, but not all of the CaS is selectively oxidized to CaSO/sub 4/ with no liberation of sulfur moieties. Bed particles pass from the bottom layer of second bed to the bottom layer of a third bed optionally after passage via a fourth bed between the second and third beds. In the third bed particles are fluidized with air to convert CaS selectively to CaSO/sub 4/ with no liberation of sulfur moiety whereby to raise the particles' temperature sufficiently above that of the first bed that particles passing from the bottom layer of the third bed into the bottom layer of the first bed provide sufficient sensible heat to maintain the fuel conversion temperature of the first bed. In the fourth bed particles are fluidized with air under such conditions that sulfur moiety is liberated, preferably at a rate which approximately equals the rate of sulfur-capture in the first bed whereby to maintain approximately a constant amount of reactive CaO in the beds for sulfur-capture in the first bed.

Moss, G.

1985-04-02

114

Fluidized bed combustion and desulfurization of a heavy liquid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and theoretical study on the combustion and desulfurization of liquid fuels in fluidized beds is proposed in the paper.Tests with a high sulfur liquid fuel (Egyptian mazut) have been performed in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor equipped with a special fuel injector at different operating conditions. Limestone is used as sorbent at various Ca\\/S ratio. The experiments evidenced

Francesco Miccio; Farouk M. Okasha

2005-01-01

115

Apparatus for the gas phase combustion of liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arrangement to produce high efficiency gas phase combustion of liquid fuels is described. A liquid fuel, such as conventional heating oil, is pumped through a heat exchanger immersed in a liquid bath whose temperature is maintained at a level which is sufficiently high to cause the fuel to gassify but low enough to preclude undesirable chemical decomposition. The liquid

G. A. Roffe; H. A. Trucco

1977-01-01

116

Air to fuel ratio control system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air to fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine having a fixed venturi type carburetor is disclosed. The air to fuel ratio control system comprises a device for extracting an atmospheric pressure within a venturi or a pressure corresponding to a relieved venturi vacuum, a device for extracting a static fuel pressure downstream of a main jet

Y. Nishimura; Y. Oyama

1980-01-01

117

Effective Heat of Combustion for Flaming Combustion of Mediterranean Forest Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adapted bench-scale Mass Loss Calorimeter (MLC) device is proposed for evaluating effective heat of rapid flaming combustion\\u000a of fine Mediterranean forest fuels. The MLC apparatus uses a calibrated thermopile to quantify heat release rate (HRR) as\\u000a an alternative to the classical oxygen consumption measurement. A porous holder was used to simulate rapid flaming combustion.\\u000a Average effective heat of combustion

J. Madrigal; M. Guijarro; C. Hernando; C. Díez; E. Marino

2011-01-01

118

New Findings on Combustion Behavior of Oxygenated Synthetic Diesel Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

New results were obtained on pollutants evolution during the combustion of four oxygenated fuels, whichwere compared with n-tetradecane and n-octane combustion. Three different techniques were adopted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine, equipped with optical accesses: two-colour pyrometry for the measurement of in-cylinder soot loading, high speed cinematography for the visualization and analysis of spray and combustion, fast

C. BEATRICE; C. BERTOLI; N. D. GIACOMO

1998-01-01

119

Liquid Fuel Combustion Using Porous Inert Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion using porous inert media (PIM) offers benefits such as high power density, stable operation over a wider turndown ratio, homogeneous product gases, lower combustion noise and reduced emissions of NOx, CO, particulates, etc. Much of the previous...

A. K. Agrawal S. R. Gollahalli

2006-01-01

120

Fuel-Rich Solid Propellant Boron Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single particle boron ignition and combustion models developed in earlier phases of this program have been utilized and extended to treatment of boron cloud ignition, oxidizer depletion effects on cloud combustion time, laminar flame speeds in boron dust ...

J. Komar M. K. King R. S. Fry

1984-01-01

121

Effect of preheating on liquid fuel evaporation on combustion in a model combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combustion model for a sprayed liquid fuel is developed, starting from the assumption that combustion of an individual drop is impossible, and the droplets are completely entrained in the moving medium. The model gives the a flame length close to that observed experimentally. It is established that the preheat time of the droplet is roughly the same as its

S. A. Zaitsev; V. R. Kuznetsov; G. M. Kuntsev

1991-01-01

122

LOW NOX STRATEGY FOR COMBUSTING HIGH NITROGEN CONTENT FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of a multistaged combustion urner (designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficieiicy) for [high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 1.0 MW package boiler. simulator. A low NOx precombustion cham...

123

Removal of SOx, NOx, and particulate from combusted carbonaceous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is a method for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate from the products of combusted carbonaceous fuels. Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate are currently discharged to the atmosphere as flue gas in quantities highly detrimental to the environment. Potassium compounds, as are found in agricultural grade potash, are dispersed throughout the combustion products at the exit

Dayen

1985-01-01

124

Vibrational Relaxation in the Products of Hydrocarbon Fuel Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oscillating relaxation time in the combustion products of a hydrocarbon fuel as it flows from a nozzle under supersonic flow conditions was calcualted. For certain components the duration of the oscillating relaxation is comparable to the characterist...

V. N. Arkhipov

1972-01-01

125

Enhanced combustion by jet ignition in a turbocharged cryogenic port fuel injected hydrogen engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition (HAJI) is a physico-chemical combustion enhancement system developed at the University of Melbourne. Jet ignition can ignite ultra-lean air\\/fuel mixtures which are far beyond the stable ignition limit of a spark plug. Jet ignition may further enhance the combustion properties of hydrogen enabling the development of a diesel-like, almost throttle-less, control of load by quantity

Alberto A. Boretti; Harry C. Watson

2009-01-01

126

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

NONE

1995-03-01

127

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 18, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Continued with data and sample analysis from the pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, air-dried and mulled microagglomerate products; air-dried Pittsburgh No. 8 as-is and mulled products for upcoming Task 3 combustion testing; and prepared two abstracts for presentation for the March 1 994 Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems Conference.

Chow, O.K.; Hargrove, M.J.

1993-11-01

128

Modeling of liquid fuel combustion in fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed to simulate combustion of liquid fuel in fluidized bed. The hydrodynamic description of the bed is based on modified two-phase theory of fluidization where the bed is assumed to consist of three phases. A jet-bubble phase which is fuel highly rich bubbles formed at the fuel injector, a distributor-bubble phase which is fuel free

F. Okasha

2007-01-01

129

Flexible fuel engine based on multi-combustion control technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combustion control strategy is proposed for diesel engine to reduce PM and NOx emissions significantly, which adopts some technologies including internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), split spray,\\u000a adjustable fuel delivery advance angle and the application of alternative fuels. Based on this strategy, a flexible fuel engine\\u000a has been developed. The experimental results show that this engine can be fueled

Xiaolu Li; Zhen Huang; Xinqi Qiao; Jun Song; Junhua Fang; Huimin Xia

2005-01-01

130

Multistage process for combusting fuel mixtures using oxide catalysts in the hot stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for partially combusting combustible mixtures comprising the steps of: (a) mixing an oxygen-containing gas with a fuel to form a combustible mixture, (b) contacting the combustible mixture in a first zone with a first zone combustion catalyst comprising palladium completely covering a catalyst support at reaction conditions sufficient to combust at least a portion but not

R. A. Dalla Betta; Kazunori Tsurumi; Nobuyasu. Ezawa

1993-01-01

131

Mild Combustion of Methane-Derived Fuel Mixtures: Natural Gas and Biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild combustion (also called diluted or flameless combustion) is an innovative combustion process able to strongly reduce pollutant emissions with respect to traditional combustion processes; it is characterized by high preheating of the combustion air and massive recycle of burned gases. While it is well known that mild combustion leads to lowering NOx emissions when pure fuels (such as methane)

Alessandro Effuggi; Davino Gelosa; Marco Derudi; Renato Rota

2008-01-01

132

Fuel injection system for internal-combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injection system is described for internal combustion engines, comprising a rotary valve device which is driven in synchronism with a came shaft of the engine to distribute high pressure fuel to unit injectors of the engine and has a rotary spool rotating in a housing having fuel supply port means and fuel metering grove means in the housing. This is disposed in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the spool for metering the amount of fuel injection each formed on the circumference. The fuel metering groove means includes independent divisions, one for each unit injector.

Kizawa, H.

1987-07-07

133

Combustion of liquid fuel in the counter-swirled jets of a gas turbine plant annular combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were carried out on an annular combustion chamber rig with a stabilizer of the type used in the GTN-25 gas turbine plant to determine the feasibility of burning a liquid fuel (diesel fuel, GOST 4749-73) in a combustion chamber of this type. Very high performance was obtained for a number of important characteristics of the microflame combustion process in

A. G. Tumanovskii; N. N. Semichastnyi; K. Iu. Sokolov

1986-01-01

134

A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach

Youngchul Ra; Rolf D. Reitz

2011-01-01

135

Combustion of sprayed liquid fuel in a swirling flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physicomathematical model and results of numerical studies of aerodynamics and combustion of liquid fuel in a coaxial swirling flow of a gaseous oxidizer are presented. The characteristics of liquid-fuel spraying by a centrifugal injector were determined on the basis of experimental data obtained under isothermal conditions. The influence of flow swirling on the burner characteristics is analyzed.

V. A. Arkhipov; O. V. Matvienko; V. F. Trofimov

2005-01-01

136

FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES  

SciTech Connect

In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

2008-06-13

137

Fuel system modifications to improve boiler combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal fired boiler for the Indian River Power Station has proven itself a reliable boiler. However, combustion problems have caused swings in tube metal temperatures, throttle pressure, flame carry over, and has resulted in high levels of unburned carbon in the bottom ash and flyash. A combustion improvement program was implemented to address these problems. Extensive testing and retrofit

M. L. Crisler; P. A. Wagner

1990-01-01

138

Survey of Straight Vegetable Oil Composition Impact on Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of straight vegetable oil (SVO) in internal combustion engines has shown conflicting results in emissions, power, and engine longevity. Many early studies suggested that SVO should not be considered for long term use in diesel engines. However, waste vegetable oil has been fueling adapted vehicles in progressive communities for years. The issues involved in the combustion of SVO

Syndi L. Nettles-Anderson; Daniel B. Olsen

139

A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels  

SciTech Connect

Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D. [Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2011-01-15

140

Combustion and evaporation characteristics of fuel droplets containing suspended energetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluid fuel is a novel concept and has drawn great attentions in combustion and propulsion community recently. The focus of this research is to gain a fundamental understanding of the combustion and evaporation characteristics of nanofluids fuels. This study starts with the investigation of the physical and chemical methods to form a homogenous and stable nanofluid with low levels of agglomeration and the morphology of nanostructures were characterized. Then, we investigated the combustion characteristics of nanofluid fuel droplets using high-speed photography with and without backlight respectively. Droplet diameters and temperature histories were simultaneously measured. The emphasis is to explore the effects of particle size, materials, loading rate, surfactant concentration and type of base fuel on droplet combustion characteristics. Besides the combustion characteristics, we also studied the effect of added nanostructures on the evaporation characteristics of nanofluid fuel droplets. The evaporation rates of nanofluid droplets under well-controlled convection and radiation were measured and the effect of particle size, materials, loading rate and type of base fuel on the evaporation rates were analyzed. Theoretical studies were conducted to understand the particle transportation and aggregation mechanisms in the nanofluids. The importance of different aggregation mechanisms was evaluated to explain the different combustion behavior of liquid fuels droplet with nano- and micron particles. Furthermore, the nanoparticle aggregation history was numerically modeled by solving population balance equation in order to understand the potential role of particle aggregation on droplet evaporation rate under convection. In addition, the radiative properties of various nanofluid fuels were determined theoretically and further validated by the experimental data from spectroscopy analysis. Then, their effects on droplet evaporation rates under radiation were determined quantitatively.

Gan, Yanan

141

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued drop tube devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; and started writing a summary topical report to include all results on the nine fuels tested.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-07-01

142

Investigation of coal-water slurry fuel combustion in reciprocating, internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-water slurry(CWS) engine tests designed to investigate the ignition and combustion processes of the fuel are described\\u000a in this paper. The effects of three different parameters, namely, (a) needle lift pressure, (b) fuel injection timing, and\\u000a (c) percent coal loading in the slurry fuel are studied in detail. Successful operation of the engine using the coal water\\u000a slurry required modifications

G. H. Choi; S. R. Bell

1994-01-01

143

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Combustion of Automotive Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of fuels, including olefins and cycloalkanes used in diesel, spark-ignition and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate mixtures of hydrocarbon components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on production of emissions from practical automotive engines.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Silke, E J

2006-11-10

144

Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines  

SciTech Connect

The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

Anand, Krishnasamy [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ra, youngchul [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2011-01-01

145

Future Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the world is facing three critical problems: (1) high fuel prices, (2) climatic changes, and (3) air pollution. Experts suggest that current oil and gas reserves would suffice to last only a few more decades. Biorenewable liquids are the main substitutes to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel. These fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels; however, some still

A. Demirbas

2010-01-01

146

Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to develop a pathway to use easily measured ignition properties as metrics for characterizing fuels in advanced combustion engine research--correlate IQT{trademark} measured parameters with engine data. In HCCL engines, ignition timing depends on the reaction rates throughout compression stroke: need to understand sensitivity to T, P, and [O{sub 2}]; need to rank fuels based on more than one set of conditions; and need to understand how fuel composition (molecular species) affect ignition properties.

Taylor, J.; Li, H.; Neill, S.

2006-08-01

147

Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to provide a convenient source of information on properties of aviation fuels for reference use. The data presented herein include: Description of Fuels; Specifications; Aviation Gasoline (Av Gas); Turbine Fuels; Missile Fu...

1983-01-01

148

Group combustion of liquid fuel in laminar spray jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the global configuration, detailed structure, and combustion characteristic of sprays under various firing conditions represented by various principal parameters including group combustion number, fuel-air mass ratio, Reynolds number, and spray angle. A system of conservation equations of spray flames in an axisymmetric configuration is solved by a finite-difference method for n-Butylbenzen (CââHââ). An extensive spray sensitivity

1982-01-01

149

Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy–fuel flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy–fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO2\\/O2 and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer–combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of

Mario Ditaranto; Joergen Hals

2006-01-01

150

Fuel injected internal combustion engine pollutant control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel injected internal combustion engine is described comprising: an air intake apparatus having at least one resistance heating element capable of heating air passing therethrough to a temperature within a range of 160°F to 180°F, and an air temperature sensing means situated downstream of the resistance heating element to control the temperature of the heating element; combustion chamber means

Rawlings

1987-01-01

151

Solid Fuel Combustion Chamber. Tenth Progress Report, Ninth Phase, July-December 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress in developing a combustion chamber to study flow and combustion processes in solid fuel grains is outlined. An analytical study of laminar channel flows; computational modeling of flow and combustion, employing algebraic finite element methods; c...

H. Wittenberg P. A. O. G. Korting C. W. M. Vandergeld J. B. Vos T. Wijchers

1987-01-01

152

Method and apparatus for utilizing gaseous and liquid fuels in an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing both a liquid fuel and a gaseous fuel with a minimum change in a standard internal combustion engine. The gaseous and liquid fuels are fed from separate fuel supplies with the flow of fuels being controlled in response to engine load so that at engine idle only gaseous fuel is supplied and combusted by

Welsh

1983-01-01

153

Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

1996-12-31

154

Port fuel injection and induction system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an engine having a valve cover with a PVC valve to vent a valve chamber so as to eliminate oil and gas fumes there from and an automotive fuel injection system having a port fuel injector connected to a fuel supply and to an air manifold for injecting an air/fuel mixture into the injector for producing a fuel spray pattern at the outlet of an air induction passage form a throttle body assembly and upstream of an inlet valve to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine characterized by an integral electric motor driven pump assembly means supplying the injection air to the air manifold; the motor pump assembly means having a pump inlet connected to the PVC valve for providing a lubrication mist to the pump during the operation thereof and the motor pump assembly means having a pump outlet connected to the inlet of the air manifold.

Bishai, M.N.

1991-04-23

155

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 13, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport feed coal; published two technical papers at conferences; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1992-09-01

156

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 16, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the first quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Reported results of drop tube furnace data analyses to determine devolatilization kinetics; reported the results from the re-analyzed pilot-scale ash deposits from the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-05-01

157

Effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulations on NO, emissions are promoting the use of lean premix (LPM) combustion for industrial gas turbines. LPM combustors avoid locally stoichiometric combustion by premixing fuel and the air upstream of the reaction region, thereby eliminating the high temperatures that produce thermal NO.. Unfortunately, this style of combustor is prone to combustion oscillation. Significant pressure fluctuations can occur when variations in heat release periodically couple pressure to acoustic modes in the combustion chamber. These oscillations must be controlled because resulting vibration can shorten the life of engine hardware. Laboratory and engine field testing have shown that instability regimes can vary with environmental conditions. These observations prompted this study of the effects of ambient conditions and fuel composition on combustion stability. Tests are conducted on a sub-scale combustor burning natural gas, propane, and some hydrogen/hydrocarbon mixtures. A premix, swirl-stabilized fuel nozzle typical of industrial gas turbines is used. Experimental and numerical results describe how stability regions may shift as inlet air temperature, humidity, and fuel composition are altered. Results appear to indicate that shifting instability instability regimes are primarily caused by changes in reaction rate.

Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J. [USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States); Robey, E.H. [EG& G Technical Services of West Virginia (United States)

1997-04-01

158

Sensing fuel properties with thermal microsensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measurements of combustion-relevant fuel properties for on-line, feedforward control with small, rugged and fully compensated microsensor-based systems. Such silicon microstructure sensor systems have been demonstrated to determine gaseous and liquid fuel properties such as stoichiometric oxygen demand, octane number, heating value, density and other properties of interest. The measurement approach consists of a three-step process: (1) Measurement of changes in electrical quantities when the sensing elements come in contact with the fluid, (2) Conversion of these quantities into primary sensor outputs, yi, such as thermal conductivity, specific heat, temperature and pressure, and (3) Correlation between these and the properties of interest, Y(yi). By coupling this property sensor to an equally rugged and small thermal flow microsensor, millisecond-range response time signals of mass or volume flow, or stoichiometric oxygen demand rate are provided for feed-forward control, without exposing any sensor to harsh exhaust gas environments. Having presented results with gaseous fuels elsewhere, we update these here but concentrate on the determination of octane and cetane number of liquid fuels. Analysis results show that the correlations between these combustion performance properties and physical fuel properties are as good as the ones between octane and critical compression ratio or between cetane and ignition delay. However, all those correlations appear to be limited presently by the accuracy or at least consistency of available data, which are needed for calibration of the sensor system. In checking the temperature dependence of one of the correlations for octane, we found the system output to shift by 15% when using hexadecane as a reference fuel, but only by 1% with iso-octane as reference, for a 10 degree(s)C shift in temperature.

Bonne, Ulrich

1996-05-01

159

The effect of air preheating on the combustion of solid fuels on a grate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of solid fuels on a grate is widely used. Mostly, the combustion behaviour is explained by the classical theory of Rogers. However, that theory cannot explain the combustion process when primary air preheating is applied. Solid fuel grate combustion is studied by experiments in a pot furnace. Experiments with and without primary air heating are described. These are compared

L. B. M van Kessel; A. R. J Arendsen; P. D. M de Boer-Meulman; G Brem

2004-01-01

160

Alternative fuels for reciprocating internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the year 2000 world petroleum demand will have outstripped supply. These circumstances compel the search for fuels not derived from petroleum, which usually are referred to as alternative fuels. Results of several investigations have shown that hydrogen-fueled Otto cycle engines are efficient because of hydrogen's high flame speed and because they can operate at very lean equivalence ratios. However,

N. E. Gallopoulos

1978-01-01

161

NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded d...

162

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 9, April--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the second quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: completed drop tube furnace devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; completed writing a summary topical report including all results to date on he nine fuels tested; and presented three technical papers on the project results at the 16th International Conference on Coal & Slurry Technologies.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-08-01

163

ITSL coal liquid as a combustion turbine fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of low-hydrogen content distillate fuels produced from coal differ from those of conventional petroleum distillates. The differences include; increased flame emissivity which contributes to higher combustor liner temperature, and increased fuel-bound nitrogen which contributes to higher NO\\/sub x\\/ emission. This paper presents the results of a laboratory test program to evaluate the emissions and combustor performance characteristics

K. L. Rieke; H. G. Lew; W. C. Rovesti

1987-01-01

164

Sonically Enhanced Combustion of Coal Water Slurry Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was performed to demonstrate that a high intensity acoustic field can enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during CWSF (coal water slurry fuel) combustion. It was carried out in a 300,000 Btu\\/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to

Prakash Ramachandran

1990-01-01

165

Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

2009-04-08

166

Split vapor\\/liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A split vapor\\/liquid fuel supply system is described for an internal combustion engine having: an intake manifold leading to at least one combustion chamber, a fuel tank holding a liquid hydrocarbon fuel supply, a carburetor connected to the fuel supply for feeding fuel to the engine, air supply means for supplying engine intake air to the carburetor for mixing with

La Pan

1987-01-01

167

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Han, Manbae [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

2009-01-01

168

Characterization of fuels for atmospheric fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a fuels characterization program for the past several years with the intention of assisting utilities and boiler manufacturers in evaluating fuel quality impact on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) performance. The goal has been to provide an improved framework for making fuel switching decisions and consolidating operating experience. Results from this program include a set of bench-scale testing procedures, a fuel characterization data base, and a performance simulation model that links fuel characteristics to combustion performance. This paper reviews the major results of the fuels characterization program. The testing procedures, data base, and performance simulation models are briefly described and their application illustrated with examples. Performance predictions for the B W 1-ft{sup 2} bench-scale AFBC and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 20 MW(e) AFBC Pilot Plant are compared with actual test data. The relationship of coal rank to combustion is discussed. 11 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

Daw, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rowley, D.R.; Perna, M.A. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research Center); Stallings, J.W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Divilio, R.J. (Combustion Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

169

A dual fuel dry low NO sub x combustion system for industrial combustion turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on large industrial combustion turbines required to meet increasingly stringent emission targets. To address these evolving needs, a development program for a Dual Fuel Dry Low NOâ Combustor that combines the experience and background of Westinghouse Electric Corporation and Aero and Industrial Technology, LTD (AIT) has commenced. The phased program includes component tests on module elements over

R. J. Antos; S. E. Mumford; J. Winter

1991-01-01

170

Fuel properties of cottonseed oil  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-11-01

171

FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms,

Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

2008-01-01

172

Energy Content in Flue Gases from Combustion of Fossil Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The enthalpy and average specific heat of flue gas from the combustion of fossil fuels of known composition have been calculated as a function of temperature and presented in diagrams. Specific heat data at constant pressure as a function of temperature f...

B. Solbracke

1975-01-01

173

Combustion of refuse-derived fuel in a fluidised bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a medium to maximise the resources recovery from municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution in industrialised countries. RDF is a value added material with a higher calorific value and a homogeneous particle size. The main objective of this study was to investigate the RDF combustion characteristics and the associated pollutant emissions in a

Francisco D. Hernandez-Atonal; Changkook Ryu; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

2007-01-01

174

Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal  

SciTech Connect

Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, G.H.; Jung. K.; Mu, N.; Yanar, N.M.; Pettit, F.S.

2012-08-01

175

Method of determining heat losses due to incomplete fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedures are to periodically take a sample of fuel combustion products, the sample including solid and gaseous phases; to separate the sample into two parts, one of which includes a solid and a gaseous phase; and the other, a gaseous phase; to determine an oxygen concentration C⁠in each of the parts of the sample; to heat the parts

B. A. Milovidov; I. B. Kaplunov; N. V. Kaplunova

1986-01-01

176

Current gas turbine combustion and fuels research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of current research and development work in gas turbine combustion and fuels based on publications in the open literature and papers and reports supplied to the author by various gas turbine manufacturers on their current combustor research and development programs. Both aircraft and industrial applications are considered for the two major topics that are covered

1987-01-01

177

Fluidized bed combustion of alternate fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology offers the opportunity combust a broader range of fuels than previously possible with other technologies. FBC boilers are currently being used throughout the world to dispose of a wide range of solid and semi-solid waste fuels, including municipal and industrial solid wastes and sludges, agricultural wastes, and coal mining or cleaning wastes. FBCs can also accommodate cofiring waste fuels in units designed for coal or other solid fuels with relative ease compared to conventional technology. The capacity and experience base for coal-fired FBCs has increased in recent years so that utility-scale reheat units of 200-300 MWe in size are now commercially available, and larger units are now being considered. As utilities install fluidized bed boilers to generate power, it is anticipated that many will at some point consider cofiring one or more waste fuels either together or with coal to reduce the quantity and cost of the primary fuel, and in many cases, help offset the environmental impact of other disposal options such as landfills. In order to assist the industry in their evaluations, this report summarizes the fuel characteristics, experience base, and technical issues associated with burning selected fuels using FBC technology, including: Municipal Solid Wastes; Biomass; Sewage Sludge; Paper Manufacturing and Recycling Wastes; Scrap Tires; and Automobile Wastes.

Howe, W.C.; Divilio, R.J. [Combustion Systems, Inc., Aptos, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

178

Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

1992-01-01

179

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 11, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of beneficiated coal-based fuels (BCFs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of three Freeport Pittsburgh 8 fuels; conducted pilot-scale combustion and ash deposition tests of a fresh batch of Upper Freeport parent coal in the CE fireside Performance Test Facility; and completed editing of the fourth quarterly report and sent it to the publishing office.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1992-03-01

180

FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

2005-04-29

181

Pollutants from Methane Fueled Gas Turbine Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The air pollution characteristics of a model gas turbine type combustor using methane as fuel were studied in this investigation. Detailed information regarding gas compositions at various locations within the combustor and direct measurement of temperatu...

P. G. Parikh R. F. Saw A. L. London

1971-01-01

182

Elimination of abnormal combustion in a hydrogen-fueled engine  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the design, construction, and testing of a dedicated hydrogen-fueled engine. Both part-load and full-load data were taken under laboratory conditions. The engine design included a billet aluminum single combustion chamber cylinder-head with one intake valve, two sodium coiled exhaust valves, and two spark plugs. The cylinder-head design also included drilled cooling passages. The fuel-delivery system employed two modified Siemens electrically actuated fuel injectors, The exhaust system included two separate headers, one for each exhaust port. The piston/ring combination was designed specifically for hydrogen operation.

Swain, M.R.; Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

1995-11-01

183

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 10, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport fuels; completed editing of the first three quarterly reports and sent them to the publishing office; presented the project results at the Annual Contractors` Conference.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-11-01

184

Fuel metering device for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A device for metering fuel in an internal combustion engine which comprises sensors for operating parameters, an acceleration detecting stage with a subsequently connected pulse generating stage as well as a pulse lengthening stage, and a fuel metering system wherein the acceleration detecting stage is indirectly and/or directly associated with at least one of a plurality of components including an oscillation stopper (To prevent renewed triggering in case of an oscillation-carrying input signal), a blocking stage (For unequivocal and secure triggering), a repetition stopper (To avoid multiple triggering during gradual and longer-term signal rises), and a switching suppressor (To prevent a voltage rise after a switching step from being evaluated as an instance of acceleration) so that the device serves to operate the acceleration enrichment of the fuel-air mixture for the internal combustion engine with a minimum of disturbance thereby attaining optimum acceleration processes.

Bertsch, R.; Drews, U.; Horbelt, M.; Schnurle, H.

1980-12-23

185

Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

1990-10-01

186

Numerical analysis of supersonic combustion ramjet with upstream fuel injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes possible fuel injection scheme for airbreathing engines that use hydrocarbon fuels. The basic idea is to inject fuel at the spike tip of the supersonic inlet to achieve mixing and combustion efficiency with a limited length combustion chamber. A numerical code, able to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in turbulent and reacting flows, is employed to obtain numerical simulations of the thermo-fluidynamic fields at different scramjet flight conditions, at Mach numbers of M=6.5 and 8. The feasibility of the idea of the upstream injection is checked for a simple axisymmetric configuration and relatively small size. The results are discussed in connection with the potential benefits deriving from the use of new ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC).

Savino, Raffaele; Pezzella, Giuseppe

2003-09-01

187

Numerical modeling of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

Major progress was achieved in the last year in advancing the modeling capabilities of hydrogen-fueled engines, both in support of the multi-laboratory project with SNL and LLNL to develop a high-efficiency, low emission powerplant and to provide the engine design tools to industry and research laboratories for hydrogen-fueled engines and stationary power generators. The culmination of efforts on many fronts was the excellent comparison of the experimental data from the Onan engine, operated by SNL.These efforts include the following. An extensive study of the intake flow culminated in a major understanding of the interdependence of the details of the intake port design and the engine operating condition on the emissions and efficiency. This study also resulted in design suggestions for future engines and general scaling laws for turbulence that enables the KIVA results to be applied to a wide variety of operating conditions. The research on the turbulent combustion of hydrogen brought into perspective the effect of the unique aspects of hydrogen combustion and their influence on possible models of turbulent combustion. The effort culminated in a proposed model for turbulent hydrogen combustion that is in agreement with available literature. Future work will continue the development in order to provide a generally predictive model for hydrogen combustion. The application of the combustion model to the Onan experiments elucidated the observed improvement of the efficiency of the engine with the addition of a shroud on the intake valve. This understanding will give guidance to future engine design for optimal efficiency. Finally, a brief summary is given of the extensions and refinements of the KIVA-3 code, in support of future designers of hydrogen-fueled engines.

Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

1996-07-01

188

Pyrometric thermometry and sizing of fuel particles in combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between temperature and size of a burning fuel particle can provide important knowledge about the reactivity and the detailed combustion mechanism of different coals and other solid fuels. This thesis reports on the development of methods and instrumentation for pyrometric thermometry and sizing of fuel particles and on applications to pressurised pulverised coal combustion and fluidised bed combustion. Modifications of the two-colour pyrometric technique were developed and applied to reactors of different types and several series of measurements were performed at these facilities. The prime novelty of these modifications lies in the capability to determine the size of fuel particles along with the temperature using the same pyrometric signals. In the first application a two-colour pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of temperature and size of individual fuel particles in a pressurised entrained flow reactor has been developed. This technique can be used for the identification of measured particles through a single optical port. The particle sizing is based on the proportionality of the measured radiative flux and the cross sectional area of a particle at known temperature. A large number of experiments were made in two reactors at varying process conditions with various coal types. The effects of pressure, oxygen concentration and gas temperature on the temperature and size distributions of pulverised coals are presented. As a second application a fibre-optic probe is used for measurements in fluidised bed combustion. This method allows to determine the temperatures of the fluidised bed and individual fuel particles wherever these deviate from the bed temperature and statistical determination of the particle size distribution within the population of observed particles. The experiments at two fluidised bed reactors demonstrated that the technique is applicable to fluidised bed reactors from laboratory scale to industrial scale.

Joutsenoja, Timo

189

Chemical Looping Combustion System-Fuel Reactor Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process in which an oxygen carrier is used for fuel combustion instead of air or pure oxygen as shown in the figure below. The combustion is split into air and fuel reactors where the oxidation of the oxygen carrier and the reduction of the oxidized metal occur respectively. The CLC system provides a sequestration-ready CO2 stream with no additional energy required for separation. This major advantage places combustion looping at the leading edge of a possible shift in strict control of CO2 emissions from power plants. Research in this novel technology has been focused in three distinct areas: techno-economic evaluations, integration of the system into power plant concepts, and experimental development of oxygen carrier metals such as Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Ca. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase fluid dynamics modeling for CLC is not available in the open literature. Here, we have modified the MFIX code to model fluid dynamic in the fuel reactor. A computer generated movie of our simulation shows bubble behavior consistent with experimental observations.

Gamwo, I.K.; Jung, J. (ANL); Anderson, R.R.; Soong, Y.

2007-04-01

190

Sonically Enhanced Combustion of Coal Water Slurry Fuel.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was performed to demonstrate that a high intensity acoustic field can enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during CWSF (coal water slurry fuel) combustion. It was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1400 Hz. Combustion efficiency was improved when the extent of burnout was well below 100% and when the droplet size distribution was relatively coarse. The maximum improvement in burnout was 7.9%, under the coarsest atomization conditions investigated. Results from modelling show that sonically enhanced heat transfer plays a negligible role in improving the rate of combustion of CWSF. However, such enhancement may well be important for other applications (e.g. spray drying) involving longer drying times and/or small steady slip velocities. The application of a sonic field improves the rate of combustion of CWSF mainly through increased mass transfer rates, the enhancement being greatest for relatively coarse atomization. It is commonly accepted that the largest particles of fuel are the most likely to avoid full burnout in a practical combustor and thus contribute to erosion, slagging, and fouling via inertial mechanisms. By acting preferentially on these particles, operational difficulties can be minimized.

Ramachandran, Prakash

1990-01-01

191

Sonically enhanced combustion of coal water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was performed to demonstrate that a high intensity acoustic field can enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during CWSF (coal water slurry fuel) combustion. It was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1,400 Hz. Combustion efficiency was improved when the extent of burnout was well below 100% and when the droplet size distribution was relatively coarse. The maximum improvement in burnout was 7.9%, under the coarsest atomization conditions investigated. Results from modelling show that sonically enhanced heat transfer plays a negligible role in improving the rate of combustion of CWSF. However, such enhancement may well be important for other applications (e.g. spray drying) involving longer drying times and/or small steady slip velocities. The application of a sonic field improves the rate of combustion of CWSF mainly through increased mass transfer rates, the enhancement being greatest for relatively coarse atomization. It is commonly accepted that the largest particles of fuel are the most likely to avoid full burnout in a practical combustor and thus contribute to erosion, slagging, and fouling via inertial mechanisms. By acting preferentially on these particles, operational difficulties can be minimized.

Ramachandran, P.

1990-01-01

192

Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

1980-02-27

193

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2011-03-22

194

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2007-11-06

195

Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr.; Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2006-04-25

196

Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2008-11-04

197

Radiation properties of coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect

An assessment is made of the experimental data and the theoretical bases for determining the absorption and scattering coefficients of the coal products of combustion. Particular attention is devoted to the complex refractive indices for char and ash. A dispersion relation is developed from sparse extinction data that can be used to estimate the optical constants of char. Considerable uncertainty and scatter is found in the literature data on ash optical constants and is attributed to variability in ash composition, lack of experimental rigor and limitations in the data reduction procedures. A correlation is presented for estimating the complex refractive indices of ash as a function of its mineral composition. A parametric study is conducted to elucidate the role of char, soot and ash particulates in determining the radiation properties of coal flames. The effects of combustion particulates are discussed in terms of the modification of the band structure of gas radiation to a luminous spectrum, introduction of scattering in radiation transport, particle size distribution, particle loading and particle composition. The results are interpreted as possible effects of coal beneficiation, coal micronization and flyash composition on heat transfer to the water walls of a coal furnace. 19 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1990-11-01

198

Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

199

Fundamentals of nitric oxide formation in fossil fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of fossil fuels in large stationary furnaces causes the emission of nitrogen oxides, a large fraction of which arise from the nitrogen-containing components in the fuel, producing a major pollution problem which is expected to increase severely in the future. The results reported in this paper are part of those obtained from a continuing study to determine the mechanism by which these oxides may form. Because studies have shown that most of the nitrogen in heavy oils is in the form of heterocycles and it is believed that the nitrogen components of coal are similar, pyridine was selected as representative of these components. It was assumed that the radical fragments formed during pyridine pyrolysis or rich, low temperature oxidation would be similar to those obtained from the same reactions of fossil fuels that occur during the pre-flame stages of combustion. Later experiments emphasized HCN oxidation since several studies indicated that it was the key volatile, nitrogen-containing intermediate formed during nitrogen combustion. In addition, HCN used with several fuel additives allowed a greater control of the chemical nature of the reaction environment.

Houser, T.J.; McCarville, M.E.; Zhou-Ying, G.

1986-04-01

200

Micropollutants emission from refuse derived fuel combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work, fly ash and solid residues produced by an incinerator of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) have been analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and heavy metals. Furthermore, the content of that species in the f...

C. Di Palo M. Coronidi M. Zagaroli P. Zamora

1993-01-01

201

Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries.

Kunihiko Namba; Tamio Ida

2010-01-01

202

Certain features of the combustion of liquid fuel in fuel-spray furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme of the sequential course of evaporation and mixture-formation processes is used to generalize experimental data on the combustion of liquid fuel (fuel oil and solar oil) in the furnaces of steam boilers. Computational relationships are obtained that make it possible to determine the principal parameters of the process.

Yu. I. Khavkin; Yu. Z. Nekhamkin; K. K. Tyukin

1983-01-01

203

Theory of turbulent combustion of a homogeneous fuel mixture at high reynolds numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model representations of the mechanics of combustion are used extensively in analyzing turbulent combustion. Two limit cases of combustion corresponding to the characteristic scales of turbulence L, which is much greater or much less compared to the thickness of the normal laminar combustion front in the fuel mixture under consideration bn, are distinguished [1]. In the first case (L>> bn)

V. L. Zimont

1979-01-01

204

Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in

Bin Pang

2005-01-01

205

A review of investigations on liquid fuel combustion in porous inert media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of a porous medium for combustion of liquid fuels is proved to be a promising approach for future applications. The porous medium burner for liquid fuels is more advantageous than the conventional open spray flame burner for several reasons; these include enhanced evaporation of droplet spray owing to regenerative combustion characteristics, low emission of pollutants, high combustion intensity with

M. Abdul Mujeebu; M. Z. Abdullah; M. Z. Abu Bakar; A. A. Mohamad; M. K. Abdullah

2009-01-01

206

Experimental investigation on low velocity filtration combustion in porous packed bed using gaseous and liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study on the characteristics of the filtration combustion of premixed gas as well as the pulse combustion of liquid fuel spray in a porous medium burner (PMB), with the latter as emphasis. The experimental system consists of combustor, primary combustion chamber (PCC), gas supply system, fuel supply system and the data acquisition system, which employs

Dan Wu; Hongsheng Liu; Maozhao Xie; Hong Liu; Wence Sun

207

Combustion of PMMA in a solid fuel ramjet  

SciTech Connect

The combustion behaviour of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in a solid fuel ramjet was investigated using a connected pipe test facility. At pressures below 0,6 MPa almost no soot is formed, the flame is blueish and the regression rate appears to be primarily controlled by convection. At higher pressures, soot is formed and radiative heat transfer appears to be increasingly important. As a result, the regression rate becomes pressure dependant, while the effect of mass flux on regression rate decreases. Oxygen content in the air and air inlet temperature also affect combustion behaviour. No grain size effect on regression rate is noticed. Spectroscopic measurements demonstrated the presence of OH, C/sub 2/ and CH in the combustion chamber. The combustion efficiency varied between 70 and 76% and can be increased by increasing the size of the aft mixing chamber, the fuel grain length or the oxygen content in the air. Cold flow computer calculations were performed and showed good agreement with experimentally obtained results.

Korting, P.A.O.G.; Van der Geld, C.W.M.; Vos, J.B.; Wijchers, T.; Nina, M.N.R.

1986-01-01

208

Santilli's new fuels as sources of clean combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular combustion or nuclear fission is the conventional source of energy, which are not clean as they generate large amount of green house gas or nuclear waste. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. However, each of these sources has their own limitations and is dependent on geographical locations. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review on such novel fuels like Hadronic energy of non-nuclear type (combustion of MagneGas) and nuclear type (intermediate controlled nuclear fusion and particle type like stimulated neutron decay) has been presented.

Sarma, Indrani B. Das

2013-10-01

209

Premixed Combustion Models for Gas Turbine with Stratified Fueling Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most popular conventional combustion models are the “Eddy-Break-Up Model” by Spalding and “Eddy Dissipation Model” by Magnussen, both of which are accepted as applicable to premixed flames. However, these models have not simulated all the premixed combustion phenomena. In this paper we assess four combustion models; (1) “Eddy Dissipation Model”: “Magnussen Model” (2) premixed combustion model of the “Katsuki Model” which controls the reaction rate by the Damköhler number; (3) the “Kido Model”, which predicts turbulent burning velocity by laminar burning velocity and turbulent characteristics and (4) the “Modified Katsuki Model”, in which the fluctuations of concentrations and temperature are solved by the transport equation. In present work, the Kido model is newly presented as computational code based on the flame cell concept and the modified Katsuki model is also developed for application to multi-fuel systems. Our study showed that the “Modified Katsuki Model” could predict the premixed combustion phenomena sufficiently and could trace the changes of the frame front.

Mandai, Shigemi; Uda, Nobuki; Nishida, Hiroyuki

210

Prediction of Agglomeration, Fouling, and Corrosion Tendency of Fuels in CFB Co-Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of agglomeration, fouling, and corrosion tendency of fuels is essential to the design of any CFB boiler. During the years, tools have been successfully developed at Foster Wheeler to help with such predictions for the most commercial fuels. However, changes in fuel market and the ever-growing demand for co-combustion capabilities pose a continuous need for development. This paper presents results from recently upgraded models used at Foster Wheeler to predict agglomeration, fouling, and corrosion tendency of a variety of fuels and mixtures. The models, subject of this paper, are semi-empirical computer tools that combine the theoretical basics of agglomeration/fouling/corrosion phenomena with empirical correlations. Correlations are derived from Foster Wheeler's experience in fluidized beds, including nearly 10,000 fuel samples and over 1,000 tests in about 150 CFB units. In these models, fuels are evaluated based on their classification, their chemical and physical properties by standard analyses (proximate, ultimate, fuel ash composition, etc.;.) alongside with Foster Wheeler own characterization methods. Mixtures are then evaluated taking into account the component fuels. This paper presents the predictive capabilities of the agglomeration/fouling/corrosion probability models for selected fuels and mixtures fired in full-scale. The selected fuels include coals and different types of biomass. The models are capable to predict the behavior of most fuels and mixtures, but also offer possibilities for further improvements.

Bariš?, Vesna; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Sarkki, Juha

211

Liquid-metal fuel-combustion mechanics. Professional paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of the droplet formation at the gas\\/liquid boundary interface of a gaseous jet injected into a liquid metal bath and the turbulent mixing of the resultant two-phase (gas\\/liquid droplets) mixture is presented as a preliminary to the analysis of the liquid metal fuel combustion problem. The model is used to predict velocity and liquid droplet fraction distributions across

Duvvuri

1990-01-01

212

Electronically controlled fuel metering system for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An electronically controlled fuel metering system is disclosed for an internal combustion engine, in which a multiplicative correction is made during warmup and acceleration in accordance with the formula K=(1+FM1(n, t1).FM2())(1+FBA1(n, t1).FBA2()). One exemplary embodiment illustrates a possibility for realizing the correction value formation by circuitry means; in addition, exemplary values are given for individual performance graphs and characteristic curves.

Denz, H.; Barho, H.

1984-04-03

213

Catalyst composition for improving combustion efficiency of liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect

A solid ceramic catalyst is described for improving the combustion efficiency of liquid fuels, comprising: silica and alumina as a major ingredients and containing thorium oxide, uranium oxide (U[sub 2]O[sub 3]), rare earth oxide, iron oxide (Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]), titanium oxide (TiO[sub 2]), calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxide, and phosphorus pentoxide.

Nam, Y.W.

1993-08-31

214

Catalyst composition for improving combustion efficiency of liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid ceramic catalyst is described for improving the combustion efficiency of liquid fuels, comprising: silica and alumina as a major ingredients and containing thorium oxide, uranium oxide (U[sub 2]O[sub 3]), rare earth oxide, iron oxide (Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]), titanium oxide (TiO[sub 2]), calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxide, and phosphorus pentoxide.

Nam

1993-01-01

215

The Implications of Fossil Fuel Combustion for Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion alter the composition of the atmosphere and have been touted as a major cause of climate change. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, for example, has increased by more than 30% since pre-industrial times. Average global surface temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 ± 0.2 șC since the late 19th Century, and surface temperature

Kristy E. Ross; Stuart J. Piketh

216

Fuel-Air Mixing in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetone planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to investigate pre-combustion fuel-air mixing in an optically accessible single-cylinder engine fueled with hydrogen. PLIF and PIV are acquired separately in a plane parallel to the piston top ( r-? plane) at a fixed engine speed and crank angle. The experiments include measurements for non-fueled engine operation

Christopher M. White; Sebastian Kaiser; Michael Roux

2008-01-01

217

Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal  

SciTech Connect

Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. The low nitrogen flue gas that results is relatively easy to capture CO{sub 2} from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions.

G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

2012-05-20

218

An experimental investigation of the sensitivity of the ignition and combustion properties of a single-cylinder research engine to spark-assisted HCCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spark-assisted homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion may be a method to improve the operation of HCCI engines. In the current study, the impact of spark assist on the fundamental properties of ignition and combustion was investigated in a single cylinder, optically-accessible research engine. Early port fuel injection and air preheating were used with indolene fuel in the study. The

B T Zigler; P E Keros; K B Helleberg; M Fatouraie; D Assanis; M S Wooldridge

2011-01-01

219

Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injection pump having a hydraulic injection onset adjustment apparatus is proposed in which a supplementary variation of the injection onset is obtained by means of the variation of the pressure deviating from proportionality. The pressure control valve used has a throttle connection between the pressure chamber and the spring chamber. The variation of the pressure is obtained by means of controlling the discharge channel of the spring chamber, by means of a control slide exposed to the pump pressure, whose restoring spring is variable in accordance with engine characteristics.

Laufer, H.

1983-01-04

220

Control device for fuel-injected internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A control device is disclosed for the fuel supply system of a fuel-injected internal combustion engine provided with a correcting device, which changes the adjusting path and/or the full load position of the fuel quantity adjusting member of the fuel metering device in dependence on operational values the operation of which is made visible by means of a signal indicator. The adjusting member of the correcting device is provided with opposed walls either of which is arranged to cooperate with a stop which is connected to the electrical circuit of the signal indicator, with the stop being mounted in the governor housing in such a manner that it is electrically insulated therefrom.

Lang, T.; Zoske, K.

1980-03-11

221

Device at combustion plants for automatic feeding of fuels within the furnace of the plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for feeding solid fuel through a furnace of a combustion plant, comprising the steps of: positioning solid fuel on a fuel-receiving end of movable grate means, advancing the movable grate means through the furnace from the fuel-receiving end to a fuel-discharging end of the grate means, while combusting the fuel disposed thereon. The grate means is

Lovgren

1986-01-01

222

FUEL PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL COMPONENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel obtained by transesterifying vegetable oils or animal fats, is a mixture of alkyl esters of fatty acids. The physical and fuel properties of the individual alkyl esters are determined by both the fatty acid and alcohol moieties of the esters. Such properties h...

223

Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed to study the influence of dual-fuel combustion characteristics on the exhaust emissions and combustion performance in a diesel engine fueled with biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel. In this work, the combustion pressure and the rate of heat release were evaluated under various conditions in order to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics for single-fuel (diesel and biodiesel) and

Seung Hyun Yoon; Chang Sik Lee

2011-01-01

224

Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.

Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.

2006-12-01

225

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 5, May 1990--June 1990  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, conbustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Sciences, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFs, and two conventionally cleaned coals for the full-scale tests. Approximately nine BCFs will be in dry ultra-fine coal (DUC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-08-01

226

Effect of the PLAZMAZER plasma ignition system on the fuel combustion regimes in combustion chambers of engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economically efficient method of combatting toxic products of incomplete fuel combustion in engines and other movable and\\u000a stationary power installations by means of pulsed automatic control of the ignition and combustion processes carried out by\\u000a the PLAZMAZER system is proposed. A new concept of the occurrence of motor knock in internal combustion engines with external\\u000a carburetion, the stiff operating

V. P. Vovk; A. A. Egorov; V. N. Shkatulo

1999-01-01

227

Influence of Mechanical Properties on the Combustion of Propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is aimed at experimentally exploring the effects of minor compositional variables upon the combustion behavior of composite solid propellants. More specifically, it is intended to determine the influence, if any, of ingredients that improve the mechanical properties upon the oscillatory combustion characteristics. Tests are carried out in the familiar Crawford bomb, a low-pressure L burner, and a high-pressure

R. N. KUMAR; F. E. C. CULICIC

1973-01-01

228

Radiative and combustion properties of nanoparticle-laden liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key processes in energy conversion systems are radiative transport and combustion. The general objective of this dissertation is to improve energy conversion efficiency by a fundamental investigation of how nanoparticle-laden liquid suspensions, generally termed nanofluids, can be used to either enhance radiative absorption in solar thermal energy systems, or to improve the combustion properties of liquid fuels. The present study theoretically investigates the feasibility of using a non-concentrating direct absorption solar collector (DAC) and compares its performance with that of a typical flat-plate collector. Here a nanofluid - a mixture of water and aluminum nanoparticles - is used as the absorbing medium. It was observed that the presence of nanoparticles increases the absorption of incident radiation by more than 9 times over that of pure water. Under similar operating conditions, the efficiency of a DAC using nanofluid as the working fluid is found to be up to 10 percent higher (on an absolute basis) than that of a flat-plate collector. This study also attempts to improve the ignition properties of diesel fuel by investigating the influence of adding aluminum and aluminum-oxide nanoparticles to diesel. As part of this study, droplet ignition experiments were carried out atop a heated hot plate over the range of 688 to 768 degrees centigrade. Different types of fuel mixtures were used; both particle size (15 nm and 50 nm) as well as the volume fraction (0, 0.1 and 0.5 percent) of nanoparticles added to diesel were varied. It was observed that the ignition probability for the fuel mixtures which contained nanoparticles was significantly higher than that of pure diesel. Finally, the concept of using solar energy for converting biomass into useful product-gases was explored. A molten salt mixture (containing nanoparticles) was used to absorb and transfer solar energy to the biomass. Under the highest amount of solar radiation (60 times the normal solar radiation) about 1.1 tons of biomass could be converted to useful product-gases every hour, consuming about 900 kW of sunlight at an overall efficiency of 8 percent.

Tyagi, Himanshu

229

Combustion characteristics of coal-derived liquid fuels in a 300 kilowatt hot-wall furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a comprehensive and systematic research program on coal-derived liquid fuel (CDL) combustion using The Pennsylvania State University Fuels and Combustion Laboratory hot-wall process furnace are reported. This study represents the first time flames of these alternative liquid fuels have been characterized with such a device. The physical (ignition characteristics; flame color, length, and shape; thermal efficiency; heat

Ogunsola

1983-01-01

230

Generating vapor of a volatile normally liquid fuel and operating an internal combustion engine therewith  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified internal combustion engine useful as a power plant in automotive vehicles is operated on an admixture of air and fuel vapor. An apparatus is disclosed for generating the fuel vapor from a volatile normally liquid fuel of the type useful in operating a conventional internal combustion engine having a prior art carburetor. Apparatus is also disclosed for safely

Lowe

1981-01-01

231

Evaluation of alternate-fuels performance in an external combustion system. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the economic attractiveness of many alternate fuels increases relative to gasoline, the viability of any future automotive power plant may soon depend on the ease with which these alternate fuels can be utilized. It is generally assumed that external-combustion engines are more tolerant of alternate fuels than internal-combustion engines. This study attempted to verify that assumption. The purpose of

R. A. Battista; M. Connelly

1985-01-01

232

Progress in the development of combustion kinetics databases for liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the present situation regarding chemical kinetic databases for the simulation of the combustion of liquid fuels. Past work in the area is summarized. Much is known about the reactions of the smaller fragments from combustion processes. In order to describe real liquid fuels there is the need for an understanding of how the larger organic fuels are

Wing Tsang

2004-01-01

233

Reduced bed agglomeration by co-combustion biomass with peat fuels in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion is an energy conversion technology that is very suitable for biomass combustion because of its fuel flexibility and low process temperatures. However, agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems. To prevent or at least reduce this, peat has been suggested as an additive to the main fuels. Nevertheless, the characteristics of peat fuels vary and

Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Marcus Oehman; Dan Bostroem

2005-01-01

234

Method and apparatus for utilizing alcohol as fuel for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention broadly relates to a fuel system for an internal combustion engine. More particularly the invention concerns a method and apparatus for utilizing alcohol as fuel for gasoline fed internal combustion engine, wherein the alcohol to gasoline ratio is controlled by a double acting metering device and the alcohol fuel is vaporized using heated positive crankcase ventilation gas.

Concepcion

1982-01-01

235

Research of the influence of combustion chamber structure on performance of dual fuel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research that the influence of combustion chamber's construction parameter on performance of diesel-natural gas dual fuel engine has been done, which is based on a dual fuel engine of diesel-natural gas. The heat release rate of dual fuel engine is calculated and analyzed via the indicated work diagrams of three kinds of different combustion chamber's structural parameter. The research

Du Qian; Ma Fengxian

2011-01-01

236

Evaluation of alternate-fuels performance in an external combustion system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As the economic attractiveness of many alternate fuels increases relative to gasoline, the viability of any future automotive power plant may soon depend on the ease with which these alternate fuels can be utilized. It is generally assumed that external-combustion engines are more tolerant of alternate fuels than internal-combustion engines. This study attempted to verify that assumption. The purpose of the Alternate-Fuels Performance Evaluation Program was to evaluate and compare the impact of burning six different liquids fuels in an external-combustion system. Testing was conducted in the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) combustion performance rig, which duplicates the external heat system (EHS) of a Stirling engine. The program expanded the range of fuels evaluated over previous studies conducted at Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI). The specific objective was to determine the optimal combustion stoichiometry considering the performance parameters of combustion efficiency, temperature profile, exhaust emissions, and burner wall temperature. 14 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

Battista, R.A.; Connelly, M.

1985-12-01

237

Removal of SOx, NOx, and particulate from combusted carbonaceous fuels  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a method for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate from the products of combusted carbonaceous fuels. Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate are currently discharged to the atmosphere as flue gas in quantities highly detrimental to the environment. Potassium compounds, as are found in agricultural grade potash, are dispersed throughout the combustion products at the exit of the combustion zone of boilers. The potassium compounds decompose as a result of combustion temperatures in excess of their melting points. The potassium, as an ionic vapor, reacts with the sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases present, to form potassium sulfates, potassium nitrites and potassium nitrates. When the combined products stream, traversing the boiler equipment train, cool sufficiently, the potassium, present in excess, condenses as potassium oxide on the surfaces of the particles present. The larger particles are removed from the non-condensed vapor and gas by the centrifugal and gravitational forces exerted within cyclones. The smaller particles are removed from the non-chargable vapor and gases by the electrostatic charge and attraction created within the precipitator. The dry particles discharged from the cyclones and precipitator are ready for ultimate end use as potash fertilizer without further treatment. The flue gas atmospheric emissions contain only trace quantities of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate.

Dayen, W.R.

1985-09-10

238

Method and apparatus for fuel metering in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A fuel control system for an internal combustion engine with correction for optimum values based on a variety of factors. Characteristic engine data is stored in preferably digital memories with capabilities for interpolation. Upon addressing the engine data fields with input signals related to current operational variables, for example the accelerator pedal position , the control system derives therefrom a nominal air flow rate which is used as the reference value in a control loop that sets the amount of recycled exhaust gas and the fresh air flow. As the actual air flow rate approaches the reference value, the fuel flow is adjusted to insure correct mixtures at all times. In another embodiment, the fuel is supplied on demand but cannot exceed a maximum value except under special override conditions. Several other embodiments and variants are presented.

Becker, W.; Boehringer, A.; Eisele, H.

1982-11-23

239

Autoignition and combustion of water-fuel emulsion during its injection into heated air. III. Completeness of combustion of fuel oil M-40  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the completeness of combustion of liquid fuel during its pulsed injection into heated air on the parameters\\u000a of the medium and delivery conditions was established experimentally and it is shown that emulsification of the fuel does\\u000a not affect the integral completeness of combustion. Therefore, an increase of fuel economy of diesel engines on converting\\u000a them to a

A. A. Buzukov; B. P. Timoshenko

1995-01-01

240

FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

2003-08-24

241

Reduction in fuel consumption in internal combustion engines. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program approached automotive fuel consumption from two directions: (1) to model the automobile using mathematical formulations, and (2) to investigate the ignition of lean fuel\\/air mixtures using plasma jet ignition. The mathematical model was used to predict the impacts that various changes in the properties of the vehicle such as engine compression ratio, engine displacement, and body weight would

J. F. Grant; Z. Golenko; M. E. McIlwain; E. P. Marram

1982-01-01

242

Acoustically enhanced combustion of micronized coal water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

A multi-faceted investigation has been carried out to demonstrate analytically and experimentally, that a high intensity acoustic field can be substantially enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during MCWSF (micronized coal water slurry fuel) combustion. The initial stage of the investigation dealt with elucidating the transient as well as time-averaged efforts of high intensity acoustic fields on the heat and mass transfer between a single spherical particle and its environment. A two-dimensional unsteady computer code was developed, which employs the unsteady conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations for laminar flow in spherical coordinates. One objective of the present project was the modeling of MCWSF combustion in a laboratory scale combustor with and without the application of a sonic field. The influence of various operating parameters (sound frequency and level, etc.) on sonic enhancement could thus be studied. The combustion of pulverized coal (PC) was also modeled for the sake of comparison. The first of the two coal combustion experiments was performed using a flat flame methane-air burner. Micronized coal was injected in the same direction as, and burned together with the methane. The final investigation was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1400 Hz. Finally, an attempt was made to model the runs performed in the down-fired unit, using the PCGC-2 code. 61 refs., 60 figs., 8 tabs.

Koopmann, G.M.; Scaroni, A.W.; Yavuzkurt, S.; Reethof, G.; Ramachandran, P.; Ha, M.Y.

1989-05-01

243

Combustion characterization of coal-water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

As a result of coal cleaning operations, a substantial amount of coal is disposed as waste into the ponds, effecting and endangering the environment. This study includes a technique to recover and utilize the waste coal fines from the preparation plant effluent streams and tailing ponds. Due to the large moisture content of the recovered coal fines, this investigation is focused on the utilization of coal fines in the coal-water slurry fuel. It is our belief that a blend of plant coal and waste coal fines can be used to produce a coal-water slurry fuel with the desired combustion characteristics required by the industry. The coal blend is composed of 85% clean coal and 15% recovered coal fines. The coal-water slurry is prepared at 60% solids with a viscosity less than 500 centipose and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. This paper contains analysis of clean coal, recovered coal fines, and coal-water slurry fuel as well as combustion characteristics.

Masudi, Houshang; Samudrala, S.

1996-12-31

244

Formation of fuel NO[sub x] during black-liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect

Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O[sub 2]) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0[sub 2] in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx.

Nichols, K.M. (Weyerhaeuser Paper Co., Tacoma, WA (United States)); Lien, S.J. (Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-03-01

245

Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

1993-04-01

246

System and method of vaporizing liquid fuel for delivery to an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved fuel supply system is described for use with an internal combustion engine having a carburetor with an air intake, a vapor fuel intake and a mixing chamber for mixing the vapor fuel with the air. The improvement described here consists of: a fuel mixing chamber which is in flow communication with the vaporized fuel intake of the carburetor

1986-01-01

247

Chemical mechanism for high temperature combustion of engine relevant fuels with emphasis on soot precursors  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a chemical mechanism for the high temperature combustion of a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from methane to iso-octane. The emphasis is placed on developing an accurate model for the formation of soot precursors for realistic fuel surrogates for premixed and diffusion flames. Species like acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), propyne (C{sub 3}H{sub 4}), propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}), and butadiene (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}) play a major role in the formation of soot as their decomposition leads to the production of radicals involved in the formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and the further growth of soot particles. A chemical kinetic mechanism is developed to represent the combustion of these molecules and is validated against a series of experimental data sets including laminar burning velocities and ignition delay times. To correctly predict the formation of soot precursors from the combustion of engine relevant fuels, additional species should be considered. One normal alkane (n-heptane), one ramified alkane (iso-octane), and two aromatics (benzene and toluene) were chosen as chemical species representative of the components typically found in these fuels. A sub-mechanism for the combustion of these four species has been added, and the full mechanism has been further validated. Finally, the mechanism is supplemented with a sub-mechanism for the formation of larger PAH molecules up to cyclo[cd]pyrene. Laminar premixed and counterflow diffusion flames are simulated to assess the ability of the mechanism to predict the formation of soot precursors in flames. The final mechanism contains 149 species and 1651 reactions (forward and backward reactions counted separately). The mechanism is available with thermodynamic and transport properties as supplemental material. (author)

Blanquart, G.; Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

2009-03-15

248

A coal-water slurry fueled internal combustion engine and method for operating same  

DOEpatents

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

McMillian, M.H.

1992-12-31

249

Fuel rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment  

SciTech Connect

A major concern associated with the combustion of coal for heat and electricity is the emission of acid rain precursors, NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/. Dry calcium based sorbent injection is a potential method for reducing SO/sub 2/ emissions from existing coal-fired boilers. A great deal of study has been devoted to the fuel lean SO/sub 2/ reaction: CaO + SO/sub 2/ + 12O/sub 2/ ..-->.. CaSO/sub 4/ The fuel rich analogies: CaO + H/sub 2/S ..-->.. CaS + H/sub 2/O, CaO + COS ..-->.. CaS + CO/sub 2/ are kinetically faster than the SO/sub 2/ reaction. The fuel rich reactions have not been extensively studied particularly under combustion conditions. In this study a refraction lined, down fired natural gas furnace was used to study fuel rich sulfur capture as a function of sulfur concentration (750-3000 ppm), molar ratio of calcium to sulfur (CaS = 1 to 4), residence time (0.30 to 0.65 sec), quench rate (450 to 900/sup 0/Fsec), stoichiometric ratio in the rich zone (SR = 0.65, 0.75), and sorbent type (Marblehead hydrate and Fredonia carbonate). The fuel rich sulfur species H/sub 2/S and COS were monitored in a near continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) and an automatic sampling system which sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel rich zone, 25% excess air was added and the ultimate fuel lean capture was measured using a continuous SO/sub 2/ monitor. Under fuel rich conditions calcium utilization increases with increasing sulfur concentration and decreasing CaS. The results on the lean side are very typical of lean capture data reported by others; i.e. the calcium utilization is weakly dependent on CaS and sulfur concentration.

Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.

1987-01-01

250

40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines] [Sec. 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?] 40 PROTECTION...Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Sec. 60.4360 How do I...

2009-07-01

251

Fine Particle Emissions from Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion in a Firetube Package Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM) emissions, and heavy oil combustion is suspected of producing particulate emissions with potentially significant toxicity. This paper is concerned with the characterization of particulate emissions from a practical boiler burning heavy fuel oils, The purpose of the study was to identify possible mechanisms that might relate both the combustion process

C. A. Miller; W. P. Linak; C. King; J. O. L. Wendt

1998-01-01

252

Multistage process for combusting fuel mixtures using oxide catalysts in the hot stage  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for partially combusting combustible mixtures comprising the steps of: (a) mixing an oxygen-containing gas with a fuel to form a combustible mixture, (b) contacting the combustible mixture in a first zone with a first zone combustion catalyst comprising palladium completely covering a catalyst support at reaction conditions sufficient to combust at least a portion but not all of the fuel, (c) contacting the partially combusted gas from the first zone in a second zone with a second zone combustion catalyst on a support having integral heat exchange surfaces comprising a metallic support with walls having catalyst applied to at least a portion of only one side and not the other side of the surface forming the walls of the catalyst support so as to limit the catalyst substrate temperature and bulk outlet gas temperature at reaction conditions sufficient to combust at least a further portion but not all of the fuel, and (d) contacting the partially combusted gas from the second zone in a third zone with a third zone combustion catalyst comprising a metal-oxygen catalytic material at reaction conditions sufficient to combust at least a further portion of the fuel.

Dalla Betta, R.A.; Tsurumi, Kazunori; Ezawa, Nobuyasu.

1993-08-03

253

Extinction of model fuels with anomalous pressure dependence of the combustion velocity  

SciTech Connect

This article investigates the regimes of combustion of model fuels with a drop in pressure. The following fuel compositions were examined: a reference composition consisting of a model nitroglycerine fuel, nitroglycerine fuel with a 2% additive of lead and copper compounds, and nitroglycerine with the addition of 1% compound of lead. The temperature gradient in the gas near the combustion surface was determined from the temperature profile. The results indicate that when the pressure boundary for the change in combustion mechanisms is crossed during the pressure drop, the conditions for extinguishing the fuel are considerably eased. It is concluded that the investigation of fuel combustion accompanying a pressure drop permits the obtaining of additional data and enables the understanding of the combustion mechanism at constant pressure.

Marshakov, V.N.; Melik-Gaikazov, G.V.

1983-09-01

254

Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)|

Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

1980-01-01

255

Multiphase CFD-based models for chemical looping combustion process: Fuel reactor modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a flameless two-step fuel combustion that produces a pure CO2 stream, ready for compression and sequestration. The process is composed of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors. The air reactor which is a conventional circulating fluidized bed and the fuel reactor which is a bubbling fluidized bed. The basic principle is to avoid the direct contact

Jonghwun Jung; Isaac K. Gamwo

2008-01-01

256

Development prospects for plasma technology in igniting and combustion of fuel in heating equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of energy conversion in heating plant is the incomplete combustion of fuel from fractions of one-percent with nominal schedules, to 2-3 or more percentage points with partial loading cycles. With the conversion of the operation of steam generators in boiler plant from liquid to powdered coal and gas fuels, the incompleteness of combustion, even with a standard schedule,

N. A. Gatsenko; I. M. Lamanov

1992-01-01

257

Method and apparatus for minimizing the fuel usage in an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method is disclosed for minimizing the fuel usage in an internal combustion engine. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with an engine installation subject to varying loads and which includes a governor for varying fuel flow as a function of load. In operation, the combustibles in the exhaust gas of the engine is continuously monitored.

Smojven

1984-01-01

258

THE EMISSION SOOT OF BIOMASS FUELS COMBUSTION AS A SOURCE OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of biomass fuel combustion in residential stove from Chinese countryside were analyzed to determine the endocrine disrupters by using recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were significant steroid modulating activities found in combustion soot of five kinds of biomass fuels, which were wood, crop residue, grass, bush and rice straw. The steroid activities in the different sub-fractions

W. Z. Wu; J. X. Wang; G. F. Zhao; L. You

2002-01-01

259

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels; status, successes and problems of the technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion can be used for energy production or incineration for almost any material containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur in a combustible form, whether it be in the form of a solid, liquid, slurry or gas. The technology's fuel flexibility arises from the fact that the fuel is present in the combustor at a low level and is burnt

E. J Anthony

1995-01-01

260

Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How

S. R. Jr. Penfield; N. A. Moussa

1999-01-01

261

Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Indoor Solid Fuel Combustion  

PubMed Central

Indoor solid fuel combustion is a dominant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and the latter are believed to be more toxic than the former. However, there is limited quantitative information on the emissions of OPAHs from solid fuel combustion. In this study, emission factors of OPAHs (EFOPAH) for nine commonly used crop residues and five coals burnt in typical residential stoves widely used in rural China were measured under simulated kitchen conditions. The total EFOPAH ranged from 2.8±0.2 to 8.1±2.2 mg/kg for tested crop residues and from 0.043 to 71 mg/kg for various coals and 9-fluorenone was the most abundant specie. The EFOPAH for indoor crop residue burning were 1~2 orders of magnitude higher than those from open burning, and they were affected by fuel properties and combustion conditions, like moisture and combustion efficiency. For both crop residues and coals, significantly positive correlations were found between EFs for the individual OPAHs and the parent PAHs. An oxygenation rate, Ro, was defined as the ratio of the EFs between the oxygenated and parent PAH species to describe the formation potential of OPAHs. For the studied OPAH/PAH pairs, mean Ro values were 0.16 ~ 0.89 for crop residues and 0.03 ~ 0.25 for coals. Ro for crop residues burned in the cooking stove were much higher than those for open burning and much lower than those in ambient air, indicating the influence of secondary formation of OPAH and loss of PAHs. In comparison with parent PAHs, OPAHs showed a higher tendency to be associated with particulate matter (PM), especially fine PM, and the dominate size ranges were 0.7 ~ 2.1 ”m for crop residues and high caking coals and < 0.7 ”m for the tested low caking briquettes.

Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Ding, Junnan; Xue, Miao; Min, Yujia; Zhu, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G.

2011-01-01

262

Theoretical and experimental studies on the combustion of synthetic fuels in spark ignition engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incentives for studying the combustion of alternative fuels in engines are, some fuel as fuel additive may solve the problem of emissions, knock, derivability and efficiency. Also an alternative fuel may help conserve the world's petroleum supplies as well as being available when those supplies are exhausted. Transportation is unique among the energy consuming sectors of the economy of

A. A. Desoky; S. M. El-Eman

1983-01-01

263

Measurement of fuel mixing and transport processes in gas turbine combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement techniques for delineating fuel-air mixing and transport in gas turbine combustion, as well as examples of representative results, are provided in this overview. The summary is broken into applications for gaseous fuels and liquid fuels since many diagnostics which are specific to the phase of the fuel have been developed. Many possible methods for assessing the general mixing

V. G. McDonell; G. S. Samuelsen

2000-01-01

264

A new comprehensive reaction mechanism for combustion of hydrocarbon fuels  

SciTech Connect

A chemical kinetic model has been developed which describes pyrolysis, ignition and oxidation of many small hydrocarbon fuels over a wide range of experimental conditions. Fuels include carbon monoxide and hydrogen, methane and other alkane species up to n-butane, ethylene, propene, acetylene, and oxygenated species such as methanol, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Formation of some larger intermediate and product species including benzene, butadiene, large olefins, and cyclopentadiene has been treated in a semi-empirical manner. The reaction mechanism has been tested for conditions that do not involve transport and diffusional processes, including plug flow and stirred reactors, batch reactors and shock tubes. The present kinetic model and its validation differ from previous reaction mechanisms in two ways. First, in addition to conventional combustion data, experiments more commonly associated with chemical engineering problems such as oxidative coupling, oxidative pyrolysis and steam cracking are used to test the reaction mechanism, making it even more general than previous models. In addition, H atom abstraction and some other reaction rates, even for the smaller C{sub 2}, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, are treated using approximations that facilitate future extensions to larger fuels in a convenient manner. Construction of the reaction mechanism and comparisons with experimental data illustrate the generality of the model.

Ranzi, E.; Sogaro, A.; Gaffuri, P.; Pennati, G. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria Chimica; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-12-03

265

Functionalized graphene sheet colloids for enhanced fuel/propellant combustion.  

PubMed

We have compared the combustion of the monopropellant nitromethane with that of nitromethane containing colloidal particles of functionalized graphene sheets or metal hydroxides. The linear steady-state burning rates of the monopropellant and colloidal suspensions were determined at room temperature, under a range of pressures (3.35-14.4 MPa) using argon as a pressurizing fluid. The ignition temperatures were lowered and burning rates increased for the colloidal suspensions compared to those of the liquid monopropellant alone, with the graphene sheet suspension having significantly greater burning rates (i.e., greater than 175%). The relative change in burning rate from neat nitromethane increased with increasing concentrations of fuel additives and decreased with increasing pressure until at high pressures no enhancement was found. PMID:19925013

Sabourin, Justin L; Dabbs, Daniel M; Yetter, Richard A; Dryer, Frederick L; Aksay, Ilhan A

2009-12-22

266

Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

Whitney, K.A.

1997-06-01

267

Thermal explosion in a combustible gas containing fuel droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original physical model of self-ignition in a combustible gas mixture containing liquid fuel droplets is developed. The droplets are small enough for the gas-droplet mixture to be considered as a fine mist such that individual droplet burning is subsumed into a well-stirred, spatially invariant burning approximation. A classical Semenov-type analysis is used to describe the exothermic reaction, and the endothermic terms involve the use of quasi-steady mass transfer/heat balance and the Clausius-Clapeyron evaporative law. The resulting analysis predicts the ignition delay which is a function of the system parameters. Results are given for typical dynamical regimes. The case of different initial temperatures for droplets and gas is highly relevant to gas turbine lean blow-out and re-ignition.

McIntosh, A. C.; Gol'dshtein, V.; Goldfarb, I.; Zinoviev, A.

1998-06-01

268

Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka [Toyota Motor Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.

1998-12-31

269

Combustion synthesis of Cobalt ferrite Nanoparticles–Influence of fuel to oxidizer ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fuel characteristics on the processing of nano-sized Cobalt ferrite fine powders by the combustion technique is reported. By using different combinations of glycine fuel and metal nitrates, the adiabatic flame temperature (Tad) of the process as well as product characteristics could be controlled easily. Thermodynamic modelling of the combustion reaction shows that as the fuel-to-oxidant ratio increases,

A. B. Salunkhe; V. M. Khot; M. R. Phadatare; S. H. Pawar

270

Effects of air\\/fuel combustion ratio on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of carbonaceous soots from selected fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content were observed from GC\\/MS analysis of the extracts of soots at various air\\/fuel combustion ratios of three commonly used fuels: n-hexane, JP-8 (Jet fuel), and diesel. With increasing air\\/fuel ratio, from a simple diffusion flame up to an air\\/fuel ratio of 3.94, there is a significant loss of high molecular weight PAHs and

C. C. Jones; A. R. Chughtai; B. Murugaverl; D. M. Smith

2004-01-01

271

Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

272

Toward the Impact of Fuel Evaporation-Combustion Interaction on Spray Combustion in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers. Part II: Influence of High Combustion Temperature on Spray Droplet Evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While the first part of this work dealt with the question related to the impact of partial vaporization on spray flame properties,\\u000a the second part attempts to answer the question how the evaporation process behaves under turbulent premixed combustion conditions.\\u000a According to the Eulerian-Lagrangian RANS-based spray module designed in Part I the non-equilibrium evaporation model, that\\u000a was proven to capture accurately

Amsini Sadiki; W. Ahmadi; Mouldi Chrigui

273

Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry;

A. Gupta; R. Natole; A. Sanyal; J. Veilleux

1998-01-01

274

Method of improving the combustion of fuel containing hydrocarbon compounds in the combustion chamber or chambers of internal combustion engines, and a liquid composition for carrying the method into effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the improved combustion of hydrocarbon compounds, for example those contained in gasoline, diesel fuel etc., in internal combustion engines a liquid composition comprising hydrogen peroxide, water, aliphatic alcohol having 1-4 carbon atoms, and preferably thin lubricating oil and anticorrosive is admixed with the fuel air mixture in the internal combustion engines.

T. N. Anderberg; A. Mellovist

1982-01-01

275

Nitrogen chemistry during burnout in fuel-staged combustion  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study of the chemistry of the burnout zone in reburning has been performed in laboratory plug flow reactors in the temperature range 800--1,350 K. Inlet mole fractions of NO, NH{sub 3}, HCN, CO, and O{sub 2} were varied, together with different temperatures and residence times to simulate reaction conditions in practical systems. Under lean conditions, a minimum in NO emission exists as a function of temperature. Both HCN and NH{sub 3} can act as either NO reductants or as sources for NO by oxidation. Reactions and selectivities for HCN and NH{sub 3} are controlled by the radical pool produced by fuel (CO) oxidation. As increasing amounts of CO were added, temperatures for both ignition and the minimum in NO became lower. At 2% CO, 4% O{sub 2}, and 100 ms residence time, the minimum in NO was found at approximately 1,000 K. At low temperatures, significant amounts of N{sub 2}O were measured in the reactor outlet. This is attributed to N{sub 2}O formation by HCN/NO reactions and to the slow decomposition of N{sub 2}O at these temperatures. Large reductions in NO were seen under fuel-rich conditions and at high temperatures. The observed NO reduction was very much dependent on the inlet mole fraction of O{sub 2}. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of the experiments showed reasonable predictions for overall fuel-lean conditions, but the model failed to predict experimental results under fuel-rich conditions. The present results provide guidelines for optimizing the conditions for the burnout process of reburning, as well as other processes for NO{sub x} reduction by staged combustion. The results also provide a test basis for verifying kinetic models for nitrogen chemistry at low temperatures (800--1,350 K).

Kristensen, P.G.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-11-01

276

Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of converting waste preparation plant coal streams into marketable fuels with good combustion and emissions properties has been investigated in this project. Coal pellets containing both hydrated lime and limestone as sorbents were made from a flotation column waste feedstock under a related Illinois Clean Coal Institute project. These pellets, which contain sorbent with Ca/S ratio varying from 0.8 to 2.4 were successfully burnt in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor. Emissions levels of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and hydrogen chloride were measured as a function of bed temperature. Mineral matter analyses of the combustion generated ash was made, and combustion efficiencies were studied. The pellet coals combustion performance was compared to that of an Illinois No. 6 run-of-mine coal from the same preparation plant. Results show that the coal pellets, produced from the flotation column waste stream, are excellent fluidized bed combustor fuels. Calcium hydroxide impregnated pellets yielded lower sulfur dioxide emissions than limestone sorbent pellets for the same Ca/S ratio. Increase in Ca/S ratio with the hydrated lime sorbent produced a more rapid decline in sulfur dioxide emissions than with the limestone sorbent. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 to 0.4 lbs/10{sup 6} Btu. Hydrogen chloride emissions were found to be influenced more by Ca/S ratios than by bed temperature, and varied in the range of 0.0075 to 0.055 lbs/10{sup 6} Btu in the present tests. Combustion efficiencies of the pellet fuels were about 98% without secondary cyclones recycle. EDX analysis of the mineral matter in the raw coal and the combustion-generated ash samples sheds light on the mineral transformations during combustion.

Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

1993-12-31

277

Transient OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging of Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on combustion of liquid fuel droplets during exposure to external acoustic disturbances generated as standing waves within a closed acoustic waveguide. During such acoustic excitation, the mean flame orientation is observed to be dependent on the droplet's location relative to the pressure node (PN), and is consistent with the sign of a theoretical acoustic acceleration acting on the burning system. Yet experimentally estimated acoustic accelerations, measured from the degree of mean flame deflection, differ substantially in a quantitative sense from those predicted by theory.ootnotetextTanabe, et al., Proc. Comb. Inst., 2000 Phase-locked OH* chemiluminescence imaging reveals a deflected flame which oscillates in position relative to the droplet, with the largest degree of oscillation near the PN. A range of acoustic forcing frequencies and droplet locations are used to investigate flame movement over multiple acoustic cycles. The degree of flame oscillation, mean flame deflection angle, and fuel droplet burning rate all correlate with one another for different relative positions of the droplet.

Wegener, Jeffrey; Sevilla, Cristhian; Smolke, Jennifer; Sung, Aaron; Chen, Kelvin; Smith, Owen; Karagozian, Ann

2011-11-01

278

Effect of air-staging on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 2  

SciTech Connect

The concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources brought the concept of biomass and waste as secondary fuels to the power industry. Mercury emissions in cases of cofiring of chicken manure, olive residue, and B-wood with a high volatile bituminous coal blend are studied in the first part of this paper. The use of secondary fuels significantly affects NOx emissions due to different types of nitrogen present in the fuel matrix. Air-staging is a proven in-furnace NOx reduction technology. The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate the effect of air-staging on partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor at 1300{sup o}C with a 20%th share of secondary fuels. Elemental and total gaseous mercury from the reactor is measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with elemental and surface properties. Reducing the air stoichiometry in the primary zone of the combustor increases unburnt carbon which in turn reduces mercury emissions in the gas phase. Ash analysis shows the effect of surface area, particle size, and unburnt carbon on mercury capture. Calcium variation in the ash was observed due to formation of different slag in reducing and oxidizing conditions and might have affected the mercury capture in combination with the above parameters. A low iron concentration of ash does not seem to affect the capture of mercury. The results will help in predicting different forms of mercury emitted from the furnace at desired operating conditions which will eventually form the basis for the design of the control strategies for mercury emissions. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

2007-08-15

279

Commissioning of a 0.8MWth CFBC for Oxy-fuel Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-fuel FBC technology is a new technology being developed for power production from carbonaceous fuels which also produces a near pure steam of CO2 ready for sequestration or storage. Unlike oxy-fuel pulverized fuel combustion technology, oxy-fuel FBC offers the possibility of using poor quality coals, hydrocarbon residues and a range of other materials including biomass. In western Canada, pitches, tars

L. Jia; Y. Tan; D. McCalden; Y. Wu; I. He; R. Symonds; E. J. Anthony

280

Air-to-fuel ratio adjusting system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburetor for applying air-fuel mixture to an internal combustion engine includes a main passage for applying air-fuel mixture and principally controlling the amount thereof. The air-to-fuel ratio of the air-fuel mixture to be supplied to the engine is detected by an air-to-fuel ratio detector mounted in an exhaust pipe of the engine, and when the detected ratio is lower

T. Hattori; S. Takada; F. Sugi; T. Nakase

1977-01-01

281

Effect of secondary fuels and combustor temperature on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 1  

SciTech Connect

The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion at 1000 and 1300{sup o}C. High volatile bituminous coal is used as a reference case and chicken manure, olive residue, and B quality (demolition) wood are used as secondary fuels with 10 and 20% thermal shares. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor with a fuel input of 7-8 kWth. Elemental and total gaseous mercury concentrations in the flue gas of the reactor are measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with other elemental and surface properties. Animal waste like chicken manure behaves very differently from plant waste. The higher chlorine contents of chicken manure cause higher ionic mercury concentrations whereas even with high unburnt carbon, particulate mercury reduces with increase in the chicken manure share. This might be a problem due to coarse fuel particles, low surface area, and iron contents. B-wood and olive residue cofiring reduces the emission of total gaseous mercury and increases particulate mercury capture due to unburnt carbon formed, fine particles, and iron contents of the ash. Calcium in chicken manure does not show any effect on particulate or gaseous mercury. It is probably due to a higher calcium sulfation rate in the presence of high sulfur and chlorine contents. However, in plant waste cofiring, calcium may have reacted with chlorine to reduce ionic mercury to its elemental form. According to thermodynamic predictions, almost 50% of the total ash is melted to form slag at 1300{sup o}C in cofiring because of high calcium, iron, and potassium and hence mercury and other remaining metals are concentrated in small amounts of ash and show an increase at higher temperatures. No slag formation was predicted at 1000{sup o}C. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

2007-08-15

282

Combustion characteristics of the LO2\\/GCH4 fuel-rich preburners for staged combustion cycle rocket engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of Liquid Oxygen (LO2)\\/Gaseous Methane (GCH4) fuel rich preburners were experimentally studied using subscale hardware. Three types of preburners with coaxial type propellant injection elements were designed and fabricated, and were used for hot fire testing. LO2 was used as oxidizer, and GCH4 at room temperature was used as fuel. The tests were conducted at chamber pressures

Fumiei Ono; Hiroshi Tamura; Hiroshi Sakamoto; Masaki Sasaki

1991-01-01

283

Pozzolanic properties of pulverized coal combustion bottom ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pozzolanic properties of a coal combustion bottom ash were investigated. Plain pastes containing equal amounts of calcium hydroxide and bottom ash were prepared and analyzed at different ages for their strength and the calcium hydroxide consumption. At early ages, bottom ash does not react with calcium hydroxide. Its pozzolanic reaction proceeds slowly and accelerates gradually to become very interesting

M. Cheriaf; J. Cavalcante Rocha; J. Péra

1999-01-01

284

Ammonia chemistry in oxy-fuel combustion of methane  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of NH{sub 3} during oxy-fuel combustion of methane, i.e., at high [CO{sub 2}], has been studied in a flow reactor. The experiments covered stoichiometries ranging from fuel rich to very fuel lean and temperatures from 973 to 1773 K. The results have been interpreted in terms of an updated detailed chemical kinetic model. A high CO{sub 2} level enhanced formation of NO under reducing conditions while it inhibited NO under stoichiometric and lean conditions. The detailed chemical kinetic model captured fairly well all the experimental trends. According to the present study, the enhanced CO concentrations and alteration in the amount and partitioning of O/H radicals, rather than direct reactions between N-radicals and CO{sub 2}, are responsible for the effect of a high CO{sub 2} concentration on ammonia conversion. When CO{sub 2} is present as a bulk gas, formation of NO is facilitated by the increased OH/H ratio. Besides, the high CO levels enhance HNCO formation through NH{sub 2}+CO. However, reactions NH{sub 2}+ O to form HNO and NH{sub 2}+H to form NH are inhibited due to the reduced concentration of O and H radicals. Instead reactions of NH{sub 2} with species from the hydrocarbon/methylamine pool preserve reactive nitrogen as reduced species. These reactions reduce the NH{sub 2} availability to form NO by other pathways like via HNO or NH and increase the probability of forming N{sub 2} instead of NO. (author)

Mendiara, Teresa; Glarborg, Peter [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

2009-10-15

285

Use of Fluidic Oscillator to Measure Fuel-Air Ratios of Combustion Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fluidic oscillator was investigated for use in measuring fuel-air ratios in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The oscillator was operated with dry exhaust gas from an experimental combustor burning ASTM A-1 fuel. Tests were conducted with fuel-air ratio...

S. M. Riddlebaugh

1974-01-01

286

Modeling of trickle flow liquid fuel combustion in inert porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present work is a numerical analysis of fuel oil combustion inside an inert porous medium where fuel oil flows through the porous medium under gravity wetting its solid wall with concurrent movement of liquid fuel and air under steady state conditions. A one-dimensional heat transfer model has been developed under steady state conditions using a single step global reaction mechanism.

Tarun K. Kayal; Mithiles Chakravarty

2006-01-01

287

Combustion characteristics in an iron ore sintering bed—evaluation of fuel substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an iron ore sintering bed, combustion of solid fuel supplies heat needed for sintering of fine particles and determines the quality of the sintered ores and the productivity of the process. Coke has been widely used as an ideal fuel for this process, but recent attempts to partially replace coke with a less expensive fuel have been considered effective

Won Yang; Sangmin Choi; Eung Soo Choi; Deog Won Ri; Sungman Kim

2006-01-01

288

Experimental study of oxy-fuel combustion and sulfur capture in a mini-CFBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-fuel technology uses effectively pure oxygen for fossil fuel combustion in order to obtain a highly concentrated CO stream, suitable for direct compression and sequestration. It is an effective technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere from large point sources such as power generation plants. Oxy-fuel FBC technology has the combined advantage of producing high CO concentration flue

L. Jia; Y. Tan; C. Wang; E. J. Anthony

2007-01-01

289

APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX CONTROL: ALTERNATE FUELS AND FLUIDIZED-BED COAL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effect of alternate fuels and fluidized coal combustion in controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The current trend in energy use in the U.S. is toward greater use of coal and coal derived fuels, and on ensuring that these fuels are produced an...

290

Combustion of Liquid Fuels Spilled on Water. Prediction of Time to Start of Boilover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of a liquid fuel floating on water is a problem of interest because of its potential environmental and safety consequences. When a liquid fuel is burning under these conditions, the presence of the water may cause some particular effects due to heat transfer to the water. If the fuel layer is thin, heat losses to the water may

J. P. GARO; P. GILLARD; J. P. VANTELON; A. C. FERNANDEZ-PELLO

1999-01-01

291

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Residual Fuel Oil Combustion in the Context of Marine Diesel Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified model is presented for vaporization and combustion of heavy residual based fuel oil in high-pressure sprays, in the context of marine diesel engines. The fuel is considered as a mix of residual base and cutter stock. The model accounts for multiple fuel components as well as limited diffusion rates and thermal decomposition rates within droplets by the use

L Goldsworthy

2006-01-01

292

Effect of a homogeneous combustion catalyst on the combustion characteristics and fuel efficiency in a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–ș A ferrous-picrate catalyst has been shown to improve diesel engine efficiency. â–ș The fuel consumption is reduced by up to 4.2% with the use of the catalyst. â–ș The catalyst shortens ignition delay and combustion duration.

Mingming Zhu; Yu Ma; Dongke Zhang

2012-01-01

293

Control of unstable combustion oscillations in liquid-fueled gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-loop controller to suppress thermoacoustic combustion instabilities in liquid-fueled systems is described. The controller supplies unsteady heat release pulses which are out-of-phase with those associated with combustion instability to damp unstable oscillations. Pulse-width modulation is used to control the heat pulse amplitude and phase. The controller was tested both in a numerical simulation of dynamic combustion instability using a

Keith R. McManus; John C. Magill; Michael F. Miller

1998-01-01

294

Low-rank coal-water fuel combustion in a laboratory-scale furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of hot-water dried lignite slurry combustion and the formation of nitrogen-containing pollutants was performed in a vertical, laboratory-scale combustor. Space-resolved local measurements of solid and gaseous combustion products were obtained from throughout the combustion zone using a stainless steel, water-quenched sample probe. Coal burnout (daf) of greater than 99% was achieved without supplementary fuel support, in an

D. C. Rawlins; G. J. Germane; L. D. Smoot

1988-01-01

295

Improved Engines and Fuels through Studies in Knocking Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research explored the characteristics and sources of combustion generated particles that are emitted during knocking combustion in a spark ignited engine. Using the forward lobe of a laser mie scattering polar diagram, a size estimate of these particl...

J. C. Hilliard

1984-01-01

296

Properties of aircraft fuels and related materials. Interim report 15 Feb 82-15 Jul 83  

SciTech Connect

Fuel tests, analyses, and analytical method development were conducted on a number of fuels of an experimental nature in conjunction with ongoing Air Force programs for studying fuel combustion behavior, turbine engine design, and other fuel related technologies. Fuels from conventional and alternate sources were studied, as were fuels of the high density missile propellant type. A wide variety of both physical and chemical properties of the fuels were measured and are tabulated. Studies conducted to aid in the solution of operational problems are also reported.

Hodgson, F.N.; Gable, R.G.; Fritsch, C.D.

1984-03-01

297

Comparison of measured isothermal and combusting confined swirling flows - Peripheral fuel injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on a burner system in which the fuel was injected around the outer periphery of the swirled air jet. This type of burner has advantages in achieving better mixing and rapid combustion. Measurements of the velocity components and static pressure were made in the furnace, of confinement ratio D\\/d = 2.5, under both combusting and isothermal

S. A. Beltagui; A. M. A. Kenbar; N. R. L. MacCallum

1993-01-01

298

Wave sequences for solid fuel adiabatic in-situ combustion in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstnlct. We study the Riemann problem with forward combustion due to injection of air into a porous medium containing solid fuel. We neglect air compressibility and heat loss to the rock formation. Given initial reservoir and injection conditions, we prove that there is a unique time asymptotic wave sequence for combustion with complete oxygen consumption. The sequence consists of a

A. J. de Souza; I. Y. Akkutlu; D. MARC HE SIN

2006-01-01

299

FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

300

Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is

Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga

2007-01-01

301

Fuel octane responsive internal combustion engine ignition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a combustion chamber a first sensor for sensing a parameter which varies with the presence of knocking phenomena in the combustion chamber of the engine; a second sensor for sensing the load on the engine; a third sensor responsive to the rotational speed of the engine; a spark generating arrangement for producing

K. Higashiyama; K. Ishigami

1986-01-01

302

Development of an Internal-Combustion Engine Fueled with Cryogenic Hydrogen and Oxygen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The practicability of utilizing a hydrogen-oxygen-fueled, internal-combustion engine in conjunction with low-pressure cryogenic tanks was determined through an experimental investigation conducted at the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. This experime...

R. E. Quigley

1967-01-01

303

Fundamental Investigations of Surface Discharges Over Dielectric Liquids for Ignition and Combustion of Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nowadays a problem of effective ignition and combustion of fuels is facing a development of new aircraft generation. Our team has undertaken investigation of ignition of different hydrocarbon materials (including heavy hydrocarbons and alcohol) in conditi...

A. F. Aleksandrov

2007-01-01

304

Extension of the Lean Operating Limit of a Rotary Combustion Engine by Hydrogen Enriched Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extension of the Lean Operating Limit (LOL) of internal combustion engines by hydrogen fuel addition has been proposed as a viable means of reducing species emissions and increasing thermal efficiency. A review of the literature pertinent to both the ...

J. E. Cichanowicz

1975-01-01

305

Computation of Instantaneous Fuel Consumption for the Determination of Combustion Efficiency with Special Reference to Coal Briquette Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study comprises of the computation of instantaneous fuel consumptions as a straight means for the interpretation of combustion-related characteristics of coal. The model relies on the determination of the extent of combustion by the calculated fuel combustion amounts at specific instants in order to examine the oxidation behavior and possible influences governed by any variable of interest. In this

N. Emre Altun; Cahit Hicyilmaz; A. Suat Bagci

2006-01-01

306

40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section...of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must...

2010-07-01

307

40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section...of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must...

2013-07-01

308

Laser-based imaging measurements in combustion: New results for fuel\\/air mixture and temperature diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced laser-based imaging diagnostics is an important tool for the development and optimization of modern combustion devices that can fulfil the future requirements in terms of energy efficiency maximization and pollutant minimization. The determination of the conditions prior to combustion in terms of fuel concentration, fuel\\/air equivalence ratio and temperature is crucial for the control of the subsequent combustion process.

C. Schulz

2006-01-01

309

Biofuels combustion.  

PubMed

This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly. PMID:23298249

Westbrook, Charles K

2013-01-04

310

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE COMBUSTION OF ORGANIC-GELLANT-BASED GEL FUEL DROPLETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomena involved in the combustion of two organic-gellant-based gelled fuels, one non-metallized and one metallized, were investigated. The non-metal part consisted by 15% organic gellant and 85% JP-8. A high-speed (up to 2,000 frames\\/sec) digital video camera was employed in the present study. The combustion characteristics of the organic-gellant-based gel fuels were found to be different from those of

YAIR SOLOMON; BENVENISTE NATAN

2006-01-01

311

Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO.sub.x and CO levels  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for safely combusting a fuel in such manner that very low levels of NO.sub.x and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line (12) containing a fuel and an inlet line (18) containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line (12) and to the oxidant line (18) is a mixing means (11,29,33,40) for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means (11,29,33,40) is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure (8), into a combustion region (2). Coupled to the combustion region (2) is a means (1,29,33) for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region (2) to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor (1), a rotating band (29), or a rotating cylinder (33) within an acoustic chamber (32) positioned upstream or downstream of the region (2) of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve (11); a rotating cylinder (33); a rotating band (29) having slots (31) that expose open ends (20,21) of said fuel inlet line (12) and said oxidant inlet line (18) simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli (43) and oxidizer annuli (42,44). The means for producing a periodic flow field (1, 29, 33) may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion (2).

Keller, Jay O. (3534 Brunell Dr., Oakland, CA 94602); Bramlette, T. Tazwell (2105 Canyon Lakes Dr., San Ramon, CA 94583); Barr, Pamela K. (294 Joyce St., Livermore, CA 94550)

1996-01-01

312

Comparative second-law analysis of internal combustion engine operation for methane, methanol, and dodecane fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for both combustion irreversibility and working medium availability computations in a high-speed, naturally-aspirated, four-stroke, internal combustion engine cylinder is presented. The results of the second-law analysis of engine operation with n-dodecane (n-C12H26) fuel are compared with the results of a similar analysis for cases where a light, gaseous (CH4) and an oxygenated (CH3OH) fuel is used. The rate

C. D Rakopoulos; D. C Kyritsis

2001-01-01

313

Progress on the investigation of coal-water slurry fuel combustion in a medium-speed diesel engine; Part 6: In-cylinder combustion photography studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the GE 7FDL single cylinder research diesel engine, in-cylinder high-speed photographic studies were conducted on coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel combustion. Distinct flames of pilot and CWS combustion were noticed. It was proven that the coal fuel burns after piston impingement and secondary atomization. Agglomerated particles will develop when combustion conditions are not favorable. Cylinder pressure data were simultaneously recorded

B. D. Hsu; D. P. Branyon

1993-01-01

314

Application of a Combustion Model to a Diesel Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and sunflower oil-Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases. The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation: vc·Qc·d??=dU?+dL?+dQw?, [1] where vc is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, ??=vc?/vc, vc? is the quantity of burned fuel up to the moment ?, U? is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qw? is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and L? is the mechanical work. The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one: ??=Rc·[1-exp(-6.9·AmPp+1)]+(1-Rc)·[1-exp(-6.9·Amd+1)], [2] where: ·Ap=(?-?d)/(?P-?d) and A=(?-?d)/(?F-?d) ·?d-start of combustion angle ·?f-end of combustion angle ·?P-end of rapid combustion angle. Using Eqs. [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed during the experiments.

Radu, Rosca; Edward, Rakosi; Comsa, Iulian-Agape; Radu, Gaiginschi

315

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

Not Available

1993-05-01

316

Method and apparatus for correcting the fuel quantity in an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus are disclosed for correcting the fuel quantity delivered by a fuel injection apparatus to an internal combustion engine, in particular for correcting the full-load fuel quantity per stroke, whereby a control value corresponding to the fuel injection quantity per time unit is formed and is converted into a control value corresponding to the fuel injection quantity by means of division of a value dependent on the rpm, the injection quantity per stroke being corrected by means of an adjustment of the fuel quantity control device of the fuel injection apparatus in accordance with the deviation of this converted control value from a set-point value.

Stumpp, G.; Wessel, W.

1981-10-13

317

PROPERTIES OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION IN HIGH TEMPERATURE AIR\\/STEAM MIXTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature air combustion (HiTAC) is a promised combustion technology. It has been proved that when the oxygen concentration in the preheated air is diluted, the NOx emission for fossil fuels will be significantly reduced. When this idea is applied to pulverized coal combustion, the same advantages can be expected. Water has high specific heat, and can react with coal

ZHANG QINGLIN; SWIDERSKI ARTUR; YANG WEIHONG; WLODZIMIERZ BLASIAK

318

Method and apparatus for cold starting a spark ignited internal combustion engine fueled with an alcohol-based fuel mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for enhancing the cold-starting capability of an internal combustion engine operating on an alcohol-based fuel mixture, the engine including a cranking means for rotating the engine during starting, a means for delivering the fuel mixture to each engine cylinder, and a spark plug with an arc gap positioned in each engine cylinder for igniting the

N. D. Brinkman; C. J. Dasch; L. A. Rockwell; D. H. Hopper

1992-01-01

319

Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel

Szybist; James P

2008-01-01

320

Combustion modelling of diesel fuel, seed oils and methyl ester of seed oils  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological model having modular formulation is presented for combustion in the open chamber diesel engine. The modules for fuel injection, jet penetration and droplet formation have been calibrated outside the engine in a high pressure, fixed volume chamber by high speed photographic and laser analysis of single spray 'shots'. In the diagnostic mode of operation, the chemical components of the combustion reaction are estimated. In the predictive mode of operation the model is used to estimate engines' pressure diagrams and various other combustion characteristics of the fuels over a wide range of speed and load conditions.

Kumar, S.; Watson, H.; Milkins, E.; Edsell, J.

1986-01-01

321

Combustion Products of Petroleum Jet Fuel, a Fischer–Tropsch Synthetic Fuel, and a Biomass Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Fuel for a Gas Turbine Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report combustion emissions data for several alternatives to petroleum based Jet A jet fuel, including a natural gas–derived Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthetic fuel; a 50\\/50 blend of the FT synthetic fuel with Jet A-1; a 20\\/80 blend of a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with jet fuel; and a 40\\/60 blend of FAME with jet fuel. The chief distinguishing features

Michael T. Timko; Scott C. Herndon; Elena de la Rosa Blanco; Ezra C. Wood; Zhenhong Yu; Richard C. Miake-Lye; W. Berk Knighton; Linda Shafer; Matthew J. DeWitt; Edwin Corporan

2011-01-01

322

Diazido alkanes and diazido alkanols as combustion modifiers for liquid hydrocarbon ramjet fuels  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to liquid-hydrocarbon jet fuels and more particularly to azido additives to liquid-hydrocarbon ramjet fuels. In most liquid-fueled combustors such as the ramjet, the fuel is directly introduced into the upstream flow section of the combustion chamber in the form of sprays of droplets. These droplets subsequently mix with the external gas, heat up, gasify, combust, and thereby release heat to provide the propulsion energy. It is therefore obvious that the rates of gasification and mixing would closely affect the chemical heat release rate and, consequently, such important performance parameters as combustion efficiency and the tendency to exhibit combustion instability. Accordingly, and object of this invention is to provide a new, improved jet fuel and provide new additives for jet fuels. A further object of this invention is to provide a more-efficient jet fuel and reduce the ignition time for jet fuels. Still, a further object of this invention is to improve the mixing characteristics of the jet-fuel spray.

Miller, R.S.

1986-07-03

323

Fuel combustion test in constant volume combustion chamber with built-in adaptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion tests of pre-mixture of methane and air in constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) have been carried out by means\\u000a of flame propagation photo and gas pressure measurement, the effects of CVCC body temperature, intake pressure of pre-mixture\\u000a of methane and air, equivalence ratio and location of the built-in adaptor have been investigated. The whole combustion chamber\\u000a can be divided

HongGuang Zhang; XiaoLei Bai; DongSoo Jeong; GyuBack Cho; SuJin Choi; JinSoo Lee

2010-01-01

324

Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels  

SciTech Connect

A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m[sup 3] internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h[sup [minus]1] was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO[sub 2], and NO[sub x]. Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion.

Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J. (Midwest Technical, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M. (Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Labs., Karachi (Pakistan))

1992-10-01

325

Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels  

SciTech Connect

A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m{sup 3} internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h{sup {minus}1} was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}. Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion.

Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J. [Midwest Technical, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M. [Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Labs., Karachi (Pakistan)

1992-10-01

326

Combustion synthesis and effects of processing parameters on physical properties of {alpha}-alumina  

SciTech Connect

Fine particle porous {alpha}-alumina has been prepared by a wet chemical method of combustion synthesis using an aqueous precursor containing aluminum nitrate (oxidizer) and carbohydrazide, an organic fuel as starting materials. The aluminum nitrate and carbohydrazide were reacted exothermically at 400--600 C. The synthesis of {alpha}-alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was used as a model for understanding the effects of processing parameters on physical properties such as surface area, average pore size, and residual carbon content. The porous powders were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area analysis and elemental analysis. The decomposition of the starting materials was investigated using differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses (DTA/TGA). It has been shown that the furnace temperature, fuel/oxidizer ratio, and precursor water content can be tailored to produce powders with different physical properties.

Collins, M.V.; Hirschfeld, D.A.; Shea, L.E.

2000-01-04

327

The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Inst.

1998-05-01

328

Combustion of Drops and Sprays of Heavy Fuel Oils and Their Emulsions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made to understand the combustion behavior of heavy fuels (No. 4 and No. 6 oils) and their emulsions. This study is an extension of an earlier study on a distillate fuel (No. 2) and its emulsion, and has been carried out in four parts...

S. R. Gollahalli M. L. Rasmussen S. M. Salek

1980-01-01

329

An aerosol rapid compression machine for studying energetic-nanoparticle-enhanced combustion of liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of energetic nanoparticles offers a promising means of adjusting the reactivity of liquid fuels for enhanced combustion stability in next generation propulsion systems. This work outlines the development of a novel aerosol rapid compression machine (RCM) for studying the impact of energetic nanoparticles on reducing the ignition delay of liquid fuels, and a proof-of-concept demonstration is presented using

Casey Allen; Gaurav Mittal; Chih-Jen Sung; Elisa Toulson; Tonghun Lee

2011-01-01

330

Characterisation of supplementary fuels for co-combustion with pulverised coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current and future energy policy aims at increasing the share of renewable energy in worlds energy supply. One possibility to enhance energy production by renewable sources within a short term is co-combustion. This means co-firing biomass and waste with fossil fuels at existing power plants originally designed to fire fossil fuels. In Central Europe, the main interest lies in

J. M. Heikkinen

2005-01-01

331

Corrosion prevention in hydrocarbon-fueled booster engine combustion chamber liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic tests with methane fuels containing trace amounts of sulfur compounds were performed in order to identify and develop procedures to protect against the corrosive interaction process that occurs between the fuel and the copper combustion chamber liner materials in the coolant side of a regeneratively cooled hydrocarbon booster engine. Foils of gold, platinum, zirconium, iridium, niobium, and

S. D. Rosenberg; M. L. Gage

1989-01-01

332

Further applications of the Lucas fan spray fuel injection combustion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASME paper 79-gt-175 presented the design philosophy upon which Lucas fan spray fuel injection combustion systems for small gas turbines is based. Included were results from a system designed for an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (apu) and capable of operating with avaiation kerosene, gas oil and marine diesel fuels. Since the publication of the above paper there has been further

1985-01-01

333

Combustion of multicomponent fuel droplets. Progress report, 1 July 1977--30 June 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

A droplet generation technique and a droplet collection technique, both of which appear to be new to the field of combustion research, have been invented. The generation technique involves cyclically pumping fuel droplets from a capillary as opposed to vibrating a capillary from which a jet of fuel issues in steady flow. Uniform size droplets have been generated between 10

W. A. Sirignano; H. S. Homan

1978-01-01

334

Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Institute of Research for Combustion

2008-12-15

335

PARTICULATE MATTER FORMATION AND EMISSION IN THE COMBUSTION OF DIFFERENT PULVERIZED BIOMASS FUELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle formation and emission in the combustion of four (orujillo, eucalyptus, oak and chestnut tree) pulverized biomass fuels have been studied. The fuels have been burned in an entrained flow reactor, under controlled and realistic conditions. In all the cases, the final emission distributions contained at least two modes, one of them peaking at 30–200 nm, and the other being in

SANTIAGO JIMÉNEZ; JAVIER BALLESTER

2006-01-01

336

Utilization of Biomass as Alternative Fuel for External Combustion Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because Turkey is an energy-important country, external combustion engines for Turkey possess strategic importance. Turkey's annual biomass potential is 32 million tons of oil equivalent. Gasoline is 9.836 fold more expensive than wood in Turkey. Railway transportation that operate with external combustion engines with wood or coal fire is more economic than highway transportation for Turkey. Thermal energy, produced by

AYHAN DEMIRBAS; FUAT MEYDAN

2004-01-01

337

Sustainability of mild combustion of hydrogen-containing hybrid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays a process of sensitization on the fundamental problems related to energetic sources and their environmental impact is observed. In this context, the so-called flameless or mild combustion technology offers great advantages in terms of thermal efficiency and pollution emissions with respect to conventional burner-stabilized firing. The achievement of mild conditions requires to heat up the combustion chamber above a

Marco Derudi; Alessandro Villani; Renato Rota

2007-01-01

338

Combustion-derived substances in deep basins of Puget Sound: historical inputs from fossil fuel and biomass combustion.  

PubMed

Reconstructions of 250 years historical inputs of two distinct types of black carbon (soot/graphitic black carbon (GBC) and char-BC) were conducted on sediment cores from two basins of the Puget Sound, WA. Signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also used to support the historical reconstructions of BC to this system. Down-core maxima in GBC and combustion-derived PAHs occurred in the 1940s in the cores from the Puget Sound Main Basin, whereas in Hood Canal such peak was observed in the 1970s, showing basin-specific differences in inputs of combustion byproducts. This system showed relatively higher inputs from softwood combustion than the northeastern U.S. The historical variations in char-BC concentrations were consistent with shifts in climate indices, suggesting an influence of climate oscillations on wildfire events. Environmental loading of combustion byproducts thus appears as a complex function of urbanization, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate conditions. PMID:21236534

Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce E; Brandenberger, Jill M; Wade, Terry L; Crecelius, Eric

2011-01-13

339

Progress on the investigation of coal-water slurry fuel combustion in a medium-speed diesel engine; Part 6: In-cylinder combustion photography studies  

SciTech Connect

In the GE 7FDL single cylinder research diesel engine, in-cylinder high-speed photographic studies were conducted on coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel combustion. Distinct flames of pilot and CWS combustion were noticed. It was proven that the coal fuel burns after piston impingement and secondary atomization. Agglomerated particles will develop when combustion conditions are not favorable. Cylinder pressure data were simultaneously recorded for each film frame. Heat release data can thus be produced for each photo study. Most of the findings of earlier combustion studies on engine performance were confirmed.

Hsu, B.D.; Branyon, D.P. (General Electric Co., Erie, PA (United States). Transportation Systems)

1993-10-01

340

Increase in the rate of fuel combustion on addition of nanosized carbon particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosized carbon fuel additives were formed by ultrasonic crushing of graphitized films or by subjecting ethanol to an electric discharge. The obtained specimens of fuel were tested on a setup for rapid adiabatic compression. Under conditions of ultrasonic dispersion, a wide spectrum of particle sizes was observed, and their influence on the characteristics of combustion turned out to be insignificant. When ethanol was treated by an electric discharge, spherical or plane carbon nanoclusters and various transient shapes, as well as liquid components, were synthesized. The resulting fuel displayed a substantial increase in the rate of combustion.

Shushkov, S. V.; Genarova, T. N.; Leshchevich, V. V.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Gusakova, S. V.; Egorov, A. S.; Govorov, M. I.; Prismotrov, Yu. A.

2012-07-01

341

Analysis of Combustion Stability and Its Relation to Performance Characteristics in a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel-biodiesel Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the effects of using diesel-biodiesel blends on compression ignition engine performance characteristics. Combustion stability observed from in-cylinder pressure related parameters, biodiesel composition, and the fuel properties of the blends are used to analyze the variations of the characteristics. Making biodiesel from hazelnut oil is done by esterification and then experiments are conducted with the neat diesel and

M. A. Ceviz; F. Koncuk; Ö. Küçük; A. C. Gören; F. Yüksel

2011-01-01

342

Size and frequency dependent dielectric properties of tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles synthesized by gel combustion method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline Tin oxide (SnO2) material with different crystallite size was synthesized using gel combustion method by varying the fuel (C6H8O7) to oxidizer (HNO3) molar ratio as a process parameter. The effect of the molar ratio of fuel to oxidizer in the gel combustion method was investigated by inspecting the crystallite size of nano SnO2 powder. The prepared samples were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis X-ray Spectroscope (EDAX). The electrical properties of compressed nanocrystalline SnO2 were studied by using LCR meter. Frequency dependence dielectric properties of SnO2 nanoparticles were studied. Dielectric constant and loss tangent were found to be decrease with the increasing frequency. The Size dependent dielectric properties of SnO2 nano materials were studied for the samples with the crystallite size about 12nm, 18nm and 31nm. From the study it was observed that dielectric constant and loss tangent were highly influenced by the size of the nanoparticles.

Rajeeva, M. P.; Naveen, C. S.; Lamani, Ashok R.; Jayanna, H. S.

2013-06-01

343

Retene Emission from Residential Solid Fuels in China and Evaluation of Retene as a Unique Marker for Soft Wood Combustion  

PubMed Central

Retene (1-methyl-7-isopropylphenanthrene) is often used as a marker for softwood combustion and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) source apportionment. The emission factors of retene (EFRET) from 11 crop residues, 27 firewood and 5 coals were measured using traditional rural Chinese stoves. Retene was measured in combustion emissions from all of the residential fuels tested and EFRET varied significantly among the fuels due to the differences in fuel properties and combustion conditions. EFRET for pine (0.34±0.08 mg/kg) and larch (0.29±0.22 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those of other wood types, including fir and cypress (0.081±0.058 mg/kg). However, EFRET for crop residues varied from 0.048±0.008 to 0.37±0.14 mg/kg and were not significantly lower than those for softwood (0.074±0.026 to 0.34±0.08 mg/kg). The EFRET for coal were very high and ranged from 2.2±1.5 (anthracite briquette) to 187±113 mg/kg (raw bituminous chunk). EFRET was positively correlated with EFs of co-emitted particulate matter (EFPM) and phenanthrene (EFPHE) for crop residue and coal, but not for wood. In addition, the ratios of EFPHE/EFRET and EFPM/EFRET for coals were much lower than those for crop residues and wood. These data suggest that retene is not a unique PAH marker for softwood combustion and that coal combustion, in particular, should be taken into account when retene is used for PAH source apportionment.

Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

2012-01-01

344

Methodology development of a time-resolved in-cylinder fuel oxidation analysis: Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion study application  

SciTech Connect

A technique was developed and applied to understand the mechanism of fuel oxidation in an internal combustion engine. This methodology determines the fuel and concentrations of various intermediates during the combustion cycle. A time-resolved measurement of a large number of species is the objective of this work and is achieved by the use of a sampling probe developed in-house. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve with internal N{sub 2} dilution was developed for sampling gases coming from the combustion chamber. Combustion species include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, fuel components, and hydrocarbons produced due to incomplete combustion of fuel. Combustion gases were collected and analyzed with the objectives of analysis by an automotive exhaust analyzer, separation by gas chromatography, and detection by flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry. The work presented was processed in a homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion mode context. (author)

Nowak, L.; Guibert, P.; Cavadias, S. [Universite de Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert CNRS UMR 7190, 2 place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 Saint Cyr l'Ecole (France); Dupre, S.; Momique, J.C. [PSA Peugeot Citroen, Centre Technique de Velizy, Route de Gizy, 78943 Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

2008-08-15

345

Combustion characteristics of the LO2/GCH4 fuel-rich preburners for staged combustion cycle rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion characteristics of Liquid Oxygen (LO2)/Gaseous Methane (GCH4) fuel rich preburners were experimentally studied using subscale hardware. Three types of preburners with coaxial type propellant injection elements were designed and fabricated, and were used for hot fire testing. LO2 was used as oxidizer, and GCH4 at room temperature was used as fuel. The tests were conducted at chamber pressures ranging from 6.7 to 11.9 M Pa, and oxidizer to fuel ratios ranged from 0.16 to 0.42. The test results, which include combustion gas temperature T(sub c), characteristic velocity C(sup *) and soot adhesion data, are presented. The T(sub c) efficiency and the C(sup *) efficiency were found to be a function of oxidizer to fuel ratio and chamber pressure. These efficiencies are correlated by an empirical correlation parameter which accounts for the effects of oxidizer to fuel ratio and chamber pressure. The exhaust plumes were colorless and transparent under all tests conditions. There was some soot adhesion to the chamber wall, but no soot adhesion was observed on the main injector simulator orifices. Higher temperature igniter gas was required to ignite the main propellants of the preburner compared with that of the LO2/Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) propellants combination.

Ono, Fumiei; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masaki

1991-09-01

346

CO2 and H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion for zero-emission power  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for zero-emission power generation systems. These systems are intended to produce power without releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. One method to achieve this goal is to produce hydrogen from the gasification of fossil or biomass fuels. Using various membrane and reforming technologies, the carbon in the parent fuel can be shifted to CO2 and removed from the fuel stream, followed by direct CO2 sequestration. The hydrogen fuel can be used directly in gas turbines fitted with low-NOx combustors. A second approach to producing zero-emission power is to replace the nitrogen diluent that accompanies conventional combustion in air with either CO2 or H2O. In this concept, CO2 or H2O is added to oxygen to control combustion temperatures in oxygen–fuel reactions. In the absence of nitrogen, the primary combustion products for any hydrocarbon under lean conditions are then simply CO2 and H2O. Thus, merely cooling the exhaust stream condenses the water and produces an exhaust of pure CO2, ready for sequestration. The dilute oxy-fuel combustion strategy can be incorporated in power cycles that are similar to Brayton or Rankine configurations, using CO2 or H2O as the primary diluent respectively. While the relativemerits of the various strategies to zero-emission power are the subject of various technical and economic studies, very little work has focused on defining the combustion issues associated with the dilute oxy-fuel option. In this paper, the expected combustion performance of CO2 and H2O diluted systems are compared. Experimental results from a high-pressure oxy-fuel combustor are also presented.

G A Richards; K H Casleton; B T Chorpening

2005-01-01

347

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water mixtures. Quarterly report, April-June 1983. Draft  

SciTech Connect

This three-year research project will provide sufficient data on coal-water mixture (CWM) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for oil firing. The project is divided into six tasks: (1) selection of candidate fuels; (2) bench scale characterization tests; (3) preparation of CWM for tests; (4) atomization and burner tests; (5) ash deposition performance tests; and (6) commercial application and economics. In addition to developing technical data, the project will evaluate the economics of CWM production using beneficiated coals. The costs of beneficiation will be weighed against the reduced operating costs which results from improved performance. During the second quarter of 1983 the following technical milestones have been achieved: completion and submission of the final draft of the preliminary washability studies; selection of the eight coals to be included in the detail washability studies; selection of Atlantic Research as the primary slurry vendor; completion of the initial review of the other slurry vendor participants; development of slurry specifications and test procedures; procurement of the first large batch of the reference coal; recommendation of commercial burners for the combustion testing; modification of test facilities in preparation for burner tests and ash deposition tests; and test firing of the reference coal in conventional pulverized form to obtain baseline data. The activities related to meeting these milestones are discussed in this report.

Hargrove, M.J.

1983-07-01

348

Design strategy for the combustion of coal-derived liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported of experiments on the amenability of SRC-II coal-derived liquid fuels to combustion process modification by air staging for NO\\/sub x\\/ and particulates emission control. Two experimental systems were used: (1) a laboratory laminar flow reactor for determining rates of evolution of fuel-bound nitrogen from pyrolyzing arrays of 150 ..mu..m SRC-II fuel droplets; and (2) a pilot plant

J. M. Beer; M. T. Jacques; W. F. Farmayan; J. D. Teare

1982-01-01

349

Reduction of NO\\/sub x\\/ and solids emissions by staged combustion of coal liquid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported of experiments on the amenability of SRC-II coal-derived liquid fuels to combustion process modification by air staging for NO\\/sub x\\/ and solids emission control. Two experimental systems were used: (1) a laboratory laminar flow reactor for determining rates of evolution of fuel-bound nitrogen from pyrolyzing arrays of 150 ..mu..m SRC-II fuel droplets, and (2) a pilot plant

J. M. Beer; M. T. Jacques; W. F. Farmayan; A. K. Gupta; S. Hanson; W. C. Rovesti

1982-01-01

350

An integrated aerodynamic-ramp-injector\\/plasma-torch-igniter for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first integrated, flush-wall, aero-ramp-fuel-injector\\/plasma-torch igniter and flame propagation system for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels was developed and tested. The main goal of this project was to develop a device which could be used to demonstrate that the correct placement of a plasma-torch-igniter\\/flame-holder in the wake of the fuel jets of an aero-ramp injector array could make sustained,

Lance Steven Jacobsen

2001-01-01

351

Performance Comparison of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Racing Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Students from RMIT University and the University of Applied Sciences Ingolstadt have collaborated to build a hydrogen-powered\\u000a racing car. As part of the initial conceptual design, a lap simulation was developed to compare performance and fuel usage\\u000a of hydrogen internal combustion engine and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. For the vehicle and track specifications analyzed,\\u000a it was found that fuel cells

G. Pearson; M. Leary; A. Subic; J. Wellnitz

352

Influence of fuel/oxidizer ratio on lattice parameters and morphology of combustion synthesized ZnO powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report synthesis of ZnO powders via dry combustion route. Among various parameters affecting the product formation during combustion synthesis, one is Fuel-to-oxidizer (F/O) ratio. In the present work, we have used urea as fuel and as a habit modifier. The crystallinity of ZnO is insensitive to F/O variations and fuel lean combustion procedures also leads to appropriate ZnO phase formation. Profile fitting analysis is carried out to correlate the observed and standard diffraction patterns for various samples coded SSD1 to SSD13. Williamson-Hall plot elucidates important contribution of size and strain in the diffraction pattern. Good correlation of lattice parameters is found to exist between calculated and standard values. Wealth of morphological forms (hexagonal pyramidal, spheriulitic, platelet ) and a systematic growth trend is observed. Tailored morphological and consequentially engineered physical properties can be harnessed from ZnO when urea is used. The hexagonal pyramids are anticipated to be suitable for electronic and optoelectronic devices such as field emitters, optoelectronic devices for medical diagnostics, etc. The same morphology can be easily achieved via variation in urea content through cost effective technique.

Sharma, Suchinder K.; Pitale, Shreyas S.; Manzar Malik, M.; Dubey, R. N.; Qureshi, M. S.; Ojha, Siddharth

2010-02-01

353

Compound cycle turbofan engine (CCTE). Task IX. Carbon-slurry fuel combustion evaluation program. Final report June-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

The carbon-slurry fuel evaluation program demonstrated the feasibility of running a currently available carbon-slurry fuel in a combustion rig and a turbine engine. This program also established the preliminary design criteria for operating on carbon-slurry fuels. Subcontracts work was performed by Pennsylvania State for fuel droplet measurements and by Suntech, Inc. for fuel development and manufacture.

Bruce, T.W.; Mongia, H.

1980-03-01

354

Non-equilibrium plasma assisted combustion of low heating value fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the effects of non-equilibrium air plasma generated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the combustion of low heating value fuels. The experimental results indicate that addition of a very small amount of energy to the air flow in the form of DBD significantly improves the flame stability. Moreover, main combustion characteristics such as flame propagation speed, combustion intensity and lean blow-off limits are also enhanced by the effect of plasma. Some active radicals such as excited O atom and excited N2 molecule are observed by spectrograph in the discharge area. Based on the results of numerical investigation we can conclude that these active radicals generated in discharge area can accelerate the production rate of active OH radical which plays a key role in the oxidation process of low heating value fuel, and thus the whole combustion process is accelerated.

Hu, Hongbin; Song, Quanbin; Xu, Yanji; Li, Gang; Nie, Chaoqun

2013-06-01

355

Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels. PMID:11219694

Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

356

Analysis of Combustion Instability in Liquid Fuel Rocket Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a technique to be used in the solution of nonlinear velocity-sensitive combustion instability problems is described. The orthogonal collocation method was investigated. It found that the results are heavily dependent on the location of ...

K. W. Wong M. Ventrice

1979-01-01

357

Multiphase CFD-based models for chemical looping combustion process: Fuel reactor modeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a flameless two-step fuel combustion that produces a pure CO2 stream, ready for compression and sequestration. The process is composed of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors. The air reactor which is a conventional circulating fluidized bed and the fuel reactor which is a bubbling fluidized bed. The basic principle is to avoid the direct contact of air and fuel during the combustion by introducing a highly-reactive metal particle, referred to as oxygen carrier, to transport oxygen from the air to the fuel. In the process, the products from combustion are kept separated from the rest of the flue gases namely nitrogen and excess oxygen. This process eliminates the energy intensive step to separate the CO2 from nitrogen-rich flue gas that reduce the thermal efficiency. Fundamental knowledge of multiphase reactive fluid dynamic behavior of the gas–solid flow is essential for the optimization and operation of a chemical looping combustor. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase CFD-based models have not been adapted to chemical looping combustion processes in the open literature. In this study, we have developed the reaction kinetics model of the fuel reactor and implemented the kinetic model into a multiphase hydrodynamic model, MFIX, developed earlier at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Simulated fuel reactor flows revealed high weight fraction of unburned methane fuel in the flue gas along with CO2 and H2O. This behavior implies high fuel loss at the exit of the reactor and indicates the necessity to increase the residence time, say by decreasing the fuel flow rate, or to recirculate the unburned methane after condensing and removing CO2.

Jung, Jonghwun (ANL); Gamwo, I.K.

2008-04-21

358

Method and apparatus for producing and supplying atomized fuel to an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for efficiently atomizing fuel for supplemental supply to an internal combustion engine are described wherein the atomized fuel is supplied to the engine in addition to the conventionally carburetted fuel. A portion of the fuel being supplied to a carburetor in a conventional manner is diverted to the system according to the invention and is supplied thereto in a metered fashion. A fuel vapor is produced and is supplied to the engine downstream of the carburetor, as required by the engine; this requirement being indicated by engine vacuum. Vaporization is accomplished in the described embodiment by heat and ultrasonic nebulization.

Urich, C.L.

1982-07-13

359

Liquid fuel combustion within silicon-carbide coated carbon foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of kerosene inside porous inert medium (PIM) has been investigated with the goal of reducing the emissions of nitric oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and soot. Silicon-carbide (SiC) coated carbon foam is used as PIM to attain high structural strength. The two-zone porous burner design consists of preheat and combustion sections. Different PIM configurations were tested by stacking together

S. Vijaykant; Ajay K. Agrawal

2007-01-01

360

Liquid fuel combustion within silicon-carbide coated carbon foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of kerosene inside porous inert medium (PIM) has been investigated with the goal of reducing the emissions of nitric oxides (NOâ), carbon monoxide (CO) and soot. Silicon-carbide (SiC) coated carbon foam is used as PIM to attain high structural strength. The two-zone porous burner design consists of preheat and combustion sections. Different PIM configurations were tested by stacking together

S. Vijaykant; Ajay K. Agrawal

2007-01-01

361

Plasma ignition of combustion in a supersonic flow of fuel-air mixtures: Simulation problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental approaches to tackling the problems of plasma ignition of supersonic combustion in fuel-air mixtures\\u000a of various compositions are discussed. Discharge types useful for this purpose are considered. The feasibility of reaching\\u000a a substantial gain in energy in the initiation of combustion by non-equilibrium gas-discharge plasma is particularly interesting.

I. V. Kochetov; A. P. Napartovich; S. B. Leonov

2006-01-01

362

GRH 12-01 Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion Poster 0108  

SciTech Connect

The goals are to: (1) Achieve 90% CO{sub 2} capture at no more than a 35% increase in levelized cost of electricity of post-combustion capture for new and existing conventional coal-fired power plants; (2) Provide high-temperature corrosion information to aid in materials development and selection for oxy-fuel combustion; and (3) Identify corrosion mechanism and behavior differences between air- and oxy-firing.

G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

2012-05-20

363

A new type of coal gas fueled chemical-looping combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of coal gas fueled chemical-looping combustion is experimentally investigated by means of a fixed-bed reactor operated at elevated pressure. Chemical-looping combustion may be carried out in two successive reactions between two reactors, a reduction reactor (coal gas with metal oxides) and an oxidation reactor (reduced metal with oxygen in the air), which may lead to a breakthrough

Hongguang Jin; Masaru Ishida

2004-01-01

364

Chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling for combustion of solid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) is a novel method to burn solid fuels in gas-phase oxygen without the need for an energy intensive air separation unit. The carbon dioxide from the combustion is inherently separated from the rest of the flue gases. CLOU is based on chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and involves three steps in two reactors, one air reactor where

Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt; Henrik Leion

2009-01-01

365

Study of agglomeration behavior of combustion-synthesized nano-crystalline ceria using new fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceria powders were prepared by gel combustion process using cerium nitrate and hitherto unexplored amino acid fuels such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, tryptophan, phenyl alanine, valine, etc. These powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analysis, sinterability, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The combustion-synthesized powders were agglomerates of nano-crystallites.

Srirupa T. Mukherjee; Vinila Bedekar; A. Patra; P. U. Sastry; A. K. Tyagi

2008-01-01

366

Briquetting and combustion of spring-harvested reed canary-grass: effect of fuel composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding how spring-harvested reed canary-grass briquettes with various chemical compositions with respect to ash content influence the formation of emissions during combustion in a 180kW burner. Furthermore, an objective was to investigate possible ash problems during the combustion. Five fuels were used in the study consisting of three reed canary-grass samples

Susanne Paulrud; Calle Nilsson

2001-01-01

367

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 9, April--June 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1991-01-01

368

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 18, July--September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; M. J. Hargrove

1993-01-01

369

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 10, July--September 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1991-01-01

370

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 13, April--June 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1992-01-01

371

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 16, January--March 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1993-01-01

372

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 14, July--September 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1993-01-01

373

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 12, January--March 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1992-01-01

374

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 15, October--December 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1993-01-01

375

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 17, April--June 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1993-01-01

376

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1991-01-01

377

Calcium-based sorbents behaviour during sulphation at oxy-fuel fluidised bed combustion conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphur capture by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO2 concentration. In oxy-fuel combustion in fluidised beds (FB), CO2 concentration in the flue gas may be enriched up to 95%. Under so high CO2 concentration, different from that in conventional coal combustion with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined

Francisco García-Labiano; Aránzazu Rufas; Luis F. de Diego; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Pilar Gayán; Alberto Abad; Juan Adánez

2011-01-01

378

Alarming Oxygen Depletion Caused by Hydrogen Combustion and Fuel Cells and their Resolution by Magnegas$^{TM}$  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recall that hydrogen combustion does resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emission of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, hydrogen combustion implies the permanent removal from our atmosphere of directly usable oxygen, a serious environmental problem called oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen is prohibitive

R. M. Santilli

2000-01-01

379

Co-combustion of coal and biomass in pulverized fuel and fluidized bed systems -- Activities and research in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass or sewage sludge utilized as additional fuel in coal combustion systems has consequences on combustion behavior, emissions, corrosion, and residual matter. Therefore, at the beginning of 1993 the European Union within the frame of the APAS program launched a project called ``Combined Combustion of Biomass\\/Sewage Sludge and Coal''. Within this project, the effects of burning sewage sludge and agricultural

K. R. G. Hein; H. Spliethoff

1999-01-01

380

Fuel additives, additive compositions and methods of employing same to prevent corrosion of metal surfaces in contact with hot gaseous combustion products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel additive composition is disclosed which is useful for incorporation in or admixture with fuels, particularly fuels containing vanadium and\\/or sodium as a contaminant such that upon combustion of the fuels containing or in the presence of said additive composition metal surfaces in contact with the resulting hot gaseous fuel combustion products are subject to less corrosion. This fuel

1978-01-01

381

Further applications of the Lucas fan spray fuel injection combustion system  

SciTech Connect

ASME paper 79-gt-175 presented the design philosophy upon which Lucas fan spray fuel injection combustion systems for small gas turbines is based. Included were results from a system designed for an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (apu) and capable of operating with avaiation kerosene, gas oil and marine diesel fuels. Since the publication of the above paper there has been further development of the system and application of the design to a range of engines. The present paper reviews the design philosophy for fan spray combustion systems and describes its application to a unit for a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) engine with combustion loadings greater than five times that of the initial application covered by paper 79-gt-175. The design concept is described together with results from, (a) flow visualisation, (b) testing at combustion loading values between 6 and 24 kg/s pa /sup 1.8/m/sup 3/ over a range of air to fuel ratios from 50/1 to 300/1, and (c) light-ups over a range of conditions from sea level static to 15 km at 1.6 flight mach no. With fuel fed to various configurations of fuel injector i.e. all six injectors, three equispaced, three grouped together and one only. The fuel used was mainly aviation kerosene with a check at a 290 kw condition using gas oil.

Carr, E.

1985-01-01

382

Municipal waste combustion assessment: Fossil fuel co-firing. Final report, October 1988-July 1989  

SciTech Connect

The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; and describes the population of coal fired boilers that currently co-fire RDF, have previously co-fired RDF but have ceased to do so, and have been used in RDF co-firing demonstrations. (Fossil fuel co-firing, defined as the combustion of RDF with another fuel (usually coal) in a device designed primarily to burn the other fuel, is generally confined to commercial and utility boilers.) Model plants are developed and good combustion practices are recommended.

Landrum, V.J.; Barton, R.G.

1989-07-01

383

Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.  

PubMed

A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends. PMID:15288277

Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

2004-12-01

384

Combustion leftovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion processes almost never completely exhaust all of the available fuel. In this paper, we will consider three combustion scenarios (back-to-back premixed flames in stagnation point flow, travelling combustion waves, and microgravity spherical flame balls) and show how to calculate the amount of fuel which will be left over no matter how long we allow the combustion processes to continue.

R. O Weber; G. N Mercer; H. S Sidhu

2002-01-01

385

Starch – A suitable fuel in new low-temperature combustion-based synthesis of zinc aluminate oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch has been tested as single-fuel and in a two-fuel mixture, together with N-methylurea, in a new combustion-based synthesis of zinc aluminate oxides, using different fuel compositions and equivalence ratios ?e (?e=fuel\\/oxidant). The combustion process has been analyzed by simultaneous thermal analysis. The corresponding oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, UV–Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and BET investigations. Crystal

Diana Visinescu; Bogdan Jurca; Adelina Ianculescu; Oana Carp

2011-01-01

386

Research on Combustion Processes Associated with Natural Gas Used as an Internal Combustion Engine Fuel. Final Report, May 1988-July 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the mechanisms responsible for the observed ignition, flammability, stability, and knock limits in natural gas fueled internal combustion engines, particularly in strongly turbulent flows, and to devise ways to improve natural-gas engi...

P. D. Ronney

1990-01-01

387

Pozzolanic properties of pulverized coal combustion bottom ash  

SciTech Connect

The pozzolanic properties of a coal combustion bottom ash were investigated. Plain pastes containing equal amounts of calcium hydroxide and bottom ash were prepared and analyzed at different ages for their strength and the calcium hydroxide consumption. At early ages, bottom ash does not react with calcium hydroxide. Its pozzolanic reaction proceeds slowly and accelerates gradually to become very interesting after 28 days and especially after 90 days. The strength activity indexes measured on mortars are sufficiently important to allow the use of bottom ash in concrete. When ground for 6 h in a laboratory ball mill, the 28-day strength activity index of bottom ash is increased by 27%.

Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C.; Pera, J.

1999-09-01

388

Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in vortex-driven combustors using a direct liquid fuel injection strategy was theoretically established and experimentally demonstrated in this dissertation work. Droplet size measurements revealed that with pulsed fuel injection management, fuel droplet size could be modulated periodically. Consequently, desired heat release fluctuation could be created. If this oscillatory heat release is coupled with the natural pressure oscillation in an out of phase manner, combustion instabilities can be suppressed. To identify proper locations of supplying additional liquid fuel for the purpose of achieving control, the natural heat release pattern in a vortex-driven combustor was characterized in this study. It was found that at high Damkohler number oscillatory heat release pattern closely followed the evolving vortex front. However, when Damkohler number became close to unity, heat release fluctuation wave no longer coincided with the coherent structures. A heat release deficit area was found near the dump plane when combustor was operated in lean premixed conditions. Active combustion instability suppression experiments were performed in a dump combustor using a controlled liquid fuel injection strategy. High-speed Schlieren results illustrated that vortex shedding plays an important role in maintaining self-sustained combustion instabilities. Complete combustion instability control requires total suppression of these large-scale coherent structures. The sound pressure level at the excited dominant frequency was reduced by more than 20 dB with controlled liquid fuel injection method. Scaling issues were also investigated in this dump combustor to test the effectiveness of using pulsed liquid fuel injection strategies to suppress instabilities at higher power output conditions. With the liquid fuel injection control method, it was possible to suppress strong instabilities with initial amplitude of +/-5 psi down to the background noise level. The stable combustor operating range was also expanded from equivalence ratio of 0.75 to beyond 0.9.

Pang, Bin

389

Observations on the combustion behavior of coal water fuels and coal water fuels impregnated with calcium magnesium acetate  

SciTech Connect

Combustion studies of single free-falling coal-water fuel (CWF) droplets were conducted in a drop-tube laminar-flow furnace at high heating rates. Most experiments were conducted with predried CWF agglomerates consisting of micronized (3.5 [mu]m mean size) and beneficiated bituminous coal. Agglomerates of known initial size, in the range of 100-600 [mu]m, were burned in air or pure oxygen at furnace temperatures between 1300 and 1500 K. Combustion of CWF agglomerates impregnated with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), which is being considered as a sulfur capture agent, was also examined under the same conditions. Observations on the devolatilization and char combustion behavior of CWF agglomerates, formed after the evaporation of water, were conducted using pyrometric and cinematographic techniques. The char combustion is the most prominent since it accounts for 75%-85% of the burnout time. The volatile combustion phase is also important because of the resulting high-temperature radiant flames. Overall burnout times were between 150 and 600 ms, for the range of agglomerate sizes tested. Char combustion for most agglomerates was controlled by boundary layer diffusion of oxygen. The swelling behavior of the agglomerates was studied and swelling factors in the neighborhood of 1.12 were determined. Although the bituminous CWF, was found to swell and form cenospheric structures during heatup and devolatilization, the addition of CMA catalyst inhibited swelling of the agglomerates. However, the chars containing CMA exhibited occasional splitting or fragmentation during the volatile combustion stage.

Atal, A.; Levendis, Y.A. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

1993-04-01

390

Characterization and Combustion of SRC II Fuel Oil. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with an experimental evaluation of the SRC II process's principal product, solvent refined coal fuel oil (SRC fuel oil), for use with commercial scale steam generating equipment. The purpose was to identify problems, if any, associated w...

W. Downs A. J. Kubasco

1979-01-01

391

MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FOSSIL FUEL CO-FIRING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; ...

392

Modeling of a conceptual self-sustained liquid fuel vaporization – combustion system with radiative output using inert porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present model is based on a combined self-sustained liquid fuel vaporization – combustion system, where the liquid fuel vaporization occurs on a wetted wall plate with energy transferred through the plate from the combustion of vaporized oil. The vaporization energy has been derived through the radiative interaction of the vaporizing plate and an upstream end surface of the porous

Tarun K. Kayal; Mithiles Chakravarty

2007-01-01

393

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a

Wijmans Johannes G; Timothy C. Merkel; Richard W. Baker

2012-01-01

394

Effect of air preheating and fuel moisture on combustion characteristics of corn straw in a fixed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out on a one-dimensional bench combustion tests rig. The effect of air preheating and moisture level in the fuel on combustion characteristics of corn straw was investigated. The bed temperature distribution and the mass loss of fuel and gas components such as O2, CO, CO2 and NO were measured in the bed. The average burning rate and

Wei Zhao; Zhengqi Li; Guangbo Zhao; Fangshi Zhang; Qunyi Zhu

2008-01-01

395

Modeling the Feasibility of Using Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines in Remote Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in hydrogen fuel cell and internal combustion engine technologies have enabled new energy options for supplying electrical power in remote, off-grid areas. The objective of this investigation is to determine under which conditions wind turbines and PV systems can feasibly power electrolyzers to generate and store hydrogen for remote power generation using fuel cells and internal combustion engines.

J. Cotrell; W. Pratt

2003-01-01

396

Fuel-oil mixing apparatus for internal-combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil reservoir separate from a fuel tank is provided with an expandable chamber assembly and a positive displacement pump which are jointly operated in an opposed tandem relationship. The chamber assembly is used to supply mixed fuel and oil on demand to the engine fuel intake. The positive displacement pump draws measured amounts of oil from the reservoir during

Schreier

1979-01-01

397

ORGANIC COMBUSTION FINGERPRINTS OF THREE COMMON HOME HEATING FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the chemical structures of three common home eating fuels: wood, coal, and No. 2 fuel oil. GC and GC/MS data are then presented which demonstrate how the thermal destruction of each fuel results in the production of a characteristic group of organic "fingerpri...

398

Emission of Nitrogen Oxides from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emission of nitrogen oxides is usually estimated from fuel consumption data and empirically determined emission factors, i. e. weight of NOsub(x) formed per unit weight of fuel given in g NO sub 2 /kg fuel. Whereas there is broad agreement between the...

A. Semb E. Amble

1981-01-01

399

Fuel and air supply system for combustion based power sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the components of a fuel and air supply system for a micro combustor. Liquid gas from a fuel cartridge is regulated by a micro valve, ejected from a nozzle, and then supplied, with air, to a micro combustor. The valve is composed of a largely-deformable corrugated diaphragm regulating fuel gas and two electrostatic valves controlling the corrugated

Daisuke Satoh; Shuji Tanaka; Masayoshj Esashi

2005-01-01

400

Device for admitting exhaust gases and fuel-air mixtures into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A device is proposed for the supply of operating air-fuel mixtures including exhaust gases to internal combustion engines. Between the opening periods of the inlet valves of an internal combustion engine, precisely dispensed quantities of recirculated exhaust gas are pre-stored in the intake channel directly upstream of the inlet valve whereby a stratification of exhaust gas and fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber of the engine is obtained.

Eckert, K.; Britsch, H.; Linder, E.; Muller, K.; Polach, W.

1984-10-09

401

''Full scale combustion testing of coal-water fuels''  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the development and testing of a large scale (80 MMBTU/Hr) burner for coal-water slurry. The development path included atomizer and burner register performance evaluations in a non-combustion environment. This was followed by extensive combustion testing. The program was successful in developing a burner for coal-water slurry which would: Permit ignition in a cold furnace, Operate stably over a 4 to 1 turndown range, Employ atomizing conditions (pressure and flow) similar to oil, and Produce carbon conversion efficiency comparable to oil.

Manfred, R.K.; Borio, R.W.; Laflesh, R.C.; Marion, J.L.; Rini, M.J.; Smith, D.A.

1983-11-01

402

Ignition and combustion study of JP-8 fuel in a supersonic flowfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ignition and combustion process of fuels in a supersonic combustion chamber plays an important role in the design of hypersonic propulsion system. However, it is a quite complicated process, due to the large variation of inlet air velocity, temperature, oxygen concentration, and shocks in the supersonic combustion chamber. The purpose of this paper is to observe the ignition delay and combustion phenomenon of the JP-8 fuel droplets in a supersonic flowfield experimentally. A shock tube is used as a basic test facility to create a high-speed and high-temperature flowfield as a supersonic combustor. In the experiments, several test parameters are controlled, such as shock velocity, gas temperature, fuel droplet size and distance, initial fuel temperature, and oxygen concentration, etc. The test results show the influence of these parameters on ignition delay, ignition limitation, and detonation. The most important factor in the experiment is the initial fuel temperature effect, which is influenced by the altitude variation during a flight.

Char, J. M.; Liou, W. J.; Yeh, J. H.; Chiu, C. L.

1996-11-01

403

Study of the combustion of various alternate fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research project used two methods for studying the problems facing alternate fuels. The first method studied the use of chemicals to improve fuel characteristics without changing the basic engine design. The second method was to make engine modifications to suit characteristics of the alternate fuel. The result of the two methods studied is a two-part report. Alcohols, solvent-refined coal (SRC-II), vegetable oils, and mixtures of these with diesel fuels and with each other are the alternative fuels discussed and tested. 21 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

Barfield, B.F.; Acker, G.J. Jr.; Lindsay, M.H.

1984-01-01

404

Synthetic and jet fuels pyrolysis for cooling and combustion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large heat load are encountered in hypersonic flight applications due to the high vehicle speed (over Mach 5, i.e. 5000kmh?1) and to the combustion heat release. If passive and ablative protections are a way to ensure the thermal management, the regenerative cooling is probably the most efficient one to enable the structures withstanding (notably for reusable structures). The present study

N. Gascoin; G. Abraham; P. Gillard

2010-01-01

405

Modeling of combustion processes in a solid fuel particle  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the production of granules or uranium oxide, granules of ion-exchange resin, loaded with uranium ions, are burned to remove the resin matrix and leave a uranium oxide ''ash''. Under some conditions of combustion, the oxide granules are produced in a highly fractured, porous state, while other conditions result in hard, dense, solid granules. ABAQUS was used to model the

1989-01-01

406

Modeling of combustion processes in a solid fuel particle  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the production of granules of uranium oxide, granules of ion exchange resin, loaded with uranium ions, are burned to remove the resin matrix and leave a uranium oxide ash''. Under some conditions of combustion, the oxide granules are produced in a highly fractured, porous state, while other conditions result in hard, dense, solid granules. ABAQUS, a commercial finite-element code,

1990-01-01

407

Internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas—hydrogen mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a survey of research papers on utilization of natural gas–hydrogen mixtures in internal combustion engines is carried out. In general, HC, CO2, and CO emissions decrease with increasing H2, but NOx emissions generally increase. If a catalytic converter is used, NOx emission values can be decreased to extremely low levels. Consequently, equivalence zero emission vehicles (EZEV) standards

S. Orhan Akansu; Zafer Dulger; Nafiz Kahraman; T. Nejat Veziro?lu

2004-01-01

408

Fuel regenerated non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell in which water is decomposed.

1977-01-01

409

Fuel regenerated non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell

1977-01-01

410

Fuel regenerating non-polluting internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an internal combustion engine in which heat is derived from the engine cooling system and\\/or the exhaust to heat a working fluid in a closed circulatory system. This heat transforms the working fluid into a gas which is delivered to a turbine which drives a generator. The generator delivers dc current to an electrolysis cell

1977-01-01

411

Nitrous oxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded direct N2O emission levels of less than 5 ppm. The sub-scale combustor test data were consistent with full-scale data, and also showed N2O emission levels not exceeding 5 ppm, although these levels increased slightly when various combustion modifications to lower NO emissions were employed. These on-line emission measurements are very different from previously published data. The discrepancy is shown to be due to a sampling artifact by which significant quantities of N2O can be produced in sample containers which have been used in establishing the prevously employed N2O data base. Consequently, it was concluded that N2O emissions bear no direct relationship to NO emissions from these combustion sources, and that the direct source of N2O is negligible. Other indirect routes for the conversion of NO into N2O outside the combustor and other combustion sources not examined by the study, however, cannot be ruled out. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the American Geophysical Union.)

Linak, W.P.; McSorley, J.A.; Hall, R.E.; Ryan, J.V.; Wendt, J.O.L.

1990-01-01

412

High-fidelity simulations for clean and efficient combustion of alternative fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monolithic nature of transportation technologies offers opportunities for significant improvements in efficiency of 25-50% through strategic technical investments in both advanced fuels and new low-temperature engine concepts. The application of direct numerical simulation (DNS) provides a way to study fundamental issues related to small-scale combustion processes in well-defined canonical configurations, whereas the application of large eddy simulation (LES) provides a formal treatment of the full range of time and length scales that exist in turbulent reacting flows, and thus provides a direct link to experimental studies of relevant combustion devices. In the present study, through DOE INCITE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory 250 Tflop Transition-to-Operations grants in 2008, DNS is performed to understand how a lifted autoignitive flame is stabilized, and LES is performed to understand the high-pressure injection and mixing processes in internal combustion engines. Understanding of these and other fundamental issues is needed to develop robust and reliable ignition and combustion models for the combustion regimes observed under low-temperature combustion engine environments using alternative fuels.

Chen, J. H.; Yoo, C. S.; Sankaran, R.; Oefelein, J. C.

2008-07-01

413

Wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea: an assessment of industrial combustion equipment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an engineering and economic assessment of new and retrofit industrial combustion equipment for wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea. Existing industrial combustion equipment and practices in Papua New Guinea are appraised. Potential industrial wood-fuel systems that utilize wood, wood wastes, charcoal and pyrolytic oils and which are particularly applicable to Papua New Guinea are identified. An economic assessment of wood-fuel systems is conducted for eleven case studies which are representative of a cross-section of Papua New Guinea industry. Conclusions and recommendations are presented to aid both government and industry in Papua New Guinea in fostering the development of appropriate wood-fuel technologies and thereby help displace the consumption of imported petroleum.

Mendis, M.S.

1980-11-01

414

Scholarly research program in fuel analysis and combustion research. Final report, September 1987-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

A total of 40 individually funded tasks were performed under this effort. These tasks were concerned with many fuel analysis and combustion research, conducted for the Fuels Branch (WL/POSF), Lubrications Branch (WL/POSL) and other Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate Laboratories. This report is a compilation of 1-2 page summaries from each of the tasks. More information on each task is available in the technical reports, journal articles, letter reports or informal information listed for the project. Although the subjects covered under this contract are too varied to list here, the most often addressed areas were research topics in gas chromatography and related instrumentation, thermal stability testing and methods development, lubrications research and combustion studies.... Chemometrics flames, Fuel analysis, Mass spectrometry, Shelf Life, CARS, Thermal stability, P-Hydrogen detector, Gas chromatography, Atomic emission, High density fuel, System for Thermal Diagnostic Studies (STDS).

Striebich, R.C.

1993-02-01

415

Combustion stabilization based on a center flame strut in a liquid kerosene fueled supersonic combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly designed strut is proposed in this paper for fuel injection and flame holding in a liquid-kerosene-fueled supersonic combustor. The thickness of the strut is 8mm and the front blockage is about 8%. The characteristic of this strut is that extra oxygen can be injected through a set of orifices at the back of the strut, which can change the local flow field structure and ER (Equivalence Ratio). Based on the above mentioned strut, a stable local flame is generated at the back of the strut and the main combustion can be organized around this local fire. Numerical simulation is conducted to compare the local flow field distribution at the back of the strut with/without extra oxygen injection. Experiments are conducted to test the combustion characteristics based on this fuel injection and flame holding strategy. The temperature distribution which can reflect the local flame characteristic has been measured in the experiments conducted under cold incoming supersonic air flow condition. In addition, the overall combustion performance in a full-scale supersonic combustor has been evaluated in the experiments conducted under hot incoming supersonic air flow condition. Results show that this strut strategy is very promising since it can organize stable supersonic combustion at the center of the combustor without any cavity or rearward facing step. Besides that, even with the 8mm thick strut, the combustion can be stable in a wide range of ER from 0.25-1 by using liquid room-temperature kerosene.

Hu, Jichao; Qin, Jiang; Chang, Juntao; Bao, Wen; Zong, Youhai; Yang, Qingchun

2013-10-01

416

Nanocrystalline structure and magnetic properties of barium ferrite particles prepared via glycine as a fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barium ferrite particles were prepared using a self-propagating combustion method with glycine as a fuel. The process was investigated with differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis. The effects of the pH value of the precursor solution, the glycine dosage and calcination temperature on the morphology, the crystalline structure and the magnetic properties of the barium ferrite particles were studied

Jianxun Qiu; Le Liang; Mingyuan Gu

2005-01-01

417

Effect of co-firing on the properties of submicron aerosols from biomass combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a more general study on particle formation process (and, specifically, the submicron fraction of the particle size distribution) in biomass combustion, the effect of combining biomass with other sulfur-enriched fuels (such as coal and coke) on particulate emissions has been investigated. Pulverized orujillo (an olive oil production process residue) combustion, alone, resulted in an important submicron particle

Santiago Jiménez; Javier Ballester

2005-01-01

418

40 CFR 1065.120 - Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...properties and fuel temperature and pressure. 1065.120 Section 1065...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...properties and fuel temperature and pressure. (a) Use fuels as...specifies fuel temperature and pressure tolerances and the...

2013-07-01

419

Active control of combustion instability in a liquid-fueled los-NOx combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical active control system for the mitigation of combustion instability has been designed and demonstrated in a lean, premixed, single-nozzle combustor at realistic engine operating conditions. A full-scale engine fuel nozzle was modified to incorporate a simple fuel flow actuator. Results indicate that the system was capable of reducing pressure fluctuations by 82% (15 dB or 5.6x) while maintaining

J. M. Cohen; N. M. Rey; C. A. Jacobson; T. J. Anderson

1999-01-01

420

Radiography of liquid-metal-fuel combustion. Professional paper for period ending August 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-metal fuels are being employed as Rankine-cycle heat sources for undersea vehicle propulsion systems, necessitating investigation of the fundamental chemical, thermodynamic, and hydrodynamic processes that occur during the confined combustion of these fuels. Results of the development of techniques for this use of flash x-ray radiography to investigate these processes is presented. Experimental combustors designed to permit studies of the

L. A. Parnell; D. L. Katz; J. T. Gilchrist; L. E. Bryant; J. P. Lucero

1988-01-01

421

Investigation of the combustion of liquid fuels in Rijke type pulse combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synopsis summarizes the accomplishments of DOE Contract NO. AS04-85AL31881, which investigated the combustion of different liquid fuels in Rijke type pulse combustors. Interest in the development of a Rijke pulse combustor capable of burning liquid fuels was stimulated by earlier studies by the investigators of this program which had demonstrated that various coals can be burned efficiently and with

B. T. Zinn; B. R. Daniel; T. Bai

1990-01-01

422

Controlling Cyclic Combustion Variations in Lean-Fueled Spark-Ignition Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under conditions of lean fueling or high exhaust gas recirculation, interactions between residual cylinder gas and freshly injected fuel and air produce undesirable combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines. The resulting dynamics can be described as noisy bifurcations of a nonlinear map and are complicated by cylinder-to-cylinder coupling. We discuss the key dynamic features relevant to control and demonstrate simple feedback control of a multi-cylinder test vehicle.

Daw, C. S.; Green, J. B.; Wagner, R. M.; Finney, C. E. A.; Davis, L. I.; Feldkamp, L. A.; Hoard, J. W.; Yuan, F.; Connolly, F. T.

2002-07-01

423

Controlling Cyclic Combustion Variations in Lean-Fueled Spark-Ignition Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under conditions of lean fueling or high exhaust gas recirculation, interactions between residual cylinder gas and freshly injected fuel and air produce undesirable combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines. The resulting dynamics can be described as noisy bifurcations of a nonlinear map and are complicated by cylinder-to-cylinder coupling. We discuss the key dynamic features relevant to control and demonstrate simple feedback

C. S. Daw; J. B. Green; R. M. Wagner; C. E. A. Finney; L. I. Davis; L. A. Feldkamp; J. W. Hoard; F. Yuan; F. T. Connolly

2002-01-01

424

Modified Combustion Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles Using Renewable Fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using cost effective modified combustion synthesis route employing zinc nitrate hexahydrate as oxidant and palm oil derived C8 fatty alcohol as fuel in various ratios. The calcined zinc oxide exhibited hexagonal phase with wurtzite structure. The crystallite sizes of the samples were ranging from ca. 28 to 40 nm. Therefore, palm oil derived C8 fatty alcohol successfully played the role as low-cost and renewable fuel to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Shah, N. N. H.; >H Misran, N. A. A.; Salim, M. A.; Othman, S. Z.; >A Manap,

2013-06-01

425

Behavior of easily ionizable additives in the combustion wave of a solid, plasma-producing fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion products of solid, plasma-producing fuels (SPF) are used as the working medium in pulsed geophysical MHD generators [i]. To ensure the required specific electrical conductivity of the gas at the entry into the MHD channel (50-70 mho\\/m), easily ionizable additives (IA) are introduced into the composition of such fuels. These additives usually consist of nitates of cesium, or

V. A. Novikov; V. M. Polonskii; S. I. Yakovlev

1990-01-01

426

Reduction of fuel side costs due to biomass co-combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and influence of co-combustion of woody biomass on the fuel side costs is discussed for three hard coal power plants located in Berlin, Germany. Fuel side costs are defined as the costs resulting from flue gas cleaning and by-products. To have reliable data, co-firing tests were conducted in two power plants (i.e. slag tap furnace and circulating fluidising

Andrea Wils; Wolfgang Calmano; Peter Dettmann; Martin Kaltschmitt; Holger Ecke

427

Sulphur impacts during pulverised coal combustion in oxy-fuel technology for carbon capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxy-fuel process is one of three carbon capture technologies which supply CO2 ready for sequestration – the others being post-combustion capture and IGCC with carbon capture. As yet no technology has emerged as a clear winner in the race to commercial deployment. The oxy-fuel process relies on recycled flue gas as the main heat carrier through the boiler and

Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2011-01-01

428

Influence of fuel ratios on auto combustion synthesis of barium ferrite nano particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-domain barium ferrite nano particles have been synthesized with narrow particle-size distribution using an auto combustion\\u000a technique. In this process, citric acid was used as a fuel. Ratios of cation to fuel were maintained variously at 1:1, 1:2\\u000a and 1:3. The pH was 7 in all cases. Of all three cases, a cation to citric acid ratio of 1:2 gives

D. Bahadur; S. Rajakumar; Ankit Kumar

2006-01-01

429

Enhanced combustion of fossil-fuel particles and droplets in oscillating flow. Annual technical report, 1 September 1978-31 August 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to determine the effect of oscillating flow on the rates of combustion of fossil fuel particles or droplets. Under certain conditions, an oscillatory (pulsating) flow may produce significantly increased rates of burning of fuel particles or droplets and thus provide more effective fuel utilization, with reduced excess air and improved combustion efficiency. The combustion

F. A. Lyman; J. S. Sabnis

1979-01-01

430

Developments in integrated pollutant removal for low-emission oxy-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

A complete coal combustion and flue gas treatment scheme was designed, constructed, and operated at bench scale as a product of cooperative research between US DOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. The combustion gas generated using this oxy-fuel coal combustion process was effectively captured using an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process. Supporting laboratory-scale research focuses on elements of IPR such as extraction of particulates, SO2, and mercury, and on the character of the liquid and vapor phase compositions for the CO2 - N2 - O2 mixture at the temperature and pressure conditions found at the end of the process. Future pilot-scale work will be necessary to generate economic and engineering data that will apply to full-scale oxy-fuel/IPR systems.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Summers, Cathy A.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Ochs, Thomas L.

2005-09-01

431

Apparatus for controlling the ratio of air to fuel quantity in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is proposed which serves to control the ratio of air to fuel quantity of the operational mixture to be introduced into the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine. The actual fuel quantity supplied via an injection apparatus and the actual air quantity supplied via the intake manifold of the engine are measured and processed in a control apparatus into a correction adjusting variable. The apparatus further functions with exhaust recirculation, with the aspirated fresh air quantity being dosed and the remnant filling of the gaseous filling introduced into the combustion chambers of the engine is replaced by recirculated exhaust gas. For the purpose of dosing the fresh air, a symmetrical throttle valve is disposed in the intake manifold, whose position is transferred by means of pneumatic servomotor to a second throttle device, by means of which finally the quantity of the recirculated exhaust gas is determined.

Walz, L.; Wessel, W.

1981-12-22

432

Heat Release Rate Characteristics of Some Combustible Fuel Sources in Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major risk to a nuclear power plant is the possibility of serious fire. There is a need to know the heat release rate behavior of combustible fuels in the plant in order to help reduce the fire threat to the facilities. Heat release rate characteristics...

B. T. Lee

1985-01-01

433

Time dependent flame propagation through premixed and liquid fuel-air combustible mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsteady one dimensional combustion of fuel vapor, premixed gas and monodisperse spray in a stagnant, oxidizing environment were investigated using one step second order reaction kinetics. The governing equations were simplified and solved numerically for each specific problem. Two different approaches were used to formulate the liquid phase equations. The first method treated the liquid phase as continuous media. A

Vural

1982-01-01

434

Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic materials are the main sources of chlorine in solid recovered fuels (SRF). Chlorine is attributed to be the main initiator of slagging, fouling and corrosion in biomass and waste combustion as it lowers the melting point of ash forming matter and reacts chemically with the heat transfer surface steels. SRF may also contain sources of bromine in the form

Pasi Vainikka; Sonja Enestam; Jaani Silvennoinen; Raili Taipale; Patrik Yrjas; Ari Frantsi; Janne Hannula; Mikko Hupa

2011-01-01

435

Combined cycles for operation on coal derived fuels with high temperature combustion turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Phase I of the High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, combined cycles were studied using a selected low Btu gasification system and a coal derived liquid fuel. Cycle analysis work was done to investigate pressure ratio and operating temperature for combustion turbines operating above 2600 F (1700 K) utilizing advanced air cooling configurations. The effects of both hot and cold

R. E. Strong

1977-01-01

436

Influence of Fuel Combustion Gases on the Oxygen Levels in City Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air, which is the material that composes the atmosphere, is a mixture of invisible gases. The atmospheric air consists of approximately 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. The remainder is made up of argon, carbon dioxide, several other gases, and water vapor. The combustion of fossil fuels is the greatest source of atmospheric pollution. A convenient way to develop quantitative theory

A. Demirbas

2008-01-01

437

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES FOR FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses control of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion. ntil recently, this meant abatement of smoke (particulate), sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. With growing concern about global climate change, carbon dioxide has been added to the list. The paper inc...

438

Spark timing and fuel injection strategy for combustion stability on HEV powertrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stringent regulations on exhaust emission and fuel economy for vehicles have become major issues in the automotive industry. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are one of the crucial alternative plans over current conventional vehicles, but they have drawbacks, such as the increase of engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) emission and the deterioration of combustion stability with frequent engine stopping and restarting. This

Hyungseuk Ohn; Seongeun Yu; Kyoungdoug Min

2010-01-01

439

Device for controlling primary and secondary air\\/fuel ratios for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine has an exhaust manifold, an inlet manifold, and a carburetor which has a fuel jet. An oxygen sensor is mounted within the exhaust manifold, and produces an output signal according to the oxygen present within the exhaust gases. A computing means computes a corrective signal according to the oxygen sensor output signal. This corrective signal is

M. Horikoshi; T. Onishi; M. Sato

1983-01-01

440

Initial Observations on the Free Droplet Combustion Characteristics of Water-In-Fuel Emulsions†  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mechanical technique for the production of well characterized small diameter isolated free droplets of multi-component and emulsified liquids is described. The technique is employed in development of an experimental facility to generate, inject, and combust free droplets of liquid fuels in a well defined, hot convective atmosphere. Initial observations of the burning characteristics of isolated free droplets of

J. C. LASHERAS; A. C. FERNANDEZ-PELLO; F. L. DRYER

1979-01-01

441

Investigation of the combustion process in a plasma-producing fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To confirm the stated hypothesis, specific electrical conductivity was experimentally investigated for products of combustion of samples of standard fuel composition, which are analogous to those described in [2]. The measurements were carried out with the aid of an electrical probe, following the methodology of [4], using an alternating current with a frequency of 4 kHz. The probe consisted of

Yu. P. Babakov; Yu. S. Ivashchenko; V. A. Novikov; A. L. Sadyrin; S. I. Yakovlev

1989-01-01

442

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

443

Cogeneration system with low N0 sub x combustion of liquid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a cogeneration system for the production of electricity and carbon dioxide with low NOâ combustion of liquid fuel. It comprises a high- pressure steam boiler, a porous fiber burner within the boiler, a countercurrent heat exchanger connected to receive the flow of flue gas from the boiler, an air blower connected to the heat exchanger for the

Garbo

1991-01-01

444

QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

445

CARCINOGENICITY OF HOUSEHOLD SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION AND OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE FRYING  

EPA Science Inventory

In October, 2006, 19 scientists from eight countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to assess the carcinogenicity of household solid fuel combustion (coal and biomass) and of high-temperature frying. These assessments will be publi...

446

Internal combustion engine with dual induction system and with fuel injection system to discharge fuel into primary induction system  

SciTech Connect

A spark ignition fuel injection reciprocatory internal combustion engine with dual induction system has within a cylinder head a primary intake passage to direct air fuel mixture charge into a cylinder to swirl therein and a secondary intake passage to direct air charge into the cylinder in such a direction as to impede the swirling motion of the air fuel mixture charge, thereby to maintain the volumetric efficiency of the engine at a sufficiently high level. A fuel injector is so positioned as to discharge fuel into the primary intake passage. An air flow sensor is provided upstream of primary and secondary throttle valves to detect the total of flow of induction air fed to the engine so that fuel is discharged at a rate proportional to the total induction air flow. Under engine operating conditions when only the primary throttle valve opens, air fuel mixture charge will swirl at a sufficiently high rate as to enhance evaporation and dispersion of fuel droplets. Under engine operating conditions when both the primary and secondary throttle valves open, the air fuel mixture charge issuing from the primary intake passage is enriched and air charge from the secondary intake passage impedes swirling motion of enriched air fuel mixture charge from the primary intake passage to enhance evaporation and dispersion of fuel droplets.

Etoh, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nakai, M.; Nakajima, R.

1981-01-27

447

Graphite fuels combustion off-gas treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios for burning bulk graphite and for burning crushed fuel particles from graphite spent nuclear fuels have been considered. Particulates can be removed with sintered metal filters. Subsequent cooling would then condense semi-volatile fission products into or onto a particulate. These particulates would be trapped by a second sintered metal filter or downstream packed bed. A packed bed scrub column

R. J. Kirkham; R. E. Lords

1993-01-01

448

Plasma-Assisted Combustion of Gaseous Fuel in Supersonic Duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of plasma-induced ignition and plasma-assisted combustion in high-speed flow is under consideration. Nonequilibrium, unsteady, and nonuniform modes are analyzed as the most promising in reducing a required extra power. Numerical simulations of uniform, nonequilibrium, continuous, and pulse discharge effect on the premixed hydrogen and ethylene-air mixtures in supersonic flow demonstrate an advantage of such a technique over heating.

Sergey B. Leonov; Dmitry A. Yarantsev; Anatoly P. Napartovich; Igor V. Kochetov

2006-01-01

449

Thermal conductivity and combustion properties of wheat gluten foams.  

PubMed

Freeze-dried wheat gluten foams were evaluated with respect to their thermal and fire-retardant properties, which are important for insulation applications. The thermal properties were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry, the laser flash method and a hot plate method. The unplasticised foam showed a similar specific heat capacity, a lower thermal diffusivity and a slightly higher thermal conductivity than conventional rigid polystyrene and polyurethane insulation foams. Interestingly, the thermal conductivity was similar to that of closed cell polyethylene and glass-wool insulation materials. Cone calorimetry showed that, compared to a polyurethane foam, both unplasticised and glycerol-plasticised foams had a significantly longer time to ignition, a lower effective heat of combustion and a higher char content. Overall, the unplasticised foam showed better fire-proof properties than the plasticized foam. The UL 94 test revealed that the unplasticised foam did not drip (form droplets of low viscous material) and, although the burning times varied, self-extinguished after flame removal. To conclude both the insulation and fire-retardant properties were very promising for the wheat gluten foam. PMID:22332837

Blomfeldt, Thomas O J; Nilsson, Fritjof; Holgate, Tim; Xu, Jianxiao; Johansson, Eva; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

2012-03-05

450

Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1997-12-01

451

Fundamental studies into RDF combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combustion behaviour of pelletised refuse derived fuel (RDF) is very different from coal. This report describes the results of a project with the following primary objectives: (a) to study the fundamental properties of RDF at laboratory and pilot scal...

W. R. Livingston

1991-01-01

452

Testing and modeling liquefying fuel combustion in hybrid propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid motors are considered an alternative for space launchers due to their safety and high energetic performance. Nevertheless, classical hybrid combustors employing polymeric fuels are characterized by a low fuel regression rate resulting in low thrust levels that may not be adequate. This research presents experimental investigation and theoretical model of liquefying (paraffin-based) fuels, featuring high regression rates. The model developed includes an additional feature and mass loss mechanism, i. e., the liquid melt flowing along the grain. The test results exhibit a good correlation with the model predictions.

Weinstein, A.; Gany, A.

2013-03-01

453

Fuel and physical properties of biodiesel components  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used oils. Specifically, biodiesel is the methyl or other alkyl esters of these oils or fats. Biodiesel also contains minor components such as free fatty acids and acylglycerols. Important fuel properties of biodi...

454

Characterization of Pollution Outflow From India and Arabia: Biomass Burning and Fossil Fuel Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One objective of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX 1999) was to character- ize the chemical composition of pollution outflow from South Asia. Real-time single particle analysis (ATOFMS, Univ. of California-Riverside), CO analysis (Nondisper- sive Infrared Gas Filter Correlation Photometer, Univ. of Maryland) and fast-response VOC measurements (PTR-MS, Univ. of Innsbruck) measurements were performed onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown. Gas phase and aerosol chemical compo- sition of encountered air parcels changed according to their geographic origin traced by backtrajectory analysis (continental air from Arabia and India; maritime air). The relative strength of combustion related pollution sources (biomass burning (BB) vs. fossil fuel (FF) combustion) was determined from the relative abundance of differ- ent tracers: acetonitrile (BB), CO (BB and FF), submicron particles containing car- bon but no potassium (FF), submicron particles containing carbon and potassium (BB and coal combustion), submicron particles containing carbon, potassium and lithium (coal combustion). Arabian air clearly reflected the signature of fossil fuel combustion, while air from the Indian subcontinent was strongly influenced by biomass burning.

Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Stehr, J. W.; Dickerson, R. R.; Guazzotti, S. A.; Coffee, K.; Prather, K. A.

455

Synthetic fuel performance, combustion, and emissions from a light-duty DI diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

Two synthetic Diesel fuels, one derived from oil shale and the other from tar sands, were compared to a petroleum-based number-two Diesel fuel. These fuels were tested in a single-cylinder, air-cooled, direct-injected, light-duty Diesel engine. Comparisons were made on the bases of performance, combustion characteristics, gas-phase emissions (including aldehyde) and particulate emissions. The aldehyde emissions were measured using the DNPH method with a gas-chromatographic finish, while the mutagenic activity of the particulate emissions soluble organic fraction was assayed using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test.

Hankins, K.E.; Crouse, M.E.; Litzinger, T.A.; Lestz, S.S.

1986-01-01

456

Large Eddy Simulation of the Fuel Injection in Scramjet Combustion Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel injection in a typical scramjet combustion chamber is a very challenging flow to characterise either in ex- perimental or computational studies. It involves multi- species compressible turbulent features with complex coherent flow structures arising as a result of sonic fuel injection transverse or inclined to the free-stream supersonic flow. In this paper the fuel injection in the HyShot- II combustion chamber is studied using an Implicit LES method employing a modified very high order accurate numerical method. To gain accurate mean inflow boundary conditions, a thermally perfect gas formulation has been employed in preliminary simulations of the inlet ramp and cowl configuration. The results of these simulations are presented and validated against wind tunnel data.

Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, B. J. R.; Drikakis, D.

2011-08-01

457

Fuel-air mixing and diesel combustion in a rapid compression machine  

SciTech Connect

The influence of charge motion and fuel injection characteristics on diesel combustion was studied in a rapid compression machine (RCM), a research apparatus that simulates the direct-injection diesel in-cylinder environment. An experimental data base was generated in which inlet air flow conditions (temperature, velocity, swirl level) and fuel injection pressure were independently varied. High-speed movies using both direct and shadowgraph photography were taken at selected operating conditions. Cylinder pressure data were analyzed using a one-zone heat release model to calculate ignition delay times, premixed and diffusion burning rates, and cumulative heat release profiles. The photographic analysis provided data on the liquid and vapor penetration rates, fuel-air mixing, ignition characteristics, and flame spreading rates. Results show that charge temperature is the most significant parameter controlling the ignition delay period and it significantly affects the heat release profile in the premixed combustion phase.

Balles, E.N.; Heywood, J.B.

1988-01-01

458

Numerical modeling of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major progress was achieved in the last year in advancing the modeling capabilities of hydrogen-fueled engines, both in support of the multi-laboratory project with SNL and LLNL to develop a high-efficiency, low emission powerplant and to provide the engine design tools to industry and research laboratories for hydrogen-fueled engines and stationary power generators. The culmination of efforts on many fronts

N. L. Johnson; A. A. Amsden; T. D. Butler

1996-01-01

459

Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Fuels in a Chamber  

SciTech Connect

In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30 % of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and - by means of the hot detonation products - energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm3, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum powder, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or sucrose and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in three different chambers of 4-1, 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume. In general, the booster charge was sufficient to initiate burning of the fuel. This modifies the pressure signatures measured with a number of wall gages and increases the quasi-static overpressure level obtained in the chambers. On the one hand the time-scale and the yield of the pressure rise depend on the fuel and its characteristics. On the other hand they also depend on the flow dynamics in the chamber, which is dominated by shock reverberations, and thus on the chamber geometry and volume. The paper gives a survey of the experimental results and discusses the possible influences of some basic parameters.

Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

2003-04-23

460

High Speed Optical Diagnostics of Combusting Diesel Fuel Srays  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Two optical techniques are presented which provide qualitative and semi-quantitative data about the distribution of fuel sprays\\u000a in an optically accessed diesel research engine. The space and time resolved average distribution of fuel sprays is investigated\\u000a with a light extinction method. A dual beam co-axial arrangement using visible and infrared HeNe laser lines identifies spray\\u000a areas containing liquid and vaporized

E. Winklhofer

461

Combustion characteristics of intake port injection type hydrogen fueled engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the experimental results on a hydrogen fueled single cylinder engine to study the characteristics of a solenoid-driven intake port injection type hydrogen injection valve. In experiments, the fuel-air equivalence ratio was varied from the lean limit at which stable operation was guaranteed to the rich limit at which flash-back occurred and spark timing was also changed. As

S. J. Lee; H. S. Yi; E. S. Kim

1995-01-01

462

Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Charges: Combustion in Chambers and Tunnels  

SciTech Connect

In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30% of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and, by means of the hot detonation products, the energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum flakes, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or hexosen (sucrose) and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in four different chambers: two cylindrical vessels of 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume with a height-to-diameter ratio of approximately 1, a rectangular chamber of 41 (10.5 x 10.5 x 38.6 cm) and a 299.6 cm long tunnel model with a cross section of 8 x 8 cm (volume 19.21) closed at both ends.

Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

2003-04-22

463

Impact of aviation non-CO? combustion effects on the environmental feasibility of alternative jet fuels.  

PubMed

Alternative fuels represent a potential option for reducing the climate impacts of the aviation sector. The climate impacts of alternatives fuel are traditionally considered as a ratio of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to those of the displaced petroleum product; however, this ignores the climate impacts of the non-CO(2) combustion effects from aircraft in the upper atmosphere. The results of this study show that including non-CO(2) combustion emissions and effects in the life cycle of a Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel can lead to a decrease in the relative merit of the SPK fuel relative to conventional jet fuel. For example, an SPK fuel option with zero life cycle GHG emissions would offer a 100% reduction in GHG emissions but only a 48% reduction in actual climate impact using a 100-year time window and the nominal climate modeling assumption set outlined herein. Therefore, climate change mitigation policies for aviation that rely exclusively on relative well-to-wake life cycle GHG emissions as a proxy for aviation climate impact may overestimate the benefit of alternative fuel use on the global climate system. PMID:22106939

Stratton, Russell W; Wolfe, Philip J; Hileman, James I

2011-11-22

464

Apparatus for controlling the air-fuel quantity ratio in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed for controlling the ratio of air to fuel quantity of the operational mixture to be introduced into the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine which includes an air flow rate meter moving under differential pressure against a constant hydraulic restoring force, which air flow rate meter adjusts a metering cross section in a supply line leading to a fuel injection pump, with the pressure drop at the metering cross section being maintained constant with the aid of a differential pressure valve. The air flow rate meter is part of a known apparatus which controls the fuel component in accordance with the quantity of aspirated air and also controls the component of exhaust gas to be fed back. The hydraulic restoring pressure for the air flow rate meter is drawn via a throttle from the supply side of a supply pump which supplies the injection pump with fuel under an rpm-dependent pressure and with a quantity of fuel intended for flushing and the pressure downstream of the throttle is maintained at a constant value by means of a pressure maintenance valve. The working chambers of the injection pump communicate only with either the injection lines or the fuel supply line controlled by the air flow rate meter, so that the control result is not adulterated by the flushing quantity or by a shutoff quantity. In this manner, the injection pump and the control device can be supplied with fuel and with pressure fluid by means of a single supply pump.

Stumpp, G.

1981-08-18

465

Universal control of a plurality of fuel injectors for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A sequential circuit universal controller is described for controlling a plurality of electronic fuel injectors of an internal combustion engine, the controller comprising: first register means for receiving and storing controller configuration data defining electronic fuel injectors to be controlled; second register means for receiving and storing pulse width data and time delay data required for current control of the defined electronic fuel injectors; and circuit means responsive to the stored contents of the first and second register means for generating control signals for the electronic fuel injectors whereby the electronic fuel injectors are controlled in accordance with current demands of the internal combustion engine which are provided to the controller via updates of data received and stored within the second register means, the circuit means including delay counters for generating signals to activate the electronic fuel injectors upon counting to a defined count set by the time delay data and pulse width counters for generating signals to deactivate the electronic fuel injectors upon counting to a defined count set by the pulse width data, and means for loading the delay counters and the pulse width counters with the time delay data and the pulse width data, respectively, prior to operation whereby the controller can be updated at any time by new pulse width data and time delay data.

Jamoua, S.A.; Flannery, K.M.

1993-08-10

466

Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Koomey, J.

1990-07-01

467

Oxy-fuel combustion systems for pollution free coal fired power generation  

SciTech Connect

Jupiter Oxygen's patented oxy-fuel combustion systems1 are capable of economically generating power from coal with ultra-low emissions and increased boiler efficiency. Jupiter's system uses pure oxygen as the combustion agent, excluding air and thus nitrogen, concentrating CO2 and pollutants for efficient capture with near zero NOx production, reducing exhaust mass flow, and increasing radiant heat transfer. Flue-gas recirculation rates can be varied to add flexibility to new boiler designs using this technology. Computer modeling and thermal analysis have identified important design considerations in retrofit applications.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Dietrich (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Gross, Alex (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Dogan, Cindy; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William (CoalTeck LLC); Schoenfeld, Mark (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.)

2004-01-01

468

Investigating an annular nozzle on combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full-scale and computational experiments were used to investigate the flows in the jet thrust unit with annular nozzle and deflector in the form of a spherical segment. The used working gas was the combustion products of air mixtures with acetylene, gas-phase aviation kerosene, and natural gas. Experimental studies were carried out in a hot-shot wind tunnel in the range of stagnation pressure from 0.48 to 2.05 MPa. The calculations for the cases of combustion products outflow in terrestrial and high altitude conditions were performed with the original computer program that used the Euler and Navier-Stokes systems supplemented by equations of chemical kinetics. It was found that the thrust of the jet module with an annular nozzle at high altitude almost twice exceeds the sound nozzle thrust, but is lesser (about 25 %) than the thrust of the ideal calculated Laval nozzle; the difference therewith decreases markedly with the decrease of flight altitude and stagnation pressure.

Levin, V. A.; Afonina, N. E.; Gromov, V. G.; Smekhov, G. D.; Khmelevsky, A. N.; Markov, V. V.

2013-09-01

469

Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers  

DOEpatents

A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

Tuttle, Kenneth L. (Federal Way, WA)

1980-01-01

470

Alternative fuel firing in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion boiler. Final report. [Also with other waste fuels  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, Northern States Power Company converted its 15 MW French Island Unit No. 2 from a stoker-fired boiler to an atomspheric fluidized bed combustor designed to burn wood waste. A joint project between Northern States Power and the Electric Power Research Institute was subsequently established to determine the impact on operations, performance, and emissions of cofiring a variety of low-grade waste fuels with wood waste in this unit. Alternate waste fuels fired were shredded rubber tires, shredded railroad ties, refuse derived fuel, Minnesota peat, and sewage sludge. Each fuel was cofired with wood waste under steady boiler conditions for 50 to 100 hours. Results from the initial alternate fuel tests showed incomplete combustion of the fluidized bed combustor. To correct this problem the overfire air system was modified to improve mixing in the furnace volume above the fluidized bed. After the overfire air system was modified, the fluidized bed combustor proved able to burn all waste fuels effectively, except rubber tires which were not re-tested. Fuel handling problems were encountered with refuse derived fuel, peat and sewage sludge, but did not prevent their successful firing. Fluidized bed contamination was experienced with steel wire from rubber tires and stones and steel pieces from railroad ties. Also, the particulate scrubber was overloaded when firing high ash fuels such as rubber tires and peat. 2 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs.

Miraglio, A.; Tegen, P.

1985-06-01

471

System Modeling and Diagnostics for Liquefying-Fuel Hybrid Rockets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) was recently built at NASA Ames Research Center to study the combustion properties of a new fuel formulation that burns approximately three times faster than conventional hybrid fuels. Researchers at Ames working in the ...

A. P. Hine D. Iverson D. Sanderfer J. Ou S. Poll

2003-01-01

472

Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1997-09-01

473

Highjacking of Hard-Earned Energy Savings Through The Backdoor—Combustion Air Requirements in Fossil Fuel Installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels—coal, fuel oil, natural gas, etc.—used in space heating, cooling, processing, and power plants require an appropriate amount of air for complete combustion. It is quite normal to provide some amount of excess air to ensure this process so that there are absolutely no unburnt or partially burnt fuel elements in the exhaust, as would be indicated by carbon

Gary Krishnan

2012-01-01

474

A comparison study of ash formation during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fuel form. specifically pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), on the particle size distribution (PSD) and inorganic composition of the ash formed during combustion. Three areas of primary interest were fuel particle and droplet size distribution, mineral matter PSD, and the composition and occurrence of inorganics in the

1992-01-01

475

Formation, ignition, and combustion of a stratified-charge fuel-air mixture in an open-chamber combustion bomb. [Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelated processes of mixture formation, ignition, and the early stages of combustion that occur in one type of open-chamber, stratified-charge engines were studied experimentally by simulating engine conditions in a constant-volume combustion bomb. The apparatus designed and developed for this research permits a well-controlled single injection of liquid fuel into a steady-state environment of hot, high-pressure, fan-driven swirling air

1975-01-01

476

Standard test method for heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by bomb calorimeter (high-precision method)  

SciTech Connect

This method covers the determination of the heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. It is designed specifically for use with aviation turbine fuels when the permissible difference between duplicate determinations is of the order of 0.1%. It can be used for a wide range of volatile and nonvolatile materials where slightly greater differences in precision can be tolerated. The heat of combustion is determined by burning a weighed sample in an oxygen-bomb calorimeter under controlled conditions. The temperature is measured by means of a platinum resistance thermometer. The heat of combustion is calculated from temperature observations before, during, and after combustion, with proper allowance for thermochemical and heat-transfer corrections. Either isothermal or adiabatic calorimeters may be used. The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel. A knowledge of this value is essential when considering the thermal efficiency of equ